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4.11 - "Aquatic biomass as a source of renewable energy" - Miroslaw Krzemienewski, Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski [EN]
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4.11 - "Aquatic biomass as a source of renewable energy" - Miroslaw Krzemienewski, Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski [EN]

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4.11 - "Aquatic biomass as a source of renewable energy" - Miroslaw Krzemienewski, Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski [EN] Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Aquatic biomass as a source of renewable energy Mirosław KRZEMIENEWSKI, Marcin DĘBOWSKI, Marcin ZIELIŃSKI, Department of Environmental Protection Engineering, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland, e-mail: m.krzemieniewski@uwm.edu.pl
  • 2. History of the use of algae in biofuel production
    • discovered the possibilities of producing biohydrogen in the photosynthesis process by Chlamydomonas reinwardtii species algae (Grafton, 1936);
    • t he first attempts to cultivation and use algae for fuel production (Germany, 1941);
    • possibility of use algae biomass for m ethane production process (Burlew, 1953, Oswald, 1960);
    • s tart of industrial cultivation of algae in open systems (1960);
    • U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a research on the use of algae in energy production (Aquatic Species Program, 1978);
    • s tart cultivation of algae for industrial use in closed systems: photobioreactors and fermenta t ion tanks (1996);
    • s tarting first commercial biorefinery Alabama (USA) by PetroSun (2008);
    Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 3. Algae cultivation in open systems
    • grounds tanks with a large surface area (up to 250 hectares) and depth of up to 0,5 m stirred mechanically by means of a paddle agitator (Borowitzka, 1991; Schlipalius, 1991);
    • t hey are built in the form of a round pond s, race ways systems or cascading ponds (Kawaguchi, 1980; Belay, 1997);
    • media applied usually include chemical substances or wastewater containing quantities of biogenic compounds, if necessary supplemented with microelements (Ben Amotz, 1995; Vonshack 1997);
    • CO 2 is acquired directly from atmospheric air through simple diffusion (Setlik, 1970; douche and Livansky, 1995) .
    Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 4. Disadvantages of open systems
    • high water losses as a result of evaporation ,
    • low yield of biomass production ,
    • limited possibilities of culture of specific algae species ,
    • susceptible to various infections, diseases , parasites and predators,
    • s ystems of this type can be used in regions with high insolation and unlimited access to water, mainly for cult ivation of Spirulina and Chlorella species algae.
    Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 5. Algae cultivation in closed systems
    • vertical or horizontal orientation tubular photobioreactors (Chaumont et al., 1988, Molina et al., 2001, Pirt et al., 1983, Tredici and Chini Zittelli, 1998; Ugwu et al., 2002);
    • biocoil photobioreactors (Robinson et al., 1988, Robinson and Morrison, 1992, Borowitzka and Borowitzka, 1999);
    • "big bags" system operating in sequential or semi-continuous mode (Baynes et al. 1979; Watson, 1979, Cohen and Arad, 1989);
    • flateplate photobioreactors (Tredici and Materassi, 1992, Hu et al., 1996, Zhang et al., 2002, Hoekema et al., 2002);
    Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 6. Advantages of closed systems
    • closed systems may be applied under various climatic conditions ,
    • closed character of bioreactors restricts evaporation, eliminates the problem o f parasites and predators ,
    • artificial lighting assures optimal conditions for photosynthesis ,
    • possibility for cultivation of specific algae species,
    Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 7. Disadvantages of closed systems
    • closed systems are still non cost-effective ,
    • require s high exploitation inputs (lighting, supply of carbon dioxide , supplu of nutrition ),
    • they additionally pose some difficulties in exploitation e.g. due to overgrowing and restricted light penetration
    Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 8. Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. Compilation of closed and open systems
    • the race wys reactors are located in greenhouses ,
    • reduced evaporation and restricted access of predators,
    • enables achieving temperature stability ,
    • applying additional lighting ,
    • affords the possibility of introducing an additional source of CO 2 in the form of e.g. combustion gases, to the greenhouse’s area,
  • 9. Comparison of cultivation algae in open system and photobioreactros [Chisti, 2007] Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. Parameters Tubular photobioreactor „ Raceways” pound Biomass production in year (kg) 100 000 100 000 Volumetric productivity (kg m −3 d −1) 1,535 0,12 Biomass concentration (kg m −3 ) 4,00 0,14
  • 10. Autotrophic algal cultivation conditions
    • lighting at the level of 200 – 400 μmol photons m −2 s −1
    • ca. 1.83 kg CO 2 per 1 kg of produced biomass ,
    • wastewaters, fresh or salty water supplemented with nitrate and phosphate, iron and in the case of selected species also silicon. Ratio of nutrients should be CO: H: N: P as 0.48:1.83:0.11:0.01 (Grobbelaar 2004).
    • temperature of the culture should oscillate in the range of 20 – 30 o C,
    • pH value in the range of 6 to 8 ,
    • w ater saturation with oxygen should not exceed 400 % .
    Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 11. Heterotrophic cultivation of algae
    • there is also possibility of algae cultivation in dark systems, these are the so-called heterotrofic cultures,
    • s uch cultures are run with acetate or glucose as a source of carbon. This system has for the first time been used in Chlorella culture ( Kawaguchi and Soong in 1980 ),
    • Martek Inc. company (USA) runs a heterotrophic culture of Crypthecodinium cohnii to be used for the production of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (Kyle et al., 1998).
    • Typical conditions of the heterotrophic culture include (Chen et al., 1997; Wu et al., 2006):
    • t emperature: 26 - 28 o C;
    • n o light;
    • a gitation with the rate of 200 - 480 rpm.;
    • pH from 6.1 to 6.5;
    • c ulture medium containing ca. 20 g of glucose or acetate/L of culture;
    • n ecessary supply of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in a quantitative C:N:P ratio of 9:1.25:1.25.
    Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 12. Project: Model agroenergy complexes as an example of distributed cogeneration based on local renewable energy sources Task 1.3. A cquisition and exploitation of algae biomass from eutrophicated natural water reservoirs Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. The work has been funded from a National Project POIG.01.01.02-00-016/08 in the Innovative Economy Operational Programme 2007-2013 and co-funded by the European Union using financial funds of the European Regional Development Fund.
  • 13. Gulf of Gdansk Kortowskie Lake Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. The objective of this Project is to develop a technology for the separation and condensation of algae biomass originating from eutrophicated and degraded natural aquifers nad use algae biomass for biogas production . Research works scheduled in the p roject are conducted at three water regions .
  • 14. Vistula Lagoon Vistula Lagoon August 2009 - satellite pictures of occurrence of algal biomass (Department of Applied Ecology) Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 15. membrane systems, centrifuges, coagulation, ultrasound destabilization, floatation and filtrations Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. The research involved the qualitative and quantitative analysis of algae biomass and test of multiple facilities for the separation of algae biomass .
  • 16. P ilot station operating in the fractal-technical scale designed and built at the Vistula Lagoon in Frombork Its functioning is based on the use of an own-construction floatator and a system of drum microfilters . The exploitation of this station will enable the precise determination of the quantity of biomass that may be produced from this water area, and estimation of the economic effectiveness of this system. Localisation of pilot station
  • 17. P ilot station operating in the fractal-technical scale designed and built at the Vistula Lagoon in Frombork 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 – pump 2 – retention tank 3 – flotator 4 – tank with coagulants 5 – dosing pump 6 – drum microfilters Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 18. P ilot station operating in the fractal-technical scale designed and built at the Vistula Lagoon in Frombork Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. Pilot plant under construction.
  • 19. P ilot station operating in the fractal-technical scale designed and built at the Vistula Lagoon in Frombork Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. General view of pilot pant (retention tank, tank for concentrated alge biomass, outflow pipes) Location of pumping water into the system
  • 20. P ilot station operating in the fractal-technical scale designed and built at the Vistula Lagoon in Frombork Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. Condensed algae biomass
  • 21.
    • The possibility of biogas production from algae biomass in different periods of the vegetative season was conducted under static conditions with the use of respirometric kits. The applied technological parameters of the process were as follows:
    • loading of organic compounds: from 1.0 kg to 3.0 kg d.m./m 3 ∙ d
    • - process temperature: 35 o C,
    • - substrate hydration: 95 %,
    • - hydraulic retention time: 20 d.
    Evaluation of the effectiveness of biogas production from algal biomass Aquatic biomass as a potential source………….
  • 22. Efficiency of biogas production from algae biomass Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. The highest technological effectiveness of biogas production was noted at organic compounds loading ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 kg d.m./m 3 ∙ d. The yield of biogas production, in the best cases, accounted for approximately 400 m 3 /t d .m. with biogas content exceeding 70 %. Increasing the loading with organic compounds resulted in a reduced yield of the biogas production . 63 205 71 2 79 70 346 november 67 215 70 2 77 69 309 october 65 2 09 69 2 96 71 312 september 65 335 74 403 74 407 august 68 317 73 399 71 395 july 64 329 73 384 74 368 jun 67 341 70 396 72 370 may Methane content [%] Biogas production efficiency [m 3 /kg d. m.] Methane content [%] Biogas production efficiency [m 3 /kg d. m.] Methane content [%] Biogas production efficiency [m 3 /kg d. m.] Sampling term 3,0 kg s.m./m 3 · d 2,0 kg s.m./m 3 · d 1,0 kg s.m./m 3 · d Loading
  • 23. Aquatic biomass as a potential source…………. Conclusion A lgae biomass may be picked up from natural aquifers only periodically, especially in the periods of heavy blooming observed in the summer months, generally from May till September. Hence, studies are underway into the possibility of preservation of this type of biomass and running fermentation together with biomass of typical energetic crops, including: maize, alfalfa, Virginia fanpetals. Nowadays algae are perceived as one of the types of biomass with a very high energetic potential. In the technical scale, they are cultured mainly for feedstuff or foodstuff purposes, however there are also some biorefineries operating in the technical scale. The use of this type of substrate for methane fermentation seems also promising, which has been proved by results of world wide investigations.