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  • 1. Prison statistics England and Wales 2002Cm 5996
  • 2. HOME OFFICE Prison statistics England and Wales 2002 Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Home Department by Command of Her Majesty November 2003Cm 5996 £25.75
  • 3. PREVIOUS REPORTS 2001—Cm. 5743 2000—Cm. 5250 1999—Cm. 4805 1998—Cm. 4430 1997—Cm. 4017 1996—Cm. 3732 1995—Cm. 3355 1994—Cm. 3087 1993—Cm. 2893 1992—Cm. 2581 1991—Cm. 2157 1990—Cm. 1800 1989—Cm. 1221 1988—Cm. 825 © Crown Copyright 2003The text in this document (excluding the Royal Arms and departmental logos) may bereproduced free of charge in any format or medium providing that it is reproducedaccurately and not used in a misleading context. The material must be acknowledged asCrown copyright and the title of the document specified.Any enquiries relating to the copyright in this document should be addressed toThe Licensing Division, HMSO, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ.Fax: 01603 723000 or e-mail: licensing@cabinet-office.x.gsi.gov.uk ii
  • 4. Prison statisticsEngland and Wales2002 CONTENTS PageList of tables ivLocation of contents viiiIntroduction 1Chapter 1 The prison population in 2002 3Chapter 2 Remand prisoners 41Chapter 3 Young people 53Chapter 4 Adult prisoners under sentence 79Chapter 5 Life sentence prisoners 103Chapter 6 Ethnic group and nationality 114Chapter 7 Religion 127Chapter 8 Offences and punishments 139Chapter 9 Reconvictions of prisoners discharged from prison in 1999 150Chapter 10 Parole and home detention curfew 174Chapter 11 Prison regimes, conditions and costs 189Chapter 12 Home Office research on prison related topics 207Chapter 13 Directory of related Internet Sites 214Appendix 1 219Appendix 2 226Glossary 229 iii
  • 5. LIST OF TABLES (tables cover 1992-2002 unless otherwise shown) PageChapter 1 The prison population in 2002 31.1 Receptions and average population in custody: by sex and custody type 2002 131.1a Initial receptions during 2002 by sex and type of custody 131.2 Population in custody: by sex and custody type, monthly figures 2001-02 141.2a The prison population 1900-2002, by year and sex of prisoner 161.3 Average population in custody: by prisoner type, establishment and sex 2002 171.4 Average population in custody: by type of custody and sex 191.4a Population in custody at 30 June by type of custody and sex 201.5 Sentenced population: by offence, establishment type and sex 2002 211.6 Sentenced population: by offence and sentence length 2002 231.7 Sentenced population: by offence group and sex 261.7a Sentenced population on 30 June 2001 and 30 June 2002 by offence 271.7b Sentenced population on 30 June: by principal drugs offence, 1992-2002 271.8 Sentenced population: by sentence length and sex 281.9 Sentenced population by age and sex 291.10 Prison receptions: by custody type and sex 301.11 Prison receptions and population by court sentencing 311.12 Prison receptions under sentence by prisoner type and sentence length 321.13 Fine defaulters: population, receptions, average time in prison by sex 331.14 Fine defaulters: receptions by age, offence group and sex 341.15 Non-criminal prisoners: population by sex and type of committal 361.16 Non-criminal prisoners: receptions by sex and type of committal 371.17 Average population in custody and CNA: by establishment type 381.18 Prison population by Prison Service establishment 2002 391.19 International prison population comparisons 2000-2002 40Chapter 2 Remand Prisoners2.1 Average remand population: by committal type, age and sex 452.2 Average remand population, receptions and average time in custody 472.3 Untried population: by length of time since first reception 482.4 Convicted unsentenced population: by length of time since first reception 482.5 Remand population: by length of time since first reception 1999-2002 492.6 Final court outcome for those remanded in 2000-2002; by sex 492.7 Sentenced receptions previously remanded: by sex, offence and length of sentence 2002 502.8 Remand population: by offence and sex 2001-2002 512.9 Remand receptions: by offence and sex 2001-2002 52Chapter 3 Young offenders under sentence3.1 Young offenders sentenced population: by custody type, sex, offence and length of sentence 2002 603.1a Juveniles sentenced population by custody type, sex, offence and length of sentence 2002 613.1b 18-20 year olds sentenced population by custody type, sex, offence and length of sentence 2002 623.2 Population: by sex, age and custody type 2002 633.3 Under 18 population by sex, offence and custody type 2002 643.4 Under 18 population by custody type and sex 1995-2002 653.5 Sentenced population: by sex and offence 663.6 Sentenced male population by previous convictions 1993-2001 673.7 Sentenced population by sex, custody type and length of sentence 683.8 Sentenced receptions: by age, sex and offence 2002 693.9 Sentenced receptions: by age, sex, offence, custody type and length of sentence 703.10 Prison receptions: by age, sex and custody type 2002 713.11 Sentenced receptions: by age, sex and offence 723.12 Sentenced receptions: by age, sex, custody type and length of sentence 743.13 Average time served by discharged prisoners: by sex and length of sentence 2002 76 iv
  • 6. Page3.14 Average time served by discharged prisoners: by sex and length of sentence, 1993-2002 773.15 Average sentence length of receptions: by sex, age and court 78Chapter 4 Adult prisoners under sentence4.1 Sentenced population: by offence and length of sentence 2002 874.2 Sentenced population: by number of previous convictions 1993-2001 884.3 Sentenced population: by offence 894.4 Sentenced population: by length of sentence 914.5 Sentenced receptions: by age and offence 2002 934.6 Sentenced receptions: by age, offence and length of sentence 2002 964.7 Sentenced receptions: by offence 974.8 Sentenced receptions: by length of sentence 984.9 Sentenced receptions: by age 1004.10 Average sentence length of receptions: by court and reception date 1014.11 Average time served by discharged prisoners: by sex and length of sentence 2002 102Chapter 5 Life sentence prisoners5.1 Population and receptions by type of prisoner and sex 1085.2 Population and receptions by type of life sentence and sex 1085.3 Population: by age and principal offence 2002 1095.4 Population and receptions by type of life sentence and age 2002 1105.5 Population and receptions by type of life sentence and ethnic group 2002 1115.6 Population of life prisoners by interval since date of initial reception 2002 1115.7 Receptions: by year of reception, type of release and sentenced time spent 1965-91 1125.8 Number of first releases on life licence and average time served 1135.9 Number of recalls from life licence and time spent on life licence 1999-2002 113Chapter 6 Ethnic group and nationality6.1 Population: by sex and ethnic group 1216.2 Population on 30 June 2002 by nationality and sex 1226.3 Population: by ethnic group, type of prisoner, sex and nationality 2002 1236.4 Sentenced population: by ethnic group, nationality, offence and sex 2002 1246.5 Population: by ethnic group, sex, type of prisoner and length of sentence 2002 126Chapter 7 Religion7.1 Population by religion 1993-2002 1327.2 Population by religion June 2001, June 2002 1337.3 Population by ethnic group and religion 2002 1347.4 Population by religion, gender and ethnicity 2002 1357.5 Population by age, religion and sex 2002 1367.6 Population by custody type, religion and sex 2002 1377.7 Population under sentence by sentence length, religion and sex 2002 138Chapter 8 Offences and punishments8.1 Offences punished per 100 population: by sex and prison type 1438.2 Offences punished per 100 population: by sex, prison type and offence 2002 1448.3 Offences punished per 100 population: by offence 1458.4 Punishments per 100 population: by sex, prison type and type of punishment, 2002 1468.5 Offences punished and punishments given 2002 1478.6 Punishments per 100 population given by ethnicity and offence 2002 148 v
  • 7. PageChapter 9 Reconvictions of prisoners discharged from prison in 19999.1 Prisoners reconvicted by year of discharge and sex, within two years of discharge 1987-99 1609.2 Reconviction rates, by time between discharge from prison and first reconviction, number of reconvictions and type of offender within two years of discharge from prison during 1999, within three and four years for those discharged in 1988 and five, six and seven years for those discharged in 1987 1619.3 Prisoners reconvicted, by length of sentence and sentence for the principal offence on first reconviction, within two years of discharge from prison during 1999 1629.4 Young males reconvicted, by length of sentence and sentence for the principal offence on first reconviction, within two years of discharge during 1999 1649.5 Adult prisoners by type of custody, percentage reconvicted and recommitted to prison within two years of discharge 1987-99 1659.6 Young males, percentage reconvicted and recommitted to prison within two years of discharge 1987-99 1679.7 Prisoners reconvicted, by sentence for the principal offence on first reconviction, within two years of discharge from prison 1987-99 1689.8 Prisoners reconvicted, by offence for which originally convicted and offence on first reconviction, within two years of discharge during 1999 1709.9 Prisoners reconvicted, by ethnic group, nationality and offence, within two years of discharge from prison during 1999 1729.10 Prisoners reconvicted and those recommitted to custody within 2 years of release from prison in 1999 by age, gender and number of previous convictions 173Chapter 10 Parole and Home Detention Curfew10.1 Cases considered by the Parole Board 1998/99-2002/03 18210.2 DCR cases considered and released 2002/03 18210.3 DCR cases released on parole by length of licence 2002/03 18310.4 Average lengths of licence by sentence length 1992-2002/03 18310.5 DCR cases considered and released on parole by ethnic group 2002/03 18410.6 Prisoners on parole from determinate sentences recalled 1992-2002/03 18410.7 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by sex and ethnic group 2002 18510.8 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by offence and ethnic group 2002 18610.9 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by sentence length 2002 18710.10 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by age group 2002 18710.11 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by establishment type 2002 18710.12 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by offence type 2002 18810.13 HDC Reasons for recall to prison 2002 18810.14 Summary of Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by gender 1999-2002 188Chapter 11 Prison regimes, conditions and costs11(a) Key performance indicators 2002/03 19511.1 Purposeful activity and time out of cell, by establishment type, 2001 and 2002 19611.1(a) Purposeful activity 1992/93-2002/03 19611.2 Offending behaviour programme completions, by type of programme, financial years 1993/94-2002/03 19611.3 Offending behaviour programme completions, by establishment type, financial year 2002/03 19711.4 Results of the basic skills assessment screening tests, financial year 2002/03 19811.5 Average hours of education: by establishment type 2000/01-2002/03 19811.6 Education hours delivered 1996-2002/03 19911.7 Releases on temporary licence: by establishment type 1994 -2002 19911.8 Releases on temporary licence: by type of licence, 1994-2002 200 vi
  • 8. Page11.9 Temporary release failures, 1993-2002 20011.10 Overcrowding: by establishment type 2002 20111.11 Mandatory Drug Testing: percentage testing positive by drug group April 2001-March 2002 20111.12 Mandatory Drug Testing: percentage testing positive by drug group April 2002-March 2003 20211.13 Mandatory Drug Testing, by establishment type, financial year 2002/03 20211.14 Escapes: by establishment type 1996-2002 20211.15 Escapes: from escort 1996 to 2002 20311.16 Absconds: by type of establishment 1993-2002 20311.17 Persons restrained by type of establishment, sex and means of restraint 2002 20411.18 Persons restrained: by means of restraint and sex 20511.19 Self-inflicted deaths: by type of establishment, 1992-2002 20611.20 Self-inflicted deaths: by gender 1992-2002 206 vii
  • 9. PRISON STATISTICS ENGLAND AND WALES 2002 LOCATION OF CONTENTSSubject Table numberPopulationAdult Female 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.9, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4Adult Male 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.9, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4Age 1.9, 2.1, 3.2, 3.4,Average Population 1.1, 1.2, 1.2a, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.2Average Time in Custody 2.2By individual prison 1.18Certified Normal Accommodation 1.17Conditions 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20Court 1.11, 2.1, 2.6Custody Type 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.7Establishment Type 1.3, 1.5Ethnic Group 5.5, 6.1, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 7.3, 7.4Fine Defaulters 1.1, 1.13Home Detention Curfew 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12International Comparisons 1.19Juveniles 3.2, 3.3, 3.4Life Sentence Prisoners 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.8Nationality 6.2, 6.3, 6.4Non-Criminal 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.15Offence 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.7a, 1.7b, 2.8, 3.1,3.3, 3.5, 4.1, 4.3, 5.3, 6.4Parole Board (cases considered) 10.1, 10.2, 10.5,Police Cells 1.3, 1.4Previous Conviction 3.6, 4.2Reconvictions 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10Regimes 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9Remand 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.8Restraints 11.17, 11.18Sentence Length 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 3.1, 3.7, 4.1, 4.4, 6.5, 7.7Time Served 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 3.13, 3.14, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8Young Offenders 1.3, 1.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 5.1, 5.3, 6.5ReceptionsAdult Female 1.1, 1.10, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 5.1, 5.3Adult Male 1.1, 1.10, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 5.1, 5.3Age 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.15, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9Average Sentence Length 3.15Court 1.11, 3.15Custody Type 1.1, 1.1a, 1.10, 3.10, 3.12Fine Defaulters 1.1, 1.1a, 1.14Juveniles 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11Life Sentence Prisoners 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 5.7Non-Criminal 1.1, 1.1a, 1.10, 1.16Offence 1.14, 2.7, 2.9, 3.8, 3.9, 3.11, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7Offences and Punishments 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6Recall to prison 10.12Release 5.7Remand 1.1, 1.1a, 2.2, 2.7, 2.9Sentence Length 1.12, 2.7, 3.9, 3.12, 4.6, 4.8Young Offenders 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.15 viii
  • 10. Subject Table numberDischargesAdult Female 4.11Adult Male 4.11Home Detention Curfew 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11Life Sentence Prisoners 5.7, 5.8Time Served 3.13, 3.14, 4.11, 5.8Young Offenders 3.13, 3.14 ix
  • 11. INTRODUCTIONThis publication has been prepared by the Criminal Justice System Analysis Team of the Home OfficeResearch Development and Statistics (RDS) Directorate. This team under Pat Dowdeswell deals withstatistics relating to the criminal justice process (from arrests, through to courts, to probation and prison),projections of correctional services workloads, research on the criminal justice process including treatmentof victims/witnesses and public confidence.As in previous years, this volume comprises commentary and tables covering trends in the prisonpopulation, the remand population, adults and young people, life sentence prisoners, ethnic groups andnationality, religion, offences and punishments, reconvictions of prisoners discharged, parole and homedetention curfew, and prison regime and costs.Other publicationsStatistics on the monthly prison population are published in the Prison Population Brief, which is placed onthe RDS website. A list of Home Office research on prison related topics is listed in Chapter 12.Coverage of the statistics in this volumeAlthough care is taken in processing and analysing the returns, the detail collected is subject to theinaccuracies inherent in any large-scale recording system. Therefore, although some figures in this volumeare shown to the last digit, the figures are not necessarily accurate to the last digit shown. Where thestatistics shown are rounded, the components may not add exactly to the rounded total because they havebeen rounded independently. Further information on data sources and recording practice is given inAppendix 2.References to the population in custody cover prisoners held in Prison Service establishments and policecells, whereas references to the prison population cover those held in Prison Service establishments.EnquiriesIf you have any enquiries about prison population statistics you should contact Ramona Hoyte. The addressis: Room 816 Offending and Criminal Justice Group Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Home Office Abell House John Islip Street London SW1P 4LH Telephone 020 7217 5078or by internet email via: prisonstatistics@homeoffice.gsi.gov.ukPress enquiries should be made to: Prison Service Press Office Room 143 50 Queen Anne’s Gate London SW1H 9AT Telephone 020 7273 4545 1
  • 12. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgement is made of the contributions from Gordon Barclay, Karl Chads, Ian Cross, PatDowdeswell, Michelle Goodman, Farid Guessous, Veronica Hollis, Mark Judd, Peter Kilsby, Mike Lock,Shilpa Patel, Michael Poole, Keith Spicer, Cynthia Tavares, Isobel Walsh and Steve White. We are alsograteful for the contributions made by and the support of the Prison Service, and other Home Officecolleagues.Rachel CouncellEditorHead of Section, Prison Population and Probation Statistics.Research Development and Statistics Directorate Mission StatementRDS is part of the Home Office. The Home Office’s purpose is to build a safe, just and tolerant society inwhich the rights and responsibilities of individuals, families and communities are properly balanced and theprotection and security of the public are maintained.RDS is also part of National Statistics (NS). One of the aims is to inform Parliament and the citizen aboutthe state of the nation and provide a window on the work and performance of government, allowing theimpact of government policies and actions to be assessed.Research Development and Statistics Directorate exists to improve policy making, decision taking andpractice in support of the Home Office purpose and aims, to provide the public and Parliament withinformation necessary for informed debate and to publish information for future use. 2
  • 13. CHAPTER 1 THE PRISON POPULATION IN 2002Key points ● The average population in custody during 2002 was 70,860, an increase of 7 per cent on 2001. It is an increase of 16 per cent compared to 1997, and a 55 per cent increase compared to 1992. The average population in custody during 2002 was greater than in any previous year. ● The population in custody increased in 2002, apart from the usual seasonal falls, through to the end of October 2002 when it stood at 72,990. ● Prisoners were held in police cells under Operation Safeguard between July and mid December 2002 — a month-end average of 199 prisoners for those 5 months, and an average of 83 for 2002 as a whole. ● The average remand population in custody in 2002 was 14 per cent higher than the average in 2001; 12,790 compared with 11,240 in 2001, and around 200 higher than the average levels observed in 1998 and 1999. The sentenced population increased by 6 per cent between 2001 and 2002 from an average of 54,050 to an average of 57,220. ● Between 2001 and 2002, the number of female prisoners in custody increased by 15 per cent from an average of 3,740 to an average of 4,300, while the male population in custody increased by less (6 per cent). ● Between June 2001 and June 2002 there were above average increases in the population of sentenced males in prison for robbery (up 10 per cent) and drugs offences (up 9 per cent). There were reductions in the male sentenced population for motoring offences (down 5 per cent) and fraud and forgery (down 2 per cent). ● Similarly there were above average increases in the female sentenced population in prison for burglary (up 49 per cent), robbery (up 24 per cent), and offences of violence against the person (up 21 per cent). There were reductions in the female sentenced population for fraud and forgery (down 6 per cent). The increase in drugs offences of 17 per cent was similar to the overall increase in the female sentenced population (15 per cent) between June 2001 and 2002. Forty-five per cent of the increase in the female sentenced prison population between 2001 and 2002 was accounted for by an increase in drugs offences. ● Between 1992 and 2002, the longer sentenced prison population (4 years or more including life) increased as a proportion of all sentenced prisoners from 42 per cent in 1992 to 48 per cent in 2002, whilst the proportion of sentenced prisoners serving sentences of less than 12 months has decreased slightly. ● The numbers of people received into prison under an immediate custodial sentence increased by 3 per cent between 2001 and 2002; this was mainly concentrated amongst offenders receiving sentences of 4 years or more, who increased in number by 14 per cent. ● In England and Wales there were 137 people in custody for every 100,000 members of the general population in 2002. This is the highest among western European countries, followed by Portugal (132 per 100,000 population) and Scotland (126). The USA (702) and Russia (602) had the highest rates amongst those reported. 3
  • 14. The population in custody (Tables 1.1-1.8)1.1 The average population in custody during 2002 was 70,860, higher than in any previous year. This was an increase of 7 per cent on the average for 2001, an increase of 16 per cent on the average for 1997 and an increase of 55 per cent compared to 1992. The population increased steadily throughout 2002 and peaked in October, at 72,990, which exceeded the peak seen in 2001 (68,450).Figure 1.1 AVERAGE POPULATION IN CUSTODY 75,000 70,000 65,000 60,000 55,000 Non-criminals 50,000 45,000 Sentenced Adults 40,000 35,000 Sentenced Young 30,000 Offenders 25,000 Remand 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 - 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 20021.2 Prisoners were held in police cells under Operation Safeguard between July and mid December 2002; a month-end average of 199 prisoners being held for these 5 months, or an average of 83 over the calendar year as a whole. The average number held in prisons was 70,780 during 2002.Long Term Trends in the prison population (Table 1.2c; figures 1.2a-1.2d)1.3 Since 1900 the average male prison population increased from 14,460 to 66,480 in 2002. Figure 1.2b shows that the pattern of increase when expressed as the rate of prisoners per 100,000 male population is similar, except that the total increase between 1900 and 2002 is less. Between 1900 and 2002 the male prison population increased in absolute terms by over 4 times, but expressed as a rate per 100,000 male population, the rate of increase was just under 3 times. For female prisoners, the pattern is different. The average female prison population in 2002, at 4,300, was 44 per cent higher than in 1900 when the average number of female prisoners was 2,980. The rate per 100,000 general population was 16 in 2002, lower than the rate of 18 per 100,000 in 1900. 4
  • 15. Figure 1.2a: Male prison population 1900 - 2002 (annual average) Figure 1.2c: Female prison population 1900 - 2002 (annual average) 70,000 5,000 4,500 60,000 4,000 50,000 3,500 3,000 40,000 2,500 30,000 2,000 20,000 1,500 1,000 10,000 500 0 0 60 20 70 00 10 30 40 50 80 90 00 00 10 40 70 90 20 60 00 30 50 80 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 195 Figure 1.2b: Male prisoners, rate per 100,000 population Figure 1.2d: Female prisoners, rate per 100,000 population 1900 - 2002 22 1900 - 2002 300 20 250 18 16 200 14 12 150 10 8 100 6 50 4 2 0 0 30 40 00 00 00 40 50 60 70 80 20 60 70 80 00 10 20 30 90 10 50 90 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19
  • 16. 1.4 A detailed description of trends in the male and female prison population in the earlier part of the twentieth century is given in previous editions of Prison Statistics England and Wales.1.5 Policy changes and events which may have affected the size of prison population in the last 10 years are listed in Appendix 1 with some estimates of their likely impact. The changes and events are summarised in Figure 1.3 which shows how the population in custody varied over this period. Key changes and events in 2002 which impacted on the size of population in custody include: ● Around 750 prisoners were released in July 2002 following a decision of the European Court of Human Rights on 15th July in the cases of Ezeh and Conners. It was decided that punishments involving the imposition of additional days should only be imposed by independent adjudicators. From October 2002, District Judges were engaged as independent adjudicators to deal with the most serious cases. ● Two changes to the Home Detention Curfew (HDC) scheme were made in 2002: the introduction of the Presumptive HDC scheme for prisoners serving between three months and under 12 months, and the increase of the maximum curfew period to 90 days. ● There was a temporary slow-down in the increase in the population in June 2002 due in part to the increased number of Bank Holidays that month.Figure 1.3 POPULATION IN CUSTODY(1) — POLICY INTERVENTIONS 1992-2002 Seasonally adjusted HDC maximum 75,000 curfew increased Presumptive HDC 70,000 Narey scheme Indictable only measures Crime (Sentences) Act Added days 65,000 1997 judgement Crime and disorder 60,000 Act (1988) (Home Detention Curfew) 55,000 General election Narey measures CJA 1991 (2) CJ & PO Act 1994 (3) Human Rights Act 2000 50,000 CJA 1993 (2) CP & I Act 1996 (4) 45,000 Home Sects 27 point speech Bulger murder 40,000 92 2 93 3 94 4 95 5 6 6 97 7 98 8 99 9 00 0 01 1 02 2 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- 9 l-9 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- l-0 n- l-0 n- l-0 Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju 1. Seasonally adjusted series 2. CJA = Criminal Justice Act 3. Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 4. Criminal Procedures and Investigations ActCourt sentencing trends1.6 The main factors influencing the prison population are the custody rate at the courts, the average sentence lengths given and the number of cases passing through the courts. The Crown Court has the greatest impact on the prison population, although magistrates’ courts also make a contribution, particularly on receptions where more than half come from magistrates’ courts. The custody rate is the proportion of those found guilty at court who are given a custodial sentence. Between 1992 and 2002 the custody rate at the Crown Court rose from 45 per cent to 63 per cent. The average sentence length for adults also increased, from 21 months to 28 months. There was however, a decrease in the number of adults sentenced at the Crown Court between 1992 and 2002, down from 60,900 to 56,600, a fall of 7 per cent. At magistrates’ courts the custody rate for indictable offences more than tripled from 5 per cent in 1992 to 17 per cent in 2002. Average sentence lengths for adults at magistrates’ 6
  • 17. courts fell from 2.7 to 2.5 months. Between 1992 and 2002 the total number of adults sentenced for indictable offences increased by almost 11 per cent, from 157,700 to 176,700. Full information on court sentencing trends is given in Chapter 7 of Criminal Statistics England and Wales 2001. Figures for 2002 quoted here are provisional.Components of the population in custody (Tables 1.3 and 1.4)1.7 Among the population in custody in 2002 were an average 57,220 prisoners under sentence (81 per cent of the total). These included 45,600 sentenced adult males, 8,320 sentenced male young offenders (generally aged under 21) and 3,300 sentenced females. The population held on remand consisted on average of 12,790 prisoners (18 per cent of the total), with 11,850 males and 940 females. The population in custody also included 850 non-criminal prisoners, who were mainly persons held under the Immigration Act 1971, but also included those held for civil offences such as contempt of court. The total population in custody increased by 4,560 or 7 per cent between 2001 and 2002, from 66,300 to 70,860. The sentenced population increased by 6 per cent (3,170), from 54,050 to 57,220. The average remand population, at 12,790, was 14 per cent higher than the average in 2001 (11,240).1.8 The female population in custody increased by 15 per cent from an average 3,740 in 2001 to 4,300 in 2002. The male population in custody increased by 6 per cent, from 62,560 to 66,560. Females accounted for a greater proportion of the total prison population in 2002 than in 2001, at 6.1 per cent compared with 5.6 per cent during the previous year. This appears to be part of an ongoing trend, with the proportion of females having been 3.4 per cent in 1992, 3.9 per cent in 1995, 4.4 per cent in 1997, and 5 per cent in 1999.1.9 The male population in custody in 2002 consisted of an average of 82, or 0.1 per cent, held in police cells under Operation Safeguard, 2,980 (4.5 per cent) held in remand centres, 26,070 (39 per cent) held in local prisons, 29,470 (44 per cent) held in training prisons and 7,960 (12 per cent) in young offender institutions. Included among these were 3,950 (6 per cent) held in open conditions. The number of male prisoners held in open conditions was higher than in 2001, when 3,490 were in open conditions.1.10 Sentenced young offenders and remand prisoners aged 15 to 20 accounted for 16 per cent of the male population in custody in 2002, with an average population of 10,720, of whom 74 per cent (7,950) were held in young offender institutions. 2,600 (24 per cent) were held in remand centres and 160 (one per cent) were held in local prisons during 2002.Components of the prison population (Tables 1.5-1.9; figures 1.4a, 1.4b and 1.5)1.11 A summary of the sentenced prison population by offence group is given in Table 1.7a. Between 2001 and 2002 (taking June 30th as a reference date) there were above average increases for male sentenced prisoners among those sentenced for robbery (up 10 per cent) and drugs offences (up 9 per cent). There were reductions in the numbers of males serving sentences for motoring offences (down 5 per cent) and fraud and forgery (down 2 per cent).1.12 Amongst the female sentenced prison population, between 2001 and 2002 there were above average increases among those sentenced for burglary (up 49 per cent), robbery (up 24 per cent) and offences of violence against the person (up 21 per cent). There was a reduction in the female sentenced prison population for fraud and forgery (down 6 per cent). The increase in drugs offences of 17 per cent was similar to the overall increase in the female sentenced prison population (15 per cent). Forty-five per cent of the increase in the female sentenced prison population between 2001 and 2002 was accounted for by an increase in drugs offences. The increases in offences of violence against the person and burglary accounted for 21 and 18 per cent respectively. This compares to the increase between 2000 and 2001, when three-quarters of the increase was accounted for by an increase in drugs offences.1.13 Over the 10 years shown in Table 1.7, the male sentenced prison population increased by 57 per cent. This included 3 times the number of drug offenders, up from 2,900 in 1992 to 8,720 in 2002. The rate of increase was also above the average for males sentenced for rape (increase of 84 per cent). 7
  • 18. Figure 1.4a MALE PRISON POPULATION UNDER AN IMMEDIATE CUSTODIAL SENTENCE 1992 AND 2002 15,000 1992 2002 10,000 5,000 0 Violence Rape Other Burglary Robbery Theft Fraud Drugs Other Offence against the sexual and and offences offences not person offences handling forgery recorded1.14 Over the same period, the female sentenced prison population increased by 184 per cent, from 1,180 in 1992 to 3,340 in 2002. There were above average increases for females held after conviction for robbery, where the numbers increased from 60 in 1992 to 310 in 2002, an increase of 453 per cent. Increases were also observed in the numbers held for drugs offences (up from 260 to 1,330 or 414 per cent), and burglary (up from 50 to 230 or 350 per cent).Figure 1.4b FEMALE PRISON POPULATION UNDER AN IMMEDIATE CUSTODIAL SENTENCE 1992 AND 2002 1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100 1,000 1992 900 2002 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Violence Rape Other Burglary Robbery Theft and Fraud Drugs Other Offence against the sexual handling and offences offences not person offences forgery recorded 8
