Thorkild Q Frandsen - Introduction to bioenergy in Denmark Status and trends

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Thorkild Q Frandsen - Introduction to bioenergy in Denmark Status and trends

  1. 1. Introduction to bioenergy in Denmark Status and trends Polish-Danish Bioenergy Meeting October 7th October 2010, Gdansk
  2. 2. Content Overview of bioenergy in Denmark Political objectives for bioenergy and biogas Status on biogas in Denmark Biogas in combination with slurry separation Case: Morso Bioenergy
  3. 3. Overview of bioenergy in Denmark Total energy consumption PJ 900 ≈17 % 600 300 0 1980 '85 '90 '95 '00 '05 '07 Oil Natural gas Coal and sinders Renewable energy Energistyrelsen, Energistatistik 2007
  4. 4. Sources of renewable energy in DK PJ 140 120 100 80 Biomass 60 = 72% 40 20 0 1980 '85 '90 '95 '00 '05 '07 Wind Straw Wood Biogas Garbage, biodegr. Geothermal heat etc. Energistyrelsen, Energistatistik 2007
  5. 5. Straw for energy Production and utilization of straw in DK 7000 6000 41 % Straw (mio. kg) 5000 But variable quantity! 4000 Left at the field 3000 Staples etc. 2000 Fodder Energy 1000 0 26 % Year Danmarks Statistik, Statistikbanken, 2009
  6. 6. Energy crops in DK (2007) Species Hectares Percent Oil seed rape (non food) 78.344 2,26 Willow 1.669 0,06 Poplar etc. 67 0,003 Short rotation forestry 1.780 0,06 Miscanthus 60 0,002 Share of overall 2,39 agricultural area in DK (2,721,000 hectares) Direktoratet for Fødevareerhverv (DFFE), May 2007
  7. 7. Political objectives for renewable energy EU goals for 2020 (compared to 1990 level) – “20-20-20”: – 20% reduction in emission of greenhouse gasses – 20% renewable energy – 20% reduction in energy consumption Danish goals in agreement February 2008: – 20% renewable energy in 2011 – 2% reduction in energy consumption from 2006 to 2011 – 4% reduction in energy consumption from 2006 to 2020
  8. 8. 2009-initiative by Danish Government: ”Green Growth” with focus on bioenergy Policial objective for manure to energy 2020: 50 % of manure utilised to energy: mainly biogas – 2010: 6 % of manure utilised for energy Long term goal: All manure utilised for energy Why? Biogas is one of the most cost effective ways of reducing green house gas emissions Environmental benefits: E.g. reduced loss of N to ground water and surface waters and reallocation of P from surplus areas A new business opportunity for Danish farmers and a possibility of increased earnings
  9. 9. Green growth-initiatives (1) Support for financing of centralised biogas plants 20% of investment costs Municipality garanteed loans -up to 60% of investment costs Support for financing organic biogas plants -also farm plants 20% of investment costs Municipality garanteed loans -up to 60% of investment costs
  10. 10. Green growth-initiatives (2) Garanteed minimum price for biogas produced electricity 2010: 0,102 EURO per kWh A corresponding subsidy will be given when biogas is sold directly for combined heat and power stations or upgraded to the natural gas grid. Finding locations for centralised plants Municipalities are forced to reserve areas for biogas plants in their future area development plans Establishment of a Public ”biogas task force” Are these initiatives sufficient to meet the 2020-objective?
  11. 11. Number of biogas plants in Danmark (2009) Type of biogas plant Number of plants Waste water treatment plants 61 Centralised biogas plants 22 Farm based biogas plants 60 Land fill plants 25 Plants built in connection to big 5 industrial companies Total 175
  12. 12. Overview of Danish biogas plant suppliers
  13. 13. Slurry separation combined with biogas In Denmark it is expected that: Expansion will take place in big biogas plants New biogas plants will be based on manure + plant biomass – No more industrial waste products available Farmbased slurry separation often part of new biogas projects – Increases amount of available biomass • reduces transportation of ”water” • you can include biomass from farms far away from the plant – Increases the TS% of biogas reactor (higher efficiency)
  14. 14. Case: Slurry separation in combination with biogas
  15. 15. Examples of separators SWEA Screw presses SB Engineering
  16. 16. Rotating drum + screw press Examples Samson Bimatech Staring Vredo Vibration filter + screw press
  17. 17. Decanting centrifuges Alfa Laval Pierlisi GEA Westfalia
  18. 18. Status of slurry separation in Denmark Around 35 million tons of slurry per year 1 million tonnes of slurry separated per year • Approx. 3 % of total slurry production A growing interest for slurry separation • In areas with intensive animal production • In regions that drain off to vulnerable surface waters • On large scale animal production farms
  19. 19. Slurry separation units (2007)
  20. 20. New centralised biogas plant Morsø Bioenergi (2009)
  21. 21. Case: Morsø Bioenergi Background Island with very high livestock density – mainly pigs Surplus of nutrients from manure (N og P) Vulnerable surface waters around Mors island (Limfjord) Long distance to land available for manure application
  22. 22. Example: Morsø Bioenergi
  23. 23. The idea of Morsø bioenergi Establishment of a biogas plant based on manure No import of nutrient rich waste products Decentralised slurry separation at farms far from biogas plant – Fixed separators owned by farmers – Mobil decanting centrifuge owned Post-separation of digested biomass to up-concentrate N and P in the solid fraction. Drying and pelletizing the solid fraction Export of ”fiber-pellets” out of the island
  24. 24. Morsø Bioenergi – biomass input Biomass Amount per year (tons) Raw slurry from farms close to biogas plant 52.000 Solid fraction from decentralized separation 19.000 Other biomass 1.000 Total biomass input 72.000 Corresponding to dry matter from a total amount of slurry 242.000 For comparison: Total slurry production of Mors: 800.000 tons/year
  25. 25. Morsø Bioenergi mobile separator
  26. 26. Morsø Bioenergi fixed installed separator for digested biomass
  27. 27. Slurry separation as a way to increase biomass basis for biogas production? Challenges What is the biogas yield from solid fraction? – Big differences due to slurry type and separator – Separation of old slurry? – After separation there is still dry matter in liquid fraction – Pre-treatment of solid fraction to increase yield – N-inhibitation of reactor due to solid fraction? Who shall pay the costs of separation? – A need to develop cheaper separation systems – Potential for development of in-house separation systems Optimisation of logistics to reduce loss of N and C during storage and transport of solid fraction
  28. 28. High-tech separation in Holland: Decanting centrifuge, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis
  29. 29. High-tech separation in Holland (2008) Dekanter Tørring Tørstof Tørstof Væske Rensnings- Væske Væske anlæg UF-anlæg RO-anlæg
  30. 30. Questions or comments? Phone: +45 87 43 84 68 E-mail: tqf@agrotech.dk

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