2.1 "Tight Shales - Not all Shales are Created Equal" - Sidney Green [EN]

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  • So, we are now aware of a number of geochemical and material aspects of the rockChemomechanical failureWater retentionSalt production and chemical scale formationAs with other petrophysical and mechanical properties we also know that these properties are heterogeneously distributed through the formation – nice to know.But what do we do with the information – how do we act on it? How do we convert reservoir knowledge to production wisdom.In the last few minutes I would like to discuss two very practical uses for this information. First – is the issue of fluids, proppants and additives – As you consider field development – materials costs are one of the biggest single ticket item in the cost of developing a field . How do you make rational choices with regards to these decisions?Although fluid sensitivities can vary over a matter of inches to feet, the fracturing treatments designed for these formations will be in contact with hundred’s of vertical feet in the reservoir, and over 1000’s of latteral feet – so what is the best fluid?David Handwerger and Roberto introduced the concept of HRA yesterday – and we are applying it to fluid sensitivities.Sample SelectionAdditive EffectivenessMeaningful criteria for overall fluid selectionEconomics are critical – due to the large volumes of fluids and proppant required – are you getting the value for them?
  • 2.1 "Tight Shales - Not all Shales are Created Equal" - Sidney Green [EN]

    1. 1. South Baltic Gas Forum<br />Gdansk, Poland 5-8 Sept. 2011<br />Tight Shales-Not all Shales are Created Equal<br />Sidney Green<br />University of Utah / Schlumberger Innovation Center<br />
    2. 2. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Tight Shale Conference<br /> March 2011 Warsaw Poland<br />Organizers:<br />Sidney Green<br />Roberto Suarez-Rivera / Innovation Center<br />Raymond Levey / EGI Univ. of Utah<br />Wieslaw Prugar / Orlen Upstream<br />Focus:<br /> On the “rock” following the belief that <br /> “Rocks Matter”<br />Goal:<br /> To develop a better mental picture of <br /> tight shales<br />Overall Conference:<br /> Poland was a great host and provided <br /> a great setting for the Conference<br />Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />
    3. 3. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Prime Minister Donald Tusk at Poland Tight Shale Conference<br />
    4. 4. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Tight Shales are Important<br />US Assessment of Tight Shales<br /><ul><li> Great economic importance
    5. 5. National security implications
    6. 6. Could lower the </li></ul> carbon ‘footprint’<br /><ul><li> Have world implications</li></ul> on the distribution <br /> of wealth<br />
    7. 7. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Changes in the Energy ‘Picture’<br />In the past year, major changes have occurred:<br />The GOM oil spill changed offshore drilling greatly in the US<br /> The Japan earthquake changed the perception of nuclear energy worldwide<br /> US Shale gas has changed from an unqualified hero to an environmental concern<br /> The “Arab Spring” has led to disruptions and uncertainties regarding world oil production<br />These are big, <br />big changes -----<br />
    8. 8. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Tight Shales—<br /> Not all Shales are Created Equal<br /><ul><li> Why are shales different ?
    9. 9. How do we tell high </li></ul> Reservoir Quality from <br /> poor Reservoir Quality ?<br />
    10. 10. Tight Oil and Gas Shale Core<br />Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />
    11. 11. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Micro-Structure Observations<br />Nano-Focus CT X-Ray<br />E-SEM<br />Ion Milling SEM<br />
    12. 12. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Dominate Compositions from Dr. Patrick Gathogo<br />
    13. 13. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Core Analysis<br />Pressure Decay Permeability<br />Measurement<br />
    14. 14. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Core Analysis<br />Diamond Scratcher<br />Continuous Profile Scratch Test<br />Rock Core<br />
    15. 15. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Well Logs<br />Typically the Vertical Pilot Well is Logged with only Limited Logs taken in the <br /> Horizontal Borehole<br />
    16. 16. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Scaling<br /><ul><li> From Microstructure to Core ??
    17. 17. From Core to Log Scale - yes
    18. 18. From Core-Log to Seismic - nearly </li></ul>Shale “Typing” works, using logs and <br /> calibrated with core (each color <br /> represents a similar Log Pattern)<br />
    19. 19. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Vertical and Horizontal Heterogeneity<br />B<br />C<br />A<br />
    20. 20. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Hydraulic Fracturing<br />“From Hero to Villain”<br />
    21. 21. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />The Heterogeneous Nature of <br /> Shales cannot be Ignored<br />Heterogeneous<br /> Formation<br />Complex Hydraulic Fractures<br />
    22. 22. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Rock Hydraulic Fracture<br />Hollow whole-core cylinder specimens subjected to uniform external confinement and internal borehole pressure. The rock fabric determines the fracture initiation and the orientation of fracture propagation.<br />
    23. 23. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Fracture Complexity<br />
    24. 24. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Shale Natural Fractures<br />Many natural fractures, <br />but highly filled and tight.<br />
    25. 25. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Large Block Tests<br />
    26. 26. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Highly Laminated Rock(Mancos Shale)<br />Maximum Stress<br />Vertical Fracture<br />Vertical Fracture<br />2<br />1<br />Horizontal<br /> Wellbore<br />Vertical Fracture<br />Maximum Stress<br />
    27. 27. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Acoustic Emissions During Fracturing<br />
    28. 28. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Complex Fracture Characterization<br />
    29. 29. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Wellbore Mechanics(Breakdown Stress)<br />Argillaceous<br />Argillaceous<br />Siliceous<br />Siliceous<br />The breakdown pressure is related to far field stresses <br /> through the anisotropic elastic properties<br />
    30. 30. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Conceptual and Eclipse Fracture Models<br />Conceptual <br />Models for <br />Different Fracture<br />Geometries<br />Yellow is Primary Fracture and Black is Secondary Fracture System<br />Eclipse Models Used to Model each Conceptual Model<br />Vertical<br />Wellbore<br />“Base Case” (not shown) is Primary Fracture only, with no conductivity for Secondary Fracture System<br />Horizontal Wellbore<br />Case 2<br />Case 4<br />Case 1<br />Case 3<br />
    31. 31. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Daily Productions from 10 Days to Six Months<br />Initial Production <br /> and Early Time<br /> (Time Zero Estimated)<br />Case 2<br />1 & 2<br />Case 4<br /> 4<br />(green)<br />Base<br />Case<br />Case 3<br />3<br />Case 1<br />Base Case<br />
    32. 32. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Cumulative Productions<br />Case 3<br />56 % increase over Base Case<br />All ~35 % increase over Base Case<br />Case 2<br />Case 4<br />Different geometries lead to different cumulative productions<br />Case 1<br />Base Case<br />
    33. 33. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />Conclusions<br />Tight shale technology is advancing rapidly and <br /> we know something about:<br /><ul><li> shale lithofacies and shale typing
    34. 34. heterogeneity—vertically and horizontally
    35. 35. anisotropy and natural fractures
    36. 36. complex hydraulic fractures and surface area created
    37. 37. conductivity of the hydraulic fractures
    38. 38. we have the tools to provide measurements and</li></ul> analysis needed<br /> Overall “Rocks Matter”<br />
    39. 39. Improving reservoir performance, lowering technical risk<br />

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