  • 19. 1.15 Table 1.7b gives more detail on prisoners held for drug offences. The number of prisoners held for unlawful supply has increased by 5 times since 1992 and the number held for possession with intent to supply has tripled in the same time period. Six hundred prisoners held for drugs offences in 2002 had been convicted of possession without intent to supply.1.16 Figure 1.5 and Table 1.8 show that since 1992 longer sentence prisoners (sentences of 4 years or more in this chart) have tended to increase as a proportion of all sentenced prisoners. By 2002, 48 per cent of sentenced prisoners were serving 4 years or more, compared with 42 per cent in 1992. Between 1992 and 2002 the proportion of sentenced prisoners serving sentences of less than 12 months decreased slightly, whilst the proportion of sentenced prisoners serving sentences of 12 months to less than 4 years reduced from 42 per cent to 38 per cent.Figure 1.5 SENTENCED PRISON POPULATION BY LENGTH OF SENTENCE 1992-2002 60,000 50,000 4 years or more including life Number of persons 40,000 12 months to less than 4 years 30,000 Less than 12 months 20,000 10,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year1.17 Table 1.9 shows that the sentenced prison population aged under 21 on 30th June 2002 was 8,240, an increase of 1 per cent compared to 2001 when the figure was 8,140. Between 1992 and 2002 the number of sentenced prisoners aged 15-17 increased by 186 per cent; whilst those aged 18-20 increased by 55 per cent. The largest increase was observed for those aged 60 and over (an increase of 203 per cent) whereas the smallest increases were for those aged 21-24 and 25-29 (increases of 32 and 33 per cent respectively).1.18 Chapters 2, 3, and 4 in this report contain more details about the characteristics of remand prisoners, young and adult prisoners under sentence.Receptions into prison (Tables 1.1, 1.10, 1.11 and 1.12; figure 1.6)1.19 In 2002, 136,200 persons were initially received into Prison Service establishments. A person received into a Prison Service establishment to serve a sentence may previously have been received on remand after conviction prior to sentence, and before that as a remand prisoner awaiting trial. Table 1a gives the number of initial receptions in each category excluding subsequent receptions in a different category. 47,250 persons were initially received under an immediate custodial sentence in 2002; this compares with 93,620 receptions under sentence (excluding fine defaulters) when, as in Table 1.1, those previously received on remand are included. 9
  • 20. 1.20 The number of prisoners received from magistrates’ courts under an immediate custodial sentence (i.e. excluding fine defaulters) increased between 1992, when there were 17,470 receptions, up to 51,960 in 2002. Receptions from the Crown Court increased from the low point of 29,040 in 1993 to 42,370 in 1997, but there was no further increase in receptions from the Crown Court in 1998. From 1999 to 2001 there were decreases in the number of receptions, but in 2002 the number increased by 1,600 (or 4 per cent) to a level just below that observed in 1999.1.21 The Crown Court accounts for a large proportion of the sentenced prison population, reflecting the longer sentences generally given at the Crown Court. Between 1992 and 1999 the Crown Court’s share of the sentenced population was broadly stable, at around 87 to 89 per cent. In 2000 and 2001 the share fell by around 5 percentage points each year, but in 2002 it increased slightly to 82 per cent.1.22 The numbers of prisoners received under an immediate custodial sentence increased by 3 per cent between 2001 and 2002; this was mainly concentrated amongst offenders receiving sentences of 4 years or more, who increased in number by 14 per cent. The numbers received with sentences of 12 months to less than 4 years increased by 7 per cent between 2001 and 2002. The numbers received with sentences of less than 12 months increased by just 1 per cent. Details of these trends for adults and young offenders are given in chapters 3 and 4.Figure 1.6 ANNUAL RECEPTIONS UNDER IMMEDIATE CUSTODIAL SENTENCE 1992-2002 100,000 90,000 4 years or more including life 80,000 70,000 Number of Receptions 12 months to less than 4 years 60,000 50,000 Less than 12 months 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 YearFine defaulters and non-criminal prisoners in prison (Tables 1.13-1.16)1.23 Receptions of fine defaulters were also much reduced on earlier years being, at 1,190 during 2002, around 6 per cent of the number in 1992 (19,830). The great majority of these receptions were males, 93 per cent in 2002. The total number of females received into prison as fine defaulters was 79 during 2002.1.24 Table 1.14 gives receptions of fine defaulters into prison by age, offence group and sex. Fine defaulters were most likely to be received into prison after defaulting on a fine imposed for motoring offences (21 per cent of receptions of male fine defaulters).1.25 Most fine defaulters serve only very short periods of detention or imprisonment. In 2002 the average time served in prisons was 10 days for males and 6 days for females. As a result of the comparatively short time served, fine defaulters form a smaller proportion of the total sentenced prison population (0.1 per cent in 2002) than they do of receptions (2.2 per cent). 10
  • 21. 1.26 There were 34 fine defaulters in prison on 30th June 2002. This is just under one-tenth of the level in 1992. Two major developments which affected fine enforcement practice account for the fall. In November 1995 a Queen’s Bench Judgement in Cawley and Others(1) clarified the legislative position whereby all enforcement measures have to be actively considered or tried before imprisonment can be imposed by the courts. A number of initiatives under the Government’s Working Group on the Enforcement of Financial Penalties were taken forward in 1996 and will also have contributed to the fall in the use of imprisonment for fine defaulters. These included issuing good practice guidance for the courts in July 1996 and the extension of the power to impose an attachment of earnings order in the Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996.1.27 Statistics on non-criminal prisoners at 30th June 2002 are presented in tables 1.15 and 1.16. The number of non-criminal prisoners held decreased by 26 per cent between 2001 and 2002, from 1,130 to 830. The majority of non-criminal prisoners (760 or 91 per cent) were held under the 1971 Immigration Act, although this does not include persons held in detention centres controlled by the Immigration Service. Fifty-five non-criminal prisoners were held for contempt of court (7 per cent of all non-criminal prisoners).1.28 Receptions of non-criminal prisoners decreased by 42 per cent between 2001 and 2002; receptions of prisoners held under the 1971 Immigration Act decreased from 4,040 to 2,090.Accommodation (Tables 1.17 and 1.18; figure 1.7)1.29 In-use Certified Normal Accommodation (CNA) recorded on 30th June 2002 was 64,230, 700 more than a year earlier. The average population in custody during 2002 was 6,630 more than the CNA on 30th June. Table 1.18 gives the number of prisoners held on 30th June 2002 at each establishment, together with the CNA on that date.Figure 1.7 POPULATION IN CUSTODY AND CERTIFIED NORMAL ACCOMODATION75,000 POPULATION C.N.A70,00065,00060,00055,00050,00045,00040,000 M 01 M 1 Ju 1 N 01 Ja 01 Ja 8 Se 1 Ja 00 M 00 Ju 0 Se 02 M -02 Ja 02 M 99 3 M 98 M 00 Ju 2 Se 0 M 02 M -98 N 98 M 99 N 99 N 00 M 3 N 02 Ju 9 Se 8 Se 99 Ja 99 Ju 8 Ja 97 Ju 7 N 97 M 97 M 97 Se 7 0 -0 -9 l-0 -0 -0 -0 l-0 0 -9 l-9 -9 -9 l-9 - n- p- - - n- l- - n- n- - p- n- - p- p- n- p- l- - - p- n- - ar ay ov ov ov ay ar ov ar ar ay ar ar ay ov ay ov ay ar JaInternational comparisons (Table 1.19; figure 1.8)1.30 Table 1.19 shows information on the total number of prisoners (including pre-trial detainees), the rate of imprisonment in relation to the general population and the rate of occupancy of prison establishments in a number of countries. When making comparisons of prison population statistics across different jurisdictions it should be borne in mind that there are differences in both the definitions and the recording methods used.(1) R v Oldham Justices and another, ex parte Cawley and other applications. Queen’s Bench Division. 30, 31 October, 28 November 1995. 11
  • 22. 1.31 The prison population in European Union Member States increased by 5 per cent between 2001 and 2002. The greatest increases in the countries listed in the table were in Lithuania (up 22 per cent), Northern Ireland (up 18 per cent), France (up 14 per cent), Finland (up 12 per cent), Denmark (up 10 per cent), Malta and the Netherlands (both up 8 per cent), Sweden (up 7 per cent) and England and Wales (up 6 per cent). The largest decreases in the table were the Czech Republic (down 16 per cent) and Russia (down 11 per cent).1.32 In England and Wales there were 137 people in custody for every 100,000 members of the general population in 2002. This is the highest among western European countries, followed by Portugal (132 per 100,000 population) and Scotland (126). The USA (702) and Russia (602) had the highest rates amongst those reported.Figure 1.8 RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION IN 2002 U.S.A. 702 Russia 602 South Africa 431 Latvia 370 Estonia 351 Lithuania 333 Romania 225 Poland 210 Hungary 177 Czech Republic 158 New Zealand 144 Slovakia 143 England & Wales 137 Portugal 132 Scotland 126 Spain 126 Bulgaria 124 Australia 116 Netherlands 101 Canada 101 Italy 96 France 87 Austria 87 Germany 86 Belgium 86 Turkey 84 Ireland 78 Luxembourg 77 Greece 76 Sweden 73 Malta 70 Switzerland 68 Finland 67 Denmark 63 Norway 61 Northern Ireland 61 Slovenia 58 Japan 53 Cyprus 52 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 12
  • 23. Table 1.1 Receptions into prison and average population in custody: by sex and type of custodyEngland and Wales 2002Males and females Number of persons(1) Receptions into Average population in custody(2) Prison Service establishments Males Females All males Males Females All males and females and femalesAll persons in custody(3) 134,484 13,380 147,864 66,562 4,299 70,861Prisoners on remand 82,835 8,690 91,525 11,847 945 12,792 Untried prisoners 53,754 4,954 58,708 7,231 496 7,728 Convicted unsentenced prisoners awaiting sentence or enquiry 47,851 5,450 53,301 4,616 449 5,064 Received under Section 37 Mental Health Act 1983 180 29 209 Others 47,671 5,421 53,092Prisoners under sentence 87,008 7,799 94,807 53,922 3,301 57,222 Young offenders 19,011 1,335 20,346 8,320 459 8,779 Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order 18,310 1,298 19,608 8,170 446 8,616 559 } Section 91 PCC(S)(4) (excluding life) 530 29 Life (Section 90 PCC(S), Section 91 PCC(S) - life and custody for life)(4) 64 5 69 148 13 160 In default of payment of a fine 107 3 110 2 - 2Adults 67,997 6,464 74,461 45,601 2,842 48,443 Immediate imprisonment (excluding life) 66,543 6,372 72,915 40,724 2,687 43,411 Life 448 16 464 4,845 152 4,997 In default of payment of a fine 1,006 76 1,082 32 3 35Non criminal prisoners 2,534 140 2,674 793 54 847 Held under the 1971 Immigration Act(5) 1,988 105 2,093 726 51 777 Others 546 35 581 67 2 70(1) The components do not always add up to the totals, because they have been rounded independently.(2) Includes police cells.(3) Total receptions cannot be calculated by adding together receptions in each category, because there is double counting (see paragraph 26 of the Notes).The total receptions figures given are estimates of initial receptions (see paragraph 1.19 and table 1(e) of the commentary.(4) Section 53 of the Children & Young Persons Act 1933 was repealed on 25th August 2000 and its provisions transferred to sections 90-92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000.(5) Schedule 2, paragraph 16; Schedule 3, paragraph 2.Table 1.1a Initial receptions during 2002 into prison by sex and type of custody(1)England and Wales Estimated number of receptions(2) Males Females All malesPersons initially received as: and femalesAll initial receptions 123,550 12,650 136,200 All remand receptions 77,500 8,350 85,850 Untried 53,750 4,950 58,700 Convicted Unsentenced 23,750 3,400 27,150 Immediate custodial sentence 43,100 4,100 47,250 Fine Defaulter 1,050 50 1,100 Non-criminal 1,900 100 2,000(1) Excludes police cells.(2) Rounded to the nearest 50. 13
  • 24. Table 1.2 Population in custody(1): by sex and type of custody, annual averages and month end figuresEngland and WalesMales and females Thousands(1) Prisoners on remand(1) Male prisoners under sentence(1)(2) Males Females Untried Convicted All Young unsentenced remand offenders Adults by sentence length AUR ACR DCR 12 months 4 years & All Less than less than over sentenced 12 months 4 years (inc. life) adult malesAnnual averages 1998 7.73 4.13 0.70 12.57 8.17 5.57 15.29 20.76 41.62 1999 7.51 4.26 0.75 12.52 8.01 5.27 14.26 21.68 41.21 2000 6.70 3.87 0.70 11.28 8.07 5.47 14.24 22.28 41.99 2001 6.49 3.97 0.78 11.24 8.18 5.42 14.58 22.92 42.95 2002 7.23 4.62 0.95 12.79 8.32 5.28 15.73 24.57 45.60Financial year averages 1997-98 7.96 3.65 0.63 12.24 7.79 5.37 14.70 19.77 39.84 1998-99 7.70 4.17 0.72 12.59 8.15 5.46 15.16 21.02 41.64 1999-00 7.34 4.25 0.74 12.32 8.00 5.36 14.20 21.86 41.42 2000-01 6.55 3.79 0.69 11.03 8.10 5.40 14.19 22.39 41.99 2001-02 6.69 4.14 0.95 11.66 8.21 5.54 14.88 23.21 43.63 2002-03 7.30 4.66 0.97 12.93 8.31 5.20 15.80 25.08 46.08Month end figures2001 January 6.26 3.89 0.69 10.84 8.16 4.78 13.91 22.52 41.21 February 6.21 3.87 0.69 10.77 8.47 5.43 14.07 22.57 42.07 March 6.25 3.72 0.68 10.65 8.23 5.52 14.39 22.74 42.64 April 6.40 3.79 0.70 10.89 8.18 5.55 14.35 22.74 42.63 May 6.38 4.01 0.75 11.13 8.19 5.59 14.37 22.71 42.67 June 6.35 3.94 0.77 11.06 8.32 5.68 14.51 22.81 43.00 July 6.57 4.04 0.82 11.43 8.32 5.65 14.73 22.91 43.32 August 6.62 3.98 0.85 11.44 8.35 5.63 14.64 22.96 43.24 September 6.75 4.09 0.86 11.70 8.17 5.57 14.89 23.03 43.49 October 6.73 4.18 0.85 11.76 8.26 5.65 15.00 23.21 43.87 November 6.75 4.31 0.87 11.92 8.33 5.64 15.18 23.36 44.17 December 6.66 3.82 0.79 11.27 7.85 4.76 14.89 23.46 43.112002 January 6.87 4.52 0.89 12.27 7.89 5.26 15.07 23.59 43.92 February 7.11 4.57 0.91 12.59 8.25 5.92 15.40 23.77 45.10 March 7.05 4.47 0.88 12.40 8.36 5.57 15.47 24.00 45.04 April 7.12 4.71 0.98 12.81 8.20 5.59 15.68 24.22 45.49 May 7.09 4.71 0.94 12.75 8.36 5.61 15.74 24.43 45.78 June 7.35 4.73 1.00 13.08 8.37 5.26 15.81 24.52 45.60 July 7.36 4.72 0.97 13.05 8.34 5.21 15.79 24.63 45.63 August 7.22 4.77 0.98 12.97 8.30 5.21 15.82 24.73 45.76 September 7.55 4.80 0.99 13.34 8.49 5.25 16.02 24.89 46.17 October 7.57 4.73 0.98 13.29 8.61 5.44 16.22 25.09 46.75 November 7.24 4.55 0.95 12.75 8.60 5.17 16.27 25.35 46.79 December 7.24 4.10 0.87 12.21 8.09 4.22 15.42 25.56 45.202003 January 7.31 4.76 0.91 12.99 7.93 4.57 15.42 25.66 45.65 February 7.23 4.77 0.97 12.97 8.11 5.33 15.64 25.86 46.83 March 7.31 4.55 1.05 12.91 8.29 5.48 15.78 26.07 47.33(1) Includes police cells.(2) Including fine defaulters. 14
  • 25. Table 1.2 (continued) Population in custody(1): by sex and type of custody, annual averages and month end figuresEngland and WalesMales and females Thousands Number Prisoners under sentence (1)(2) Of which Prison Non- Total Service All criminal All All in establish- Police Males Females sentenced prisoners(1) males(1) females(1) custody(1) ments cellsAnnual averages 1998 49.80 2.38 52.18 0.55 62.19 3.11 65,298 65,298 – 1999 49.22 2.47 51.69 0.56 61.52 3.25 64,771 64,771 – 2000 50.06 2.63 52.69 0.64 61.25 3.35 64,602 64,602 – 2001 51.13 2.93 54.05 1.01 62.56 3.74 66,301 66,301 – 2002 53.92 3.30 57.22 0.85 66.56 4.30 70,861 70,778 83Financial year averages 1997-98 47.63 2.16 49.78 0.56 59.78 2.81 62,584 62,584 – 1998-99 49.79 2.41 52.20 0.56 62.20 3.16 65,353 65,353 – 1999-00 49.42 2.51 51.93 0.56 61.54 3.28 64,816 64,816 – 2000-01 50.09 2.67 52.76 0.74 61.14 3.38 64,523 64,523 – 2001-02 51.83 3.30 57.22 0.85 66.56 4.30 67,474 67,474 – 2002-03 54.39 3.33 57.72 0.94 67.23 4.35 71,581 71,498 83Month end figures2001 January 49.00 2.62 51.62 0.94 60.06 3.34 63,403 63,403 – February 50.18 2.75 52.93 0.93 61.17 3.46 64,631 64,631 – March 50.87 2.85 53.72 1.02 61.84 3.55 65,394 65,394 – April 50.81 2.85 53.66 1.06 62.02 3.58 65,604 65,604 – May 50.86 2.90 53.76 1.12 62.33 3.69 66,012 66,012 – June 51.31 2.90 54.21 1.13 62.69 3.71 66,403 66,403 – July 51.64 2.94 54.57 1.09 63.29 3.80 67,092 67,092 – August 51.59 2.98 54.57 1.04 63.19 3.87 67,056 67,056 – September 51.66 3.06 54.72 1.05 63.51 3.96 67,465 67,465 – October 52.12 3.14 55.26 1.03 64.02 4.04 68,053 68,053 – November 52.50 3.10 55.60 0.93 64.43 4.02 68,452 68,452 – December 50.96 3.02 53.98 0.80 62.18 3.87 66,049 66,049 –2002 January 51.81 3.11 54.92 0.68 63.81 4.06 67,870 67,870 – February 53.34 3.20 56.54 0.72 65.70 4.15 69,847 69,847 – March 53.40 3.28 56.68 0.71 65.58 4.21 69,784 69,784 – April 53.68 3.34 57.02 0.76 66.22 4.37 70,589 70,589 – May 54.14 3.40 57.54 0.82 66.71 4.40 71,112 71,112 – June 53.97 3.34 57.31 0.83 66.82 4.39 71,218 71,218 – July 53.96 3.35 57.31 0.88 66.88 4.37 71,247 71,154 93 August 54.07 3.33 57.40 0.96 66.96 4.36 71,324 71,207 117 September 54.65 3.37 58.02 0.95 67.91 4.40 72,315 72,097 218 October 55.36 3.39 58.75 0.95 68.56 4.42 72,986 72,572 414 November 55.39 3.36 58.75 0.93 68.06 4.37 72,424 72,272 152 December 53.29 3.15 56.44 0.97 65.54 4.08 69,612 69,612 –2003 January 53.58 3.24 56.82 1.10 66.69 4.21 70,903 70,903 – February 54.94 3.31 58.25 1.06 67.94 4.35 72,286 72,286 – March 55.61 3.38 58.99 1.06 68.48 4.47 72,954 72,954 –(1) Includes police cells.(2) Including fine defaulters. 15
  • 26. Table 1.2a The average prison population(1,2) 1900 to 2002 by year and sex of prisonerEngland and Wales Number of persons Females Females as as a a proportion proportionYear Males Females Total (%) Year Males Females Total (%)1900 14,459 2,976 17,435 17.1 1952 22,568 1,112 23,680 4.71901 15,868 3,112 18,980 16.4 1953 22,473 1,137 23,610 4.81902 16,240 3,197 19,437 16.4 1954 21,337 1,084 22,421 4.81903 17,418 3,377 20,795 16.2 1955 20,156 978 21,134 4.61904 18,167 3,261 21,428 15.2 1956 19,941 866 20,807 4.21905 18,398 3,127 21,525 14.5 1957 21,742 860 22,602 3.81906 18,102 2,972 21,074 14.1 1958 24,459 920 25,379 3.61907 18,045 2,881 20,926 13.8 1959 25,727 896 26,623 3.41908 19,268 2,878 22,146 13.0 1960 26,198 901 27,099 3.31909 19,333 2,685 22,018 12.2 1961 28,094 931 29,025 3.21910 18,323 2,581 20,904 12.3 1962 30,066 997 31,063 3.21911 17,325 2,472 19,797 12.5 1963 29,925 971 30,896 3.11912 16,829 2,613 19,442 13.4 1964 28,718 882 29,600 3.01913 15,752 2,484 18,236 13.6 1965 29,580 841 30,421 2.81914 13,449 2,359 15,808 14.9 1966 32,127 959 33,086 2.91915 9,244 2,067 11,311 18.3 1967 34,056 953 35,009 2.71916 8,210 1,848 10,058 18.4 1968 31,656 805 32,461 2.51917 7,891 1,769 9,660 18.3 1969 33,814 853 34,667 2.51918 7,595 1,604 9,199 17.4 1970 38,040 988 39,028 2.51919 8,279 1,404 9,683 14.5 1971 38,673 1,035 39,708 2.61920 9,573 1,427 11,000 13.0 1972 37,348 980 38,328 2.61921 10,791 1,388 12,179 11.4 1973 35,747 1,027 36,774 2.81922 10,557 1,209 11,766 10.3 1974 35,823 1,044 36,867 2.81923 10,117 1,031 11,148 9.2 1975 38,601 1,219 39,820 3.11924 9,808 942 10,750 8.8 1976 40,161 1,282 41,443 3.11925 9,635 874 10,509 8.3 1977 40,212 1,358 41,570 3.31926 9,972 888 10,860 8.2 1978 40,409 1,387 41,796 3.31927 10,300 879 11,179 7.9 1979 40,762 1,458 42,220 3.51928 10,305 804 11,109 7.2 1980 40,748 1,516 42,264 3.61929 10,094 767 10,861 7.1 1981 41,904 1,407 43,311 3.21930 10,561 785 11,346 6.9 1982 42,381 1,326 43,707 3.01931 10,884 792 11,676 6.8 1983 42,072 1,390 43,462 3.21932 11,992 811 12,803 6.3 1984 41,822 1,473 43,295 3.41933 12,180 806 12,986 6.2 1985 44,701 1,532 46,233 3.31934 11,493 745 12,238 6.1 1986 45,163 1,607 46,770 3.41935 10,587 719 11,306 6.4 1987 46,722 1,704 48,426 3.51936 9,939 674 10,613 6.4 1988 47,113 1,759 48,872 3.61937 9,894 668 10,562 6.3 1989 46,736 1,764 48,500 3.61938 10,388 698 11,086 6.3 1990 43,378 1,597 44,975 3.61939 9,662 664 10,326 6.4 1991 43,250 1,559 44,809 3.51940 8,443 934 9,377 10.0 1992 43,157 1,562 44,719 3.51941 9,667 968 10,635 9.1 1993 42,991 1,561 44,552 3.51942 11,223 1,177 12,400 9.5 1994 46,810 1,811 48,621 3.71943 11,430 1,360 12,790 10.6 1995 48,983 1,979 50,962 3.91944 11,438 1,477 12,915 11.4 1996 53,019 2,262 55,281 4.11945 13,180 1,528 14,708 10.4 1997 58,439 2,675 61,114 4.41946 14,556 1,233 15,789 7.8 1998 62,194 3,105 65,298 4.81947 15,986 1,081 17,067 6.3 1999 61,523 3,247 64,771 5.01948 18,621 1,144 19,765 5.8 2000 61,252 3,350 64,602 5.21949 18,783 1,096 19,879 5.5 2001 62,560 3,740 66,301 5.61950 19,367 1,107 20,474 5.4 2002 66,479 4,299 70,778 6.11951 20,687 1,093 21,780 5.0(1) Annual average population.(2) Excludes police cells. 16
  • 27. Table 1.3 Average population in custody: by type of prisoner, type of establishment (including police cells) and sexEngland and Wales 2002Males Number of persons(1) All types Police Remand Local Training prisons Young offender institutions of estab- cells centres prisons Open Closed Juvenile Open Closed lishmentType of prisoner (including police cells)All males 66,562 82 2,980 26,068 3,595 25,878 2,802 354 4,803Untried criminal prisoners 7,231 43 944 5,856 – 30 315 – 44 Aged 15 to 20 1,381 5 944 73 – – 315 – 44 Aged 21 and over 5,850 38 – 5,783 – 30 – – –Convicted unsentenced prisoners 4,616 15 726 3,604 – 20 174 – 78 Aged 15 to 20 1,023 1 726 45 – – 174 – 78 Aged 21 and over 3,593 14 – 3,559 – 20 – – –Sentenced prisoners 53,922 24 935 16,207 3,592 25,821 2,312 354 4,677Young offenders 8,320 2 935 41 – – 2,312 354 4,677 AUR Less than 12 months(2) 1,933 – 295 10 – – 814 53 762 ACR 12 months to less than 4 years 4,617 2 478 17 – – 1,297 275 2,549 DCR 4 years to less than 10 years 1,578 – 145 11 – – 182 25 1,215 10 years less than life 42 – 3 1 – – – 1 37 Life (including Section 90 and custody for life) 148 – 13 2 – – 18 – 113 In default of payment of a fine 2 – 1 – – – – 0 1Adults 45,601 22 – 16,166 3,592 25,821 – – – AUR Less than 12 months(2) 5,278 – – 4,140 513 624 – – – ACR 12 months to less than 4 years 15,726 22 – 6,913 1,485 7,305 – – – DCR 4 years to less than 10 years 15,922 – – 3,793 1,016 11,113 – – – 10 years less than life 3,798 – – 604 175 3,019 – – – Life 4,845 – – 691 399 3,755 – – – In default of payment of a fine 32 – – 25 2 5 – – –Non criminal prisoners 793 – 375 401 3 8 2 – 4 Held under the 1971 Immigration Act 726 – 374 341 – 5 2 – 4 Others 67 – 1 60 3 2 – – –(1) The components do not always add up to the totals, because they have been rounded independently.(2) Excluding fine defaulters. 17
  • 28. Table 1.3 Average population in custody: by type of prisoner, type of establishment (including police cells) and sexEngland and Wales 2002Females Number of persons(1) All types Police Remand Local Training prisons Young offender institutions of estab- cells centres prisons Open Closed Juvenile Open Closed lishmentType of prisoner (including police cells)All females 4,299 1 4 1,457 443 1,957 110 42 286Untried criminal prisoners 496 – 2 395 – 73 7 – 19 Aged 15 to 20 75 – 2 46 – 2 7 – 19 Aged 21 and over 422 – – 350 – 72 – – –Convicted unsentenced prisoners 449 – 2 368 – 50 5 – 23 Aged 15 to 20 79 – 2 48 – 1 5 – 23 Aged 21 and over 369 – – 320 – 49 – – –Sentenced prisoners 3,301 – 1 648 443 1,827 98 42 243Young offenders 459 – 1 66 6 4 98 42 243 AUR Less than 12 months(2) 118 – – 12 – 1 36 6 63 ACR 12 months to less than 4 years 250 – – 44 4 2 52 29 118 DCR 4 years to less than 10 years 72 – 1 8 2 1 7 7 46 10 years less than life 7 – – 1 – – – – 5 Life (including Section 90 and custody for life) 13 – – 1 – – 2 – 10 In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – – –Adults 2,842 – – 582 436 1,823 – – – AUR Less than 12 months(2) 477 – – 188 57 232 – – – ACR 12 months to less than 4 years 1,119 – – 257 180 682 – – – DCR 4 years to less than 10 years 915 – – 103 150 662 – – – 10 years less than life 177 – – 10 32 134 – – – Life 152 – – 23 18 111 – – – In default of payment of a fine 3 – – 1 1 1 – – –Non criminal prisoners 54 – – 45 – 7 – – 2 Held under the 1971 Immigration Act 51 – – 44 – 6 – – 2 Others 2 – – 1 – 1 – – –(1) The components do not always add up to the totals, because they have been rounded independently.(2) Excluding fine defaulters. 18
  • 29. Table 1.4 Average population in custody(1): by type of custody and sexEngland and WalesMales and females Number of persons(2)Type of custody 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All males and femalesPopulation in custody of which: 45,817 44,566 48,794 51,047 55,281 61,114 65,298 64,771 64,602 66,301 70,861 Population in Prison Service establishments 44,719 44,552 48,621 50,962 55,281 61,114 65,298 64,771 64,602 66,301 70,778 Population in police cells 1,098 14 173 85 – – – – – – 83All malesPopulation in custody of which: 44,240 43,005 46,983 49,068 53,019 58,439 62,194 61,523 61,252 62,560 66,562 Population in Prison Service establishments 43,157 42,991 46,810 48,983 53,019 58,439 62,194 61,523 61,252 62,560 66,479 Population in police cells 1,083 14 173 85 – – – – – – 82Prisoners on remand 9,707 10,279 11,867 10,884 11,075 11,532 11,863 11,772 10,574 10,462 11,847 Untried 7,805 7,687 8,818 8,077 8,004 8,057 7,730 7,513 6,701 6,494 7,231 Convicted unsentenced 1,902 2,592 3,049 2,807 3,071 3,475 4,133 4,258 3,873 3,969 4,616Prisoners under sentence 34,230 32,183 34,505 37,593 41,346 46,360 49,796 49,217 50,057 51,126 53,922 Young offenders 5,336 4,994 5,164 5,619 6,489 7,556 8,172 8,012 8,070 8,175 8,320 Detention in a young offender institution/Detention & training order 5,169 4,836 5,020 5,486 6,389 7,439 8,035 7,869 7,925 8,030 8,170 Life (including Section 90 and custody for life) 105 84 84 81 80 105 122 135 141 139 148 In default of payment of a fine 62 74 60 52 20 12 15 8 4 5 2 Adults 28,894 27,189 29,340 31,974 34,856 38,805 41,624 41,205 41,987 42,951 45,601 Life 2,812 2,917 2,999 3,112 3,289 3,488 3,688 3,939 4,261 4,530 4,845 Immediate imprisonment (excl. life) 25,830 23,874 25,977 28,528 31,417 35,194 37,825 37,183 37,670 38,384 40,724 In default of payment of a fine 252 398 364 334 150 123 112 83 56 38 32 Non-criminal prisoners 303 543 611 591 599 547 534 534 619 972 793 Held under the 1971 Immigration Act 224 405 464 464 494 464 455 463 557 916 726 Others 79 137 147 127 105 83 78 71 61 56 67All femalesPopulation in custody of which: 1,577 1,561 1,811 1,979 2,262 2,675 3,105 3,247 3,350 3,740 4,299 Population in Prison Service establishments 1,562 1,561 1,811 1,979 2,262 2,675 3,105 3,247 3,350 3,740 4,299 Population in police cells 15 – – – – – – – – – 1Prisoners on remand 383 395 490 491 538 599 704 748 700 775 945 Untried 271 285 351 344 371 396 426 434 396 430 496 Convicted unsentenced 112 110 139 147 167 203 278 313 304 345 449Prisoners under sentence 1,190 1,135 1,292 1,464 1,697 2,052 2,380 2,474 2,627 2,925 3,301 Young offenders 133 137 155 187 233 278 333 332 369 390 459 Detention in a young offender institution/Detention & training order 125 129 148 179 225 268 328 328 363 378 446 Life (including Section 90 and custody for life) 5 5 5 6 6 9 5 4 6 11 13 In default of payment of a fine 3 3 2 2 2 1 – 1 – 1 – Adults 1,057 998 1,137 1,277 1,464 1,774 2,047 2,142 2,258 2,535 2,842 Life 95 102 104 108 117 125 135 139 145 150 152 Immediate imprisonment (excl. life) 950 878 1,013 1,154 1,339 1,644 1,908 2,000 2,109 2,384 2,687 In default of payment of a fine 12 18 20 15 8 5 4 3 3 1 3 Non-criminal prisoners 5 31 29 24 28 25 20 24 22 40 54 Held under the 1971 Immigration Act 3 25 23 19 22 21 19 22 19 39 51 Others 2 6 6 5 6 4 1 2 2 1 2(1) Includes police cells.(2) The components do not always add to the totals because they have been rounded independently. 19
  • 30. Table 1.4a Population in custody at 30 June(1): by type of custody and sexEngland and WalesMales and females Number of persons(1)Type of custody 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All males and femalesPopulation in custody of which: 46,832 44,246 48,929 51,084 55,256 61,467 65,727 64,529 65,194 66,403 71,218 Population in Prison Service establishments 45,486 44,246 48,879 51,084 55,256 61,467 65,727 64,529 65,194 66,403 71,218 Population in police cells 1,346 – 50 – – – – – – – –All malesPopulation in custody of which: 45,277 42,666 47,125 49,086 52,951 58,795 62,607 61,322 61,839 62,690 66,824 Population in Prison Service establishments 43,950 42,666 47,075 49,086 52,951 58,795 62,607 61,322 61,839 62,690 66,824 Population in police cells 1,327 – 50 – – – – – – – –Prisoners on remand 10,026 10,230 12,042 10,561 11,022 11,518 12,168 11,837 10,764 10,288 12,083 Untried 8,107 7,564 8,906 7,613 8,028 8,134 7,932 7,501 6,820 6,351 7,351 Convicted unsentenced 1,919 2,666 3,136 2,948 2,994 3,384 4,236 4,336 3,944 3,937 4,732Prisoners under sentence 34,890 31,897 34,484 37,897 41,323 46,739 49,902 48,956 50,514 51,313 53,967 Young offenders 5,465 4,925 5,137 5,659 6,363 7,698 8,212 8,025 8,160 8,315 8,368 Detention in a young offender institution/Detention & training order 5,299 4,753 4,981 5,504 6,274 7,584 8,080 7,881 8,009 8,176 8,221 Life (including Section 90 and custody for life) 87 77 83 83 75 100 121 131 144 137 147 In default of payment of a fine 79 95 73 72 14 14 11 13 7 2 – Adults 29,425 26,972 29,347 32,238 34,960 39,041 41,690 40,931 42,354 42,998 45,599 Life 2,817 2,913 2,998 3,093 3,290 3,484 3,676 3,925 4,297 4,511 4,835 Immediate imprisonment (excl. life) 26,328 23,632 25,908 28,727 31,548 35,443 37,916 36,925 37,984 38,448 40,733 In default of payment of a fine 280 427 441 418 122 114 98 81 73 39 31 Non-criminal prisoners 361 539 599 628 606 538 537 529 561 1,088 774 Held under the 1971 Immigration Act 264 405 460 488 499 457 459 474 506 1,042 707 Others 97 134 139 140 107 81 78 55 55 46 67All femalesPopulation in custody of which: 1,555 1,580 1,804 1,998 2,305 2,672 3,120 3,207 3,355 3,713 4,394 Population in Prison Service establishments 1,536 1,580 1,804 1,998 2,305 2,672 3,120 3,207 3,355 3,713 4,394 Population in police cells 19 – – – – – – – – – –Prisoners on remand 378 402 491 495 546 587 735 752 669 773 998 Untried 274 293 350 337 404 429 426 431 399 450 526 Convicted unsentenced 104 109 141 158 142 158 309 321 270 323 472Prisoners under sentence 1,175 1,149 1,289 1,482 1,732 2,066 2,367 2,436 2,666 2,899 3,339 Young offenders 139 156 139 183 252 251 309 318 377 391 487 Detention in a young offender institution/Detention & training order 132 146 133 175 246 241 304 309 370 381 474 Life (including Section 90 and custody for life) 4 4 5 5 5 9 5 8 7 10 13 In default of payment of a fine 3 6 1 3 1 1 – 1 – – – Adults 1,036 993 1,150 1,299 1,480 1,815 2,058 2,118 2,289 2,508 2,852 Life 92 101 106 108 119 128 132 142 145 152 152 Immediate imprisonment (excl. life) 924 874 1,022 1,168 1,357 1,685 1,925 1,972 2,137 2,354 2,697 In default of payment of a fine 20 18 22 23 4 2 1 4 7 2 3 Non-criminal prisoners 2 29 24 21 27 19 18 19 20 41 57 Held under the 1971 Immigration Act 2 24 20 17 20 19 18 16 18 39 52 Others – 5 4 4 7 – – 3 2 2 5(1) Includes police cells. 20
  • 31. Table 1.5 Population in prison under sentence by offence, type of establishment and sexEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Males Number of persons All types Remand Juvenile Local Training Young offenderOffence of estab- centres Remand prisons prisons institutions lishment Open Closed Open Closed JuvenileAll offences 53,967 1,008 223 16,339 3,794 25,455 357 4,672 2,119Offences with immediate custodial sentence 53,936 1,008 223 16,316 3,791 25,450 357 4,672 2,119Violence against the person 11,668 184 41 2,732 964 6,321 74 988 363 Murder 3,464 7 1 383 369 2,599 – 87 18 Manslaughter 676 4 2 116 50 437 3 51 12 Other homicide and attempted homicide 982 16 3 250 108 500 8 78 20 Wounding 4,741 113 17 1,276 350 2,107 60 598 219 Assaults 666 26 9 333 46 130 3 74 47 Cruelty to children 62 – – 36 1 25 – 1 – Other offences of violence against the person 1,076 19 9 339 41 523 – 98 49Sexual offences 5,283 23 7 1,274 44 3,717 – 159 58 Buggery and indecency between males 361 – – 86 5 270 – – – Rape 2,918 13 4 610 32 2,115 – 119 24 Gross indecency with children 851 5 1 203 5 625 – 3 8 Other sexual offences 1,154 5 2 374 2 708 – 37 26Burglary 8,922 209 41 3,110 399 3,747 86 893 437Robbery 7,197 148 67 1,549 238 3,525 66 1,082 521Theft and handling 4,282 147 33 2,045 401 938 24 393 302 Taking and driving away 724 52 19 241 17 112 6 135 143 Other thefts 2,961 84 12 1,563 282 651 16 222 132 Handling stolen goods 598 11 3 240 103 175 3 36 27Fraud and forgery 917 8 – 308 388 190 2 19 3 Frauds 877 7 – 290 377 180 2 18 3 Forgery 41 1 – 18 11 10 – 1 –Drugs offences 8,724 57 4 2,198 712 5,284 35 375 58Other offences 5,941 208 30 2,622 582 1,523 62 613 301 Arson 570 22 – 158 24 295 1 44 27 Criminal damage 311 17 7 148 11 62 7 34 25 In charge or driving under the influence of drugs 314 6 1 187 79 24 – 13 5 Other motoring offences 1,975 75 5 1,102 189 263 19 226 95 Drunkenness 27 – – 22 4 1 – 1 – Blackmail 97 – – 23 6 56 1 12 – Kidnapping 212 5 1 49 7 127 – 19 4 Affray 436 19 3 167 40 83 13 77 33 Violent disorder 240 8 3 53 26 56 13 61 21 Perjury/libel/pervert the course of justice 187 6 1 76 31 57 3 9 4 Threatening/disorderly behaviour 140 6 1 71 8 25 2 13 15 Breach of court order 365 20 8 188 14 62 2 42 30 Other 1,067 25 1 379 143 412 2 63 41Offence not recorded 1,002 24 – 478 62 205 8 149 76In default of payment of a fine 31 – – 23 3 5 – – – 21
  • 32. Table 1.5 Population in prison under sentence by offence, type of establishment and sexEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Females Number of persons All types Remand Juvenile Local Training Young offenderOffence of estab- centres Remand prisons prisons institutions lishment Open Closed Open Closed JuvenileAll offences 3,339 – – 615 465 1,858 45 242 113Offences with immediate custodial sentence 3,336 – – 614 465 1,856 45 242 113Violence against the person 534 – – 93 52 304 5 53 27 Murder 128 – – 16 16 87 – 7 2 Manslaughter 54 – – 8 6 37 – 2 1 Other homicide and attempted homicide 52 – – 9 5 35 1 3 – Wounding 188 – – 31 22 85 4 29 19 Assaults 51 – – 13 2 25 – 8 4 Cruelty to children 27 – – 12 – 14 – 1 – Other offences of violence against the person 34 – – 5 2 22 – 4 1Sexual offences 22 – – 5 2 14 – 1 – Buggery and indecencybetween males – – – – – – – – – Rape 5 – – 1 – 3 – 1 – Gross indecency with children 5 – – 1 – 4 – – – Other sexual offences 12 – – 3 2 7 – – –Burglary 230 – – 66 23 107 6 22 5Robbery 310 – – 52 32 153 13 35 24Theft and handling 462 – – 128 53 214 6 41 20 Taking and driving away 1 – – – – 1 – – – Other thefts 407 – – 117 43 188 5 35 19 Handling stolen goods 53 – – 11 10 25 1 6 1Fraud and forgery 122 – – 29 36 53 – 3 1 Frauds 117 – – 28 36 49 – 3 1 Forgery 5 – – 1 – 4 – – –Drugs offences 1,331 – – 164 232 847 13 58 17Other offences 257 – – 55 29 135 1 23 14 Arson 58 – – 16 2 38 – 2 1 Criminal damage 14 – – 2 1 7 – 3 1 In charge or driving under the influence of drugs 7 – – 3 1 3 – – – Other motoring offences 23 – – 7 6 9 – 1 – Drunkenness – – – – – – – – – Blackmail 5 – – – – 5 – – – Kidnapping 8 – – 1 1 2 – 2 2 Affray 13 – – 2 1 3 – 5 2 Violent disorder 8 – – 1 2 4 – 1 – Perjury/libel/pervert the course of justice 16 – – 1 4 8 – 2 1 Threatening/disorderly behaviour 3 – – – – 1 – 2 – Breach of court order 42 – – 12 2 21 1 2 4 Other 60 – – 11 9 35 – 3 3Offence not recorded 69 – – 23 5 29 1 5 6In default of payment of a fine 3 – – 1 – 2 – – – 22
  • 33. Table 1.6 Population in prison under sentence by offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Males Number of personsOffence group Length of sentence AUR ACR Over Over 3 months Over 18 months Up to up to Over 12 months up to All and and 6 months up to and and sentence including including less than including including lengths 3 months 6 months 12 months 12 months 18 months 3 yearsAll offences 53,967 1,574 3,565 2,070 1,693 3,509 11,147Offences with immediate custodial sentence 53,936 1,555 3,562 2,070 1,693 3,507 11,146 Violence against the person 11,668 190 485 317 295 651 1,661 Rape 2,918 7 2 2 – 8 45 Other sexual offences 2,365 10 23 41 86 134 561 Burglary 8,922 107 301 366 338 876 3,262 Robbery 7,197 85 54 62 122 240 1,363 Theft and handling 4,282 495 951 555 262 466 961 Fraud and forgery 917 38 108 68 54 112 274 Drugs offences 8,724 43 68 96 120 273 1,631 Other offences 5,941 548 1,498 442 321 589 1,111 Offence not recorded 1,002 32 71 122 97 158 277In default of payment of a fine 31 19 3 – – 2 2Table 1.6 (continued) Population in prison under sentence by offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Males Number of personsOffence group Length of sentence ACR DCR Over Over 4 years 5 years Over up to up to Over 3 years and and 10 years less than including including less than 4 years 4 years 5 years 10 years life LifeAll offences 4,121 3,502 5,417 9,773 2,614 4,982Offences with immediate custodial sentence 4,120 3,502 5,414 9,772 2,614 4,982 Violence against the person 528 549 877 1,595 392 4,129 Rape 32 72 181 1,495 588 486 Other sexual offences 108 255 291 690 117 49 Burglary 1,194 575 1,014 829 45 14 Robbery 760 735 1,138 2,019 479 140 Theft and handling 230 103 129 121 5 5 Fraud and forgery 61 64 60 72 6 1 Drugs offences 903 865 1,340 2,494 888 5 Other offences 243 243 323 389 85 148 Offence not recorded 62 41 60 68 9 5In default of payment of a fine 1 – 3 2 – –The components do not always add to the totals because they have been rounded independently. 23
  • 34. Table 1.6 Population in prison under sentence by offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Females Number of personsOffence group Length of sentence AUR ACR Over Over 3 months Over 18 months Up to up to Over 12 months up to All and and 6 months up to and and sentence including including less than including including lengths 3 months 6 months 12 months 12 months 18 months 3 yearsAll offences 3,339 164 261 185 142 270 737Offences with immediate custodial sentence 3,336 164 260 185 142 269 736 Violence against the person 534 24 28 31 23 38 92 Rape 5 – – – – – – Other sexual offences 17 – – 1 – 1 6 Burglary 230 3 6 12 19 39 103 Robbery 310 4 5 7 5 31 131 Theft and handling 462 81 133 84 31 43 64 Fraud and forgery 122 13 18 12 14 21 26 Drugs offences 1,331 7 12 15 23 59 243 Other offences 257 28 48 17 15 23 55 Offence not recorded 69 4 10 7 12 14 17In default of payment of a fine 3 – 1 – – 1 1Table 1.6 (continued) Population in prison under sentence by offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Females Number of personsOffence group Length of sentence ACR DCR Over Over 4 years 5 years Over up to up to Over 3 years and and 10 years less than including including less than 4 years 4 years 5 years 10 years life LifeAll offences 245 196 324 539 111 165Offences with immediate custodial sentence 245 196 324 539 111 165 Violence against the person 21 23 38 55 12 149 Rape – 1 – 2 2 – Other sexual offences – – 4 3 2 – Burglary 19 8 13 8 – – Robbery 34 35 38 16 2 2 Theft and handling 8 7 7 3 – – Fraud and forgery 6 2 5 5 – – Drugs offences 142 106 207 428 91 – Other offences 14 11 11 17 2 15 Offence not recorded 1 3 – 2 – –In default of payment of a fine – – – – – –The components do not always add to the totals because they have been rounded independently. 24
  • 35. Table 1.6 Population in prison under sentence by offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Males and females Number of personsOffence group Length of sentence AUR ACR Over Over 3 months Over 18 months Up to up to Over 12 months up to All and and 6 months up to and and sentence including including less than including including lengths 3 months 6 months 12 months 12 months 18 months 3 yearsAll offences 57,306 1,738 3,826 2,255 1,835 3,779 11,885Offences with immediate custodial sentence 57,272 1,719 3,822 2,255 1,835 3,776 11,882 Violence against the person 12,202 214 513 348 318 689 1,753 Rape 2,923 7 2 2 - 8 45 Other sexual offences 2,382 10 23 42 86 135 567 Burglary 9,151 109 307 378 357 915 3,365 Robbery 7,506 88 59 69 127 272 1,494 Theft and handling 4,744 576 1,085 640 293 508 1,025 Fraud and forgery 1,040 52 126 79 68 133 300 Drugs offences 10,055 50 80 111 143 332 1,874 Other offences 6,197 576 1,547 460 336 612 1,166 Offence not recorded 1,071 36 81 128 109 172 294In default of payment of a fine 34 19 4 – – 3 3Table 1.6 (continued) Population in prison under sentence by offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Males and females Number of personsOffence group Length of sentence ACR DCR Over Over 4 years 5 years Over up to up to Over 3 years and and 10 years less than including including less than 4 years 4 years 5 years 10 years life LifeAll offences 4,366 3,698 5,741 10,312 2,724 5,147Offences with immediate custodial sentence 4,365 3,698 5,738 10,310 2,724 5,147 Violence against the person 549 573 915 1,650 404 4,277 Rape 32 73 181 1,497 590 486 Other sexual offences 108 255 295 693 119 49 Burglary 1,213 583 1,027 837 45 14 Robbery 794 769 1,176 2,035 481 142 Theft and handling 238 110 136 124 5 5 Fraud and forgery 67 66 65 77 6 1 Drugs offences 1,044 971 1,547 2,921 978 5 Other offences 257 254 335 406 87 163 Offence not recorded 63 44 60 70 9 5In default of payment of a fine 1 – 3 2 – –The components do not always add to the totals because they have been rounded independently. 25
  • 36. Table 1.7 Population in prison under sentence by offence group and sexEngland and Wales, 30 JuneMales and females Number of personsOffence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001(r) 2002All males and females 35,564 33,046 35,763 39,379 43,055 48,805 52,269 51,393 53,180 54,212 57,306Offences with immediate custodialsentence(1) 35,182 32,500 35,226 38,863 42,914 48,674 52,159 51,293 53,093 54,169 57,272 Violence against the person 7,077 7,489 7,992 8,781 9,585 10,424 10,944 10,858 11,217 11,744 12,202 Rape 1,584 1,594 1,639 1,783 1,929 2,083 2,373 2,576 2,702 2,766 2,923 Other sexual offences 1,572 1,586 1,640 1,885 2,022 1,994 2,422 2,370 2,388 2,341 2,382 Burglary 5,400 4,729 5,135 5,953 6,422 8,077 8,656 8,780 8,982 8,570 9,151 Robbery 4,230 4,933 5,185 5,372 5,715 6,438 6,626 6,331 6,353 6,784 7,506 Theft and handling 3,100 2,785 3,257 3,729 3,905 4,263 4,492 4,411 5,044 4,799 4,744 Fraud and forgery 853 890 944 1,167 1,218 1,225 1,199 1,104 1,016 1,071 1,040 Drugs offences 3,158 3,208 3,512 4,256 5,755 7,174 7,893 8,169 8,473 9,148 10,055 Other offences 3,615 3,418 3,960 4,306 4,836 5,236 5,425 5,398 6,051 6,048 6,197 Offence not recorded 4,593 1,868 1,962 1,631 1,527 1,760 2,129 1,296 866 898 1,071In default of payment of a fine 382 546 537 516 141 131 110 100 87 43 34All males all offences 34,389 31,897 34,474 37,897 41,323 46,739 49,902 48,957 50,514 51,313 53,967Offences with immediate custodialsentence(1) 34,030 31,375 33,960 37,407 41,187 46,611 49,793 48,862 50,434 51,272 53,936 Violence against the person 6,893 7,273 7,715 8,491 9,230 10,033 10,524 10,429 10,807 11,301 11,668 Rape 1,582 1,593 1,638 1,781 1,926 2,080 2,369 2,571 2,698 2,760 2,918 Other sexual offences 1,564 1,572 1,629 1,875 2,013 1,989 2,410 2,358 2,372 2,322 2,365 Burglary 5,349 4,690 5,096 5,896 6,342 7,976 8,538 8,622 8,824 8,416 8,922 Robbery 4,174 4,856 5,090 5,264 5,591 6,277 6,449 6,174 6,158 6,534 7,197 Theft and handling 2,910 2,578 3,030 3,450 3,591 3,929 4,097 4,021 4,537 4,347 4,282 Fraud and forgery 800 826 879 1,071 1,099 1,104 1,080 993 885 941 917 Drugs offences 2,899 2,900 3,186 3,858 5,269 6,483 7,099 7,294 7,526 8,010 8,724 Other offences 3,457 3,293 3,828 4,174 4,672 5,046 5,208 5,178 5,829 5,803 5,941 Offence not recorded 4,402 1,794 1,869 1,547 1,454 1,694 2,019 1,222 797 838 1,002In default of payment of a fine 359 522 514 490 136 128 109 95 80 41 31All females all offences 1,175 1,149 1,289 1,482 1,732 2,066 2,367 2,436 2,666 2,899 3,339Offences with immediate custodialsentence(1) 1,152 1,125 1,266 1,456 1,727 2,063 2,366 2,431 2,659 2,897 3,336 Violence against the person 184 216 277 290 355 391 420 429 410 443 534 Rape 2 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 4 6 5 Other sexual offences 8 14 11 10 9 5 12 12 16 19 17 Burglary 51 39 39 57 80 101 118 158 158 154 230 Robbery 56 77 95 108 124 161 177 157 195 250 310 Theft and handling 190 207 227 279 314 334 395 390 507 452 462 Fraud and forgery 53 64 65 96 119 121 119 111 131 130 122 Drugs offences 259 308 326 398 486 691 794 875 947 1,137 1,331 Other offences 158 125 132 132 164 190 217 220 222 245 257 Offence not recorded 191 74 93 84 73 66 110 74 69 61 69In default of payment of a fine 23 24 23 26 5 3 1 5 7 2 3(1) Figures for particular offence groups are understated because they do not include those for which the offences were not recorded, the numbers of which were particularly high for 1992. 26
  • 37. Table 1.7a Population in prison under immediate custodial sentence on 30 June 2001 and 30 June 2002 byoffence groupEngland and Wales Number of persons 30 June 30 JuneOffence Group 2001 2002 Change % changeMales Total (1) 50,434 52,934 2,500 5 Violence Against the Person 11,301 11,668 367 3 Sexual Offences 5,082 5,283 201 4 Burglary 8,416 8,922 506 6 Robbery 6,534 7,197 663 10 Theft and Handling 4,347 4,282 −65 −1 Fraud and Forgery 941 917 −23 −2 Drugs Offences 8,010 8,724 714 9 Motoring Offences 2,417 2,289 −128 −5 Other Offences 3,386 3,652 266 8Females Total (1) 2,836 3,267 431 15 Violence Against the Person 443 534 92 21 Sexual Offences 25 22 −3 −12 Burglary 154 230 76 49 Robbery 250 310 59 24 Theft and Handling 452 462 9 2 Fraud and Forgery 130 122 −8 −6 Drugs Offences 1,137 1,331 193 17 Other Offences (2) 245 257 12 5(1) Totals exclude those held for offence not recorded and in default of payment of fine, see Table 1.7.(2) Includes motoring offences.Table 1.7b Population in prison under sentence by principal drugs offenceEngland and Wales, 30 June Estimated number of persons(1)Principle drugs offence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All drugs offences 3,150 3,200 3,500 4,250 5,750 7,150 7,900 8,150 8,450 9,150 10,050 Unlawful supply 600 700 800 1,150 1,600 2,200 2,450 2,750 2,850 3,050 3,200 Possession with intent to supply 850 950 1,100 1,300 1,700 2,400 2,500 2,350 2,400 2,500 2,550 Possession 250 300 300 400 500 600 700 600 600 600 600 Unlawful import/export 1,400 1,250 1,200 1,450 1,900 1,850 2,100 2,350 2,450 2,750 3,400 Other drugs offences 50 50 50 100 100 150 200 150 100 300 300(1) Rounded to the nearest 50. 27
  • 38. Table 1.8 Population in prison under sentence(1) by length of sentence and sexEngland and Wales, 30 JuneMales and females Number of personsLength of sentence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001(r) 2002Males and FemalesAll offenders 35,564 33,046 35,763 39,379 43,055 48,805 52,269 51,392 53,180 54,212 57,306 AUR 5,509 5,769 6,488 7,065 7,099 7,535 7,720 7,479 8,879 8,573 7,819 Up to and including 3 months 1,540 1,712 1,637 1,738 1,465 1,565 1,604 1,743 2,134 1,898 1,738 Over 3 months including 6 months 2,081 2,109 2,791 3,117 3,258 3,495 3,605 3,546 4,340 4,336 3,826 Over 6 months less than 12 months 1,888 1,948 2,060 2,210 2,376 2,475 2,511 2,190 2,405 2,340 2,255 ACR 14,952 12,511 13,610 15,203 17,112 19,796 21,130 19,741 19,627 20,061 21,865 12 months 1,801 1,730 1,730 1,889 1,982 1,913 2,031 1,711 1,825 1,840 1,835 Over 12 months including 18 months 3,676 2,784 2,956 3,292 3,589 3,825 4,204 3,655 3,569 3,682 3,779 Over 18 months including 3 years 8,259 6,846 7,638 8,592 9,891 11,656 12,057 11,198 10,816 10,817 11,885 Over 3 years less than 4 years 1,216 1,151 1,286 1,430 1,650 2,402 2,838 3,177 3,417 3,722 4,366 DCR inc Life 15,103 14,766 15,665 17,111 18,844 21,474 23,419 24,172 24,673 25,578 27,623 4 years 2,138 2,129 2,238 2,518 2,904 3,506 3,802 3,589 3,344 3,412 3,698 Over 4 years including 5 years 2,654 2,572 2,743 3,172 3,619 4,302 4,808 4,966 4,949 5,181 5,741 Over 5 years including 10 years 5,912 5,575 5,960 6,515 7,103 8,014 8,724 9,114 9,341 9,627 10,312 Over 10 years less than life 1,399 1,395 1,532 1,617 1,729 1,931 2,151 2,297 2,429 2,549 2,724 Life 3,000 3,095 3,192 3,289 3,489 3,721 3,934 4,206 4,610 4,810 5,147MalesAll offenders 34,389 31,897 34,474 37,897 41,323 46,739 49,902 48,956 50,514 51,313 53,967 AUR 5,282 5,466 6,178 6,698 6,660 7,044 7,177 6,952 8,215 7,973 7,209 Up to and including 3 months 1,461 1,591 1,567 1,644 1,363 1,448 1,463 1,584 1,933 1,724 1,574 Over 3 months including 6 months 2,004 2,015 2,652 2,969 3,087 3,287 3,375 3,313 4,050 4,073 3,565 Over 6 months less than 12 months 1,817 1,860 1,959 2,085 2,210 2,309 2,339 2,055 2,232 2,176 2,070 ACR 14,485 12,080 13,094 14,612 16,416 18,965 20,174 18,793 18,611 18,932 20,471 12 months 1,727 1,647 1,648 1,801 1,866 1,817 1,894 1,560 1,692 1,706 1,693 Over 12 months including 18 months 3,540 2,658 2,821 3,146 3,416 3,639 3,983 3,430 3,356 3,466 3,509 Over 18 months including 3 years 8,027 6,645 7,373 8,277 9,532 11,180 11,550 10,740 10,294 10,189 11,147 Over 3 years less than 4 years 1,191 1,130 1,252 1,388 1,602 2,329 2,747 3,063 3,269 3,571 4,121 DCR inc Life 14,622 14,351 15,202 16,587 18,247 20,730 22,551 23,211 23,687 24,408 26,288 4 years 2,068 2,077 2,158 2,432 2,812 3,371 3,644 3,421 3,189 3,233 3,502 Over 4 years including 5 years 2,563 2,501 2,652 3,062 3,504 4,156 4,628 4,765 4,736 4,893 5,417 Over 5 years including 10 years 5,710 5,408 5,802 6,327 6,873 7,735 8,394 8,742 8,952 9,176 9,773 Over 10 years less than life 1,377 1,375 1,509 1,590 1,693 1,884 2,088 2,227 2,352 2,458 2,614 Life 2,904 2,990 3,081 3,176 3,365 3,584 3,797 4,056 4,458 4,648 4,982FemalesAll offenders 1,175 1,149 1,289 1,482 1,732 2,066 2,367 2,436 2,666 2,899 3,339 AUR 227 303 310 367 439 491 543 527 664 600 610 Up to and including 3 months 79 121 70 94 102 117 141 159 201 174 164 Over 3 months including 6 months 77 94 139 148 171 208 230 233 290 263 261 Over 6 months less than 12 months 71 88 101 125 166 166 172 135 173 164 185 ACR 467 431 516 591 696 831 956 948 1,016 1,129 1,394 12 months 74 83 82 88 116 96 137 151 133 134 142 Over 12 months including 18 months 136 126 135 146 173 186 221 225 213 216 270 Over 18 months including 3 years 232 201 265 315 359 476 507 458 522 628 737 Over 3 years less than 4 years 25 21 34 42 48 73 91 114 148 151 245 DCR inc Life 481 415 463 524 597 744 868 961 986 1,170 1,335 4 years 70 52 80 86 92 135 158 168 155 178 196 Over 4 years including 5 years 91 71 91 110 115 146 180 201 213 288 324 Over 5 years including 10 years 202 167 158 188 230 279 330 372 389 452 539 Over 10 years less than life 22 20 23 27 36 47 63 70 77 90 111 Life 96 105 111 113 124 137 137 150 152 162 165(1) Including persons imprisoned or detained in default of payment of a fine. 28
  • 39. Table 1.9 Population in prison under sentence(1) by age and sexEngland and Wales, 30 JuneMales and femalesAge in years 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001(r) 2002All males and females Number of persons15-17 729 769 840 988 1,319 1,673 1,689 1,710 1,851 1,965 2,08318-20 3,982 3,947 4,049 4,316 4,484 5,257 6,017 5,857 6,171 6,177 6,15421-24 7,845 6,683 7,157 7,542 8,004 9,062 9,205 8,672 9,158 9,519 10,37325-29 8,178 7,489 7,999 8,721 9,302 10,619 11,091 10,571 10,623 10,555 10,86930-39 8,854 8,265 9,336 10,635 12,051 13,428 14,818 14,870 15,316 15,440 16,43740-49 3,984 3,839 4,194 4,687 5,057 5,467 5,817 5,853 6,055 6,471 7,05850-59 1,538 1,604 1,652 1,887 2,128 2,462 2,724 2,786 2,852 2,850 2,95560 and over 454 450 536 603 710 837 908 1,073 1,154 1,235 1,376All ages 35,564 33,046 35,763 39,379 43,055 48,805 52,269 51,392 53,180 54,212 57,306 Percentage15-17 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.5 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.618-20 11.2 11.9 11.3 11.0 10.4 10.8 11.5 11.4 11.6 11.4 10.721-24 22.1 20.2 20.0 19.2 18.6 18.6 17.6 16.9 17.2 17.6 18.125-29 23.0 22.7 22.4 22.1 21.6 21.8 21.2 20.6 20.0 19.5 19.030-39 24.9 25.0 26.1 27.0 28.0 27.5 28.3 28.9 28.8 28.5 28.740-49 11.2 11.6 11.7 11.9 11.7 11.2 11.1 11.4 11.4 11.9 12.350-59 4.3 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.260 and over 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4All ages 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100All males Number of persons15-17 711 754 813 957 1,262 1,620 1,627 1,643 1,786 1,901 1,98018-20 3,881 3,830 3,944 4,187 4,315 5,092 5,807 5,633 5,906 5,866 5,79921-24 7,667 6,490 6,919 7,305 7,739 8,685 8,780 8,245 8,700 9,039 9,78825-29 7,904 7,233 7,704 8,390 8,928 10,162 10,590 10,080 10,060 9,967 10,19830-39 8,476 7,932 8,954 10,184 11,507 12,801 14,109 14,072 14,454 14,533 15,40040-49 3,818 3,673 4,019 4,460 4,826 5,189 5,485 5,552 5,720 6,062 6,62350-59 1,490 1,543 1,599 1,827 2,047 2,370 2,608 2,678 2,750 2,729 2,82160 and over 442 442 522 587 699 820 896 1,053 1,138 1,215 1,359All ages 34,389 31,897 34,474 37,897 41,323 46,739 49,902 48,956 50,514 51,313 53,967 Percentage15-17 2.1 2.4 2.4 2.5 3.1 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.718-20 11.3 12.0 11.4 11.0 10.4 10.9 11.6 11.5 11.7 11.4 10.721-24 22.3 20.3 20.1 19.3 18.7 18.6 17.6 16.8 17.2 17.6 18.125-29 23.0 22.7 22.3 22.1 21.6 21.7 21.2 20.6 19.9 19.4 18.930-39 24.6 24.9 26.0 26.9 27.8 27.4 28.3 28.7 28.6 28.3 28.540-49 11.1 11.5 11.7 11.8 11.7 11.1 11.0 11.3 11.3 11.8 12.350-59 4.3 4.8 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.260 and over 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5All ages 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100All females Number of persons15-17 18 15 27 31 57 53 62 67 65 64 10318-20 101 117 105 129 169 165 210 224 265 310 35521-24 178 193 238 237 265 377 425 427 458 480 58525-29 274 256 295 331 374 457 501 491 563 588 67130-39 378 333 382 451 544 627 709 798 862 907 1,03840-49 166 166 175 227 231 278 332 301 335 409 43550-59 48 61 53 60 81 92 116 108 102 121 13460 and over 12 8 14 16 11 17 12 20 16 19 18All ages 1,175 1,149 1,289 1,482 1,732 2,066 2,367 2,436 2,666 2,899 3,339 Percentage15-17 1.5 1.3 2.1 2.1 3.3 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.2 3.118-20 8.6 10.2 8.1 8.7 9.8 8.0 8.9 9.2 9.9 10.7 10.621-24 15.1 16.8 18.5 16.0 15.3 18.2 18.0 17.5 17.2 16.5 17.525-29 23.3 22.3 22.9 22.3 21.6 22.1 21.2 20.2 21.1 20.3 20.130-39 32.2 29.0 29.6 30.4 31.4 30.3 30.0 32.8 32.3 31.3 31.140-49 14.1 14.4 13.6 15.3 13.3 13.5 14.0 12.4 12.6 14.1 13.050-59 4.1 5.3 4.1 4.0 4.7 4.5 4.9 4.4 3.8 4.2 4.060 and over 1.0 0.7 1.1 1.1 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6All ages 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100(1) Including persons committed in default of payment of a fine. 29
  • 40. Table 1.10 Receptions into prison by type of custody and sexEngland and WalesMales and females Number of personsType of custody 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002MalesUntried 47,501 50,918 54,157 52,347 55,545 58,092 60,157 59,985 50,866 49,345 53,745Convicted unsentenced 20,051 28,593 32,751 30,261 32,993 33,988 39,945 41,958 40,116 42,502 47,851Under sentence 66,630 69,312 79,251 84,342 78,390 81,949 85,107 86,934 86,516 84,674 87,008 Young offenders 16,941 15,973 17,570 18,400 17,727 18,427 19,071 20,145 20,293 19,828 19,011 Young offender institution 12,691 12,423 14,058 15,318 16,328 17,325 18,039 19,340 19,620 19,261 18,310 Section 91 PCC(S) (excl. life)(1) 107 327 357 333 494 499 442 379 400 373 530 Life (including Section 90 and custody for life) 32 36 32 29 59 66 47 68 66 65 64 In default of payment of a fine 4,111 3,187 3,123 2,720 846 537 543 358 207 129 107 Adults 49,689 53,339 61,681 65,942 60,663 63,522 66,036 66,789 66,223 64,846 67,997 Immediate imprisonment (excl. life) 34,828 35,240 43,608 49,645 53,147 57,798 61,180 63,239 63,696 63,163 66,543 Life 190 189 181 230 268 297 351 396 407 430 448 In default of payment of a fine 14,671 17,910 17,892 16,067 7,248 5,427 4,505 3,154 2,120 1,253 1,006Non-criminal 2,968 4,756 4,217 3,611 2,994 3,063 3,196 3,178 3,076 4,529 2,534 Held under 1971 Immigration Act 1,221 1,773 1,593 1,776 1,810 2,051 2,283 2,380 2,408 3,961 1,988 Others 1,747 2,983 2,624 1,835 1,184 1,012 913 798 668 568 546FemalesUntried 2,368 2,647 2,922 2,940 3,343 3,974 4,540 4,587 4,026 4,122 4,954Convicted unsentenced 1,199 1,505 1,812 1,778 1,994 2,436 3,442 3,935 3,773 4,349 5,450Under sentence 3,202 3,654 4,406 4,831 4,471 5,219 6,175 7,031 7,155 7,304 7,799 Young offenders 515 585 654 690 751 871 1,096 1,241 1,245 1,279 1,335 Young offender institution 339 406 492 544 700 830 1,064 1,224 1,220 1,255 1,298 Section 91 PCC(S) (excl. life)(1) 5 8 16 17 11 18 6 5 12 12 29 Life (including Section 90 and custody for life) – 5 1 3 1 5 1 4 4 3 5 In default of payment of a fine 171 166 145 126 39 18 25 8 9 9 3 Adults 2,687 3,069 3,752 4,141 3,720 4,348 5,079 5,790 5,910 6,025 6,464 Immediate imprisonment (excl. life) 1,800 1,916 2,435 2,879 3,288 3,978 4,764 5,568 5,752 5,947 6,732 Life 14 13 8 18 10 16 14 15 18 14 16 In default of payment of a fine 873 1,140 1,309 1,244 422 354 301 207 140 64 76Non-criminal 141 317 290 178 134 141 94 93 77 101 140 Held under 1971 Immigration Act 51 64 48 49 47 71 65 63 47 74 105 Others 90 253 242 129 87 70 29 30 30 27 35(1) Persons detained under Section 91 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000. 30
  • 41. Table 1.11 Receptions and population under sentence in prison by court sentencingEngland and WalesMales and females Number of personsCourt sentencing(1) 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002ReceptionsAll receptions 69,832 72,996 83,657 89,173 82,861 87,168 91,282 93,965 93,671 91,978 94,808 Crown Court 32,732 29,189 31,133 34,996 40,063 42,424 42,254 41,853 40,738 39,883 41,474 Young offenders 7,592 6,149 6,072 6,839 8,704 9,412 9,163 9,356 11,036 8,512 8,625 Adults 24,865 22,892 24,971 28,070 31,300 32,961 33,048 32,463 29,686 31,355 32,842 In default of payment of a fine 275 148 90 87 59 51 43 34 16 16 7 Magistrates’ courts 36,962 43,625 52,339 53,981 42,628 44,509 48,910 52,000 52,831 52,018 53,148 Young offenders 5,568 7,038 8,864 9,380 8,870 9,301 10,428 11,655 15,312 12,442 11,570 Adults 11,899 14,396 21,133 24,566 25,286 28,945 33,172 36,675 35,068 38,137 40,393 In default of payment of a fine 19,495 22,191 22,342 20,035 8,472 6,263 5,310 3,670 2,451 1,439 1,185 Other courts 138 152 185 196 170 235 118 112 102 77 74 Young offenders 14 18 20 25 19 30 8 9 33 15 11 Adults 68 70 128 136 127 183 89 80 60 62 63 In default of payment of a fine 56 64 37 35 24 22 21 23 9 – – Not recorded – – – – – – – – – – 112 Young offenders – – – – – – – – – – 30 Adults – – – – – – – – – – 82 In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – – – – –Population at 30 JuneTotal population 35,564 33,046 35,763 39,379 43,055 48,805 52,269 51,392 53,180 54,212 57,306 Crown Court 30,835 29,372 31,001 34,613 37,975 43,437 46,650 45,748 44,759 43,561 46,727 Young offenders 4,151 3,851 3,829 4,539 5,220 6,496 7,132 6,923 6,667 5,902 6,040 Adults 26,667 25,500 27,163 30,057 32,747 36,931 39,509 38,808 38,077 37,642 40,671 In default of payment of a fine 17 21 9 17 8 10 9 17 15 17 16 Magistrates’ courts 3,114 3,504 4,603 4,534 4,858 5,084 5,525 5,515 8,014 10,650 10,579 Young offenders 937 1,124 1,363 1,208 1,319 1,370 1,357 1,372 1,788 2,805 2,815 Adults 1,941 1,930 2,775 2,917 3,437 3,634 4,075 4,077 6,173 7,820 7,746 In default of payment of a fine 236 450 465 409 102 80 93 66 53 25 18 Other courts 14 21 21 23 12 49 22 22 126 – – Young offenders 5 2 3 3 2 19 1 2 40 – – Adults 8 15 17 20 10 30 21 17 85 – – In default of payment of a fine 1 4 1 – – – – 3 1 – – Not recorded 1,601 149 138 209 210 235 72 107 281 1 1 Young offenders 397 3 7 17 59 49 20 32 35 – – Adults 1,076 75 69 102 120 145 44 62 228 – – In default of payment of a fine 128 71 62 90 31 41 8 13 18 1 1(1) Type of court originally awarding a custodial sentence; further sentences may have been awarded at a different court. 31
  • 42. Table 1.12 Receptions into prison under sentence: by type of prisoner and length of sentenceEngland and WalesMales and females Number of personsType of prisoner 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All sentenced prisoners 69,832 72,966 83,657 89,173 82,861 87,168 91,282 93,965 93,671 91,978 94,807Immediate custodial sentence 50,006 50,563 61,188 69,016 74,306 80,832 85,908 90,238 91,195 90,523 93,615 Less than 12 months 26,626 29,917 38,717 44,361 46,149 50,569 55,455 59,992 61,398 60,380 60,761 Up to and including 3 months 10,292 10,968 15,020 18,505 19,378 22,187 25,064 27,688 26,870 25,753 25,943 Over 3 months including 6 months 10,484 12,933 17,014 18,661 19,574 20,855 22,558 24,670 26,354 26,613 26,743 Over 6 months up to 12 months 5,850 6,016 6,683 7,195 7,197 7,527 7,833 7,634 8,174 8,014 8,075 12 months to less than 4 years 18,835 16,355 18,067 19,721 22,057 23,495 24,021 23,655 23,167 22,972 24,668 12 months 4,369 4,076 4,355 4,488 4,554 4,630 4,667 4,587 4,639 4,577 4,668 Over 12 months including 18 months 5,736 4,764 5,187 5,572 6,126 6,421 6,687 6,573 6,310 6,077 6,567 Over 18 months including 3 years 8,010 6,875 7,738 8,744 10,169 10,925 10,893 10,610 10,167 10,124 10,837 Over 3 years less than 4 years 720 640 787 917 1,208 1,519 1,774 1,885 2,051 2,194 2,596 4 years or more 4,545 4,291 4,404 4,934 6,100 6,768 6,432 6,591 6,630 7,171 8,186 4 years 1,223 1,101 1,101 1,279 1,655 1,782 1,612 1,568 1,588 1,648 1,908 Over 4 years including 5 years 1,001 1,091 1,092 1,363 1,588 1,815 1,752 1,777 1,857 1,993 2,314 Over 5 years including 10 years 1,834 1,642 1,732 1,736 2,155 2,381 2,236 2,351 2,323 2,632 2,952 Over 10 years less than life 251 214 257 276 364 406 419 412 371 386 479 Life 236 243 222 280 338 384 413 483 491 512 533 Young offenders 13,174 13,205 14,956 16,244 17,593 18,743 19,599 21,020 21,333 20,969 20,236 Less than 12 months 8,055 8,867 10,520 11,308 11,285 11,867 12,942 14,330 14,639 14,234 12,891 Up to and including 3 months 2,922 2,986 3,721 4,185 4,154 4,641 5,342 6,197 5,162 4,394 4,066 Over 3 months including 6 months 3,373 3,984 4,592 4,843 4,910 5,050 5,397 5,984 7,089 7,357 6,479 Over 6 months up to 12 months 1,760 1,897 2,207 2,280 2,221 2,176 2,203 2,149 2,388 2,483 2,346 12 months to less than 4 years 4,610 3,815 3,921 4,393 5,497 5,949 5,921 5,904 5,877 5,856 6,355 12 months 1,371 1,213 1,204 1,225 1,256 1,273 1,251 1,216 1,464 1,534 1,597 Over 12 months including 18 months 1,433 1,034 1,015 1,250 1,615 1,753 1,772 1,792 1,732 1,707 1,890 Over 18 months including 3 years 1,718 1,460 1,556 1,763 2,385 2,618 2,565 2,545 2,286 2,222 2,427 Over 3 years less than 4 years 88 108 146 155 241 305 333 351 395 393 441 4 years or more 509 523 515 543 811 927 736 786 817 879 990 4 years 180 184 180 211 287 331 255 275 275 280 311 Over 4 years including 5 years 116 143 124 171 249 270 210 229 259 276 318 Over 5 years including 10 years 166 148 169 126 192 234 204 201 211 242 276 Over 10 years less than life 15 7 9 3 23 21 19 9 12 13 16 Life 32 41 33 32 60 71 48 72 60 68 69 Adults 36,832 37,358 46,232 52,772 56,713 62,089 66,309 69,218 69,862 69,554 73,379 Less than 12 months 18,571 21,050 28,197 33,053 34,864 38,702 42,513 45,662 46,759 46,146 47,870 Up to and including 3 months 7,370 7,982 11,299 14,320 15,224 17,546 19,722 21,491 21,708 21,359 21,877 Over 3 months including 6 months 7,111 8,949 12,422 13,818 14,664 15,805 17,161 18,686 19,265 19,256 20,264 Over 6 months up to 12 months 4,090 4,119 4,476 4,915 4,976 5,351 5,630 5,485 5,786 5,531 5,729 12 months to less than 4 years 14,225 12,540 14,146 15,328 16,560 17,546 18,100 17,751 17,290 17,116 18,313 12 months 2,998 2,863 3,151 3,263 3,298 3,357 3,416 3,371 3,175 3,043 3,071 Over 12 months including 18 months 4,303 3,730 4,172 4,322 4,511 4,668 4,915 4,781 4,578 4,370 4,677 Over 18 months including 3 years 6,292 5,415 6,182 6,981 7,784 8,307 8,328 8,065 7,881 7,902 8,410 Over 3 years less than 4 years 632 532 641 762 967 1,214 1,441 1,534 1,656 1,801 2,155 4 years or more 4,036 3,768 3,889 4,391 5,289 5,841 5,696 5,805 5,813 6,292 7,196 4 years 1,043 917 921 1,068 1,368 1,451 1,357 1,293 1,313 1,368 1,597 Over 4 years including 5 years 885 948 968 1,192 1,339 1,545 1,542 1,548 1,598 1,717 1,996 Over 5 years including 10 years 1,668 1,494 1,563 1,610 1,963 2,147 2,032 2,150 2,112 2,390 2,676 Over 10 years less than life 236 207 248 273 341 385 400 403 359 373 463 Life 204 202 189 248 278 313 365 411 431 444 464In default of payment of a fine(1) 19,826 22,403 22,469 20,157 8,555 6,336 5,374 3,727 2,476 1,455 1,192 Young offenders 4,282 3,353 3,268 2,846 885 555 568 366 216 138 110 Up to 1 month 3,844 2,905 2,914 2,598 815 483 507 331 190 118 101 Over 1 month up to 3 months 381 415 332 238 64 64 60 33 22 14 7 Over 3 months up to 6 months 37 28 22 10 6 8 1 2 4 6 2 Over 6 months 20 5 – – – – – – – – – Adults 15,544 19,050 19,201 17,311 7,670 5,781 4,806 3,361 2,260 1,317 1,082 Up to 1 month 13,818 16,566 16,745 15,405 6,935 5,126 4,281 2,957 1,984 1,169 947 Over 1 month up to 3 months 1,529 2,279 2,312 1,811 696 627 512 370 245 130 113 Over 3 months up to 6 months 124 146 144 90 39 28 13 34 31 18 22 Over 6 months 73 59 – 5 – – – – – – –(1) Period imposed in default. 32
  • 43. Table 1.13 Fine defaulters: prison population, receptions and estimated average time spent in prison by sexEngland and Wales 30 JuneFine defaulters Numbers/days 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Population at 30 June All fine defaulters 382 546 537 516 141 131 110 99 87 43 34 Males 359 522 514 490 136 128 109 94 80 41 31 Females 23 24 23 26 5 3 1 5 7 2 3 Total sentenced population 35,564 33,046 35,763 39,379 43,055 48,805 52,269 51,392 53,180 54,212 57,306 Fine defaulters as a percentage of total sentenced population (%) 1.1 1.7 1.5 1.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 Population serving sentences of imprisonment of 6 months or less(1) 3,621 3,821 4,428 4,855 4,723 5,060 5,209 5,289 6,474 6,417 5,564 Fine defaulters as a percentage of population serving sentences of imprisonment of 6 months or less 10.5 14.3 12.1 10.6 3.0 2.6 2.1 1.9 1.3 0.7 0.6Receptions All fine defaulters 19,826 22,403 22,469 20,157 8,555 6,336 5,374 3,727 2,476 1,455 1,192 Males 18,782 21,097 21,015 18,787 8,094 5,964 5,048 3,512 2,327 1,382 1,113 Females 1,044 1,306 1,454 1,370 461 372 326 215 149 73 79 All receptions under sentence 69,832 72,966 83,657 89,173 82,861 87,168 91,282 93,965 93,671 91,978 94,807 Fine defaulters as a percentage of all receptions under sentence 28.4 30.7 26.9 22.6 10.3 7.3 5.9 4.0 2.6 1.6 1.3 All receptions under sentence of imprisonment of 6 months or less(1) 40,509 46,240 54,503 57,318 47,507 49,408 52,996 56,085 55,699 53,821 53,878 Fine defaulters as a percentage of all receptions serving sentences of imprisonment of 6 months or less 48.9 48.4 41.2 35.2 18.0 12.8 10.1 6.6 4.4 2.7 2.2 Average time served (days)(2) Males 7(3) 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 10 10 Females 7(3) 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6(1) Excludes detention centre trainees; includes youth custody trainees and persons sentenced to detention in a young offender institution.(2) Excluding those remaining in custody as fine defaulters on completion of a custodial sentence for a criminal offence.(3) January to June. 33
