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2.1 "Tight Shales - Not all Shales are Created Equal" - Sidney Green [EN]
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2.1 "Tight Shales - Not all Shales are Created Equal" - Sidney Green [EN]

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  • So, we are now aware of a number of geochemical and material aspects of the rockChemomechanical failureWater retentionSalt production and chemical scale formationAs with other petrophysical and mechanical properties we also know that these properties are heterogeneously distributed through the formation – nice to know.But what do we do with the information – how do we act on it? How do we convert reservoir knowledge to production wisdom.In the last few minutes I would like to discuss two very practical uses for this information. First – is the issue of fluids, proppants and additives – As you consider field development – materials costs are one of the biggest single ticket item in the cost of developing a field . How do you make rational choices with regards to these decisions?Although fluid sensitivities can vary over a matter of inches to feet, the fracturing treatments designed for these formations will be in contact with hundred’s of vertical feet in the reservoir, and over 1000’s of latteral feet – so what is the best fluid?David Handwerger and Roberto introduced the concept of HRA yesterday – and we are applying it to fluid sensitivities.Sample SelectionAdditive EffectivenessMeaningful criteria for overall fluid selectionEconomics are critical – due to the large volumes of fluids and proppant required – are you getting the value for them?

2.1 "Tight Shales - Not all Shales are Created Equal" - Sidney Green [EN] 2.1 "Tight Shales - Not all Shales are Created Equal" - Sidney Green [EN] Presentation Transcript

  • South Baltic Gas Forum
    Gdansk, Poland 5-8 Sept. 2011
    Tight Shales-Not all Shales are Created Equal
    Sidney Green
    University of Utah / Schlumberger Innovation Center
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Tight Shale Conference
    March 2011 Warsaw Poland
    Organizers:
    Sidney Green
    Roberto Suarez-Rivera / Innovation Center
    Raymond Levey / EGI Univ. of Utah
    Wieslaw Prugar / Orlen Upstream
    Focus:
    On the “rock” following the belief that
    “Rocks Matter”
    Goal:
    To develop a better mental picture of
    tight shales
    Overall Conference:
    Poland was a great host and provided
    a great setting for the Conference
    Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Prime Minister Donald Tusk at Poland Tight Shale Conference
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Tight Shales are Important
    US Assessment of Tight Shales
    • Great economic importance
    • National security implications
    • Could lower the
    carbon ‘footprint’
    • Have world implications
    on the distribution
    of wealth
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Changes in the Energy ‘Picture’
    In the past year, major changes have occurred:
    The GOM oil spill changed offshore drilling greatly in the US
    The Japan earthquake changed the perception of nuclear energy worldwide
    US Shale gas has changed from an unqualified hero to an environmental concern
    The “Arab Spring” has led to disruptions and uncertainties regarding world oil production
    These are big,
    big changes -----
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Tight Shales—
    Not all Shales are Created Equal
    • Why are shales different ?
    • How do we tell high
    Reservoir Quality from
    poor Reservoir Quality ?
  • Tight Oil and Gas Shale Core
    Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Micro-Structure Observations
    Nano-Focus CT X-Ray
    E-SEM
    Ion Milling SEM
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Dominate Compositions from Dr. Patrick Gathogo
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Core Analysis
    Pressure Decay Permeability
    Measurement
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Core Analysis
    Diamond Scratcher
    Continuous Profile Scratch Test
    Rock Core
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Well Logs
    Typically the Vertical Pilot Well is Logged with only Limited Logs taken in the
    Horizontal Borehole
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Scaling
    • From Microstructure to Core ??
    • From Core to Log Scale - yes
    • From Core-Log to Seismic - nearly
    Shale “Typing” works, using logs and
    calibrated with core (each color
    represents a similar Log Pattern)
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Vertical and Horizontal Heterogeneity
    B
    C
    A
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Hydraulic Fracturing
    “From Hero to Villain”
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    The Heterogeneous Nature of
    Shales cannot be Ignored
    Heterogeneous
    Formation
    Complex Hydraulic Fractures
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Rock Hydraulic Fracture
    Hollow whole-core cylinder specimens subjected to uniform external confinement and internal borehole pressure. The rock fabric determines the fracture initiation and the orientation of fracture propagation.
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Fracture Complexity
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Shale Natural Fractures
    Many natural fractures,
    but highly filled and tight.
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Large Block Tests
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Highly Laminated Rock(Mancos Shale)
    Maximum Stress
    Vertical Fracture
    Vertical Fracture
    2
    1
    Horizontal
    Wellbore
    Vertical Fracture
    Maximum Stress
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Acoustic Emissions During Fracturing
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Complex Fracture Characterization
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Wellbore Mechanics(Breakdown Stress)
    Argillaceous
    Argillaceous
    Siliceous
    Siliceous
    The breakdown pressure is related to far field stresses
    through the anisotropic elastic properties
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Conceptual and Eclipse Fracture Models
    Conceptual
    Models for
    Different Fracture
    Geometries
    Yellow is Primary Fracture and Black is Secondary Fracture System
    Eclipse Models Used to Model each Conceptual Model
    Vertical
    Wellbore
    “Base Case” (not shown) is Primary Fracture only, with no conductivity for Secondary Fracture System
    Horizontal Wellbore
    Case 2
    Case 4
    Case 1
    Case 3
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Daily Productions from 10 Days to Six Months
    Initial Production
    and Early Time
    (Time Zero Estimated)
    Case 2
    1 & 2
    Case 4
    4
    (green)
    Base
    Case
    Case 3
    3
    Case 1
    Base Case
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Cumulative Productions
    Case 3
    56 % increase over Base Case
    All ~35 % increase over Base Case
    Case 2
    Case 4
    Different geometries lead to different cumulative productions
    Case 1
    Base Case
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk
    Conclusions
    Tight shale technology is advancing rapidly and
    we know something about:
    • shale lithofacies and shale typing
    • heterogeneity—vertically and horizontally
    • anisotropy and natural fractures
    • complex hydraulic fractures and surface area created
    • conductivity of the hydraulic fractures
    • we have the tools to provide measurements and
    analysis needed
    Overall “Rocks Matter”
  • Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk