The french-revolution-1215886858269958-9


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The french-revolution-1215886858269958-9

  1. 1. The French Revolution
  2. 2. Introduction The French Revolution drew on Enlightenment ideas. It was more radical than the American Revolution Americans retained British law and social heritage, but… French Revolutionaries sought to replace existing society with new institutions and overturn the Ancien Regime!
  3. 3. The Three Estates Louis XVI was a weak monarch who presided over a feudalistic social system First Estate - 100,000 Catholic clergy (largest landowner in France) •Second Estate - 400,000 nobles rights without paying taxes) •Third Estate (held political - 24 million bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasants (the bourgeoisie resented power of nobility)
  4. 4. The Estates General •1780s: a financial crisis develops due to royal spending, war debts, heavy taxation, and crop failures. •Louis’ funding of the American Revolution nearly doubled the national debt. He raised taxes. •Louis couldn’t raise more taxes from peasants so he increase taxes on the nobility. tried to The nobility forced Louis to call the Estates General into session in May 1789.
  5. 5. The National Assembly Fearing being out-voted by the other two estates, the Third Estate broke away from the Estates General and formed the National Assembly. •June 1789: Louis tried to lock out the Third Estate delegates. In a nearby tennis court, delegates pledged to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution. The Tennis Court Oath.
  6. 6. July 14, 1789 Louis tried to appease the Third Estate, but also sent his Swiss Guards into the streets of Paris. Angry crowds sought weapons and gunpowder to defend Paris They knew they could find these by storming a royal prison called…
  7. 7. The Bastille
  8. 8. Phases of the Revolution Moderate Period 1789-1791: limited power of the Church, land reform. Radical Period 1792-1794: Beheadings, Robespierre, Jacobins. Conservative backlash 1794-1799: The Directory, rise of Napoleon.
  9. 9. Moderate Period 1789-1791 August 1789: The National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man. It stated the Enlightenment ideals of justice and freedom although women were excluded. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity became the slogan of the revolution! Sept. 1791: new constitution adopted.
  10. 10. Reforms Actions of the National Assembly from 1789 To 1791 restructured French society. Constitutional monarchy formed. Louis forced to leave Versailles. Legislative authority resided in the National Assembly. The Catholic Church loses lands and political independence (angers peasants).
  11. 11. Radical Period 1792-1794 French nobility began to flee. Louis had attempted escape but was caught. This drove the French people to support the radical revolutionaries. Monarchy abolished and France declared a republic. A new National Convention formed. Invaded by radicals on May 31, 1793
  12. 12. Summer 1792: Austria and Prussia invade France hoping to restore Louis. Despite initial setbacks, the French hold off the invaders. Jacobin Club (violent radicals) influenced the National Convention to execute Louis. Louis beheaded by guillotine in January 1793.
  13. 13. • Convention power in France deteriorated. Maximilien Robespierre and the radical Jacobians in control. “Reign of Terror” used to promote restructuring of French society. •About 40,000 were executed and 300,000 imprisoned. Extreme measures enacted against the Church.
  14. 14. Conservative backlash 1794-1799 • The French Army had defeated invaders on the battlefield. With victory, French citizens less willing to accept repression. Robespeirre blamed for the excesses of the regime and executed in 1794. The Reign of Terror was over.
  15. 15. • The Bourgeois emerged as leaders of the country in the reaction against Robespeirre. 1795: A new constitution drafted. It is more moderate and placed power in the hands of the upper class. The Directory: bicameral legislature and a five-man executive committee. With France still under attack, the Directory appoints a young general….
  16. 16. Napoleon Bonaparte!