  • 44. Table 1.14 Receptions of fine defaulters into prison by age, offence group and sexEngland and WalesMales Number of personsOffence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All ages 18 and over 18,782 21,097 21,015 18,787 8,094 5,964 5,048 3,512 2,327 1,380 1,113 Violence against the person 1,247 1,446 1,203 1,040 454 331 317 189 119 87 57 Sexual offences 29 27 13 17 11 8 6 5 4 2 – Burglary/Robbery 1,318 1,440 1,109 899 338 232 171 86 71 40 33 Theft and handling 3,335 3,802 3,189 2,738 1,076 733 664 402 256 159 121 Fraud and forgery 598 602 548 406 179 131 109 76 39 29 24 Drug Offences(2) – – – – – – – – 81 53 33 Drunkenness 540 633 486 417 216 188 164 110 93 40 28 Motoring offences 6,139 8,141 7,383 6,789 2,976 2,263 1,794 1,170 640 392 239 Using a TV without a licence 405 547 487 493 238 171 104 56 24 21 12 Other offences 3,759 4,377 3,950 3,584 1,699 1,308 1,107 757 463 213 183 Offence not recorded 1,412 82 2,647 2,404 907 599 612 661 537 344 383Aged under 21(1) 4,111 3,187 3,123 2,720 846 537 543 358 207 129 107 Violence against the person 255 231 216 184 53 34 36 21 15 12 6 Sexual offences 3 3 1 1 1 – 1 – 1 – – Burglary/Robbery 497 415 278 225 67 32 30 20 12 6 6 Theft and handling 961 752 605 457 156 76 90 44 22 20 15 Fraud and forgery 52 31 30 27 7 4 5 4 4 2 3 Drug Offences(1) – – – – – – – – 5 3 – Drunkenness 62 55 49 36 24 15 19 10 5 4 2 Motoring offences 1,055 973 851 777 236 163 134 89 50 38 20 Using a TV without a licence 10 8 4 7 3 – – 1 – – – Other offences 850 707 584 540 169 111 137 100 55 24 20 Offence not recorded 366 12 505 466 130 102 91 69 38 20 35Aged 21-29 9,369 11,284 10,895 9,549 4,116 2,996 2,344 1,588 1,093 595 486 Violence against the person 699 809 625 537 235 172 163 82 58 30 25 Sexual offences 15 8 9 6 4 5 1 4 – – – Burglary/Robbery 625 767 631 508 200 147 110 41 37 27 17 Theft and handling 1,622 2,042 1,676 1,439 552 395 333 213 138 73 63 Fraud and forgery 271 284 244 168 75 54 34 31 14 9 9 Drug Offences(1) – – – – – – – – 39 23 15 Drunkenness 191 248 164 147 79 69 58 34 20 6 6 Motoring offences 3,187 4,516 4,005 3,576 1,569 1,163 879 547 293 165 122 Using a TV without a licence 159 188 168 164 86 61 35 21 12 7 3 Other offences 1,950 2,383 2,071 1,855 870 655 477 333 214 95 73 Offence not recorded 650 39 1,302 1,149 446 275 254 282 268 160 153Aged 30 and over 5,302 6,626 6,997 6,518 3,132 2,431 2,161 1,566 1,027 658 521 Violence against the person 293 406 362 319 166 125 118 86 46 45 26 Sexual offences 11 16 3 10 6 3 4 1 3 2 – Burglary/Robbery 196 258 200 166 71 53 31 25 22 8 10 Theft and handling 752 1,008 908 842 368 262 241 145 96 66 43 Fraud and forgery 275 287 274 211 97 73 70 41 21 18 12 Drug Offences(1) – – – – – – – – 37 27 18 Drunkenness 287 330 273 234 113 104 87 66 68 30 20 Motoring offences 1,897 2,652 2,527 2,436 1,171 937 781 534 297 189 97 Using a TV without a licence 236 351 315 322 149 110 69 34 12 14 9 Other offences 959 1,287 1,295 1,189 660 542 493 324 194 95 91 Offence not recorded 396 31 840 789 331 222 267 310 231 164 195(1) Application of court repossession order. 34
  • 45. Table 1.14 Receptions of fine defaulters into prison by age, offence group and sexEngland and WalesFemales Number of personsOffence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All ages 18 and over 1,044 1,306 1,454 1,370 461 372 326 215 149 73 79 Violence against the person 59 60 73 54 21 20 29 15 3 5 2 Sexual offences 1 – – – 1 – – – 1 1 – Burglary/Robbery 15 22 21 21 8 2 2 3 1 1 3 Theft and handling 174 265 238 222 59 63 45 25 18 14 15 Fraud and forgery 71 87 82 58 14 9 6 6 6 2 2 Drug Offences(1) – – – – – – – – 7 1 – Drunkenness 27 24 17 25 5 9 6 2 2 – – Motoring offences 146 202 214 288 93 68 66 33 27 15 16 Using a TV without a licence 163 278 243 235 89 61 41 24 12 9 2 Other offences 303 352 444 360 136 111 97 63 27 11 18 Offence not recorded 95 16 122 107 35 29 34 44 45 14 21Aged under 21(1) 171 166 145 126 39 18 25 8 9 9 3 Violence against the person 14 11 16 10 3 3 5 1 – 2 – Sexual offences – – – – – – – – – – – Burglary/Robbery 8 4 3 5 3 1 1 – – – – Theft and handling 51 57 44 30 7 7 6 1 2 2 – Fraud and forgery 5 8 8 11 2 – – – – – – Drug Offences(1) – – – – – – – – 1 – – Drunkenness 6 5 1 2 1 2 1 – – – – Motoring offences 18 20 13 20 6 1 2 – 1 – – Using a TV without a licence 6 15 4 9 3 – – – – – – Other offences 47 44 41 33 13 4 7 3 3 4 3 Offence not recorded 16 2 15 6 1 – 3 3 2 1 –Aged 21-29 512 664 730 627 210 179 130 97 64 27 38 Violence against the person 29 36 37 27 12 11 14 8 3 2 1 Sexual offences 1 – – – – – – – 1 1 – Burglary/Robbery 3 12 14 8 2 – – 1 – – 2 Theft and handling 74 133 117 100 32 32 23 13 10 10 9 Fraud and forgery 36 47 40 27 7 5 2 3 1 – 1 Drug Offences(1) – – – – – – – – 2 – – Drunkenness 9 8 10 8 – 4 3 – – – – Motoring offences 59 99 108 146 44 38 32 15 12 5 10 Using a TV without a licence 89 129 120 102 37 25 12 11 4 2 – Other offences 160 190 222 159 55 48 31 29 11 2 3 Offence not recorded 52 10 62 50 21 16 13 17 20 5 12Aged 30 and over 361 476 579 617 212 175 171 110 76 37 38 Violence against the person 16 13 20 17 6 6 10 6 – 1 1 Sexual offences – – – – 1 – – – – – – Burglary/Robbery 4 6 4 8 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 Theft and handling 39 75 77 92 20 24 16 11 6 2 6 Fraud and forgery 30 32 34 20 5 4 4 3 5 2 1 Drug Offences(1) – – – – – – – – 4 1 – Drunkenness 12 11 6 15 4 3 2 2 2 – – Motoring offences 69 83 93 122 43 29 32 18 14 10 6 Using a TV without a licence 68 134 119 124 49 36 29 13 8 7 2 Other offences 96 118 181 168 68 59 59 31 13 5 12 Offence not recorded 27 4 45 51 13 13 18 24 23 8 9(1) Application of court repossession order. 35
  • 46. Table 1.15 Non-criminal prisoners: population in prison by sex and type of committalEngland and Wales, 30 JuneNon-criminal prisoners Number of personsType of committal 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All males and females 363 568 623 649 633 557 555 548 581 1,129 831All males 361 539 599 628 606 538 537 529 561 1,088 774 Committed for non payment of: Wife maintenance (including wife and child maintenance) 9 14 9 7 2 – – – – – – Child maintenance 6 8 4 4 1 – 2 – – – – Arrears under an affiliation order – 1 – 2 – – – – – – – Rates 6 6 2 4 1 – – – – – – Community charge/council tax 16 32 43 44 21 18 8 5 2 – 1 Other debts – 3 1 3 – 1 2 1 1 1 1 In contempt of court 36 38 58 52 57 49 55 36 49 43 51 Persons held under the 1971 Immigration Act(1) 264 405 460 488 499 457 459 474 506 1,042 707 Others 1 6 1 2 1 1 2 5 3 2 6 Committal type not recorded 23 26 21 22 24 12 9 8 – – 8All females 2 29 24 21 27 19 18 19 20 41 57 Committed for non payment of: Child maintenance – – – – – – – – – – – Rates – 2 – – – – – – – – – Community charge/council tax – – 3 – 2 – – – – – – Other debts – – – – – – – – – – – In contempt of court – 3 – 4 4 – – 1 2 2 4 Persons held under the 1971 Immigration Act(1) 2 24 20 17 20 19 18 16 18 39 52 Others – – – – – – – 1 – – – Committal type not recorded – – 1 – 1 – – 1 – – 1(1) The figures do not include persons held in detention centres controlled by the Immigration Service. 36
  • 47. Table 1.16 Non-criminal prisoners: receptions into prison by sex and type of committalEngland and WalesNon-criminal prisoners Number of personsType of committal 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All males and females 3,109 5,073 4,507 3,789 3,128 3,204 3,290 3,271 3,153 4,630 2,674All males 2,968 4,756 4,217 3,611 2,994 3,063 3,196 3,178 3,076 4,529 2,534 Committed for non-payment of: Wife maintenance (including wife and child maintenance) 167 207 148 79 35 14 8 8 3 2 4 Child maintenance 80 104 80 55 26 26 14 9 12 1 2 Arrears under an affiliation order 3 21 12 10 5 1 2 1 – – – Rates 188 173 100 31 18 18 13 4 4 1 6 Community charge/council tax 476 1,249 1,175 727 413 327 183 94 36 24 18 Other debts 37 68 27 38 26 18 21 10 10 5 5 In contempt of court 532 716 772 680 533 540 571 567 523 422 420 Persons held under the 1971 Immigration Act(1) 1,221 1,773 1,593 1,776 1,810 2,051 2,283 2,380 2,408 3,961 1,988 Others 36 86 40 67 42 24 64 76 55 62 38 Committal type not recorded 228 359 270 148 86 44 37 29 25 51 53All females 141 317 290 178 134 141 94 93 77 101 140 Committed for non-payment of: Child maintenance 1 – – – – – – – – – – Rates 24 21 16 2 4 – – – – – – Community charge/council tax 28 177 188 85 46 30 11 7 5 5 3 Other debts – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – In contempt of court 22 36 24 31 31 36 17 19 16 20 22 Persons held under the 1971 Immigration Act(1) 51 64 48 49 47 71 65 63 47 74 105 Others 4 4 2 2 2 3 – 3 3 1 1 Committal type not recorded 11 14 12 9 3 1 1 1 6 1 9(1) The figures do not include persons held in detention centres controlled by the Immigration Service. 37
  • 48. Table 1.17 Average population in custody and certified normal accommodation: by type of establishmentEngland and WalesMales and females Number of personsType of establishment 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Population in custody (1) 45,817 44,566 48,794 51,047 55,281 61,114 65,298 64,771 64,602 66,301 70,861All Prison Service establishments 44,719 44,552 48,621 50,962 55,281 61,114 65,298 64,771 64,602 66,301 70,778 Male establishments, of which Remand centres 2,678 3,172 3,202 2,697 3,118 4,025 4,142 4,440 3,951 3,177 2,980 Local prisons 14,948 15,112 17,309 18,484 19,672 21,849 23,683 23,759 23,098 23,856 26,068 Open prisons 3,206 3,159 3,341 3,240 3,576 3,853 3,800 3,380 3,324 3,146 3,595 Closed training prisons 17,484 17,152 18,319 19,436 20,953 22,308 23,572 23,388 23,627 24,823 25,878All young offender institutions 4,840 4,396 4,640 5,128 5,701 6,402 6,996 6,555 7,248 7,558 7,959 Juvenile young offender institutions 276 437 704 1,013 1,360 1,433 1,664 1,631 2,048 2,649 2,802 Short sentence young offender institutions 303 * * * * * * * * * * Open young offender institutions 604 565 446 339 377 423 367 348 373 348 354 Closed young offender institutions 3,657 3,395 3,490 3,776 3,964 4,546 4,965 4,576 4,827 4,561 4,803 Female establishments 1,562 1,561 1,811 1,979 2,262 2,675 3,105 3,247 3,350 3,740 4,299Certified normal(2) accommodation (CNA) on 30 JuneAll establishments 46,239 46,646 48,291 50,239 53,152 56,329 61,253 62,369 63,436 63,530 64,232 Male establishments, of which Remand centres 2,994 3,268 3,341 2,992 3,041 3,754 3,962 3,781 4,139 3,029 2,669 Local prisons 12,571 12,938 14,762 16,041 16,359 17,549 19,577 19,838 19,835 19,813 19,533 Open prisons 3,674 3,581 3,745 3,682 3,834 4,068 4,066 4,078 3,840 3,619 3,826 Closed training prisons 19,487 19,210 19,206 20,314 21,929 22,007 23,322 24,128 24,500 25,106 25,346All young offender institutions 5,748 5,867 5,374 5,150 5,785 6,258 7,230 7,299 7,593 8,245 8,360 Juvenile young offender institutions 244 486 747 842 1,088 1,202 1,437 1,550 2,165 2,928 3,054 Short sentence young offender institutions 619 * * * * * * * * * * Open young offender institutions 833 1,138 706 450 552 548 496 556 496 476 461 Closed young offender institutions 4,052 4,243 3,921 3,858 4,145 4,508 5,297 5,193 4,932 4,841 4,845 Female establishments 1,765 1,782 1,863 2,060 2,204 2,693 3,096 3,245 3,529 3,718 4,498Excess of average population over CNAPopulation in custody(1) (422)(2) (2,080)(2) 503 808 2,129 4,785 4,045 2,402 1,116 2,793 6,629All Prison Service establishments (1,520) (2) (2,095) (2) 330 723 2,129 4,785 4,045 2,402 1,116 2,793 6,546 Male establishments, of which Remand centres (316) (2) (96) (2) (139) (2) (295) (2) 77 271 180 659 (118) (2) 148 311 Local prisons 2,377 2,174 2,547 2,443 3,313 4,300 4,106 3,921 3,263 4,043 6,535(1) Includes those in police cells.(2) CNA was redefined in September 1992 to exclude accommodation in new establishments which is not yet operational. 38
  • 49. Table 1.18 Population in prison by Prison Service establishmentEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Prison Service establishment Population In use CNA Prison Service establishment Population In use CNAMalesAcklington 777 772 Manchester 1,251 943Albany 441 446 Moorland 775 740Altcourse 1,004 614 North Sea Camp 245 307Ashfield 319 400 Northallerton 222 153Ashwell 481 486 Norwich 743 536Aylesbury 351 348 Nottingham 510 398Bedford 447 355 Onley 504 580Belmarsh 857 732 Parc 927 828Birmingham 910 651 Parkhurst 515 482Blakenhurst 855 647 Pentonville 1,167 897Blantyre House 120 120 Portland 450 512Blundestone 421 380 Preston 633 342Brinsford 464 477 Ranby 757 679Bristol 602 488 Reading 265 195Brixton 760 609 Risley 833 800Bullingdon 914 767 Rochester 169 164Camp Hill 539 395 Rye Hill 658 600Canterbury 286 198 Shepton Mallet 180 189Cardiff 645 427 Shrewsbury 343 184Castington 329 400 Stafford 636 640Channings Wood 616 594 Standford Hill 373 384Chelmsford 564 442 Stocken 571 556Coldingley 377 378 Stoke Heath 652 572Dartmoor 622 621 Sudbury 507 511Deerbolt 478 472 Swaleside 777 747Doncaster 1,123 771 Swansea 361 219Dorchester 242 172 Swinfen Hall 306 311Dovegate 724 800 The Mount 750 704Dover 147 158 The Verne 583 552Durham 619 411 The Weare 394 400Elmley 934 763 The Wolds 409 360Erlestoke 327 326 Thorn Cross 200 316Everthorpe 374 362 Usk/Prescoed 331 250Exeter 500 311 Wakefield 571 571Featherstone 602 599 Wandsworth 1,443 1,124Feltham 666 712 Wayland 648 617Ford 529 533 Wealstun 622 632Forest Bank 981 800 Wellingborough 521 516Frankland 633 638 Werrington 130 117Full Sutton 597 595 Wetherby 333 360Garth 645 633 Whatton 276 280Gartree 283 282 Whitemoor 420 444Glen Parva 802 664 Winchester 533 371Gloucester 300 236 Woodhill 726 661Grendon/Spring Hill 453 497 Wormwood Scrubs 1,190 1,162Guys Marsh 514 487 Wymott 813 809Haslar 109 160Hatfield 170 180 All males 66,824 59,734Haverigg 559 554Hewell Grange 187 187 FemalesHighdown 738 649 Askham Grange 135 141Highpoint 604 586 Brockhill 161 164Hindley 516 539 Buckley Hall 203 350Hollesley Bay 418 462 Bullwood Hall 181 180Holme House 980 854 Cookham Wood 144 120Hull 663 466 Downview 245 292Huntercombe 346 344 Drake Hall 276 304Kingston (Portsmouth) 184 193 Durham 97 105Kirkham 528 561 East Sutton Park 95 94Kirklevington 181 183 Eastwood Park 322 295Lancaster 242 240 Exeter – 5Lancaster Farms 474 496 Foston Hall 207 214Latchmere House 188 192 Highpoint 270 298Leeds 1,253 806 Holloway 480 468Leicester 371 199 Low Newton 286 246Lewes 525 485 Morton Hall 188 192Leyhill 425 424 New Hall 348 327Lincoln 547 374 Send 215 220Lindholme 684 761 Styal 455 417Littlehey 653 624 Winchester 86 66Liverpool 1,473 1,204Long Lartin 440 441 All females 4,394 4,498Lowdham Grange 521 504Maidstone 448 382 All males and females 71,218 64,232 39
  • 50. Table 1.19 Prison population(1) — international comparison Rate(14) per Rate of 100,000 occupancy in % change population 2002 (per 100Country 2000 2001 2002 2001–2002 in 2002 places)European Union average(12) 5 92England & Wales(2) 65,666 67,056 71,324 6 137 111Northern Ireland 1,011 872 1,029 18 61 ..Scotland(3) 5,869 6,137 6,405 4 126 101Austria(4) 6,861 7,059 .. 3(14) 87(15) ..Belgium(3) 8,524 8,536 8,804 3 86 114Bulgaria 9,424 8,971 9,422 5 124 ..Cyprus 288 369 .. 28(14) 52(15) ..Czech Republic(5) 21,358 19,320 16,213 −16 158 92Denmark 3,240 3,105 3,404 10 63 94Estonia(6) 4,679 4,803 4,775 −1 351 97Finland(5) 2,887 3,110 3,469 12 67 105France(7) 48,835 47,005 53,463 14 87 112Germany(5) 70,252 70,203 70,977 1 86 90Greece 8,038 8,343 8,284 −1 76 148Hungary(5) 15,539 17,257 17,838 3 177 160Ireland (Eire) 2,887 3,019 3,028 – 78 86Italy(5) 54,479 55,743 .. 2(14) 96(15) ..Latvia .. 8,831 .. .. 370(15) ..Lithuania(6) 14,412 9,516 11,566 22 333 116Luxembourg 400 341 .. −15(14) 77(15) ..Malta 257 257 277 8 70 95Netherlands 13,847 14,968 16,239 8 101 96Norway(3) 2,548 2,634 2,762 5 61 ..Poland(2) 65,336 80,004 80,990 1 210 117Portugal 12,728 13,210 13,772 4 132 121Romania 49,682 50,307 .. 1(14) 225(15) ..Russia(5) 923,600 979,285 873,000 −11 602 95Slovakia 7,136 7,348 7,673 4 143 81Slovenia 1,136 1,155 1,121 −3 58 113Spain 45,309 46,594 50,537 8 126 ..Sweden(8) 5,678 6,089 6,506 7 73 ..Switzerland(9) 5,727 5,160 4,987 −3 68 76Turkey 49,512 55,609 .. 12(14) 84(15) ..Australia(10) 21,714 22,458 22,492 – 116 ..Canada(11) 31,608 31,547 .. –(14) 101(15) ..Japan(3) 58,747 63,415 67,354 6 53 107New Zealand(4) 5,720 5,887 5,738 −3 144 ..South Africa(3) 166,334 174,893 184,142 5 431 ..U.S.A.(10) 1,935,919 1,964,301 2,019,234 3 702 ..(1) At 1st September: number of prisoners including pre-trial detainees.(2) At 31st August.(3) Average daily population.(4) Annual averages.(5) At 31st December.(6) At 1st January.(7) Metropolitan and overseas department.(8) At 30th September.(9) At 21st March. From 2001, at 4th September.(10) At 30th June.(11) Average daily counts by financial year (e.g. 2000 = 1st April 2000 – 31st March 2001).(12) In calculating the EU average, all EU countries have been given equal weight.(13) Based on estimates of national population.(14) Percentage change 2000-2001.(15) In 2001.. . Data not available.Source: Statistical contacts in each country; World Prison Population Brief (International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College,London). 40
  • 51. CHAPTER 2 REMAND PRISONERSKey points ● The average remand population in custody in 2002 was 12,790, an increase of 14 per cent from 2001. Females accounted for 7 per cent of the average remand population. ● An average of 60 remand prisoners were held in police cells under Operation Safeguard in 2002; an average of 12,730 prisoners were held in Prison Service establishments. ● Untried prisoners in Prisoner Service establishments rose to 7,680 in 2002, from 6,920 in 2001. Receptions of untried prisoners rose by 10 per cent to 58,710 — females increased by 20 per cent. ● The percentage of untried prisoners in Prison Service establishments who were involved in proceedings at magistrates’ courts was 30 per cent, a smaller proportion than 2001 (which was 34 per cent). ● The estimated average time spent in custody in 2002 by male untried prisoners in Prison Service establishments was 49 days. Female untried prisoners spent an estimated average of 37 days in custody. ● An average of 5,050 previously convicted remand prisoners in Prison Service establishments were awaiting sentence in 2002, an increase of 17 per cent (or 730) since 2001. ● The total number of convicted unsentenced receptions into Prison Service establishments during 2002 was 53,300, 14 per cent higher than the previous year. Within this rise, the number of females received increased by 25 per cent and the number of males increased by 13 per cent. ● Of male prisoners received on remand, 50 per cent were subsequently received with a custodial sentence in 2002; for females the proportion was 41 per cent. Twenty-one per cent of males and 20 per cent of females remanded in custody were acquitted, or the proceedings were terminated early. 41
  • 52. Population (Table 2.1; Figure 2.1)2.1 The average remand population in custody in 2002 was 12,790, an increase of 14 per cent from 2001. The average female remand population in custody increased by 22 per cent between 2001 and 2002. Females accounted for 7.4 per cent of the remand population compared to 6.9 per cent in 2001 and 4 to 5 per cent in 1992 to 1996. An average of 60 remand prisoners were held in police cells under Operation Safeguard in 2002; an average of 12,730 prisoners were held in Prison Service establishments.2.2 The remainder of this chapter presents statistics based on those in Prison Service establishments and therefore excludes those held in police cells.2.3 The average population of untried prisoners was 7,680 in 2002, up 11 per cent from 6,920 in 2001. In 2002 untried prisoners accounted for 60 per cent of the remand population. This has fallen from 79 per cent in 1992. The percentage of untried prisoners who were involved in proceedings at magistrates’ courts was 30 per cent, a smaller proportion than in 2001 (which was 34 per cent).2.4 An average of 5,050 previously convicted remand prisoners were awaiting sentence in 2002, a rise of 740 from 2001. Of the 5,050, 9 per cent were females.2.5 The average age of the remand population on 30th June 2002 was 29 years. Twenty per cent of remand prisoners were under 21 years of age in 2002, broadly the same as in 2001. Further details of young remand prisoners are given in Chapter 3.Figure 2.1 AVERAGE POPULATION OF REMAND PRISONERS 1992-2002 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Untried Convicted unsentenced Police cellsAverage time spent in custody and number of receptions (Table 2.2; figure 2.2)2.6 The estimated average time spent in custody in 2002 by male untried prisoners was 49 days. Female untried prisoners spent an estimated average of 37 days in custody. The average population of untried males increased by 11 per cent over the year. The total number of untried receptions increased by 5,240 to 58,710. The number of male untried receptions during 2002 was 53,750, an increase of 9 per cent compared to 2001. Female untried receptions rose by 20 per cent and the average population of untried females increased by 15 per cent. 42
  • 53. Figure 2.2 RECEPTIONS OF UNTRIED AND CONVICTED UNSENTENCED PRISONERS 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Untried Convicted unsentenced2.7 Convicted unsentenced males spent an estimated average of 35 days in custody in 2002. Females spent an estimated average of 32 days in custody.2.8 The total number of convicted unsentenced receptions during 2002 was 53,300, 14 per cent higher than in 2001 and the highest level in the last decade. Within this rise, the number of females received increased by 25 per cent compared to an increase of 13 per cent in the number of males received.Length of time since first reception as a remand prisoner (Tables 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5)2.9 The untried population on 30th June 2002 was 7,900. Seven hundred and fifty prisoners (10 per cent) were first received on remand more than 6 months previously. Six hundred of the convicted unsentenced prison population on 30th June had been received on remand more than 6 months previously.2.10 Table 2.5 gives equivalent information for all remand prisoners, i.e. including both untried and convicted unsentenced prisoners. The time spent on remand by convicted unsentenced prisoners includes any time spent on remand as an untried prisoner.Remand disposals (Table 2.6)2.11 Of males received on remand, 50 per cent subsequently received a custodial sentence in 2002. For females the proportion was 41 per cent.2.12 Twenty-one per cent of males and 20 per cent of females remanded in custody were acquitted, or the proceedings were terminated early. Sixteen per cent of males and 22 per cent of females received a community sentence.Persons received with a custodial sentence previously remanded in custody (Table 2.7)2.13 Of those received under a custodial sentence, 50 per cent of males and 47 per cent of females had previously been remanded in custody. Prisoners with longer sentences were more likely to have been remanded in custody; 87 per cent of males sentenced to over 4 years were known to have been remanded in custody compared to 36 per cent of those sentenced to 3 months or less.2.14 The percentage previously held on remand also depends on the offence committed; 76 per cent of males sentenced for robbery offences, and 74 per cent sentenced for burglary offences were previously received on remand, compared with 38 per cent of those sentenced for fraud and forgery offences and 37 per cent for other offences. 43
  • 54. Remand population and receptions by offence (Tables 2.8 and 2.9; figures 2.3 and 2.4)2.15 The remand population, 13,080 on 30th June 2002, increased by 18 per cent compared with 30th June 2001. The numbers held on remand for robbery increased by 54 per cent whilst sex offences rose by 20 per cent. The number held on remand for drugs offences rose by 2 per cent.2.16 On 30th June 2002, 21 per cent of the male remand population (where the offence was known) were held for violence against the person, and 17 per cent were held for burglary. Thirty per cent of females were being held for theft and handling and 19 per cent for drug offences. Figures 2.3 and 2.4 show the remand population breakdown by offence and gender.2.17 Total remand receptions, as either an untried or convicted unsentenced prisoner, increased by 11 per cent between 2001 and 2002. Within this increase, receptions for robbery increased by 30 per cent, whereas receptions for drugs offences increased by just 2 per cent.Figure 2.3 POPULATION OF REMAND PRISONERS BY OFFENCE — MALES Theft 15% Robbery Fraud 12% 2% Drugs 12% Burglary 17% Other 16% Sexual 5% Violence against the person 21%Figure 2.4 POPULATION OF REMAND PRISONERS BY OFFENCE — FEMALES Other Violence against the person 14% 14% Sexual 0% Burglary 9% Drugs 19% Robbery 11% Fraud 3% Theft 30% 44
  • 55. Table 2.1 Average population of remand prisoners in custody: by type of committal, age and sexEngland and WalesMales and females Number of personsType of prisoner 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Males and Females All untried prisoners 7,386 7,960 9,046 8,352 8,375 8,453 8,156 7,947 7,097 6,924 7,685 in Prison Service establishments Involved in proceedings at Magistrates’ courts 3,463 3,958 4,297 4,223 4,663 4,726 4,532 4,324 3,741 2,343 2,324 Committed for trial to the Crown Court 3,910 3,966 4,706 4,085 3,654 3,686 3,580 3,579 3,298 4,523 5,299 Other untried prisoners 14 37 44 43 58 41 44 44 58 57 62 Convicted unsentenced prisoners in Prison Service establishments 1,989 2,700 3,181 2,954 3,238 3,678 4,411 4,571 4,177 4,314 5,049 All remand prisoners in Prison Service establishments 9,375 10,660 12,228 11,306 11,613 12,131 12,568 12,520 11,274 11,238 12,734 Aged 14–20(1) 2,551 2,716 2,993 2,789 2,941 2,978 2,936 2,930 2,607 2,347 2,552 Aged 21 and over 6,824 7,943 9,235 8,517 8,672 9,153 9,631 9,590 8,667 8,890 10,182 Remand prisoners in police cells 715 14 129 68 – – – – – – 58 All in custody(1) 10,090 10,674 12,357 11,375 11,613 12,131 12,568 12,520 11,274 11,238 12,792Males All untried prisoners in Prison Service establishments 7,122 7,675 8,696 8,008 8,004 8,057 7,730 7,513 6,701 6,494 7,189 Involved in proceedings at Magistrates’ courts 3,337 3,806 4,125 4,053 4,459 4,502 4,287 4,088 3,525 2,181 2,168 Committed for trial to the Crown Court 3,774 3,839 4,536 3,922 3,506 3,521 3,404 3,383 3,121 4,259 4,964 Other untried prisoners 12 31 36 33 39 34 39 42 55 53 57 Convicted unsentenced prisoners in Prison Service establishments 1,885 2,590 3,042 2,807 3,071 3,475 4,133 4,258 3,873 3,969 4,600 All remand prisoners in Prison Service establishments 9,007 10,265 11,738 10,815 11,075 11,532 11,864 11,772 10,574 10,462 11,789 Aged 14–20(1) 2,486 2,649 2,919 2,701 2,848 2,879 2,818 2,799 2,481 2,215 2,398 Aged 21 and over 6,521 7,616 8,819 8,114 8,227 8,653 9,045 8,973 8,093 8,247 9,391 Remand prisoners in police cells 700 14 129 68 – – – – – – 58 All in custody (1) 9,707 10,279 11,867 10,884 11,075 11,532 11,864 11,772 10,574 10,462 11,847(1) 14 year olds have not been in custody since October 1993. 45
  • 56. Table 2.1 (continued) Average population of remand prisoners in custody: by type of committal, age and sexEngland and WalesMales and females Number of personsType of prisoner 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Females All untried prisoners in Prison Service establishments 264 285 350 344 371 396 426 434 396 430 496 Involved in proceedings at Magistrate courts 126 152 172 170 204 224 245 236 216 162 156 Committed for trial to the Crown Court 136 127 170 163 148 165 176 196 177 264 335 Other untried prisoners 2 6 8 10 19 7 5 2 3 4 5 Convicted unsentenced prisoners in Prison Service establishments 104 110 139 147 167 203 278 313 304 345 449 All remand prisoners in Prison Service establishments 368 395 490 491 538 599 704 748 700 775 944 Aged 14–20(1) 65 67 74 88 93 99 118 131 126 132 154 Aged 21 and over 303 327 416 403 445 500 586 617 574 643 791 Remand prisoners in police cells 15 – – – – – – – – – 1 All in custody (1) 383 395 490 491 538 599 704 748 700 775 945(1) 14 year olds have not been in custody since October 1993. 46
  • 57. Table 2.2 Untried and convicted unsentenced prisoners in prison: average population, receptions(1) and estimated average time spent in custodyEngland and WalesMales and females Number of persons/daysType of prisoner 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Untried prisoners Males Average population 7,122 7,675 8,696 8,008 8,004 8,057 7,730 7,513 6,701 6,494 7,189 Receptions 47,501 50,918 54,157 52,347 55,545 58,092 60,157 59,985 50,866 49,345 53,754 Estimated average number of days in custody(2) 55 55 59 56 53 51 47 46 49 49 49 Females Average population 264 285 350 344 371 396 426 434 396 430 496 Receptions 2,368 2,647 2,922 2,940 3,343 3,974 4,540 4,587 4,026 4,122 4,954 Estimated average number of days in custody(2)(4) 41 39 44 43 41 36 34 35 36 39 37Convicted unsentenced prisoners Males Average population 1,885 2,590 3,042 2,807 3,071 3,475 4,133 4,258 3,873 3,969 4,600 Receptions 20,051 28,593 32,751 30,261 32,993 33,988 39,945 41,958 40,116 42,502 47,851 Estimated average number of days in custody(3) 34 33 34 34 34 37 38 37 35 34 35 Females Average population 104 110 139 147 167 203 278 313 304 345 449 Receptions 1,199 1,505 1,812 1,778 1,994 2,436 3,442 3,935 3,773 4,349 5,450 Estimated average number of days in custody(3)(4) 32 27 28 30 31 30 30 29 30 28 32(1) Total receptions cannot be calculated by adding together receptions in each category, because there is double counting (see paragraph 11 of Appendix 2).(2) Time spent in Prison Service establishments before conviction, acquittal etc.(3) Time spent in Prison Service establishments after conviction before being sentenced.(4) Averages are subject to wide variation because of the small population on which they are based. 47
  • 58. Table 2.3 Untried prisoners in prison by length of time since first reception(1)England and Wales, 30 JuneMales and females Number of persons(2)Length of time since first remand into a Prison Serviceestablishment 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All lengths 7,550 7,850 9,200 7,950 8,450 8,550 8,350 7,950 7,200 6,800 7,900 Less than 1 week 700 750 700 600 950 700 700 850 800 850 1,000 1 week 100 100 100 100 – 200 200 100 150 – – More than 1 week up to and including 1 month 1,500 1,800 1,850 1,900 1,900 2,000 1,900 2,050 2,050 1,800 1,900 More than 1 month up to and including 3 months 2,700 2,600 3,000 2,400 2,900 3,200 2,800 2,800 2,300 2,300 2,850 More than 3 months up to and including 6 months 1,500 1,700 2,050 1,650 1,500 1,400 1,500 1,400 1,200 1,200 1,400 More than 6 months up to and including 12 months 900 800 1,250 1,050 950 850 1,050 600 500 400 500 More than 12 months(3) 100 150 250 250 250 200 200 150 200 250 250(1) Time since first reception on remand into a Prison Service establishment. This includes any intervening time spent on bail, but excludes time spent in police cells beforehand.(2) Rounded estimates which therefore may not add to the totals.(3) These estimates are subject to a wider margin of error than those whose length of time since first reception is less than 12 months.Table 2.4 Convicted unsentenced prisoners in prison by length of time since first reception(1)England and Wales, 30 JuneMales and females Number of persons(2)Length of time since first remand into a Prison Serviceestablishment 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All lengths 2,000 2,800 3,300 3,100 3,150 3,550 4,550 4,650 4,200 4,300 5,200 Less than 1 week 150 200 250 250 300 250 300 400 500 550 600 1 week – 50 50 50 – 100 150 100 100 – – More than 1 week up to and including 1 month 400 750 850 850 750 900 1,150 1,250 1,250 1,400 1,500 More than 1 month up to and including 3 months 550 600 750 700 750 850 1,200 1,250 1,000 1,050 1,500 More than 3 months up to and including 6 months 550 650 750 700 800 850 950 1,050 850 750 950 More than 6 months up to and including 12 months 400 400 650 450 450 500 700 450 350 350 400 More than 12 months(3) – 100 – 100 100 100 100 150 150 200 200(1) Time since first reception on remand into a Prison Service establishment. This includes any intervening time spent on bail, but excludes time spent in police cells beforehand.(2) Rounded estimates which therefore may not add to the totals.(3) These estimates are subject to a wider margin of error than those whose length of time since first reception is less than 12 months. 48
  • 59. Table 2.5 All remand prisoners in prison by length of time since first reception(1)England and Wales, 30 JuneMales and females Number of persons(2)Length of time since first remand into a Prison Serviceestablishment 1999 2000 2001 2002All lengths 12,600 11,450 11,050 13,100 Less than 1 week 1,250 1,300 1,400 1,650 1 week 200 250 – – More than 1 week up to and including 1 month 3,300 3,350 3,200 3,400 More than 1 month up to and including 3 months 4,050 3,300 3,350 4,350 More than 3 months up to and including 6 months 2,450 2,100 1,950 2,350 More than 6 months up to and including 12 months 1,050 800 750 900 More than 12 months 300 350 400 450(1) Time since first reception on remand into a Prison Service establishment. This includes any intervening time spent on bail, but excludes time spent in police cells beforehand.(2) Rounded estimates which therefore may not add to the totals.(3) These estimates are subject to a wider margin of error than those whose length of time since first reception is less than 12 months.Table 2.6 Final court outcome for persons remanded in custody at some stage in magistrates’ court proceedings(1)England and Wales Estimated percentagesFinal court outcome (2) Males Females 2000 2001 2002 (p) 2000 2001 2002(p)Acquitted, etc 23 21 21 22 21 20Convicted(3): 77 78 79 78 78 80 Discharge 3 3 3 6 5 5 Fine 6 4 4 6 5 5 Community Sentence(4) 15 13 16 23 19 22 Fully suspended sentence – – – 1 – – Immediate custody(5) 48 51 50 36 42 41Total 100 100 100 100 100 100(1) Includes persons remanded in custody by magistrates during proceedings or on committal.(2) Includes estimated outcome at the Crown Court for those committed for trial or sentence.(3) Includes offences otherwise dealt with.(4) Includes community rehabilitation orders, supervision orders, community sentence orders, attendance centre orders, community punishment and rehabilitation orders, curfew orders, reparation orders (from June 2000), action plan orders (from June 2000) and drug treatment and testing orders (from October 2000).(5) Includes detention in a young offender institution, detention and training order and unsuspended imprisonment. 49
  • 60. Table 2.7 Receptions into prison under an immediate custodial sentence: proportion known to have been previously remanded in custody: by sex, offence and length of sentenceEngland and Wales 2002Males and females Percentage Length of Sentence Over Over 3 months Over 12 months Over Over All Up to and up to and 6 months up to and 18 months 4 years sentence including including less than including less than (includingOffence group lengths 3 months 6 months 12 months 12 months 18 months 4 years 4 years life)All males and females 50 36 41 48 46 57 71 78 87 All males 50 35 41 49 46 57 72 78 87 Violence against the person 46 34 35 34 34 47 62 71 89 Sexual offences 52 50 37 29 30 34 48 61 71 Burglary 74 69 61 62 61 71 87 91 96 Robbery 76 96 71 53 40 56 75 89 95 Theft and handling 52 40 53 62 59 75 84 93 96 Fraud and forgery 38 28 32 40 35 37 52 55 80 Drugs offences 64 53 46 41 45 44 64 78 88 Other offences 37 25 33 47 50 61 74 77 85 Offence not recorded 16 19 8 8 8 20 23 32 39 All females 47 38 42 46 44 50 64 80 86 50
  • 61. Table 2.8 Population of untried and convicted unsentenced prisoners in prison by offence and sexEngland and Wales, 30 JuneMales and females Number of persons 2001 2002 Convicted ConvictedOffence Untried unsentenced Total Untried unsentenced TotalMales and Females All offences 6,801 4,260 11,061 7,877 5,204 13,081 Violence against the person 1,587 561 2,148 1,843 700 2,543 Sexual offences 368 125 492 435 156 591 Burglary 981 720 1,702 1,091 910 2,001 Robbery 660 252 912 1,032 373 1,406 Theft and handling 573 1,112 1,685 672 1,290 1,962 Fraud and forgery 107 77 184 110 105 215 Drugs offences 1,036 471 1,507 993 542 1,534 Other offences 867 785 1,653 984 928 1,912 Offence not recorded 620 158 779 717 200 917Males All offences 6,351 3,937 10,288 7,351 4,732 12,083 Violence against the person 1,507 528 2,035 1,744 667 2,411 Sexual offences 365 125 489 434 153 588 Burglary 936 697 1,634 1,043 872 1,916 Robbery 627 240 867 953 349 1,302 Theft and handling 518 982 1,500 596 1,089 1,686 Fraud and forgery 95 72 167 104 87 191 Drugs offences 899 421 1,320 881 478 1,360 Other offences 811 728 1,540 925 857 1,783 Offence not recorded 591 144 736 669 178 846Females All offences 450 323 773 526 472 998 Violence against the person 80 33 113 98 33 131 Sexual offences 3 – 3 1 2 3 Burglary 45 23 68 47 38 85 Robbery 33 12 45 80 24 104 Theft and handling 55 130 185 76 201 277 Fraud and forgery 12 5 17 6 18 24 Drugs offences 137 50 187 111 63 174 Other offences 56 57 113 59 70 129 Offence not recorded 29 14 43 48 22 70 51
  • 62. Table 2.9 Receptions(1) of untried and convicted unsentenced prisoners into prison by offence and sexEngland and WalesMales and females Number of persons 2001(r) 2002 Convicted ConvictedOffence Untried Unsentenced Total Untried Unsentenced TotalMales and Females All offences 53,467 46,851 82,668 58,708 53,301 91,525 Violence against the person 9,641 5,138 12,274 10,708 5,948 13,850 Sexual offences 1,847 963 2,363 2,154 1,098 2,727 Burglary 8,801 6,698 12,036 9,422 7,756 13,352 Robbery 3,790 2,162 4,652 5,009 2,988 6,029 Theft and handling 11,305 15,130 22,264 11,995 16,556 23,859 Fraud and forgery 1,208 1,056 1,873 1,294 1,289 2,150 Drugs offences 5,577 3,697 7,521 5,418 4,111 7,671 Other offences 10,576 11,262 18,358 11,738 12,604 20,171 Offence not recorded 722 745 1,327 970 951 1,716Males All offences 49,345 42,502 75,477 53,754 47,851 82,835 Violence against the person 9,090 4,790 11,520 10,092 5,553 12,990 Sexual offences 1,836 958 2,348 2,142 1,090 2,711 Burglary 8,454 6,515 11,611 8,988 7,437 12,768 Robbery 3,563 2,037 4,374 4,618 2,747 5,560 Theft and handling 10,004 12,942 19,232 10,446 13,926 20,258 Fraud and forgery 1,044 895 1,594 1,087 1,061 1,787 Drugs offences 4,833 3,227 6,529 4,701 3,622 6,693 Other offences 9,914 10,501 17,153 10,891 11,616 18,661 Offence not recorded 607 637 1,116 789 799 1,407Females All offences 4,122 4,349 7,191 4,954 5,450 8,690 Violence against the person 551 348 754 616 395 860 Sexual offences 11 5 15 12 8 16 Burglary 347 183 425 434 319 584 Robbery 227 125 278 391 241 469 Theft and handling 1,301 2,188 3,032 1,549 2,630 3,601 Fraud and forgery 164 161 279 207 228 363 Drugs offences 744 470 992 717 489 978 Other offences 662 761 1,205 847 988 1,510 Offence not recorded 115 108 211 181 152 309(1) Total receptions cannot be calculated by adding together receptions in each category, because there is double counting (see paragraph 11 of Appendix 2). 52
  • 63. CHAPTER 3 YOUNG PEOPLEKey PointsYoung People ● The total prison population of young people on 30th June 2002 was 11,610, an increase of 5 per cent from 2001. The remand population increased by 16 per cent between 2001 and 2002, whereas the sentenced population increased by just 2 per cent. ● 20,240 young offenders were received into Prison Service establishments under an immediate custodial sentence in 2002. 18,900 of these were male and 1,330 were female. This total represents a decrease of 3 per cent compared to 2001. A further 110 young offenders were received as fine defaulters in 2002. ● The average time served by male young offenders discharged in 2002 was 5.8 months, including remand time, or 4.7 months excluding remand time. For females it was 4.5 months, including remand time, or 3.9 months excluding remand time.Juveniles ● The total juvenile prison population on 30th June 2002 was 2,610, an increase of 7 per cent from 2001. The juvenile population under sentence was 2,080; 1,980 of these were male and 100 were female. ● 5,740 juveniles were received into Prison Service establishments under an immediate custodial sentence in 2002. Of these, 5,390 were male and 350 were female. The total represents a decrease of 3 per cent compared to 2001.18-20 Year Olds(1) ● The total prison population aged 18 to 20 on 30th June 2002 was 9,000, an increase of 5 per cent from 2001. Of these, 2,170 were on remand and 6,770 were under sentence. ● 14,500 18-20 year olds were received into Prison Service establishments under an immediate custodial sentence in 2002. 13,510 of these were male and 990 were female. The total represents a decrease of 4 per cent compared to 2001.(1) Includes 21 year olds who were aged 20 or under at conviction who have not been reclassified as part of the adult population. 53
  • 64. Introduction3.1 Young offenders are those given a custodial sentence when aged under 21 who have not subsequently been reclassified as adults. Their treatment was heavily influenced by legislative and administrative changes over the last 10 years. ● In October 1992, under the Criminal Justice Act 1991, 17 year olds were brought within the jurisdiction of the juvenile court (renamed the youth court) and the sentence of detention in a young offenders institution for 14 year old males was abolished. ● The 1994 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act influenced the sentencing of young offenders in 1995. ● From 9th January 1995 the provisions of section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 for 10 to 13 year olds were extended, but this had only a minor effect on the figures for 1995. ● Of greater effect was the provision of the 1994 Act that increased the maximum sentence length of Detention in a Young Offenders Institution for 15 to 17 year olds from 1 to 2 years, which came into effect from 3rd February 1995. ● From 1st April 2000 the Detention and Training Order, under the Crime & Disorder Act 1998 replaced the sentence of Detention in a Young Offenders Institution for those under 18. ● In August 2000 sections 90-92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 replaced sections 53(1) & 53(2) of the Children and Young Person Act 1933.3.2 Some young offenders are held outside Prison Service establishments that are not in the scope of this publication. Secure Training Centres (STCs) are purpose-built centres for Young Offenders up to the age of 17, and are run by private operators according to Home Office contracts. Local Authority Secure Children’s Homes (LASCHs) are generally used to accommodate young offenders aged 12-14, girls up to the age of 16 and 15-16 year old boys who are assessed as vulnerable.Young PeoplePopulation (Tables 3.1-3.7; figure 3.1)3.3 The total prison population of young people on 30th June 2002 was 11,610, an increase of 5 per cent from 2001. Of these, 2,690 were on remand and 8,860 were under sentence. The remand population increased by 16 per cent between 2001 and 2002, whereas the sentenced population increased by just 2 per cent. The sentenced population of young offenders represents 76 per cent of the young offender population.3.4 Of the 8,860 sentenced young offenders, there were 8,370 sentenced young males, an increase of 1 per cent from 2001 and an increase of 54 per cent from 1992. In comparison, the female sentenced young offender population of 490 increased by 25 per cent compared to 2001 and by 250 per cent compared to 1992. 54
  • 65. Figure 3.1 PRISON POPULATION OF SENTENCED YOUNG OFFENDERS ON 30 JUNE 1992 – 2002: BY SEX 9,000 8,000 Number of persons 7,000 6,000 5,000 Males 4,000 Females 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year3.5 At June 2002, 23 per cent of male young offenders were sentenced for robbery, 20 per cent for burglary, 20 per cent for violence against the person and 11 per cent for theft and handling/fraud and forgery. It may be unsafe to analyse changes over time by type of offence because of differences in the proportion of offences where the nature of the offence was not recorded. Nevertheless general trends can be seen. The main increase over the last decade has been in the proportion of male young offenders serving sentences for robbery (up from 18 per cent to 23 per cent). In contrast, the proportion sentenced for burglary fell, from 31 per cent to 20 per cent. The proportions for female young offenders vary considerably from year to year as they are based on small numbers. In mid-2002, drugs offences accounted for 23 per cent of the sentenced population, violence against the person 21 per cent, robbery 18 per cent and theft and handling 17 per cent.3.6 Estimates based on a sample of the prison population show that 17 per cent of male sentenced young offenders were known to have no previous convictions in 2001, the latest year for which data are available. This compares to 15 per cent of sentenced adult males. In contrast, 21 per cent of male young offenders had 7 or more previous convictions compared to 47 per cent of adult males. Information was missing for 15 per cent of male young offenders.3.7 At June 2002, 44 per cent of sentenced young offenders were serving sentences of up to 18 months, 28 per cent were serving sentences of over 18 months to 3 years and 28 per cent were serving sentences of longer than 3 years. These proportions are similar to those of the past decade. 55
  • 66. Figure 3.2 MALE YOUNG OFFENDER PRISON POPULATION UNDER SENTENCE ON 30 JUNE 2002 BY OFFENCE GROUP Other offences 15% Violence against the person 20% Drugs offences 6% Fraud and forgery Sexual offences 0% 3% Theft and handling 11% Burglary 20% Robbery 23%Figure 3.3 FEMALE YOUNG OFFENDER PRISON POPULATION UNDER SENTENCE ON 30 JUNE 2002 BY OFFENCE GROUP Other offences 10% Violence against the person 21% Drugs offences 23% Sexual offences 0% Burglary 10% Fraud and forgery 1% Theft and handling Robbery 17% 18%Receptions (Tables 3.8-3.12; figure 3.4)3.8 In 2002, 20,240 young offenders were received into Prison Service establishments under an immediate custodial sentence, a decrease of 730, or 3 per cent, compared to 2001. 18,900 of these receptions were male (800 less than in 2001) and 1,330 were female (60 more than in 2001). A further 110 young people were received into Prison Service establishments in default of paying a fine, a decrease of 20 per cent compared to the number of fine defaulters received in 2001. 56
  • 67. Figure 3.4 RECEPTIONS OF SENTENCED YOUNG OFFENDERS UNDER AN IMMEDIATE CUSTODIAL SENTENCE, 1992-2002 25,000 20,000Number of Persons 15,000 Males 10,000 Females 5,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year3.9 In 2002, 81 per cent of male young offenders were received with sentences of up to 18 months, 12 per cent with sentences of 18 months to 3 years and 7 per cent for those with sentences of more than 3 years. Similarly, 83 per cent of female young offenders were received with sentences of up to 18 months, 10 per cent for sentences of 18 months to 3 years and 6 per cent for those with sentences of more than 3 years. These proportions are similar to those of the past decade.3.10 In 2002, 20,690 young people were received on remand and 20,350 were received under sentence. In comparison to last year, the remand figure has increased by 4 per cent, however the sentenced figure has decreased by 4 per cent.3.11 In 2002, 21 per cent of young males were received into prison under an immediate custodial sentence for theft and handling offences, 17 per cent for violence against the person, 14 per cent for burglary and 11 per cent for robbery. The main increase over the decade has been in the proportion of young males received for other offences (up from 21 per cent to 31 per cent) and the main decrease has been for those received for burglary offences (down from 31 per cent to 14 per cent). Among females, 31 per cent were received for theft and handling, 18 per cent for violence against the person, 11 per cent for robbery and 11 per cent for drugs offences.Discharges3.12 In 2002, the average sentence length for those discharged was 11.5 months for males and 9.7 for females compared with 11.2 and 8.7 months in 2001. The average time served under determinate sentences was 5.8 months for males, including remand time or 4.7 months excluding remand time. It was 4.5 months for females, including remand time and 3.9 excluding remand time.JuvenilesPopulation (Tables 3.1a, 3.2-3.4; figure 3.5)3.13 The total juvenile prison population on 30th June 2002 was 2,610, an increase of 7 per cent from 2001. Of these, 520 were on remand and 2,080 were under sentence. The sentenced population of juvenile offenders therefore represents 80 per cent of the juvenile population. This is around the same proportion as 2001, but has increased from 1995 when the sentenced population represented 59 per cent of the total juvenile population. 57
  • 68. 3.14 Of the 2,080 sentenced juveniles in Prison Service establishments at 30th June 2002, there were 1,980 sentenced males and 100 sentenced females. Amongst males, 67 per cent were serving sentences of 18 months or less, while 20 per cent were serving over 18 months to 3 years and 13 per cent were serving over 3 years. In comparison, 68 per cent of the female sentenced population were serving 18 months or less, with 23 per cent serving over 18 months to 3 years and 8 per cent serving over 3 years.3.15 Excluding offences not recorded, the main offence groups for the juvenile male sentenced population in June 2002 were robbery (26 per cent), burglary (21 per cent) and violence against the person (18 per cent). In contrast, in the female sentenced population the main offence groups were violence against the person (29 per cent), theft and handling (20 per cent) and robbery (19 per cent).Figure 3.5 JUVENILE POPULATION IN PRISON UNDER SENTENCE BY OFFENCE GROUP AND LENGTH OF SENTENCE, 30 JUNE 2002 Robbery Burglary Violence against the person Theft & handling Other offences Sexual Drugs Fraud & forgery 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Less than 18 months 18 months under 3 years 3 years and over incl. LifeReceptions (Tables 3.8-3.11)3.16 In 2002, 5,740 juveniles were received into Prison Service establishments under an immediate custodial sentence, a decrease of 170, or 3 per cent, compared to 2001. Of these, 5,390 were male (210 less than in 2001) and 350 were female (41 more than in 2001). Over the course of the last decade, male sentenced receptions have increased by 61 per cent (from 3,340 in 1992), whereas female sentenced receptions have increased by 338 per cent over the same period (80 in 1992).3.17 The main offence group of males received in 2002, excluding instances where the offence was not recorded, was other offences, accounting for 25 per cent. Theft and handling accounted for 20 per cent, with violence against the person, burglary and robbery accounting for 17 per cent each. The main changes over the last decade have been in burglary (down from 34 per cent), robbery and other offences (up from 10 per cent and 18 per cent respectively).3.18 The main offences for juvenile females in 2002, excluding offence not recorded, were violence against the person (27 per cent), theft and handling (22 per cent) and robbery (21 per cent). However, as the numbers are small, any further analysis would be misleading.18-20 Year Olds(1)Population (Tables 3.1b, 3.2; figure 3.6)3.19 The total prison population aged 18 to 20 on 30th June 2002 was 9,000, an increase of 5 per cent compared to 2001. Of these, 2,170 were on remand and 6,770 were under sentence. The sentenced population of 18 to 20 year old offenders therefore represents 75 per cent of the population for that age group.(1) Includes 21 year olds who were aged 20 or under at conviction who have not been reclassified as part of the adult population. 58
  • 69. 3.20 Of the 6,770 sentenced 18-20 year olds, there were 6,390 sentenced males and 380 sentenced females. Amongst males, 36 per cent were serving sentences of 18 months or less, whilst 31 per cent were serving over 18 months to 3 years and 33 per cent were serving over 3 years. In comparison, 45 per cent of the female sentenced population were serving 18 months or less, with 28 per cent serving over 18 months to 3 years and 27 per cent serving over 3 years.3.21 Excluding offences not recorded, the main offence groups for the 18 to 20 male sentenced population in June 2002 were robbery (22 per cent), violence against the person (21 per cent) and burglary (20 percent). In contrast, in the female sentenced population the main offence groups were drugs offences (27 per cent), violence against the person (19 per cent) and robbery (18 per cent).Figure 3.6 POPULATION OF 18-20 YEAR OLDS IN PRISON UNDER SENTENCE BY OFFENCE GROUP AND LENGTH OF SENTENCE, 30 JUNE 2002 Robbery Violence against the person Burglary Other offences Theft & handling Drugs Sexual Fraud & forgery 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 Less than 18 months 18 months under 3 years 3 years and over incl. LifeReceptions (Tables 3.8-3.11)3.22 In 2002, 14,500 young persons aged 18 to 20 were received into Prison Service establishments under an immediate custodial sentence, a decrease of 570, or 4 per cent, compared to 2001. Of these, 13,510 were male (590 less than in 2001) and 990 were female (21 more than in 2001). Over the course of the last decade, male sentenced receptions have increased by 42 per cent (from 9,490 in 1992), whereas female sentenced receptions have increased by 272 per cent over the same period (270 in 1992).3.23 The main offence group of males received in 2002, excluding instances where the offence was not recorded, was other offences, accounting for 34 per cent. Theft and handling accounted for 21 per cent, with violence against the person accounting for 17 per cent. The main changes over the last decade have been in burglary (down from 30 per cent to 13 per cent) and other offences (up from 22 per cent to 34 per cent).3.24 The main offences for 18 to 20 year old females in 2002, excluding offence not recorded, were theft and handling (34 per cent), other offences (20 per cent) and violence against the person (15 per cent). These proportions are similar to those of a decade ago, with the most significant change being in violence against the person, which decreased from 18 per cent in 1992 to 15 per cent in 2002. 59
  • 70. Table 3.1 Population in prison under sentence by type of custody, sex, offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Young offenders(1) Number of persons All Powers of Criminal custody Detention in a Young Offender Institution/Detention and Training order(3) Courts (Sentencing) types All Length of sentence Act 2000(2)Offence group sentence Over 3 Over 6 12 Over 12 Over 18 Over 3 4 years Over 4 Over 5 Over 10 Custody Section Section lengths Up to months months months months months years less years years years less for life 90 91 3 months less than less than up to up to than 4 up to up to than life Life 6 months 12 18 3 years years 5 years 10 years months monthsAll males and females 8,855 8,695 342 1,024 733 637 1,131 2,489 648 526 603 535 26 40 88 32All males 8,368 8,221 310 964 680 601 1,067 2,358 626 501 583 505 23 37 82 28Offences with immediate custodial sentence 8,368 8,221 310 964 680 601 1,067 2,358 626 501 583 505 23 37 82 28 Violence against the person 1,655 1,531 47 153 114 112 185 367 103 130 159 155 5 32 80 12 Rape 170 155 1 – – – 1 19 7 17 29 72 9 4 1 9 Other sexual offences 99 99 – 7 5 9 13 40 4 10 8 4 – – – – Burglary 1,650 1,650 25 126 140 149 280 662 120 50 71 28 – – – – Robbery 1,878 1,871 32 36 47 100 177 625 253 207 215 176 3 1 1 5 Theft and handling 891 891 83 259 157 71 125 151 21 6 8 12 – – – – Fraud and forgery 31 31 3 10 6 – 2 9 1 – – – – – – – Drugs offences 527 527 6 19 22 27 57 203 64 50 44 32 2 – – – Other offences 1,212 1,211 104 327 152 97 189 217 36 22 39 22 4 – – 1 Offence not recorded 255 255 9 27 39 38 38 65 18 8 9 4 – – – –In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –All females 487 474 32 60 52 36 64 131 22 24 20 30 3 3 6 4Offences with immediate custodial sentence 487 474 32 60 52 36 64 131 22 24 20 30 3 3 6 4 Violence against the person 100 89 5 8 11 13 9 24 1 7 5 5 – 3 6 2 Rape 1 1 – – – – – – – – – 1 – – – – Other sexual offences – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Burglary 47 47 1 2 9 7 12 11 4 – – 1 – – – – Robbery 87 87 – 2 4 3 12 49 6 6 3 1 – – – – Theft and handling 79 79 17 32 19 2 5 5 – – – – – – – – Fraud and forgery 4 4 – 1 – 1 2 – – – – – – – – – Drugs offences 109 109 1 6 4 3 15 28 11 8 11 20 2 – – – Other offences 47 45 7 8 5 4 7 10 – 2 1 – 1 – – 2 Offence not recorded 13 13 1 2 1 3 2 3 – – – 1 – – – –In default of payment of fine – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –(1) Includes young offenders aged 20 at conviction, who have not been reclassified as part of the adult population.(2) Section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 was repealed on 25th August 2000 and its provisions were transferred to Sections 90, 91 and 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000.(3) Includes those sentenced to determinate sentences under section 91 of the Powers of Criminal Court (Sentencing) Act 2000. 60
  • 71. Table 3.1a Juvenile population in prison under sentence by type of custody, sex, offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Juveniles Number of persons All Powers of Criminal custody Detention and Training Order/Determinate sentences under S91 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 Courts (Sentencing) types All Length of sentence Act 2000(1)Offence group sentence Over 3 Over 6 12 Over 12 Over 18 Over 3 4 years Over 4 Over 5 Over 10 Custody Section Section lengths Up to months months months months months years less years years years less for life 90 91 3 months up to and less than up to up to than up to up to than life Life including 12 18 3 years 4 years 5 years 10 years 6 months months monthsAll males and females 2,084 2,054 21 416 294 291 383 413 73 72 56 35 – – 16 14All males 1,980 1,952 20 396 274 277 368 389 71 68 54 35 – – 16 12Offences with immediate custodial sentence 1,980 1,952 20 396 274 277 368 389 71 68 54 35 – – 16 12 Violence against the person 336 314 2 66 50 43 44 52 11 16 16 13 – – 15 7 Rape 29 26 – – – – 1 6 2 5 4 8 – – – 3 Other sexual offences 29 29 – 2 2 5 4 8 2 3 3 – – – – – Burglary 395 395 1 71 60 80 92 74 7 5 4 2 – – – – Robbery 500 497 6 21 29 65 105 177 37 29 18 11 – – 1 2 Theft and handling 299 299 1 121 67 38 45 25 1 – – – – – – – Fraud and forgery 3 3 – 3 – – – – – – – – – – – – Drugs offences 43 43 1 3 4 4 13 9 4 4 1 – – – – – Other offences 275 275 9 101 50 33 54 19 2 3 4 – – – – – Offence not recorded 72 72 – 8 11 10 11 20 5 2 4 1 – – – –In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –All females 104 102 1 21 20 14 15 24 2 4 1 – – – – 2Offences with immediate custodial sentence 104 102 1 21 20 14 15 24 2 4 1 – – – – 2 Violence against the person 28 26 – 2 7 4 2 7 1 2 1 – – – – 2 Rape – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Other sexual offences – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Burglary 9 9 – 1 4 1 1 2 – – – – – – – – Robbery 19 19 – – – 2 6 9 1 1 – – – – – – Theft and handling 20 20 – 12 5 1 2 – – – – – – – – – Fraud and forgery 2 2 – – – 1 1 – – – – – – – – – Drugs offences 8 8 – 3 2 – – 3 – – – – – – – – Other offences 12 12 1 2 1 3 3 1 – 1 – – – – – – Offence not recorded 6 6 – 1 1 2 – 2 – – – – – – – –In default of payment of fine – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –(1) Section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 was repealed on 25th August 2000 and its provisions were transferred to Sections 90, 91 and 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000. 61
  • 72. Table 3.1b Population of 18-20(1) year olds in prison under sentence by type of custody, sex, offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 200218 to 20 year olds(1) Number of persons All Detention in a Young Offender Institution/Determinate sentences under S91 of the Powers of Criminal Courts Powers of Criminal custody (Sentencing) Act 2000 Courts (Sentencing) typesOffence group All Length of sentence Act 2000(2) sentence Over 3 Over 6 12 Over 12 Over 18 Over 3 4 years Over 4 Over 5 Over 10 Custody Section Section lengths Up to months months months months months years less years years years less for life 90 91 3 months up to and less than up to up to than up to up to than life Life including 12 18 3 years 4 years 5 years 10 years 6 months months monthsAll males and females 6,771 6,641 321 608 439 346 748 2,076 576 454 548 500 26 40 72 18All males 6,388 6,269 290 568 406 324 699 1,969 555 434 529 470 23 37 66 16Offences with immediate custodial sentence 6,388 6,269 290 568 406 324 699 1,969 555 434 529 470 23 37 66 16 Violence against the person 1,319 1,217 46 86 64 69 142 315 92 114 143 142 5 32 65 5 Rape 141 129 1 – – – – 13 5 12 25 64 9 4 1 6 Other sexual offences 71 71 – 5 3 4 9 32 2 7 5 4 – – – – Burglary 1,255 1,255 24 55 80 69 188 588 113 45 67 26 – – – – Robbery 1,377 1,373 27 15 18 35 72 449 216 178 197 164 3 1 – 3 Theft and handling 593 593 82 138 89 33 80 126 20 6 8 12 – – – – Fraud and forgery 28 28 3 8 6 – 2 9 1 – – – – – – – Drugs offences 484 484 5 16 18 23 44 194 60 46 43 32 2 – – – Other offences 937 936 95 227 102 64 136 198 34 19 35 22 4 – – 1 Offence not recorded 183 183 9 19 28 28 27 45 13 6 5 3 – – – –In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –All females 383 372 31 39 33 22 49 106 20 20 19 30 3 3 6 2Offences with immediate custodial sentence 383 372 31 39 33 22 49 106 20 20 19 30 3 3 6 2 Violence against the person 72 63 5 6 4 9 7 17 – 5 4 5 – 3 6 – Rape 1 1 – – – – – – – – – 1 – – – – Other sexual offences – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Burglary 38 38 1 1 5 6 11 9 4 – – 1 – – – – Robbery 68 68 – 2 4 1 6 40 5 5 3 1 – – – – Theft and handling 59 59 17 20 14 1 3 5 – – – – – – – – Fraud and forgery 2 2 – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – – – – Drugs offences 101 101 1 3 2 3 15 25 11 8 11 20 2 – – – Other offences 35 33 6 6 4 1 4 9 – 1 1 – 1 – – 2 Offence not recorded 7 7 1 1 – 1 2 1 – – – 1 – – – –In default of payment of fine – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –(1) Includes young offenders aged 20 at conviction, who have not been reclassified as part of the adult population.(2) Section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 was repealed on 25th August 2000 and its provisions were transferred to Sections 90, 91 and 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000. 62
  • 73. Table 3.2 Population of young people in prison by sex, age and type of custodyEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Young offenders Number of persons All Type of custody custody types Detention in Section 90-92 In default Non Untried ConvictedSex and age a Young of the Powers of payment criminal unsentenced Offender of Criminal of a fine Institution/ Courts Detention (Sentencing) and Training Act 2000, and order custody for lifeAll males and females 11,610 7,863 992 – 64 1,535 1,156All males 10,951 7,421 947 – 58 1,446 1,079Aged 15-17 2,490 1,561 419 – 2 316 191 Aged 15 302 215 28 – – 33 26 Aged 16 753 484 115 – – 99 55 Aged 17 1,434 863 276 – 2 183 110 Aged 18-20(1) 8,461 5,860 528 – 56 1,130 888 Aged 18 2,065 1,175 270 – 6 345 269 Aged 19 2,717 1,902 134 – 17 363 301 Aged 20 3,091 2,232 86 – 32 423 318 Aged 21 589 551 38 – – – –All females 659 442 45 – 6 89 77 Aged 15-17 117 85 19 – – 5 7 Aged 15 9 7 2 – – – – Aged 16 27 22 5 – – – – Aged 17 81 56 12 – – 5 7Aged 18-20 542 357 26 – 6 84 70 Aged 18 142 85 13 – 2 21 21 Aged 19 170 113 6 – 2 26 24 Aged 20 201 135 3 – 2 37 25 Aged 21 29 24 5 – – – –(1) Includes young offenders aged 20 at conviction, who have not been reclassified as part of the adult population. 63
  • 74. Table 3.3 Population of prisoners aged 17 and under held in prison under sentence by sex, offence group and type of custodyEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Juveniles Number of persons Type of custodySex and offence All custody Detention and Section 90-92 types Training order of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000All juveniles(1) 2,084 1,646 438All males 1,980 1,561 419 Violence against the person 336 234 102 Rape 28 2 26 Other Sexual offences 28 17 12 Burglary 395 346 49 Robbery 495 316 179 Theft and handling 303 300 3 Fraud and forgery 3 3 – Drugs Offences 42 31 11 Other offences 278 263 16 Offence not recorded 72 50 22All females 104 85 19 Violence against the person 27 19 8 Rape – – – Other Sexual offences – – – Burglary 9 8 1 Robbery 19 14 5 Theft and handling 20 20 – Fraud and forgery 2 2 – Drugs Offences 8 6 2 Other offences 12 10 2 Offence not recorded 6 6 –(1) Juveniles are inmates aged under 18. 64
  • 75. Table 3.4 Population of prisoners aged 17 and under held in prison by type of custody and sexEngland and Wales, 30 JuneJuveniles(1) Number of persons 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Male juvenilesAged 15Total 181 217 254 244 218 283 300 302Untried 34 35 46 48 29 35 41 33Convicted unsentenced 20 39 28 38 15 16 7 26Detention and Training Order 115 129 140 139 145 201 224 215Sections 90 - 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 12 14 40 19 29 31 28 28Aged 16Total 453 582 643 675 639 664 704 753Untried 104 133 114 100 106 82 69 99Convicted unsentenced 51 64 57 83 49 32 29 55Detention and Training Order 256 309 354 373 396 438 517 484Sections 90 - 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 42 76 118 119 88 112 89 115Aged 17Total 992 1,225 1,511 1,468 1,479 1,398 1,340 1,434Untried 260 304 297 286 285 242 182 183Convicted unsentenced 200 187 246 205 209 147 105 110Detention and Training Order 390 580 713 709 736 789 850 863Sections 90-92 of the Powers ofCriminal Courts (Sentencing) Act2000 142 154 255 268 249 220 203 276In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – –Aged 15 to 17Total 1,626 2,024 2,408 2,387 2,336 2,345 2,344 2,490Untried 398 472 457 434 420 359 292 316Convicted unsentenced 271 290 331 326 273 195 141 191Detention and Training Order 761 1,018 1,207 1,221 1,277 1,428 1,591 1,561Sections 90 - 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 196 244 413 406 366 363 320 419In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – –Female juvenilesAged 15Total 1 7 9 7 7 3 7 9Untried – – – – – – – –Convicted unsentenced – – – – – – – –Detention and Training Order 1 7 7 7 7 3 7 7Sections 90 - 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 – – 2 – – – – 2Aged 16Total 13 17 12 20 22 28 12 27Untried – – – – – – – –Convicted unsentenced 1 – – – – – – –Detention and Training Order 8 16 12 20 22 26 12 22Sections 90 - 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 4 1 – – – 2 – 5Aged 17Total 35 45 50 52 57 58 71 81Untried 11 8 11 8 13 13 13 5Convicted unsentenced 6 4 7 9 6 7 12 7Detention and Training Order 16 32 29 30 32 36 38 56Sections 90 - 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 2 1 3 5 6 2 8 12In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – –Aged 15 to 17Total 49 69 71 79 86 89 90 117Untried 11 8 11 8 13 13 13 5Convicted unsentenced 7 4 7 9 6 7 12 7Detention and Training Order 25 55 48 57 61 65 57 85Sections 90 - 92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 6 2 5 5 6 4 8 19In default of payment of a fine – – – – – – – –(1) Juveniles are inmates aged under 18. 65
  • 76. Table 3.5 Population in prison under sentence by sex and offence groupEngland and Wales, 30 JuneYoung offenders Number of personsOffence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All males and females 5,572 5,081 5,276 5,842 6,615 7,949 8,521 8,343 8,537 8,706 8,855All males 5,443 4,925 5,137 5,659 6,363 7,698 8,212 8,025 8,160 8,315 8,368Offences with immediate custodial sentence 5,354 4,830 5,064 5,587 6,349 7,684 8,201 8,012 8,153 8,313 8,368 Violence against the person 715 838 846 983 1,114 1,254 1,414 1,502 1,445 1,633 1,655 Rape 118 91 89 89 101 126 142 148 159 151 170 Other sexual offences 43 58 40 51 51 34 80 88 79 71 99 Burglary 1,360 1,217 1,356 1,462 1,657 2,018 2,143 2,102 1,995 1,666 1,650 Robbery 797 854 828 978 1,245 1,663 1,847 1,739 1,557 1,776 1,878 Theft and handling 524 587 641 716 697 744 764 828 1,109 1,047 891 Fraud and forgery 19 10 10 16 20 26 33 32 37 39 31 Drugs offences 123 161 136 199 304 385 421 437 485 509 527 Other offences 640 566 606 667 715 860 908 915 1,081 1,181 1,212 Offence not recorded 1,015 448 512 426 445 574 449 221 207 240 255In default of payment of a fine 79 95 73 72 14 14 11 13 7 2 – Percentage(1) Violence against the person 16.5 19.1 18.6 19.0 18.9 17.6 18.2 19.3 18.2 20.2 20.4 Rape 2.7 2.1 2.0 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.1 Other sexual offences 1.0 1.3 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.5 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 Burglary 31.3 27.8 29.8 28.3 28.1 28.4 27.6 27.0 25.1 20.6 20.3 Robbery 18.4 19.5 18.2 18.9 21.1 23.4 23.8 22.3 19.6 22.0 23.1 Theft and handling 12.1 13.4 14.1 13.9 11.8 10.5 9.9 10.6 14.0 13.0 11.0 Fraud and forgery 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 Drugs offences 2.8 3.7 3.0 3.9 5.1 5.4 5.4 5.6 6.1 6.3 6.5 Other offences 14.7 12.9 13.3 12.9 12.1 12.1 11.7 11.7 13.6 14.6 14.9 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100All females 139 156 139 183 252 251 309 318 377 391 487Offences with immediate custodial sentence 136 150 138 180 251 250 309 317 377 391 487 Violence against the person 26 38 39 39 67 61 61 81 78 85 100 Rape – – – – 1 1 1 – – 1 1 Other sexual offences 1 1 – 3 1 – 1 2 2 1 – Burglary 11 12 9 14 28 17 26 38 40 40 47 Robbery 19 22 23 36 45 68 73 42 60 67 87 Theft and handling 18 18 17 22 34 26 42 48 71 62 79 Fraud and forgery 1 3 – 1 2 2 6 – 4 3 4 Drugs offences 14 18 13 36 35 47 51 60 78 83 109 Other offences 15 23 24 15 28 20 32 31 35 37 47 Offence not recorded 31 15 13 14 10 8 16 15 9 12 13In default of payment of a fine 3 6 1 3 1 1 – 1 – – – Percentage(1) Violence against the person 24.8 28.1 31.2 23.5 27.8 25.2 20.8 26.8 21.2 22.4 21.1 Rape – – – – 0.4 0.4 0.3 – 0.0 0.3 0.2 Other sexual offences 1.0 0.7 – 1.8 0.4 – 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.0 Burglary 10.5 8.9 7.2 8.4 11.6 7.0 8.9 12.6 10.9 10.6 9.9 Robbery 18.1 16.3 18.4 21.7 18.7 28.1 24.9 13.9 16.3 17.7 18.3 Theft and handling 17.1 13.3 13.6 13.3 14.1 10.7 14.3 15.9 19.3 16.4 16.7 Fraud and forgery 1.0 2.2 – 0.6 0.8 0.8 2.0 – 1.1 0.8 0.8 Drugs offences 13.3 13.3 10.4 21.7 14.5 19.4 17.4 19.9 21.2 21.9 23.0 Other offences 14.3 17.0 19.2 9.0 11.6 8.3 10.9 10.3 9.5 9.8 9.9 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100(1) Excluding offence not recorded. 66
  • 77. Table 3.6 Population of male young offenders in prison under sentence by number of previous convictions(1)(2)England and Wales, 30 JuneYoung male offenders Percentage(3) Number of previous convictions All Previous Sample young convictions 11 andYear Size offenders not found(3) Nil 1-2 3-6 7-10 over1993 2,072 4,830 4 18 22 36 14 61994 2,069 5,064 4 15 23 33 19 71995 2,562 5,587 5 18 22 29 17 91996 3,281 6,349 10 21 21 27 13 81997 3,630 7,684 7 17 23 31 14 71998 3,810 8,201 4 19 23 32 14 81999 4,026 8,012 7 17 20 31 15 102000 3,838 8,112 15 17 20 28 12 82001 4,027 8,262 15 17 20 27 13 8(1) Excludes fine defaulters.(2) Rounded estimates which therefore may not add to 100.(3) From 1996 more stringent criteria for accepting a possible match to records on the Home Office Offenders Index have been applied that will have tended to increase the number of instances where previous convictions are not found. 67
  • 78. Table 3.7 Population in prison under sentence by sex, type of custody and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 JuneYoung offendersSex, type of custody and length of sentence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All males and females 5,572 5,081 5,276 5,842 6,615 7,949 8,521 8,343 8,537 8,706 8,855All males 5,433 4,925 5,137 5,659 6,363 7,698 8,212 8,025 8,160 8,315 8,368Sentenced to Immediate Custody 5,354 4,830 5,064 5,587 6,349 7,684 8,201 8,012 8,153 8,313 8,368 Up to and including 3 months 337 304 280 270 288 304 310 379 368 350 310 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 621 603 705 747 706 806 809 833 1,167 1,188 964 Over 6 months less than 12 months 479 610 660 636 615 664 652 581 720 762 680 12 months 482 480 433 448 499 466 520 452 541 607 601 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 844 543 540 681 830 943 1,056 979 939 1,074 1,067 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 1,567 1,334 1,374 1,563 1,994 2,519 2,561 2,518 2,330 2,159 2,358 Over 3 years less than 4 years 150 149 188 210 265 445 512 538 578 574 626 4 years 282 265 270 329 393 497 567 521 440 464 501 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 245 224 252 250 342 475 557 547 444 509 583 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 248 226 264 351 320 436 503 506 458 464 505 Over 10 years less than life 12 15 15 19 22 29 33 27 22 25 23 Life 87 77 83 83 75 100 121 131 144 137 147In default of payment of a fine 79 95 73 72 14 14 11 13 7 2 –All females 139 156 139 183 252 251 309 318 377 391 487Sentenced to Immediate Custody 136 150 138 180 251 250 309 317 377 391 487 Up to and including 3 months 8 20 14 10 21 20 27 29 28 33 32 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 20 20 21 26 44 26 40 43 69 54 60 Over 6 months less than 12 months 9 16 13 20 28 19 27 26 39 34 52 12 months 7 16 13 15 25 15 27 30 25 33 36 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 18 14 20 16 23 38 47 36 46 40 64 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 45 37 22 51 60 67 86 82 93 105 131 Over 3 years less than 4 years 3 3 5 7 10 8 4 14 16 14 22 4 years 10 6 12 16 9 19 20 16 15 16 24 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 6 4 8 8 16 19 11 9 18 27 20 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 6 10 5 6 10 10 15 23 21 25 30 Over 10 years less than life – – – – – – – 1 – – 3 Life 4 4 5 5 5 9 5 8 7 10 13In default of payment of a fine 3 6 1 3 1 1 – 1 – – – 68
  • 79. Table 3.8 Receptions into prison under sentence: by age, sex and offenceEngland and Wales 2002Young offenders Number of persons Immediate custodial In default of sentence payment of a fineOffence Males Females Males Females All 15–17 18–20 All 15–17 18–20 AllAll offences 5,392 13,512 18,904 346 986 1,332 107 3 110Violence against the person 892 2,226 3,118 88 150 238 6 – 6 Murder 10 30 40 – 2 2 – – – Manslaughter 16 28 44 – 5 5 – – – Other homicide and attempted homicide 42 137 179 4 8 12 – – – Wounding 458 1,129 1,587 47 55 102 2 – 2 Assaults 259 614 873 32 63 95 2 – 2 Cruelty to children – 3 3 – 5 5 – – – Other offences of violence against the person 107 285 392 5 12 17 2 – 2Sexual offences 91 123 214 – – – – – – Buggery and indecency between males 3 1 4 – – – – – – Rape 30 61 91 – – – – – – Gross indecency with children 6 11 17 – – – – – – Other sexual offences 52 50 102 – – – – – –Burglary 890 1,705 2,595 24 60 84 6 – 6Robbery 889 1,061 1,950 70 78 148 – – –Theft and handling 1,031 2,764 3,795 71 334 405 15 – 15 Taking and driving away 477 753 1,230 4 8 12 – – – Other thefts 492 1,859 2,351 63 308 371 15 – 15 Handling stolen goods 62 152 214 4 18 22 – – –Fraud and forgery 18 166 184 6 37 43 3 – 3 Fraud 17 159 176 6 33 39 2 – 2 Forgery 1 7 8 – 4 4 1 – 1Drugs offences 112 678 790 19 122 141 – – –Other offences 1,340 4,402 5,742 49 191 240 42 3 45 Arson 45 50 95 2 3 5 – – – Criminal damage 74 218 292 3 16 19 4 1 5 In charge or driving under the influence of drink or drugs 28 170 198 1 1 2 – – – Other motoring offences 476 2,099 2,575 3 21 24 20 – 20 Drunkenness 8 29 37 – – – 2 – 2 Blackmail 3 11 14 – 2 2 – – – Kidnapping 4 29 33 2 2 4 – – – Affray 129 332 461 8 13 21 – – – Violent disorder 70 173 243 1 5 6 2 – 2 Perjury/Libel/Pervert the course of justice 5 91 96 2 9 11 1 – 1 Threat/disorderly behaviour 70 162 232 3 10 13 3 2 5 Breach of Court Order 319 779 1,098 19 81 100 5 – 5 Other Criminal offences 106 242 348 5 27 32 4 – 4 Other 3 17 20 – 1 1 1 – 1Offence not recorded 129 387 516 19 14 33 35 – 35 69
  • 80. Table 3.9 Receptions into prison under immediate custodial sentence: by age, sex, offence group, type of custody and length of sentenceEngland and Wales 2002Young people Number of persons All Custody Powers of Criminal custody Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training order for life Courts (Sentencing) types Act 2000(1)Sex, age and offence All Length of sentence sentence Section Section Section lengths Up to Over 3 Over 6 12 Over 12 Over 18 Over 3 4 years Over 4 Over 5 Over 10 90 91 91 and months months months months months years less years years years less deter- Life including up to less than up to up to than 4 up to up to than life minate 3 months and 12 and and years and and sentences including months including including including including 6 months 18 3 years 5 years 10 years monthsAll males and females 20,236 19,608 4,062 6,440 2,334 1,587 1,883 2,185 371 240 270 221 15 41 18 559 10All males 18,904 18,310 3,696 6,047 2,192 1,494 1,767 2,064 345 229 265 197 14 37 18 530 9Aged 15-17 5,392 4,874 111 2,217 899 734 657 240 2 7 3 4 – – 8 502 8 Violence against the person 892 791 5 410 139 113 93 28 – – 2 1 – – 7 90 4 Sexual offences 91 62 – 20 15 13 10 2 – – 1 1 – – – 28 1 Burglary 890 832 13 317 160 157 138 46 – 1 – – – – – 58 – Robbery 889 665 8 123 121 161 163 83 1 3 – 2 – – – 222 2 Theft and handling 1,031 999 8 564 195 115 86 30 – 1 – – – – – 31 1 Fraud and forgery 18 18 – 13 4 1 – – – – – – – – – – – Drugs offences 112 94 – 25 24 13 20 10 1 1 – – – – – 18 – Other offences 1,340 1,306 77 717 223 141 120 27 – 1 – – – – 1 33 – Offence not recorded 129 107 – 28 18 20 27 14 – – – – – – – 22 –Aged 18-20 13,512 13,436 3,585 3,830 1,293 760 1,110 1,824 343 222 262 193 14 37 10 28 1 Violence against the person 2,226 2,183 493 564 222 148 216 314 63 53 55 48 7 26 8 9 – Sexual offences 123 120 10 17 8 8 15 24 7 8 9 14 – 2 – – 1 Burglary 1,705 1,700 238 342 180 152 242 426 53 22 34 11 – – – 5 – Robbery 1,061 1,046 89 61 46 61 126 362 94 75 65 62 5 5 1 9 – Theft and handling 2,764 2,762 987 905 301 128 163 207 28 8 23 12 – 1 – 1 – Fraud and forgery 166 166 47 61 23 6 10 15 2 1 – 1 – – – – – Drugs offences 678 676 86 90 47 56 72 187 49 29 36 23 1 1 – 1 – Other offences 4,402 4,396 1,565 1,710 381 161 232 232 33 25 35 21 1 2 1 3 – Offence not recorded 387 387 70 80 85 40 34 57 14 1 5 1 – – – – –All females 1,332 1,298 366 393 142 93 116 121 26 11 5 24 1 4 – 29 1Aged 15-17 346 319 4 158 56 42 36 23 – – – – – – – 26 1 Violence against the person 88 84 2 41 19 16 4 2 – – – – – – – 4 – Sexual offences – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Burglary 24 20 – 12 1 3 2 2 – – – – – – – 4 – Robbery 70 58 – 18 8 6 11 15 – – – – – – – 11 1 Theft and handling 71 71 – 49 16 3 3 – – – – – – – – – – Fraud and forgery 6 6 1 3 1 – 1 – – – – – – – – – – Drugs offences 19 15 – 4 3 2 5 1 – – – – – – – 4 – Other offences 49 46 1 25 7 6 6 1 – – – – – – – 3 – Offence not recorded 19 19 – 6 1 6 4 2 – – – – – – – – –Aged 18-20 986 979 362 235 86 51 80 98 26 11 5 24 1 4 – 3 – Violence against the person 150 146 61 36 7 8 13 11 2 3 – 5 – 4 – – – Sexual offences – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Burglary 60 60 12 8 4 13 11 7 4 – – 1 – – – – – Robbery 78 78 5 6 7 4 12 34 5 3 1 1 – – – – – Theft and handling 334 334 174 107 35 5 6 7 – – – – – – – – – Fraud and forgery 37 37 15 13 4 1 1 2 1 – – – – – – – – Drugs offences 122 119 9 7 9 13 21 23 11 5 4 16 1 – – 3 – Other offences 191 191 80 55 19 7 14 12 3 – – 1 – – – – – Offence not recorded 14 14 6 3 1 – 2 2 – – – – – – – – –(1) Section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 was repealed on 25th August 2000 and its provisions were transferred to Sections 90-92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000. 70
  • 81. Table 3.10 Receptions(1) into prison by age, sex and type of custodyEngland and Wales 2002Young offenders Number of persons All Age on remand/sentence youngSex and type of custody offenders 15 16 17 18 19 20All males and females on remand(1) 20,688 592 1,180 3,655 4,826 5,164 5,271All males and females under sentence 20,346 1,007 1,888 2,844 4,143 5,219 5,245All males on remand (1) 19,123 592 1,180 3,415 4,441 4,742 4,753 Untried 13,283 516 1,002 2,733 3,015 3,046 2,971 Convicted unsentenced 10,842 231 516 1,591 2,602 2,933 2,969All males under sentence 19,011 967 1,767 2,659 3,889 4,893 4,836 Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order 18,311 903 1,619 2,352 3,834 4,832 4,771 Custody for life 36 – – – 6 12 18 Section 90 of Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 18 – 3 5 8 1 1 Section 91 of Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 539 64 145 301 27 2 – In default of payment of a fine 107 – – 1 14 46 46All females on remand(1) 1,565 – – 240 385 422 518 Untried 865 – – 143 209 241 272 Convicted unsentenced 1,005 – – 135 240 266 364All females under sentence 1,335 40 121 185 254 326 409 Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order 1,298 37 110 172 249 323 407 Custody for life 4 – – – 2 1 1 Section 90 of Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act – – – – – – – Section 91 of Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 30 3 11 13 3 – – In default of payment of a fine 3 – – – – 2 1(1) Total receptions cannot be calculated by adding together receptions in each category because there is double counting (See paragraph 27 of the Notes). However double counting has been allowed for in the figures of receptions of prisoners under remand where the figures for “all remand” record only once a person received as an untried prisoner who is subsequently received also as a convicted unsentenced prisoner. 71
  • 82. Table 3.11 Receptions into prison under an immediate custodial sentence: by age, sex and offence groupEngland and WalesMale young offenders Number of personsAge and offence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All males 12,830 12,786 14,447 15,680 16,881 17,890 18,528 19,787 20,097 19,699 18,904Aged under 21 12,830 12,786 14,447 15,680 16,881 17,890 18,528 19,787 20,097 19,699 18,904 Violence against the person 1,593 1,646 1,802 1,980 2,288 2,549 2,780 2,877 3,137 3,325 3,118 Sexual offences 137 155 114 165 152 173 200 227 182 192 214 Burglary 3,608 3,405 3,746 3,923 3,752 3,916 3,797 3,733 3,329 2,881 2,595 Robbery 1,024 1,039 1,047 1,247 1,681 1,796 1,687 1,662 1,610 1,786 1,950 Theft and handling 2,463 3,087 3,778 4,005 3,912 4,032 4,397 4,863 4,946 4,420 3,795 Fraud and forgery 49 70 89 80 137 125 159 195 175 202 184 Drugs offences 335 319 322 434 581 632 706 815 819 886 790 Other offences 2,444 2,653 3,141 3,533 3,622 4,022 4,510 5,155 5,426 5,554 5,742 Offence not recorded(1) 1,177 412 408 313 756 645 292 260 473 453 516Aged under 18 3,344 3,564 3,971 4,505 5,071 5,365 5,283 5,523 5,530 5,598 5,392 Violence against the person 385 425 424 546 665 715 781 835 897 1,001 892 Sexual offences 35 47 33 46 62 65 65 95 75 79 91 Burglary 1,056 1,070 1,211 1,258 1,284 1,421 1,315 1,209 1,107 973 890 Robbery 293 330 378 521 704 777 706 689 689 777 889 Theft and handling 726 1,004 1,192 1,268 1,219 1,230 1,232 1,355 1,352 1,254 1,031 Fraud and forgery 4 4 10 8 14 15 25 25 20 20 18 Drugs offences 36 32 26 43 63 74 101 118 101 139 112 Other offences 543 555 625 721 789 857 964 1,112 1,189 1,253 1,340 Offence not recorded(1) 266 97 72 94 271 211 94 85 100 102 129Aged 18-20 9,486 9,222 10,476 11,175 11,810 12,525 13,245 14,264 14,567 14,101 13,512 Violence against the person 1,208 1,221 1,378 1,434 1,623 1,834 1,999 2,042 2,240 2,324 2,226 Sexual offences 102 108 81 119 90 108 135 132 107 113 123 Burglary 2,552 2,335 2,535 2,665 2,468 2,495 2,482 2,524 2,222 1,908 1,705 Robbery 731 709 669 726 977 1,019 981 973 921 1,009 1,061 Theft and handling 1,737 2,083 2,586 2,737 2,693 2,802 3,165 3,508 3,594 3,166 2,764 Fraud and forgery 45 66 79 72 123 110 134 170 155 182 166 Drugs offences 299 287 296 391 518 558 605 697 718 747 678 Other offences 1,901 2,098 2,516 2,812 2,833 3,165 3,546 4,043 4,237 4,301 4,402 Offence not recorded(1) 911 315 336 219 485 434 198 175 373 351 387(1) See paragraph 2 of Appendix 2. 72
  • 83. Table 3.11 Receptions into prison under an immediate custodial sentence: by age, sex and offence groupEngland and WalesFemale young offenders Number of personsAge and offence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All females 344 419 509 564 712 853 1,071 1,233 1,236 1,270 1,332Aged under 21 344 419 509 564 712 853 1,071 1,233 1,236 1,270 1,332 Violence against the person 59 93 128 115 149 230 210 234 249 278 238 Sexual offences 2 – – 4 – – 1 2 1 3 – Burglary 26 39 45 51 49 50 74 90 60 65 84 Robbery 32 46 58 60 86 111 105 74 84 119 148 Theft and handling 87 106 144 168 222 208 346 436 462 452 405 Fraud and forgery 12 16 9 23 25 26 41 35 41 35 43 Drugs offences 27 26 34 47 62 89 96 108 113 135 141 Other offences 51 68 69 76 92 119 162 217 181 154 240 Offence not recorded(1) 48 25 22 20 27 20 36 37 45 29 33Aged under 18 79 102 149 166 214 252 302 354 304 305 346 Violence against the person 18 34 54 48 68 83 96 95 109 105 88 Sexual offences – – – 3 – – – – – 1 – Burglary 8 4 15 21 15 15 25 22 17 18 24 Robbery 15 22 28 28 40 66 50 35 33 54 70 Theft and handling 15 20 31 39 43 42 56 96 81 68 71 Fraud and forgery 2 3 – – 2 1 2 5 4 2 6 Drugs offences 4 2 3 4 4 8 15 13 18 15 19 Other offences 6 15 13 20 31 30 42 79 32 31 49 Offence not recorded(1) 11 2 5 3 11 7 16 9 10 11 19Aged 18-20 265 317 360 398 498 601 769 879 932 965 986 Violence against the person 41 59 74 67 81 147 114 139 140 173 150 Sexual offences 2 – – 1 – – 1 2 1 2 – Burglary 18 35 30 30 34 35 49 68 43 47 60 Robbery 17 24 30 32 46 45 55 39 51 65 78 Theft and handling 72 86 113 129 179 166 290 340 381 384 334 Fraud and forgery 10 13 9 23 23 25 39 30 37 33 37 Drugs offences 23 24 31 43 58 81 81 95 95 120 122 Other offences 45 53 56 56 61 89 120 138 149 123 191 Offence not recorded(1) 37 23 17 17 16 13 20 28 35 18 14(1) See paragraph 2 of Appendix 2. 73
  • 84. Table 3.12 Receptions into prison under an immediate custodial sentence: by sex, age, type of custody and length of sentenceEngland and WalesMale young offenders Number of personsSex, age, type of custody and length of sentence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All males 12,830 12,786 14,447 15,680 16,881 17,890 18,528 19,787 20,090 19,699 18,904Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000(1) Section 91(2) 108 327 357 339 502 517 449 385 404 382 539 Less than 12 months 12 1 8 2 – – – 3 31 42 55 12 months 3 2 1 1 – 1 1 7 4 9 Over 12 months up to 18 months – 24 14 4 5 4 5 6 9 5 6 Over 18 months up to 3 years 70 212 243 182 242 203 209 191 187 137 225 Over 3 years less than 4 years 11 10 12 38 50 61 57 44 48 47 68 4 years 30 38 41 79 103 73 50 57 62 68 Over 4 years up to 5 years 7 19 10 36 59 78 29 45 40 39 47 Over 5 years up to 10 years 3 28 29 29 53 43 61 37 23 37 51 Over 10 years less than life 3 – 1 – 5 7 7 2 – – 1 Life 2 – – 6 8 18 7 6 2 9 9Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order 12,722 12,459 14,090 15,341 16,379 17,373 18,079 19,402 19,686 19,317 18,365 Up to and including 3 months 2,823 2,841 3,538 3,972 3,916 4,305 4,906 5,665 4,725 3,981 3,696 Over 3 months up to 6 months 3,272 3,875 4,451 4,701 4,714 4,864 5,118 5,693 6,673 6,917 6,047 Over 6 months less than 12 months 1,722 1,841 2,135 2,221 2,145 2,101 2,096 2,033 2,263 2,354 2,192 12 months 1,344 1,178 1,166 1,185 1,201 1,220 1,181 1,144 1,391 1,455 1,494 Over 12 months up to 18 months 1,389 988 973 1,214 1,562 1,674 1,700 1,699 1,648 1,628 1,767 Over 18 months up to 3 years 1,614 1,213 1,278 1,524 2,070 2,322 2,272 2,260 2,006 1,970 2,064 Over 3 years less than 4 years 87 94 130 113 187 241 269 299 333 330 345 4 years 165 149 133 166 199 220 174 209 211 204 229 Over 4 years up to 5 years 108 121 107 128 182 183 178 178 203 222 265 Over 5 years up to 10 years 153 116 139 91 134 181 134 153 174 189 197 Over 10 years less than life 14 7 8 3 18 14 11 7 12 11 14 Life(3) 31 36 32 23 51 48 40 62 47 56 55(1) After August 2000, Section 53 of the C and YP Act 1933 was replaced by Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000.(2) Section 91 applies to offenders under 18 convicted of certain serious offences.(3) This includes Section 90 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 and custody for life. 74
  • 85. Table 3.12 Receptions into prison under an immediate custodial sentence: by sex, age, type of custody, and length of sentenceEngland and WalesFemale young offenders Number of personsSex, age, type of custody and length of sentence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All females 344 419 509 564 712 853 1,071 1,233 1,236 1,270 1,332Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000(1) Section 91(2) 5 8 16 18 12 18 7 5 13 13 30 Up to and including 18 months – – 2 1 – 2 – 1 1 1 2 Over 18 months up to 3 years 5 8 10 11 8 8 2 2 5 4 17 Over 3 years up to 4 years – – 3 2 2 4 1 1 4 3 5 Over 4 years up to 5 years – – – 2 – 1 3 – 2 1 1 Over 5 years up to 10 years – – 1 1 1 3 – 1 – 3 4 Over 10 years less than life – – – – – – – – – – – Life – – – 1 1 – 1 – 1 1 1Detention in a young offender institution/youth custody/ imprisonment 339 411 493 546 700 835 1,064 1,228 1,223 1,257 1,302 Up to and including 3 months 99 145 183 213 238 336 436 532 425 411 366 Over 3 months up to 6 months 101 109 137 142 196 185 279 291 400 408 393 Over 6 months less than 12 months 38 55 68 57 76 74 107 113 121 120 142 12 months 27 32 36 39 54 53 69 71 66 75 93 Over 12 months up to 18 months 32 22 26 31 48 75 67 86 75 74 116 Over 18 months up to 3 years 28 27 25 46 65 85 82 92 88 111 121 Over 3 years less than 4 years 4 4 2 2 2 3 6 7 12 15 26 4 years 1 5 8 4 9 4 5 16 5 12 11 Over 4 years up to 5 years 1 3 7 5 8 8 3 6 14 14 5 Over 5 years up to 10 years 7 4 – 5 4 7 9 10 14 13 24 Over 10 years less than life 1 – – – – – 1 – – 2 1 Life(3) – 5 1 2 – 5 – 4 3 2 4(1) After August 2000, Section 53 of the C and YP Act 1933 was replaced by Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000.(2) Section 91 applies to offenders under 18 convicted of certain serious offences.(3) This includes Section 90 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 and custody for life. 75
  • 86. Table 3.13 Average time served in prison under sentence by prisoners discharged from determinate sentences on completion of sentence or on licence: by sex and length of sentenceEngland and Wales 2002Young offenders Number of MonthsLength of sentence(1) persons Average Average Percentage discharged(2) length of time served of sentence sentence under served under sentence sentence Including Excluding Including Excluding remand remand remand remand time time time timeMales All lengths of sentence less than life 15,879 11.5 5.8 4.7 50 41 Up to and including 3 months 2,826 2.1 1.1 0.9 53 43 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 5,306 4.8 2.5 2.0 52 42 Over 6 months less than 12 months 2,197 8.6 4.2 3.4 49 40 12 months 1,323 12.0 5.9 4.9 49 41 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 1,629 16.8 8.2 6.8 49 40 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 1,964 27.6 13.6 11.4 49 41 Over 3 years less than 4 years 296 42.3 21.1 18.0 50 43 4 years 159 48.0 27.8 24.2 58 50 Over 4 years less than life 179 62.1 35.4 31.3 57 50FemalesAll lengths of sentence less than life 1,035 9.7 4.5 3.9 46 40 Up to and including 3 months 277 2.0 0.9 0.7 45 37 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 339 4.8 2.3 1.9 48 39 Over 6 months less than 12 months 127 8.5 3.8 3.2 44 38 12 months 77 12.0 5.3 4.4 44 37 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 87 17.4 7.9 6.9 45 40 Over 18 months less than life 128 33.0 15.8 14.1 48 43(1) On discharge: the sentence may change after reception if there are further charges or an appeal.(2) Excludes discharges following recall after release on licence, non-criminals, persons committed to custody for non-payment of a fine and persons reclassified as adult prisoners. 76
  • 87. Table 3.14 Average time served in prison under sentence(1) by prisoners discharged(2) from determinate sentences on completion of sentence or on licence: by sex and length of sentence, 1993-2002England and WalesYoung offendersLength of sentence(3) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Males MonthsAverage time served under sentence Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order Up to and including 3 months 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.0 Over 6 months less than 12 months 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.4 12 months 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.1 4.7 4.9 5.0 4.9 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 7.0 6.6 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.9 6.8 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 11.7 11.7 11.3 11.0 11.2 11.6 11.4 11.5 11.7 11.4 Over 3 years less than 4 years 18.0 19.7 18.3 17.1 17.4 17.8 17.7 18.2 17.8 18.0 4 years 21.0 23.2 24.4 22.9 24.1 24.9 25.3 25.1 24.7 24.2 Over 4 years less than life 29.4 29.4 31.6 31.1 31.5 30.1 31.0 32.8 33.3 31.3 PercentagePercentage of sentence served under sentence Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order Up to and including 3 months 44 44 44 44 43 42 42 41 36 43 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 42 42 41 41 41 41 39 41 44 42 Over 6 months less than 12 months 42 42 41 41 42 41 39 40 42 40 12 months 42 41 40 40 41 42 39 40 42 41 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 42 39 39 39 40 41 39 40 41 40 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 43 42 41 41 42 43 41 42 42 41 Over 3 years less than 4 years 43 47 44 41 42 43 42 43 42 43 4 years 44 48 51 48 50 52 53 52 51 50 Over 4 years less than life 44 48 51 50 51 50 49 52 52 50Females MonthsAverage time served under sentence Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order Up to and including 3 months 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 Over 6 months less than 12 months 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.2 12 months 5.2 5.4 4.9 5.3 5.1 5.3 4.5 4.3 4.9 4.4 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 7.2 8.4 6.6 7.6 7.5 8.1 6.8 6.5 6.6 6.9 Over 18 months less than life 14.7 13.6 13.4 13.1 14.3 14.5 13.0 14.0 14.4 14.1 PercentagePercentage of sentence served under sentence Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order Up to and including 3 months 44 46 43 45 41 42 42 40 41 37 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 45 46 44 43 45 43 39 41 43 39 Over 6 months less than 12 months 45 44 44 44 43 43 39 38 40 38 12 months 44 45 41 44 43 44 37 36 41 37 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 44 49 40 46 44 48 40 39 38 40 Over 18 months less than life 32 46 43 42 43 46 42 43 43 43(1) Excluding time served on remand awaiting trial or sentence, which counts towards the discharge of sentence.(2) Excluding discharges following recall after release on licence, non-criminals, persons committed to custody for non-payment of a fine and persons reclassified as adult prisoners.(3) On discharge; the sentence may change after reception if there are further charges or an appeal. 77
  • 88. Table 3.15 Average sentence length of receptions into prison under sentence(1): by sex, age and court sentencingEngland and WalesYoung offenders Months Court sentencing(2)Year and age Crown Magistrate’s All Court Court courtsAll malesAged 15–171992(3) 14.8 4.6 9.21993 16.4 5.1 8.61994 16.5 5.2 8.51995 17.3 5.2 9.61996 20.0 5.5 11.11997 20.5 5.4 11.61998 19.4 5.1 10.71999 18.7 4.7 10.32000 19.6 6.4 10.52001 20.3 7.2 10.42002 22.0 8.1 12.2Aged 18–201992(3) 19.3 4.0 14.01993 19.0 4.3 12.71994 19.6 4.4 12.41995 20.9 4.1 12.71996 20.4 4.8 13.21997 21.2 4.6 13.41998 20.7 4.3 12.51999 20.7 4.2 12.02000 20.8 4.2 11.72001 21.1 4.3 12.22002 22.5 4.4 13.0All femalesAged 15–171992(3) 11.4 4.2 8.11993 13.3 3.7 6.91994 14.8 4.1 8.21995 18.5 3.5 10.01996 15.1 4.3 8.31997 15.6 3.7 9.61998 14.1 3.9 7.61999 14.3 3.6 7.12000 15.8 5.5 8.62001 19.4 5.8 9.42002 20.0 7.0 11.4Aged 18–201992(3) 16.1 3.3 11.51993 16.8 3.8 11.01994 15.4 3.9 9.91995 16.3 3.4 10.41996 16.5 3.3 10.81997 17.4 3.1 10.31998 17.5 3.4 9.31999 18.2 3.4 9.52000 18.5 3.5 9.62001 21.3 3.6 10.42002 22.6 3.6 12.0(1) Excluding those sentenced to life.(2) Type of court originally imposing the sentence; further sentences may have been awarded at a different court.(3) Figures for 1992 are subject to a wider margin of error than those for other years because of a particularly large number of cases with court not recorded; such cases are included in the “All courts” column. 78
  • 89. CHAPTER 4 ADULT PRISONERS UNDER SENTENCEKey pointsPopulation ● The population of adult prisoners under sentence was 48,450 on 30th June 2002, 6 per cent higher than 2001 and 73 per cent higher than mid-1993 (the lowest annual population of the decade). ● Males account for most of the sentenced adult population, about 94 per cent in 2002. The proportion of females has however been increasing, from 3.5 per cent in 1992 to 5.9 per cent in 2002. ● The proportion serving longer sentences (4 years or more including life) increased between 1992 and 2002 from 48 per cent to 54 per cent for males but decreased slightly from 45 per cent to 44 per cent for females. ● In 2002, 4 offence groups accounted for two-thirds of adult male prisoners for whom offence type was recorded: 22 per cent were serving sentences for violence against the person, 18 per cent for drugs offences, 16 per cent for burglary and 12 per cent for robbery. ● Over two fifths (44 per cent) of adult females for whom offence type was recorded were serving a sentence for drugs offences, 16 per cent for violence against the person and 14 per cent for theft and handling. ● In 2001 (the latest year available) 15 per cent of sentenced adult males and 34 per cent of sentenced females were known to have no previous convictions. In contrast, 47 per cent of sentenced adult males and 24 per cent of females had 7 or more previous convictions.Receptions ● In 2002, there were 73,380 receptions of adults into prison under sentence, 5.5 per cent more than in 2001 and 99 per cent more than in 1992 (the lowest annual receptions in the last 10 years). ● Over the decade, adult female receptions rose by 252 per cent compared to a rise of 91 per cent in adult male receptions. ● The average sentence length of adults received (excluding life sentences) from the Crown Court rose from 26.7 months in 1992 to 30.1 months in 2002 for adult males, and from 20.3 months to 25.8 months for adult females over the same period. ● Excluding fine defaulters and offence not recorded, half of adult male receptions were in 3 offence groups: violence against the person, burglary and theft and handling; a further 31 per cent were received for ‘other’, mainly motoring, offences. Two-fifths (41 per cent) of all adult female receptions were for theft and handling.Discharges ● 69,900 adults were discharged from determinate sentences in 2002, having served on average 8.7 months (including time on remand). ● On average 54 per cent of the sentence was served before discharge (including time spent on remand). ● Adult females discharged in 2002 spent on average 6.1 months in prison compared with 9.0 months for adult males (both including time on remand). 79
  • 90. Population (Tables 4.1-4.4)4.1 There were 48,450 sentenced adults in prison on 30th June 2002 (adults are those aged 21 years and over). This was about 2950 (6 per cent) more than a year earlier. It was 73 per cent higher than mid-1993.4.2 Since 1992 the sentenced population has increased most years, apart from 1993 and 1999. The decrease between mid-1992 and mid-1993 reflected the effects of the Criminal Justice Act 1991, which encouraged the use of community penalties except for the most serious offences. The change in legislative and political climate after that (see chapter Appendix 1) led to a sustained increase of 56 per cent in the sentenced adult population in the 5 years to mid-1998. The slight fall in population in 1999 was due to the introduction of Home Detention Curfew (see Appendix 1 for more details). The underlying upward trend led to renewed growth to mid-2002.4.3 Males accounted for 45,600 (about 94 per cent) of the sentenced adult population in 2002. There were 2,850 females in mid-2002, accounting for 5.9 per cent of the adult sentenced population, an increase from 3.5 per cent in 1992.4.4 Estimates based on a sample of the prison population (see Appendix 2) show that 15 per cent of sentenced adult males and 34 per cent of sentenced adult females in prison in 2001 were known to have no previous convictions (this is the latest year for which data are available). In contrast, 47 per cent of males and 24 per cent of females had 7 or more previous convictions. However information was missing for 8 per cent of males and 14 per cent of females.4.5 The following descriptions of offence and sentence length exclude fine defaulters. Numbers of fine defaulters in prison have fallen substantially over the last decade, from 300 in mid-1992 to 34 in mid-2002.Figure 4.1 PRISON POPULATION OF SENTENCED ADULT MALES BY LENGTH OF SENTENCE, 30 JUNE 1992-2002 50,000 45,000 4 years or more (incl. Life) 40,000 12 months to less than 4 years Less than 12 months 35,000 Number of persons 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year 80
  • 91. Figure 4.2 PRISON POPULATION OF SENTENCED ADULT FEMALES BY LENGTH OF SENTENCE, 30 JUNE 1992-2002 3,000 4 years or more (incl. Life) 12 months to less than 4 yearsNumber of persons 2,500 Less than 12 months 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 YearSentence length4.6 Over the last decade the proportion of adult males serving short sentences (less than 12 months) has varied between 11 and 15 per cent. The proportion in 2002 was 11.5 per cent, the lowest for the last 10 years. The proportion serving medium-term sentences (12 months to less than 4 years) has varied between 34 and 40 per cent. The figure in 2002 was 35 per cent and it has been around this level since 1999, compared with 40 per cent in 1992. The strongest trend has been the increase in those serving long sentences (4 years or more) from 48 per cent in 1992 to 54 per cent in 2002, and it has been over 52 per cent since 1999.4.7 Female sentence lengths have generally been shorter than those for males. The proportion serving short sentences was 16 per cent in 2002 the same as in 1992, and the lowest level in the last decade. The proportion serving medium sentences was 40 per cent and the proportion serving long sentences was 44 per cent; these levels are similar to the 1992 levels.Offence type4.8 Excluding offences not recorded, the main offence groups for the adult male population in mid-2002 were violence against the person (22 per cent), drugs offences (18 per cent), burglary (16 per cent) and robbery (12 per cent). It is difficult to analyse changes over time because the proportion without an offence recorded has varied from 1 per cent to 12 per cent, but general trends can be seen. The proportion of adult males with drugs offences rose from 11 to 18 per cent while the share of most other offence groups changed by 1-2 percentage points between 1992 and 2002. 81
  • 92. Figure 4.3 PRISON POPULATION OF SENTENCED ADULT MALES BY TYPE OF OFFENCE 2002 Other 11% Violence 22% Drugs 18% Sexual 11% Theft & fraud 10% Burglary Robbery 16% 12%4.9 The main offence groups for adult sentenced females in mid-2002 were drugs offences (44 per cent of all offences excluding offences not recorded), violence against the person (16 per cent) and theft and handling (14 per cent). The main changes compared with 1992 have been an increase in the proportion with drugs offences (up from 29 per cent to 44 per cent) and robbery offences (up from 4 per cent to 8 per cent), while there has been a decrease in ‘other’ offences (from 17 per cent to 8 per cent), theft and handling (from 20 per cent to 14 per cent) and violence against the person (from 18 per cent to 16 per cent).Figure 4.4PRISON POPULATION OF SENTENCED ADULT FEMALES BY TYPE OF OFFENCE 2002 Other 8% Violence and sexual 16% Burglary 7% Robbery 8% Drugs 44% Theft & fraud 18% 82
  • 93. Receptions (Tables 4.5-4.10)4.10 In 2002 73,380 adults were received under sentence of immediate imprisonment into prison, plus a further 1,080 fine defaulters who on average spend about a week in prison. Excluding the fine defaulters, receptions in 2002 were 5 per cent higher than in 2001, having risen continuously since 1992, when there were under 37,000, with the exception of a small fall in 2001. There were 66,990 receptions of male adults (up 5 per cent on 2001) and 6,390 receptions of female adults (up 7 per cent on 2001). Over the last decade adult female receptions rose by 252 per cent compared with 91 per cent for adult male receptions.Ages4.11 Over half (51 per cent) of adult males received under sentence were aged 21 to 29 and a further 33 per cent were aged 30 to 39. The figures for females were similar: 53 per cent were aged 21 to 29 and 34 per cent were aged 30 to 39 in 2002. The age distribution of male receptions has shifted upward in the last decade: in 1992 59 per cent of adult males were aged 21 to 29. For females the proportion aged 21 to 29 was the same in 1992 (53 per cent).Sentence length4.12 The proportion of adult males received with sentences of less than 12 months rose from 50 per cent in 1992 to 65 per cent in 2002, but was a little higher in 1999-2001. A further 25 per cent of adult male receptions in 2002 had sentences of over 12 months to less than 4 years, compared with 39 per cent in 1992. Ten per cent had sentences of 4 years or more (including life) compared with 11 per cent in 1992. The proportion of adult females received with sentences of less than 12 months rose from 58 per cent in 1992 to 72 per cent by 2002, but was higher in 1998-2001. A further 22 per cent of females received in 2002 had sentences of 12 months to less than 4 years compared with 33 per cent in 1992. Six per cent had sentences of over 4 years compared with 9 per cent in 1992.Figure 4.5 RECEPTIONS INTO PRISON OF SENTENCED ADULT MALES BY LENGTH OF SENTENCE, 1992-2002 80,000 4 years or more (incl. Life) 70,000 12 months to less than 4 years 60,000 Less than 12 months Number of persons 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year 83
  • 94. Figure 4.6 RECEPTIONS INTO PRISON OF SENTENCED ADULT FEMALES BY LENGTH OF SENTENCE, 1992-2002 7,000 4 years or more (incl. Life) 12 months to less 6,000 than 4 years Less than 12 months Number of persons 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 YearAverage sentence length4.13 Crown Court sentences for adult males received into Prison Service establishments averaged 30.1 months in 2002, up from 28.4 months in 2001 and 26.7 months in 1992, and the highest level of the last decade. The average sentence for adult males received from magistrates’ courts was 4.1 months and the overall average was 15.9 months, up from 15.0 months in 2001. The average sentence for adult females received from the Crown Court in 2002 was 25.8 months, up from 25.3 months in 2001 and 20.3 months in 1992, and also the highest level of the last decade. Females received from magistrates’ courts had an average sentence of 3.5 months and the overall average was 12.5 months, down slightly from 12.6 months in 2001.Figure 4.7 AVERAGE SENTENCE LENGTH OF PRISON RECEPTIONS OF ADULT MALES, 1992-2002: BY TYPE OF COURT 35.0 30.0 25.0 Months 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Crown Court Magistrates Court All courts 84
  • 95. Figure 4.8 AVERAGE SENTENCE LENGTH OF PRISON RECEPTIONS OF ADULT FEMALES, 1992-2002: BY TYPE OF COURT 30.0 25.0 20.0 Months 15.0 10.0 5.0 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Crown Court Magistrates Court All courtsOffence type4.14 The largest offence group recorded for male adults received under sentence in 2002 was the ‘other’ offence group. This group accounted for 31 per cent of receptions (excluding offences not recorded). Over half of the ‘other’ offence group (58 per cent) consisted of motoring offences. Other large groups were theft and handling (24 per cent), violence against the person (15 per cent), burglary (11 per cent) and drugs offences (8 per cent). The main changes in adult male receptions compared with 1992 were a reduction from 17 per cent in 1992 to 11 per cent in 2002 for burglary, an increase from 26 per cent to 31 per cent for ‘other’ offences and an increase from 18 per cent to 24 per cent for theft and handling.Figure 4.9 RECEPTIONS OF ADULT SENTENCED MALES BY OFFENCE GROUP AND SENTENCE LENGTH, 2002 Other offences Theft and handling Violence against the person Burglary Drugs Robbery Fraud and forgery Sexual 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Less than 12 months 12 months to less than 4 years 4 years or more incl. Life 85
  • 96. 4.15 Theft and handling accounted for 41 per cent of female adult sentenced receptions in 2002 (excluding offences not recorded) compared with 38 per cent in 1992. Fraud and forgery reduced from 11 per cent to 8 per cent.Figure 4.10RECEPTIONS OF ADULT SENTENCED FEMALES BY OFFENCE GROUP AND SENTENCE LENGTH, 2002 Theft & handling Other offences Drugs Violence against the personFraud and forgery Burglary Robbery Sexual 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 Less than 12 months 12 months to less than 4 years 4 years or more incl. LifeDischarges (Table 4.11)4.16 About 69,900 adults were discharged from determinate sentences in 2002, of which 64,000 were male and 5,900 female. The average length of sentence of adults discharged in 2002 was 16.1 months (16.4 for males and 12.3 for females). The time served in prison under sentence averaged 8.7 months including remand time (9.0 for males and 6.1 for females) and 7.3 months excluding remand time.4.17 On average adults served 54 per cent of their sentence in prison before discharge (including remand time). This varied by length of sentence with those on sentences of less than 4 years serving around 50 per cent of their sentences in prison while those on longer sentences served around 60 per cent in prison. This reflects different arrangements for release (sentences below 4 years have automatic release at half-way, while those of 4 years and above have discretionary release from half-way subject to the decision of the Parole Board). For longer sentences, females tend to serve a smaller percentage of their sentence in prison than males, probably reflecting the different nature of their offences. 86
  • 97. Table 4.1 Population in prison under sentence by offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002All adults Number of personsOffence group Length of sentence All sentence Up to Over Over 12 months Over Over Over 4 years Over Over Over Life lengths and 3 months 6 months 12 months 18 months 3 years 4 years 5 years 10 years including up to less than up to up to less than up to up to less than 3 months and 12 months and and 4 years and and life including including including including including 6 months 18 months 3 years 5 years 10 yearsAll adultsAll offences 48,451 1,396 2,801 1,522 1,197 2,648 9,396 3,717 3,173 5,138 9,777 2,698 4,987 Offences with immediate custodial sentence 48,417 1,377 2,798 1,522 1,197 2,645 9,393 3,717 3,173 5,135 9,775 2,698 4,987 Violence against the person 10,447 162 352 223 193 495 1,361 445 435 751 1,489 399 4,142 Rape 2,752 6 2 2 – 7 26 25 55 152 1,425 581 471 Other sexual offences 2,283 10 16 37 77 122 527 104 245 287 689 119 49 Burglary 7,454 84 179 229 201 623 2,692 1,090 533 956 808 45 14 Robbery 5,542 56 21 17 24 83 820 535 556 958 1,859 478 135 Theft and handling 3,773 477 794 464 220 379 870 217 104 128 112 5 5 Fraud and forgery 1,005 49 114 73 67 129 291 66 66 65 77 6 1 Drugs offences 9,419 43 55 85 113 260 1,642 970 912 1,492 2,869 974 5 Other offences 4,938 465 1,211 303 235 416 939 221 230 294 384 82 160 Offence not recorded 804 26 52 89 68 132 226 45 36 51 64 9 5 In default of payment of a fine 34 19 4 – – 3 3 1 – 3 2 – –Adult malesAll offences 45,599 1,263 2,601 1,390 1,092 2,442 8,789 3,495 3,000 4,834 9,268 2,590 4,835 Offences with immediate custodial sentence 45,568 1,244 2,598 1,390 1,092 2,440 8,787 3,494 3,000 4,831 9,266 2,590 4,835 Violence against the person 10,012 143 332 203 183 466 1,294 425 419 717 1,440 387 4,004 Rape 2,748 6 2 2 – 7 26 25 54 152 1,424 579 471 Other sexual offences 2,266 10 16 36 77 121 521 104 245 283 686 117 49 Burglary 7,271 82 175 227 189 596 2,600 1.075 525 943 801 45 14 Robbery 5,319 52 18 14 22 64 738 507 528 923 1,844 476 134 Theft and handling 3,391 412 692 399 191 341 811 209 97 121 109 5 5 Fraud and forgery 887 35 97 62 54 110 265 60 64 60 72 6 1 Drugs offences 8,198 37 50 74 93 216 1,428 839 814 1,296 2,461 886 5 Other offences 4,729 444 1,171 290 224 400 894 207 221 284 367 81 147 Offence not recorded 747 23 45 83 59 120 212 44 33 51 63 9 5 In default of payment of a fine 31 19 3 – – 2 2 1 – 3 2 – –Adult femalesAll offences 2,852 133 201 133 106 206 607 223 172 304 509 108 152 Offences with immediate custodial sentence 2,849 133 200 133 106 205 606 223 172 304 509 108 152 Violence against the person 435 19 20 20 10 29 68 20 16 33 49 12 138 Rape 4 – – – – – – – 1 – 1 2 – Other sexual offences 17 – – 1 – 1 6 – – 4 3 2 – Burglary 183 2 4 3 12 27 92 15 8 13 7 – – Robbery 223 4 3 3 2 19 82 28 28 35 15 2 2 Theft and handling 382 64 102 65 29 38 59 8 7 7 3 – – Fraud and forgery 118 13 17 12 13 19 26 6 2 5 5 – – Drugs offences 1,221 6 6 11 20 44 215 131 98 196 408 89 – Other offences 210 21 40 12 11 16 45 14 9 10 17 1 13 Offence not recorded 56 3 8 6 9 12 14 1 3 – 1 – –In default of payment of a fine 3 – 1 – – 1 1 – – – – – – 87
  • 98. Table 4.2 Population of adults in prison under sentence by number of previous convictions(1)England and Wales, 30 JuneAll adults Percentage(2) Number of previous convictions Based on All Previous Nil 1–2 3–6 7–10 11 and over sample adults convictionsYear size not found(3)Adult males1993 4,605 26,545 5 17 15 22 19 231994 4,606 28,896 5 15 15 22 18 251995 6,543 31,820 5 16 15 20 17 281996 8,601 34,848 9 22 16 18 14 221997 8,170 38,927 9 15 14 18 16 281998 8,743 41,592 5 16 14 19 15 311999 8,315 40,850 9 14 13 18 15 322000 8,995 42,281 8 13 14 17 14 332001 9,198 42,959 8 15 12 18 14 33Adult females1993 969 975 12 39 18 16 8 71994 1,105 1,128 11 36 17 17 8 101995 1,240 1,276 15 34 17 14 10 101996 1,536 1,476 17 37 15 13 8 91997 1,773 1,813 15 35 16 14 8 121998 2,041 2,057 11 35 17 17 8 131999 2,070 2,114 15 32 14 15 9 152000 2,261 2,282 11 32 14 16 11 162001 2,533 2,506 14 34 14 15 10 14(1) Excludes fine defaulters.(2) Rounded estimates which therefore may not add to 100.(3) From 1996 more stringent criteria for accepting a possible match to records on the Home Office Offenders Index have been applied that will have tended to increase the number of instances where previous convictions are not found. 88
  • 99. Table 4.3 Population in prison under sentence by offence groupEngland and Wales, 30 JuneAll adults Number of personsOffence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001(r) 2002All adultsAll offences 29,992 27,965 30,487 33,537 36,440 40,856 43,748 43,049 44,643 45,506 48,451Offences with immediate custodial sentence 29,692 27,520 30,024 33,096 36,314 40,740 43,649 42,964 44,563 45,465 48,417 Violence against the person 6,336 6,613 7,107 7,759 8,404 9,109 9,469 9,275 9,666 10,026 10,447 Rape 1,466 1,503 1,550 1,694 1,827 1,956 2,230 2,428 2,548 2,614 2,752 Other sexual offences 1,528 1,527 1,600 1,831 1,970 1,960 2,341 2,280 2,314 2,269 2,283 Burglary 4,029 3,500 3,770 4,477 4,737 6,042 6,487 6,640 6,947 6,864 7,454 Robbery 3,414 4,057 4,334 4,358 4,425 4,707 4,706 4,550 4,727 4,941 5,542 Theft and handling 2,558 2,180 2,599 2,991 3,174 3,493 3,686 3,535 3,862 3,690 3,773 Fraud and forgery 833 877 934 1,150 1,196 1,197 1,160 1,072 974 1,029 1,005 Drugs offences 3,021 3,029 3,363 4,021 5,416 6,742 7,421 7,672 7,924 8,556 9,419 Other offences 2,960 2,829 3,330 3,624 4,093 4,356 4,485 4,452 4,941 4,830 4,938 Offence not recorded 3,547 1,405 1,437 1,191 1,072 1,178 1,664 1,060 660 646 804In default of payment of a fine 300 445 463 441 126 116 99 85 80 41 34Adult malesAll offences 28,956 26,972 29,337 32,238 34,960 39,041 41,690 40,931 42,354 42,998 45,599Offences with immediate custodial sentence 28,676 26,545 28,896 31,820 34,838 38,927 41,592 40,850 42,281 42,959 45,568 Violence against the person 6,178 6,435 6,869 7,508 8,116 8,779 9,110 8,927 9,334 9,668 10,012 Rape 1,464 1,502 1,549 1,692 1,825 1,954 2,227 2,423 2,544 2,609 2,748 Other sexual offences 1,521 1,514 1,589 1,824 1,962 1,955 2,330 2,270 2,301 2,251 2,266 Burglary 3,989 3,473 3,740 4,434 4,685 5,958 6,395 6,520 6,824 6,750 7,271 Robbery 3,377 4,002 4,262 4,286 4,346 4,614 4,602 4,435 4,591 4,758 5,319 Theft and handling 2,386 1,991 2,389 2,734 2,894 3,185 3,333 3,193 3,427 3,300 3,391 Fraud and forgery 781 816 869 1,055 1,079 1,078 1,047 961 848 902 887 Drugs offences 2,776 2,739 3,050 3,659 4,965 6,098 6,678 6,857 7,060 7,501 8,198 Other offences 2,817 2,727 3,222 3,507 3,957 4,186 4,300 4,263 4,752 4,622 4,729 Offence not recorded 3,387 1,346 1,357 1,121 1,009 1,120 1,570 1,001 600 598 747In default of payment of a fine 280 427 441 418 122 114 98 81 73 39 31Adult femalesAll offences 1,036 993 1,150 1,299 1,480 1,815 2,058 2,118 2,289 2,508 2,852Offences with immediate custodial sentence 1,016 975 1,128 1,276 1,476 1,813 2,057 2,114 2,282 2,506 2,849 Violence against the person 158 178 238 251 288 330 359 348 332 358 435 Rape 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 5 4 5 4 Other sexual offences 7 13 11 7 8 5 11 10 13 18 17 Burglary 40 27 30 43 52 84 92 120 123 114 183 Robbery 37 55 72 72 79 93 104 115 136 183 223 Theft and handling 172 189 210 257 280 308 353 342 435 390 382 Fraud and forgery 52 61 65 95 117 119 113 111 126 127 118 Drugs offences 245 290 313 362 451 644 743 815 864 1,054 1,221 Other offences 143 102 108 117 136 170 185 189 189 208 210 Offence not recorded 160 59 80 70 63 58 94 59 60 49 56In default of payment of a fine 20 18 22 23 4 2 1 4 7 2 3 89
  • 100. Table 4.3 (continued) Population in prison under sentence by offence group (per cent)England and Wales, 30 JuneAll adults Percentage(1)Offence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All adultsOffences with immediate custodial sentence Violence against the person 24.2 25.3 24.9 24.3 23.8 23.0 22.6 22.1 22.0 22.4 21.9 Rape 5.6 5.8 5.4 5.3 5.2 4.9 5.3 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 Other sexual offences 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.0 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.8 Burglary 15.4 13.4 13.2 14.0 13.4 15.3 15.5 15.8 15.8 15.3 15.7 Robbery 13.1 15.5 15.2 13.7 12.6 11.9 11.2 10.9 10.8 11.0 11.6 Theft and handling 9.8 8.3 9.1 9.4 9.0 8.8 8.8 8.4 8.8 8.2 7.9 Fraud and forgery 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.2 2.3 2.1 Drugs offences 11.6 11.6 11.8 12.6 15.4 17.0 17.7 18.3 18.0 19.1 19.8 Other offences 11.3 10.8 11.6 11.4 11.6 11.0 10.7 10.6 11.3 10.8 10.4Adult malesOffences with immediate custodial sentence Violence against the person 24.4 25.5 24.9 24.5 24.0 23.2 22.8 22.4 22.4 22.8 22.3 Rape 5.8 6.0 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.2 5.6 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.1 Other sexual offences 6.0 6.0 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.2 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.1 Burglary 15.8 13.8 13.6 14.4 13.8 15.8 16.0 16.4 16.4 15.9 16.2 Robbery 13.4 15.9 15.5 14.0 12.8 12.2 11.5 11.1 11.0 11.2 11.9 Theft and handling 9.4 7.9 8.7 8.9 8.6 8.4 8.3 8.0 8.2 7.8 7.6 Fraud and forgery 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.2 2.9 2.6 2.4 2.0 2.1 2.0 Drugs offences 11.0 10.9 11.1 11.9 14.7 16.1 16.7 17.2 16.9 17.7 18.3 Other offences 11.1 10.8 11.7 11.4 11.7 11.1 10.7 10.7 11.4 10.9 10.6Adult femalesOffences with immediate custodial sentence Violence against the person 18.5 19.4 22.7 20.8 20.4 18.8 18.3 16.9 14.9 14.6 15.6 Rape 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 Other sexual offences 0.8 1.4 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 Burglary 4.7 2.9 2.9 3.6 3.7 4.8 4.7 5.8 5.5 4.6 6.5 Robbery 4.3 6.0 6.9 6.0 5.6 5.3 5.3 5.6 6.1 7.5 8.0 Theft and handling 20.1 20.6 20.0 21.3 19.8 17.5 18.0 16.6 19.6 15.9 13.7 Fraud and forgery 6.1 6.7 6.2 7.9 8.3 6.8 5.8 5.4 5.7 5.2 4.2 Drugs offences 28.6 31.7 29.9 30.0 31.9 36.7 37.9 39.7 38.9 42.9 43.7 Other offences 16.7 11.1 10.3 9.7 9.6 9.7 9.4 9.2 8.5 8.4 7.5(1) Excludes offence not recorded and fine defaulters. 90
  • 101. Table 4.4 Population in prison under sentence by length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 JuneAll adultsLength of Sentence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001(r) 2002All adults 29,992 27,965 30,487 33,537 36,440 40,856 43,748 43,049 44,643 45,506 48,451All sentence lengths 29,692 27,520 30,024 33,096 36,314 40,740 43,649 42,964 44,563 45,465 48,417 Up to and including 3 months 821 850 828 965 1,025 1,115 1,163 1,242 1,655 1,486 1,377 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 1,432 1,478 2,043 2,321 2,498 2,658 2,750 2,664 3,102 3,091 2,798 Over 6 months less than 12 months 1,400 1,322 1,387 1,554 1,733 1,792 1,832 1,583 1,646 1,544 1,522Less than 12 months 3,653 3,650 4,258 4,840 5,256 5,565 5,745 5,489 6,403 6,121 5,697 12 months 1,312 1,234 1,284 1,426 1,458 1,432 1,484 1,229 1,266 1,197 1,197 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 2,814 2,227 2,399 2,595 2,736 2,844 3,101 2,640 2,584 2,568 2,645 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 6,647 5,475 6,239 6,978 7,837 9,070 9,410 8,598 8,392 8,549 9,393 Over 3 years less than 4 years 1,063 999 1,094 1,213 1,375 1,949 2,322 2,625 2,823 3,134 3,71712 months less than 4 years 11,836 9,935 11,016 12,212 13,406 15,295 16,317 15,092 15,065 15,447 16,952 4 years 1,846 1,858 1,955 2,173 2,502 2,990 3,215 3,052 2,890 2,929 3,173 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 2,403 2,344 2,483 2,914 3,261 3,808 4,240 4,410 4,488 4,645 5,135 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 5,658 5,339 5,691 6,158 6,773 7,568 8,206 8,585 8,867 9,136 9,775 Over 10 years less than life 1,387 1,380 1,517 1,598 1,707 1,902 2,118 2,269 2,408 2,524 2,698 Life 2,909 3,014 3,104 3,201 3,409 3,612 3,808 4,067 4,442 4,663 4,9874 years to Life 14,203 13,935 14,750 16,044 17,652 19,880 21,587 22,383 23,095 23,897 25,768In default of payment of a fine 300 445 463 441 126 116 99 85 80 41 34All adult males 28,956 26,972 29,337 32,238 34,960 39,041 41,690 40,931 42,354 42,998 45,599All sentence lengths 28,676 26,545 28,896 31,820 34,838 38,927 41,592 40,850 42,281 42,959 45,568 Up to and including 3 months 772 773 795 907 949 1,021 1,050 1,117 1,487 1,346 1,244 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 1,376 1,404 1,925 2,199 2,371 2,476 2,560 2,474 2,881 2,883 2,598 Over 6 months less than 12 months 1,338 1,250 1,299 1,449 1,595 1,645 1,687 1,474 1,512 1,414 1,390Less than 12 months 3,486 3,427 4,019 4,555 4,915 5,142 5,297 5,065 5,880 5,643 5,232 12 months 1,245 1,167 1,215 1,353 1,367 1,351 1,374 1,108 1,158 1,096 1,092 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 2,696 2,115 2,281 2,465 2,586 2,696 2,927 2,451 2,417 2,392 2,440 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 6,460 5,311 5,999 6,714 7,538 8,661 8,989 8,222 7,963 8,026 8,787 Over 3 years less than 4 years 1,041 981 1,064 1,178 1,337 1,884 2,235 2,525 2,691 2,997 3,49412 months to less than 4 years 11,442 9,574 10,559 11,710 12,828 14,592 15,525 14,306 14,229 14,510 15,813 4 years 1,786 1,812 1,888 2,103 2,419 2,874 3,077 2,900 2,752 2,768 3,000 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 2,318 2,277 2,400 2,812 3,162 3,681 4,071 4,218 4,293 4,384 4,831 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 5,462 5,182 5,538 5,976 6,553 7,299 7,891 8,236 8,499 8,709 9,266 Over 10 years less than life 1,365 1,360 1,494 1,571 1,671 1,855 2,055 2,200 2,331 2,433 2,590 Life 2,817 2,913 2,998 3,093 3,290 3,484 3,676 3,925 4,297 4,511 4,8354 years to Life 13,748 13,544 14,318 15,555 17,095 19,193 20,770 21,479 22,172 22,806 24,523In default of payment of a fine 280 427 441 418 122 114 98 81 73 39 31All adult females 1,036 993 1,150 1,299 1,480 1,815 2,058 2,118 2,289 2,508 2,852All sentence lengths 1,016 975 1,128 1,276 1,476 1,813 2,057 2,114 2,282 2,506 2,849 Up to and including 3 months 49 77 33 58 76 94 113 125 168 140 133 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 56 74 118 122 127 182 190 190 221 209 200 Over 6 months less than 12 months 62 72 88 105 138 147 145 109 134 130 133Less than 12 months 167 223 239 285 341 423 448 424 523 478 465 12 months 67 67 69 73 91 81 110 121 108 101 106 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 118 112 118 130 150 148 174 189 167 176 205 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 187 164 240 264 299 409 421 376 429 523 606 Over 3 years less than 4 years 22 18 30 35 38 65 87 100 132 137 22312 months to less than 4 years 394 361 457 502 578 703 792 786 836 937 1,139 4 years 60 46 67 70 83 116 138 152 138 161 172 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 85 67 83 102 99 127 169 192 195 261 304 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 196 157 153 182 220 269 315 349 368 427 509 Over 10 years less than life 22 20 23 27 36 47 63 69 77 90 108 Life 92 101 106 108 119 128 132 142 145 152 1524 years to Life 455 391 432 489 557 687 817 904 923 1,091 1,245In default of payment of a fine 20 18 22 23 4 2 1 4 7 2 3 91
  • 102. Table 4.4 (continued) Population in prison under sentence by length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 JuneAll adults PercentageLength of Sentence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All adultsOffences with immediate custodial sentence 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Up to and including 3 months 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.7 3.3 2.8 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 4.8 5.4 6.8 7.0 6.9 6.5 6.3 6.2 7.0 6.8 5.8 Over 6 months less than 12 months 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.4 4.2 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.1Less than 12 months 12.3 13.3 14.2 14.6 14.5 13.7 13.2 12.8 14.4 13.5 11.8 12 months 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.0 3.5 3.4 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.5 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 9.5 8.1 8.0 7.8 7.5 7.0 7.1 6.1 5.8 5.6 5.5 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 22.4 19.9 20.8 21.1 21.6 22.3 21.6 20.0 18.8 18.8 19.4 Over 3 years less than 4 years 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.8 5.3 6.1 6.3 6.9 7.712 months to less than 4 years 39.9 36.1 36.7 36.9 36.9 37.5 37.4 35.1 33.8 34.0 35.0 4 years 6.2 6.8 6.5 6.6 6.9 7.3 7.4 7.1 6.5 6.4 6.6 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 8.1 8.5 8.3 8.8 9.0 9.3 9.7 10.3 10.1 10.2 10.6 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 19.1 19.4 19.0 18.6 18.7 18.6 18.8 20.0 19.9 20.1 20.2 Over 10 years less than life 4.7 5.0 5.1 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.6 Life 9.8 11.0 10.3 9.7 9.4 8.9 8.7 9.5 10.0 10.3 10.34 years to Life 47.8 50.6 49.1 48.5 48.6 48.8 49.5 52.1 51.8 52.6 53.2All adult malesOffences with immediate custodial sentence 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Up to and including 3 months 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.7 3.5 3.1 2.7 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 4.8 5.3 6.7 6.9 6.8 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.8 6.7 5.7 Over 6 months less than 12 months 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.2 4.1 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.1Less than 12 months 12.2 12.9 13.9 14.3 14.1 13.2 12.7 12.4 13.9 13.1 11.5 12 months 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.3 3.9 3.5 3.3 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.4 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 9.4 8.0 7.9 7.7 7.4 6.9 7.0 6.0 5.7 5.6 5.4 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 22.5 20.0 20.8 21.1 21.6 22.2 21.6 20.1 18.8 18.7 19.3 Over 3 years less than 4 years 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 4.8 5.4 6.2 6.4 7.0 7.712 months to less than 4 years 39.9 36.1 36.5 36.8 36.8 37.5 37.3 35.0 33.7 33.8 34.7 4 years 6.2 6.8 6.5 6.6 6.9 7.4 7.4 7.1 6.5 6.4 6.6 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 8.1 8.6 8.3 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.8 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.6 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 19.0 19.5 19.2 18.8 18.8 18.8 19.0 20.2 20.1 20.3 20.3 Over 10 years less than life 4.8 5.1 5.2 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.7 Life 9.8 11.0 10.4 9.7 9.4 9.0 8.8 9.6 10.2 10.5 10.64 years to Life 47.9 51.0 49.6 48.9 49.1 49.3 49.9 52.6 52.4 53.1 53.8All adult femalesOffences with immediate custodial sentence 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Up to and including 3 months 4.8 7.9 2.9 4.5 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.9 7.4 5.6 4.7 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 5.5 7.6 10.5 9.6 8.6 10.0 9.2 9.0 9.7 8.3 7.0 Over 6 months less than 12 months 6.1 7.4 7.8 8.2 9.3 8.1 7.0 5.2 5.9 5.2 4.7Less than 12 months 16.4 22.9 21.2 22.3 23.1 23.3 21.8 20.1 22.9 19.1 16.3 12 months 6.6 6.9 6.1 5.7 6.2 4.5 5.3 5.7 4.7 4.0 3.7 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 11.6 11.5 10.5 10.2 10.2 8.2 8.5 8.9 7.3 7.0 7.2 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 18.4 16.8 21.3 20.7 20.3 22.6 20.5 17.8 18.8 20.9 21.3 Over 3 years less than 4 years 2.2 1.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 3.6 4.2 4.7 5.8 5.5 7.812 months to less than 4 years 38.8 37.0 40.5 39.3 39.2 38.8 38.5 37.2 36.6 37.4 40.0 4 years 5.9 4.7 5.9 5.5 5.6 6.4 6.7 7.2 6.0 6.4 6.0 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 8.4 6.9 7.4 8.0 6.7 7.0 8.2 9.1 8.5 10.4 10.7 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 19.3 16.1 13.6 14.3 14.9 14.8 15.3 16.5 16.1 17.0 17.9 Over 10 years less than life 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.6 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.8 Life 9.1 10.4 9.4 8.5 8.1 7.1 6.4 6.7 6.4 6.1 5.34 years to Life 44.8 40.1 38.3 38.3 37.7 37.9 39.7 42.8 40.4 43.5 43.7 92
  • 103. Table 4.5 Receptions into prison under sentence: by age and offenceEngland and Wales 2002All adults Number of personsOffence group Immediate imprisonment In default Age of payment All ages 21–24 25–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60 and of a over fineAll offences 73,379 19,421 18,336 24,359 8,081 2,469 713 1,082Violence against the person 10,240 2,561 2,295 3,580 1,347 381 76 53 Murder 264 53 53 89 50 14 5 – Manslaughter 194 47 35 70 28 11 3 – Other homicide and attempted homicide 885 188 180 321 139 48 9 2 Wounding 4,086 1,136 978 1,355 483 113 21 15 Assaults 3,101 740 682 1,159 397 105 18 25 Cruelty to children 99 21 16 38 17 6 1 – Other offences of violence against the person 1,611 376 351 548 233 84 19 11Sexual offences 2,235 182 259 643 507 375 269 – Buggery and indecency between males 71 5 6 17 16 15 12 – Rape 673 84 92 238 140 75 44 – Gross indecency with children 571 17 33 129 141 141 110 – Other sexual offences 920 76 128 259 210 144 103 –Burglary 7,499 2,464 2,214 2,296 448 67 10 25Robbery 2,714 1,010 707 808 167 18 4 5Theft and handling 18,390 5,156 5,219 6,246 1,423 298 48 121 Taking and driving away 1,191 551 354 252 33 1 – 7 Other thefts 16,195 4,343 4,594 5,643 1,291 278 46 108 Handling stolen goods 1,004 262 271 351 99 19 2 6Fraud and forgery 2,739 451 608 920 467 219 74 23 Fraud 2,565 413 560 865 444 211 72 23 Forgery 174 38 48 55 23 8 2 –Drugs offences 6,345 1,436 1,534 2,251 842 242 40 33Other offences 21,784 5,784 5,144 7,177 2,703 812 164 453 Arson 265 58 53 76 53 19 6 – Criminal damage 1,056 274 227 366 143 42 4 54 In charge or driving under the influence of drink or drugs 2,370 352 403 873 545 178 19 19 Other motoring offences 9,870 2,828 2,534 3,179 1,014 261 54 216 Drunkenness 252 34 47 90 59 18 4 26 Blackmail 51 14 16 13 5 3 – – Kidnapping 163 51 34 53 17 7 1 – Affray 845 273 215 258 83 14 2 1 Violent disorder 267 104 64 72 26 1 – 2 Perjury/Libel/Pervert the course of justice 459 135 107 146 49 17 5 1 Threat/disorderly behaviour 703 185 137 239 105 30 7 10 Breach of Court Order 3,444 1,081 892 1,122 270 65 14 30 Other(1) 2,039 395 415 690 334 157 48 94Offence not recorded 1,433 377 356 438 177 57 28 369(1) Other includes other criminal offences, other non-criminal offences and breaches of the Immigration Act 1971. 93
  • 104. Table 4.5 (continued) Receptions into prison under sentence: by age and offenceEngland and Wales 2002Adult males Number of personsOffence group Immediate imprisonment In default Age of payment All ages 21–24 25–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60 and of a over fineAll offences 66,991 17,754 16,642 22,202 7,356 2,347 690 1,006Violence against the person 9,574 2,402 2,144 3,346 1,247 367 68 51 Murder 251 52 53 81 48 12 5 – Manslaughter 168 43 31 58 24 10 2 – Other homicide and attempted homicide 845 180 176 308 129 45 7 2 Wounding 3,861 1,078 917 1,280 458 109 19 15 Assaults 2,844 677 624 1,064 358 103 18 24 Cruelty to children 63 10 8 31 9 5 – – Other offences of violence against the person 1,542 362 335 524 221 83 17 10Sexual offences 2,221 182 258 635 504 373 269 – Buggery and indecency between males 71 5 6 17 16 15 12 – Rape 673 84 92 238 140 75 44 – Gross indecency with children 562 17 33 124 139 139 110 – Other sexual offences 915 76 127 256 209 144 103 –Burglary 7,227 2,374 2,144 2,201 431 67 10 25Robbery 2,486 918 638 751 157 18 4 2Theft and handling 15,791 4,407 4,469 5,393 1,205 273 44 106 Taking and driving away 1,177 546 349 248 33 1 – 7 Other thefts 13,737 3,632 3,880 4,846 1,084 253 42 93 Handling stolen goods 877 229 240 299 88 19 2 6Fraud and forgery 2,267 382 492 758 376 189 70 21 Fraud 2,128 349 456 713 360 182 68 21 Forgery 139 33 36 45 16 7 2 –Drugs offences 5,498 1,252 1,324 1,948 716 222 36 33Other offences 20,615 5,483 4,851 6,774 2,559 787 161 420 Arson 232 53 47 58 50 19 5 – Criminal damage 1,000 260 218 344 132 42 4 53 In charge or driving under the influence of drink or drugs 2,304 346 395 849 524 171 19 18 Other motoring offences 9,620 2,773 2,466 3,086 985 256 54 201 Drunkenness 245 32 46 88 57 18 4 26 Blackmail 42 11 12 13 3 3 – – Kidnapping 158 50 33 51 16 7 1 – Affray 822 267 208 249 82 14 2 1 Violent disorder 258 101 61 70 25 1 – 2 Perjury/Libel/Pervert the course of justice 409 118 94 134 45 13 5 1 Threat/disorderly behaviour 668 175 130 233 96 28 6 10 Breach of Court Order 3,015 948 770 979 240 64 14 27 Other(1) 1,842 349 371 620 304 151 47 81Offence not recorded 1,312 354 322 396 161 51 28 348(1) Other includes other criminal offences, other non-criminal offences and breaches of the Immigration Act 1971. 94
  • 105. Table 4.5 (continued) Receptions into prison under sentence: by age and offenceEngland and Wales 2002Adult females Number of personsOffence group Immediate imprisonment In default Age of payment All ages 21–24 25–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60 and of a over fineAll offences 6,388 1,667 1,694 2,157 725 122 23 76Violence against the person 666 159 151 234 100 14 8 2 Murder 13 1 – 8 2 2 – – Manslaughter 26 4 4 12 4 1 1 – Other homicide and attempted homicide 40 8 4 13 10 3 2 – Wounding 225 58 61 75 25 4 2 – Assaults 257 63 58 95 39 2 – 1 Cruelty to children 36 11 8 7 8 1 1 – Other offences of violence against the person 69 14 16 24 12 1 2 1Sexual offences 14 – 1 8 3 2 – – Buggery and indecency between males – – – – – – – – Rape – – – – – – – – Gross indecency with children 9 – – 5 2 2 – – Other sexual offences 5 – 1 3 1 – – –Burglary 272 90 70 95 17 – – –Robbery 228 92 69 57 10 – – 3Theft and handling 2,599 749 750 853 218 25 4 15 Taking and driving away 14 5 5 4 – – – – Other thefts 2,458 711 714 797 207 25 4 15 Handling stolen goods 127 33 31 52 11 – – –Fraud and forgery 472 69 116 162 91 30 4 2 Fraud 437 64 104 152 84 29 4 2 Forgery 35 5 12 10 7 1 – –Drugs offences 847 184 210 303 126 20 4 –Other offences 1,169 301 293 403 144 25 3 33 Arson 33 5 6 18 3 – 1 – Criminal damage 56 14 9 22 11 – – 1 In charge or driving under the influence of drink or drugs 66 6 8 24 21 7 – 1 Other motoring offences 250 55 68 93 29 5 – 15 Drunkenness 7 2 1 2 2 – – – Blackmail 9 3 4 – 2 – – – Kidnapping 5 1 1 2 1 – – – Affray 23 6 7 9 1 – – – Violent disorder 9 3 3 2 1 – – – Perjury/Libel/Pervert the course of justice 50 17 13 12 4 4 – – Threat/disorderly behaviour 35 10 7 6 9 2 1 – Breach of Court Order 429 133 122 143 30 1 – 3 Other(1) 197 46 44 70 30 6 1 13Offence not recorded 121 23 34 42 16 6 – 21(1) Other includes other criminal offences, other non-criminal offences and breaches of the Immigration Act 1971. 95
  • 106. Table 4.6 Receptions into prison under sentence of immediate imprisonment: by age, offence group and length of sentenceEngland and Wales 2002All adults Number of personsAge and offence group Length of sentence All sentence Up to Over Over 12 months Over Over Over 4 years Over Over Over Life lengths and 3 months 6 months 12 months 18 months 3 years 4 years 5 years 10 years including up to less than up to up to less than up to up to less than 3 months and 12 months and and 4 years and and life including including including including including 6 months 18 months 3 years 5 years 10 yearsAll adultsAll ages 73,379 21,877 20,264 5,729 3,071 4,677 8,410 2,155 1,597 1,996 2,676 463 464 Violence against the person 10,240 2,614 2,537 839 544 863 1,228 257 253 307 417 60 321 Sexual offences 2,235 119 169 123 172 216 434 92 155 153 465 94 43 Burglary 7,499 1,017 1,231 642 452 936 2,037 461 203 283 221 7 9 Robbery 2,714 215 145 83 76 190 688 298 247 283 390 55 44 Theft and handling 18,390 8,560 5,421 1,783 517 689 950 185 81 107 79 6 12 Fraud and forgery 2,739 654 783 366 202 248 313 46 44 36 33 13 1 Drugs offences 6,345 537 502 387 304 504 1,427 611 449 590 839 193 2 Other offences 21,784 7,870 9,178 1,262 669 876 1,146 180 137 200 203 31 32 Offence not recorded 1,433 291 298 244 135 155 187 25 28 37 29 4 –Adult males 66,991 19,343 18,760 5,180 2,801 4,325 7,798 1,994 1,502 1,881 2,527 432 448Aged 21-29 34,396 9,754 9,825 2,946 1,428 2,356 4,149 1,087 702 901 980 105 163 Violence against the person 4,546 1,062 1,073 421 260 425 576 141 109 143 190 26 120 Sexual offences 440 44 50 25 44 55 56 16 23 30 79 9 9 Burglary 4,518 609 753 408 281 603 1,207 274 107 158 110 2 6 Robbery 1,556 118 85 46 47 107 397 185 142 168 222 25 14 Theft and handling 8,876 3,714 2,800 960 238 358 554 106 43 54 41 3 5 Fraud and forgery 874 234 286 123 61 74 73 11 5 4 2 1 – Drugs offences 2,576 265 240 181 127 213 603 253 195 227 242 30 – Other offences 10,334 3,568 4,381 670 320 441 589 92 69 103 84 8 9 Offence not recorded 676 140 157 112 50 80 94 9 9 14 10 1 –Aged 30 and over 32,595 9,589 8,935 2,234 1,373 1,969 3,649 907 800 980 1,547 327 285 Violence against the person 5,028 1,317 1,334 351 251 389 580 96 129 152 211 32 186 Sexual offences 1,781 75 118 95 128 160 373 76 132 122 384 84 34 Burglary 2,709 369 432 207 148 301 753 177 88 119 107 5 3 Robbery 930 71 51 24 19 49 195 94 95 108 164 30 30 Theft and handling 6,915 3,487 1,863 584 205 249 329 67 34 50 37 3 7 Fraud and forgery 1,393 260 337 184 114 145 211 33 36 30 30 12 1 Drugs offences 2,922 192 199 161 127 216 633 274 206 291 485 136 2 Other offences 10,281 3,712 4,481 520 311 392 488 75 61 87 110 22 22 Offence not recorded 636 106 120 108 70 68 87 15 19 21 19 3 –Adult females 6,388 2,534 1,504 549 270 352 612 161 95 115 149 31 16Aged 21-29 3,361 1,402 800 298 116 179 335 83 47 48 46 5 2 Violence against the person 310 114 54 37 17 24 40 7 6 3 7 – 1 Sexual offences 1 – – 1 – – – – – – – – – Burglary 160 25 26 17 12 23 41 6 4 4 2 – – Robbery 161 12 7 9 6 25 74 10 10 6 2 – – Theft and handling 1,499 786 455 142 31 38 34 8 3 1 1 – – Fraud and forgery 185 71 70 21 5 10 8 – – – – – – Drugs offences 394 51 25 23 19 38 109 41 20 31 32 5 – Other offences 594 319 155 37 20 17 27 10 4 2 2 – 1 Offence not recorded 57 24 8 11 6 4 2 1 – 1 – – –Aged 30 and over 3,027 1,132 704 251 154 173 277 78 48 67 103 26 14 Violence against the person 356 121 76 30 16 25 32 13 9 9 9 2 14 Sexual offences 13 – 1 2 – 1 5 – – 1 2 1 – Burglary 112 14 20 10 11 9 36 4 4 2 2 – – Robbery 67 14 2 4 4 9 22 9 – 1 2 – – Theft and handling 1,100 573 303 97 43 44 33 4 1 2 – – – Fraud and forgery 287 89 90 38 22 19 21 2 3 2 1 – – Drugs offences 453 29 38 22 31 37 82 43 28 41 80 22 – Other offences 575 271 161 35 18 26 42 3 3 8 7 1 – Offence not recorded 64 21 13 13 9 3 4 – – 1 – – – 96
  • 107. Table 4.7 Receptions into prison under sentence of immediate imprisonment: by offence groupEngland and WalesAll adults Number of personsOffence group 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All adultsAll offences 36,832 37,358 46,232 52,772 56,713 62,089 66,309 69,218 69,862 69,554 73,379 Violence against the person 5,279 5,578 6,576 7,189 8,092 8,933 9,606 9,463 9,683 10,032 10,240 Sexual offences 1,687 1,744 1,815 2,211 2,321 2,325 2,508 2,431 2,241 2,177 2,235 Burglary 5,603 5,516 6,650 7,058 7,197 7,734 7,534 7,484 7,567 6,943 7,499 Robbery 1,877 1,810 1,696 1,751 1,908 1,877 1,795 1,981 2,043 2,155 2,714 Theft and handling 6,479 6,597 8,531 10,266 11,070 12,745 14,414 16,037 17,437 17,464 18,390 Fraud and forgery 1,718 1,889 2,115 2,606 2,818 2,688 3,059 2,984 2,758 2,751 2,739 Drugs offences 2,765 2,794 3,127 4,248 5,457 6,353 6,598 6,753 6,277 6,501 6,345 Other offences 8,656 10,274 14,388 16,330 16,801 18,189 19,383 20,853 20,321 20,342 21,784 Offence not recorded 2,768 1,156 1,334 1,113 1,049 1,245 1,412 1,232 1,535 1,189 1,433Adult malesAll offences 35,018 35,429 43,789 49,875 53,415 58,095 61,531 63,635 64,092 63,593 66,991 Violence against the person 5,114 5,363 6,308 6,850 7,717 8,503 9,100 8,926 9,117 9,432 9,574 Sexual offences 1,678 1,726 1,806 2,202 2,312 2,311 2,486 2,414 2,218 2,161 2,221 Burglary 5,536 5,447 6,558 6,976 7,080 7,604 7,377 7,294 7,373 6,752 7,227 Robbery 1,835 1,752 1,645 1,694 1,824 1,815 1,707 1,873 1,918 1,992 2,486 Theft and handling 5,872 5,915 7,550 9,140 9,910 11,219 12,593 13,813 15,001 15,043 15,791 Fraud and forgery 1,549 1,643 1,859 2,255 2,420 2,311 2,578 2,449 2,245 2,249 2,267 Drugs offences 2,516 2,522 2,874 3,891 4,944 5,692 5,863 5,932 5,484 5,627 5,498 Other offences 8,372 10,003 13,996 15,903 16,265 17,521 18,569 19,842 19,354 19,256 20,615 Offence not recorded 2,546 1,058 1,193 964 943 1,119 1,258 1,092 1,382 1,081 1,312Adult femalesAll offences 1,814 1,929 2,443 2,897 3,298 3,994 4,778 5,583 5,770 5,961 6,388 Violence against the person 165 215 268 339 375 430 506 537 566 600 666 Sexual offences 9 18 9 9 9 14 22 17 23 16 14 Burglary 67 69 92 82 117 130 157 190 194 191 272 Robbery 42 58 51 57 84 62 88 108 125 163 228 Theft and handling 607 682 981 1,126 1,160 1,526 1,821 2,224 2,436 2,421 2,599 Fraud and forgery 169 246 256 351 398 377 481 535 513 502 472 Drugs offences 249 272 253 357 513 661 735 821 793 874 847 Other offences 284 271 392 427 536 668 814 1,011 967 1,086 1,169 Offence not recorded 222 98 141 149 106 126 154 140 153 108 121 PercentageAll adultsAll offences 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Violence against the person 15.5 15.4 14.6 13.9 14.5 14.7 14.8 13.9 14.2 14.7 14.2 Sexual offences 5.0 4.8 4.0 4.3 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.1 Burglary 16.4 15.2 14.8 13.7 12.9 12.7 11.6 11.0 11.1 10.2 10.4 Robbery 5.5 5.0 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.1 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.8 Theft and handling 19.0 18.2 19.0 19.9 19.9 20.9 22.2 23.6 25.5 25.5 25.6 Fraud and forgery 5.0 5.2 4.7 5.0 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.0 4.0 3.8 Drugs offences 8.1 7.7 7.0 8.2 9.8 10.4 10.2 9.9 9.2 9.5 8.8 Other offences 25.4 28.4 32.0 31.6 30.2 29.9 29.9 30.7 29.7 29.8 30.3Adult malesAll offences 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Violence against the person 15.7 15.6 14.8 14.0 14.7 14.9 15.1 14.3 14.5 15.1 14.6 Sexual offences 5.2 5.0 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.4 Burglary 17.0 15.8 15.4 14.3 13.5 13.3 12.2 11.7 11.8 10.8 11.0 Robbery 5.7 5.1 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.8 Theft and handling 18.1 17.2 17.7 18.7 18.9 19.7 20.9 22.1 23.9 24.1 24.0 Fraud and forgery 4.8 4.8 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.1 4.3 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.5 Drugs offences 7.7 7.3 6.7 8.0 9.4 10.0 9.7 9.5 8.7 9.0 8.4 Other offences 25.8 29.1 32.9 32.5 31.0 30.8 30.8 31.7 30.9 30.8 31.4Adult femalesAll offences 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Violence against the person 10.4 11.7 11.6 12.3 11.7 11.1 10.9 9.9 10.1 10.3 10.6 Sexual offences 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 Burglary 4.2 3.8 4.0 3.0 3.7 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.3 4.3 Robbery 2.6 3.2 2.2 2.1 2.6 1.6 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.8 3.6 Theft and handling 38.1 37.2 42.6 41.0 36.3 39.5 39.4 40.9 43.4 41.4 41.5 Fraud and forgery 10.6 13.4 11.1 12.8 12.5 9.7 10.4 9.8 9.1 8.6 7.5 Drugs offences 15.6 14.9 11.0 13.0 16.1 17.1 15.9 15.1 14.1 14.9 13.5 Other offences 17.8 14.8 17.0 15.5 16.8 17.3 17.6 18.6 17.2 18.6 18.7 97
  • 108. Table 4.8 Receptions into prison under sentence of immediate imprisonment: by sentence lengthEngland and WalesAll adults Number of personsLength of sentence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All adultsAll sentence lengths 36,832 37,358 46,232 52,772 56,713 62,089 66,309 69,218 69,862 69,554 73,379 Up to and including 3 months 7,370 7,982 11,299 14,320 15,224 17,546 19,722 21,491 21,708 21,359 21,877 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 7,111 8,949 12,422 13,818 14,664 15,805 17,161 18,686 19,265 19,256 20,264 Over 6 months less than 12months 4,090 4,119 4,476 4,915 4,976 5,351 5,630 5,485 5,786 5,531 5,729 Less than 12 months 18,571 21,050 28,197 33,053 34,864 38,702 42,513 45,662 46,759 46,146 47,870 12 months 2,998 2,863 3,151 3,263 3,298 3,357 3,416 3,371 3,175 3,043 3,071 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 4,303 3,730 4,172 4,322 4,511 4,668 4,915 4,781 4,578 4,370 4,677 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 6,292 5,415 6,182 6,981 7,784 8,307 8,328 8,065 7,881 7,902 8,410 Over 3 years less than 4 years 632 532 641 762 967 1,214 1,441 1,534 1,656 1,801 2,155 12 months to less than 4 years 14,225 12,540 14,146 15,328 16,560 17,546 18,100 17,751 17,290 17,116 18,313 4 years 1,043 917 921 1,068 1,368 1,451 1,357 1,293 1,313 1,368 1,597 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 885 948 968 1,192 1,339 1,545 1,542 1,548 1,598 1,717 1,996 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 1,668 1,494 1,563 1,610 1,963 2,147 2,032 2,150 2,112 2,390 2,676 Over 10 years less than life 236 207 248 273 341 385 400 403 359 373 463 Life 204 202 189 248 278 313 365 411 431 444 464 4 years or more 4,036 3,768 3,889 4,391 5,289 5,841 5,696 5,805 5,813 6,292 7,196Adult malesAll sentence lengths 35,018 35,429 43,789 49,875 53,415 58,095 61,531 63,635 64,092 63,593 66,991 Up to and including 3 months 6,879 7,446 10,498 13,296 14,034 16,007 17,828 19,191 19,312 19,045 19,343 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 6,762 8,515 11,819 13,121 13,951 14,904 15,992 17,340 17,846 17,796 18,760 Over 6 months less than 12 months 3,880 3,886 4,191 4,607 4,639 4,948 5,158 5,013 5,291 5,005 5,180 Less than 12 months 17,521 19,847 26,508 31,024 32,624 35,859 38,978 41,544 42,449 41,846 43,283 12 months 2,835 2,700 2,986 3,064 3,101 3,157 3,179 3,058 2,901 2,777 2,801 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 4,110 3,553 3,965 4,109 4,273 4,416 4,617 4,436 4,279 4,051 4,325 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 6,072 5,198 5,965 6,715 7,422 7,927 7,942 7,651 7,416 7,360 7,798 Over 3 years less than 4 years 614 512 625 740 938 1,167 1,391 1,449 1,576 1,699 1,994 12 months to less than 4 years 13,631 11,963 13,541 14,628 15,734 16,667 17,129 16,594 16,172 15,887 16,918 4 years 999 887 883 1,027 1,310 1,380 1,290 1,227 1,233 1,287 1,502 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 840 905 931 1,151 1,284 1,470 1,468 1,461 1,490 1,588 1,881 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 1,608 1,439 1,499 1,556 1,865 2,054 1,937 2,025 1,989 2,213 2,527 Over 10 years less than life 229 199 246 259 330 368 378 388 346 342 432 Life 190 189 181 230 268 297 351 396 413 430 448 4 years or more 3,866 3,619 3,740 4,223 5,057 5,569 5,424 5,497 5,471 5,860 6,790Adult femalesAll sentence lengths 1,814 1,929 2,443 2,897 3,298 3,994 4,778 5,583 5,770 5,961 6,388 Up to and including 3 months 491 536 801 1,024 1,190 1,539 1,894 2,300 2,396 2,314 2,534 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 349 434 603 697 713 901 1,169 1,346 1,419 1,460 1,504 Over 6 months less than 12months 210 233 285 308 337 403 472 472 495 526 549 Less than 12 months 1,050 1,203 1,689 2,029 2,240 2,843 3,535 4,118 4,310 4,300 4,587 12 months 163 163 165 199 197 200 237 313 274 266 270 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 193 177 207 213 238 252 298 345 299 319 352 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 220 217 217 266 362 380 386 414 465 542 612 Over 3 years less than 4 years 18 20 16 22 29 47 50 85 80 102 161 12 months to less than 4 years 594 577 605 700 826 879 971 1,157 1,118 1,229 1,395 4 years 44 30 38 41 58 71 67 66 80 81 95 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 45 43 37 41 55 75 74 87 108 129 115 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 60 55 64 54 98 93 95 125 123 177 149 Over 10 years less than life 7 8 2 14 11 17 22 15 13 31 31 Life 14 13 8 18 10 16 14 15 18 14 16 4 years or more 170 149 149 168 232 272 272 308 342 432 406 98
  • 109. Table 4.8 (continued) Receptions into prison under sentence of immediate imprisonment: by sentence lengthEngland and WalesAll adults PercentageLength of sentence 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All adultsAll sentence lengths 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Up to and including 3 months 20.0 21.4 24.4 27.1 26.8 28.3 29.7 31.0 31.1 30.7 29.8 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 19.3 24.0 26.9 26.2 25.9 25.5 25.9 27.0 27.6 27.7 27.6 Over 6 months less than 12 months 11.1 11.0 9.7 9.3 8.8 8.6 8.5 7.9 8.3 8.0 7.8 Less than 12 months 50.4 56.3 61.0 62.6 61.5 62.3 64.1 66.0 66.9 66.3 65.2 12 months 8.1 7.7 6.8 6.2 5.8 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.2 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 11.7 10.0 9.0 8.2 8.0 7.5 7.4 6.9 6.6 6.3 6.4 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 17.1 14.5 13.4 13.2 13.7 13.4 12.6 11.7 11.3 11.4 11.5 Over 3 years less than 4 years 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.9 12 months to less than 4 years 38.6 33.6 30.6 29.0 29.2 28.3 27.3 25.6 24.7 24.6 25.0 4 years 2.8 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.4 2.3 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.2 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 2.4 2.5 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.7 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 4.5 4.0 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.4 3.6 Over 10 years less than life 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 Life 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 4 years or more 11.0 10.1 8.4 8.3 9.3 9.4 8.6 8.4 8.3 9.0 9.8Adult malesAll sentence lengths 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Up to and including 3 months 19.6 21.0 24.0 26.7 26.3 27.6 29.0 30.2 30.1 29.9 28.9 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 19.3 24.0 27.0 26.3 26.1 25.7 26.0 27.2 27.8 28.0 28.0 Over 6 months less than 12 months 11.1 11.0 9.6 9.2 8.7 8.5 8.4 7.9 8.3 7.9 7.7 Less than 12 months 50.0 56.0 60.5 62.2 61.1 61.7 63.3 65.3 66.2 65.8 64.6 12 months 8.1 7.6 6.8 6.1 5.8 5.4 5.2 4.8 4.5 4.4 4.2 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 11.7 10.0 9.1 8.2 8.0 7.6 7.5 7.0 6.7 6.4 6.5 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 17.3 14.7 13.6 13.5 13.9 13.6 12.9 12.0 11.6 11.6 11.6 Over 3 years less than 4 years 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.7 3.0 12 months to less than 4 years 38.9 33.8 30.9 29.3 29.5 28.7 27.8 26.1 25.2 25.0 25.3 4 years 2.9 2.5 2.0 2.1 2.5 2.4 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.2 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 2.4 2.6 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.8 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 4.6 4.1 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.5 3.8 Over 10 years less than life 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 Life 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 4 years or more 11.0 10.2 8.5 8.5 9.5 9.6 8.8 8.6 8.5 9.2 10.1Adult femalesAll sentence lengths 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Up to and including 3 months 27.1 27.8 32.8 35.3 36.1 38.5 39.6 41.2 41.5 38.8 39.7 Over 3 months up to and including 6 months 19.2 22.5 24.7 24.1 21.6 22.6 24.5 24.1 24.6 24.5 23.5 Over 6 months less than 12 months 11.6 12.1 11.7 10.6 10.2 10.1 9.9 8.5 8.6 8.8 8.6 Less than 12 months 57.9 62.4 69.1 70.0 67.9 71.2 74.0 73.8 74.7 72.1 71.8 12 months 9.0 8.4 6.8 6.9 6.0 5.0 5.0 5.6 4.7 4.5 4.2 Over 12 months up to and including 18 months 10.6 9.2 8.5 7.4 7.2 6.3 6.2 6.2 5.2 5.4 5.5 Over 18 months up to and including 3 years 12.1 11.2 8.9 9.2 11.0 9.5 8.1 7.4 8.1 9.1 9.6 Over 3 years less than 4 years 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.7 2.5 12 months to less than 4 years 32.7 29.9 24.8 24.2 25.0 22.0 20.3 20.7 19.4 20.6 21.8 4 years 2.4 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.8 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.5 Over 4 years up to and including 5 years 2.5 2.2 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.9 2.2 1.8 Over 5 years up to and including 10 years 3.3 2.9 2.6 1.9 3.0 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.1 3.0 2.3 Over 10 years less than life 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.5 Life 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 4 years or more 9.4 7.7 6.1 5.8 7.0 6.8 5.7 5.5 5.9 7.2 6.4 99
  • 110. Table 4.9 Receptions into prison under sentence of immediate imprisonment: by ageEngland and WalesAll adults Number of personsAge 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All adultsAge on receptionAll ages 36,832 37,358 46,232 52,772 56,713 62,089 66,309 69,218 69,862 69,554 73,379 21-24 11,655 12,055 14,491 15,370 16,138 16,767 16,721 17,273 18,071 18,386 19,421 25-29 10,141 10,292 12,813 14,601 15,710 17,251 18,397 18,649 18,562 17,719 18,336 30-39 9,331 9,513 12,278 14,980 16,478 18,756 20,983 22,505 22,608 22,567 24,359 40-49 3,986 3,900 4,737 5,375 5,791 6,415 7,004 7,356 7,328 7,598 8,081 50-59 1,347 1,259 1,486 1,969 2,058 2,285 2,543 2,689 2,485 2,538 2,469 60 and over 372 339 427 477 538 615 661 746 808 746 713Adult malesAge on receptionAll ages 35,018 35,429 43,789 49,875 53,415 58,095 61,531 63,635 64,092 63,593 66,991 21-24 11,204 11,564 13,864 14,725 15,401 15,794 15,608 15,905 16,621 16,866 17,754 25-29 9,629 9,736 12,099 13,769 14,773 16,180 17,086 17,133 17,085 16,113 16,642 30-39 8,776 8,958 11,538 14,002 15,359 17,431 19,365 20,596 20,567 20,525 22,202 40-49 3,759 3,663 4,457 5,034 5,412 5,935 6,422 6,772 6,726 6,993 7,356 50-59 1,296 1,185 1,416 1,882 1,946 2,160 2,408 2,505 2,319 2,376 2,347 60 and over 354 323 415 463 524 595 642 724 774 720 690Adult femalesAge on receptionAll ages 1,814 1,929 2,443 2,897 3,298 3,994 4,778 5,583 5,770 5,961 6,388 21-24 451 491 627 645 737 973 1,113 1,368 1,450 1,520 1,667 25-29 512 556 714 832 937 1,071 1,311 1,516 1,477 1,606 1,694 30-39 555 555 740 978 1,119 1,325 1,618 1,909 2,041 2,042 2,157 40-49 227 237 280 341 379 480 582 584 602 605 725 50-59 51 74 70 87 112 125 135 184 166 162 122 60 and over 18 16 12 14 14 20 19 22 34 26 23 Per centAll adultsAge on receptionAll ages 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 21-24 31.6 32.3 31.3 29.1 28.5 27.0 25.2 25.0 25.9 26.4 26.5 25-29 27.5 27.5 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.8 27.7 26.9 26.6 25.5 25.0 30-39 25.3 25.5 26.6 28.4 29.1 30.2 31.6 32.5 32.4 32.4 33.2 40-49 10.8 10.4 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.6 10.6 10.5 10.9 11.0 50-59 3.7 3.4 3.2 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.4 60 and over 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.0Adult malesAge on receptionAll ages 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 21-24 32.0 32.6 31.7 29.5 28.8 27.2 25.4 25.0 25.9 26.5 26.5 25-29 27.5 27.5 27.6 27.6 27.7 27.9 27.8 26.9 26.7 25.3 24.8 30-39 25.1 25.3 26.3 28.1 28.8 30.0 31.5 32.4 32.1 32.3 33.1 40-49 10.7 10.3 10.2 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.5 11.0 11.0 50-59 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.5 60 and over 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.0Adult femalesAge on receptionAll ages 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 21-24 24.9 25.5 25.7 22.3 22.3 24.4 23.3 24.5 25.1 25.5 26.1 25-29 28.2 28.8 29.2 28.7 28.4 26.8 27.4 27.2 25.6 26.9 26.5 30-39 30.6 28.8 30.3 33.8 33.9 33.2 33.9 34.2 35.4 34.3 33.8 40-49 12.5 12.3 11.5 11.8 11.5 12.0 12.2 10.5 10.4 10.1 11.3 50-59 2.8 3.8 2.9 3.0 3.4 3.1 2.8 3.3 2.9 2.7 1.9 60 and over 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 100
  • 111. Table 4.10 Average sentence length of receptions into prison under sentence of immediate imprisonment(1): by court sentencing and date of receptionEngland and WalesAll adults Number of months 1992 (3) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000(r) 2001(r) 2002All adultsCourt sentencing(2) Crown Court 26.4 25.1 24.8 24.6 25.8 26.6 26.3 26.6 26.4 28.1 29.8 Magistrates’ court 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 All courts 19.0 17.2 15.7 15.3 16.0 15.9 15.1 14.6 14.2 14.8 15.6Adult malesCourt sentencing(2) Crown Court 26.7 25.4 25.1 25.0 26.1 26.9 26.6 27.0 26.7 28.4 30.1 Magistrates’ court 4.4 4.7 4.6 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.1 All courts 19.2 17.3 15.9 15.5 16.1 16.2 15.4 14.9 14.5 15.0 15.9Adult femalesCourt sentencing(2) Crown Court 20.3 20.4 19.7 18.8 21.1 21.4 21.5 21.4 22.5 25.3 25.8 Magistrates’ court 3.7 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 All courts 15.6 14.4 12.5 11.9 13.1 12.2 11.4 11.0 11.0 12.6 12.5(1) Excluding those sentenced to life imprisonment and fine defaulters.(2) Type of court originally imposing a sentence of imprisonment: further sentences may have been awarded at a different court.(3) Figures are subject to a wider margin of error than those for other years because of a particularly large number of cases with court not recorded: such cases are included in the “all courts” figures. 101
  • 112. Table 4.11 Average time served in prison under sentence by prisoners discharged from determinate sentences on completion of sentence or on licence: by sex and length of sentenceEngland and Wales 2002All adults Number of MonthsLength of sentence(1) persons Average Average Percentage discharged(2) length of time served of sentence sentence under served under sentence sentence Including Excluding Including Excluding remand remand remand remand time time time timeAll adultsAll lengths of sentence less than life 69,899 16.1 8.7 7.3 54 46 Up to and including 3 months 18,224 2.0 1.0 0.8 48 38 Over 3 months up to 6 months 19,239 4.8 2.2 1.8 46 37 Over 6 months less than 12 months 6,075 8.6 3.9 3.1 46 36 12 months 3,144 12.0 5.7 4.5 48 38 Over 12 months up to 18 months 5,127 16.5 8.2 6.6 49 40 Over 18 months up to 3 years 9,582 28.5 14.7 12.4 52 44 Over 3 years less than 4 years 2,298 42.5 22.1 18.7 52 44 4 years 1,477 48.0 29.1 25.2 61 52 Over 4 years up to 5 years 1,938 57.3 35.5 30.8 62 54 Over 5 years up to 10 years 2,518 85.3 52.3 46.0 61 54 Over 10 years less than life 277 154.7 89.2 80.6 58 52Adult malesAll lengths of sentence less than life 63,999 16.4 9.0 7.5 55 46 Up to and including 3 months 16,151 2.0 1.0 0.8 49 38 Over 3 months up to 6 months 17,760 4.8 2.2 1.8 47 37 Over 6 months less than 12 months 5,491 8.6 4.0 3.1 46 36 12 months 2,862 12.0 5.7 4.5 48 38 Over 12 months up to 18 months 4,725 16.5 8.2 6.6 50 40 Over 18 months up to 3 years 8,940 28.5 14.7 12.4 52 44 Over 3 years less than 4 years 2,193 42.5 22.1 18.7 52 44 4 years 1,382 48.0 29.2 25.3 61 53 Over 4 years up to 5 years 1,833 57.2 35.7 30.9 62 54 Over 5 years up to 10 years 2,396 85.3 52.7 46.3 62 54 Over 10 years less than life 266 154.8 89.6 80.9 58 52Adult femalesAll lengths of sentence less than life 5,900 12.3 6.1 5.1 50 42 Up to and including 3 months 2,073 1.9 0.9 0.7 45 37 Over 3 months up to 6 months 1,479 4.8 2.1 1.7 44 35 Over 6 months less than 12 months 584 8.6 3.7 2.9 42 34 12 months 282 12.0 5.5 4.3 46 36 Over 12 months up to 18 months 402 16.6 8.1 6.7 49 40 Over 18 months up to 3 years 642 28.6 14.3 12.2 50 43 Over 3 years less than 4 years 105 42.6 21.5 18.5 51 44 4 years 95 48.0 27.1 23.2 56 48 Over 4 years up to 5 years 105 57.7 31.4 28.0 54 48 Over 5 years up to 10 years 122 84.6 44.8 39.6 53 47 Over 10 years less than life 11 151.7 81.4 73.7 54 49(1) On discharge: the sentence may change after reception if there are further charges or an appeal.(2) Excludes discharges following recall after release on licence, non-criminals, persons committed to custody for non-payment of a fine and persons reclassified as adult prisoners. 102
  • 113. CHAPTER 5 LIFE SENTENCE PRISONERSKey pointsPopulation ● There were 5,150 inmates serving life sentences in Prison Service establishments on 30th June 2002, an increase of 7 per cent compared with a year earlier. ● Seventy per cent of life sentence prisoners were convicted murderers; the next largest group was 13 per cent serving sentences for other manslaughter and other offences of violence against the person; a further 10 per cent were serving sentences for rape or other sexual offences. ● The majority of lifer prisoners, 97 per cent, were male, similar to the proportion observed over the last 10 years. ● The life-sentenced population was, in general, older than the prison population as a whole. Only 21 per cent of the life-sentenced population were aged under 30 years, compared to 51 per cent of the sentenced prison population as a whole. Six per cent of the lifer prison population were aged 60 years or over, compared to only 2 per cent of the sentenced prison population. ● A greater proportion of the lifer population were White (84 per cent) compared to the general prison population (77 per cent). Only 11 per cent of the lifer population were Black, compared to 15 per cent of the general prison population.Receptions ● There were 530 receptions of life sentence prisoners in the calendar year of 2002. This was a record high, and continues the increase since 1994. ● In 2002 there were 310 receptions of mandatory lifers, 95 per cent of which were male. Mandatory lifers accounted for 57 per cent of all male receptions under a life sentence, but 71 per cent of all female receptions.Time served ● The mean time served by mandatory life sentence prisoners first released on life licence has increased over the last decade from 12.4 years in 1992 to 13.7 years in 2002.Releases ● The number of life sentence prisoners first released on life licence rose from 90 in 1996 to 150 in the calendar year 2002. 103
  • 114. Population and receptions (Table 5.1; Figure 5.1)5.1 On 30th June 2002, there were 5,150 persons serving a life sentence in Prison Service establishments. This includes life sentences given to juveniles under sections 90-92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 and custody for life (for 18-20 year olds). Also included are those sentenced under Section 109 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 with an automatic life sentence for a second serious violent or sexual offence (formerly Section 2 of the Crime (Sentences) Act 1997). See paragraphs 6-9 in Appendix 1 for further information on life imprisonment. The 2002 life sentence population was an increase of 340 (7 per cent) compared with a year earlier and 72 per cent higher than the figure for 30th June 1992. There were 530 receptions in 2002, which was 4 per cent higher than the number of receptions in 2001 and continues the increase since 1994.Figure 5.1 POPULATION OF LIFE SENTENCE PRISONERS 30 JUNE, 1992-2002 6,000 5,000 4,000 Number of persons 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year5.2 Adult males accounted for 94 per cent of the life sentence prisoner population on 30th June 2002, whilst they accounted for 84 per cent of all lifer receptions in 2002. Male young offenders accounted for 12 per cent of lifer receptions but only 3 per cent of the lifer population(1).Population and receptions by principal offence and sex (Tables 5.2 and 5.3; Figure 5.2)5.3 On 30th June 2002, 70 per cent of the male lifer population in prison were mandatory lifers, who had been convicted of murder. Among female lifers in prison, 78 per cent were mandatory lifers. There has been a decline since 1996 in the proportion of mandatory lifers among the lifer population. In 1992, 79 per cent were mandatory lifers, compared to 83 per cent in 1995, 75 per cent in 1999 and 70 per cent in 2002. This decline may be connected with the introduction of automatic life sentences for second serious violent or sexual offences.5.4 In 2002, there were 310 receptions of mandatory lifers, the largest number ever. Ninety five per cent of these receptions were male. Mandatory lifers accounted for 57 per cent of all male receptions, but 71 per cent of all female receptions.(1) Young Offenders are reclassified as adults before they reach the age of 22. 104
  • 115. 5.5 Of the lifers held by the Prison Service on 30th June 2002, 70 per cent were serving sentences for murder. A further 13 per cent had a principal offence of manslaughter, other homicide/ attempted homicide or other violence. Ten per cent were imprisoned for rape or other sexual offences. There were no sexual offenders in the female lifer population. Thirteen female lifers (8 per cent of all female lifers) were arsonists, compared with 2 per cent of male lifers. In 2002, 4 per cent of lifers had a principal offence of robbery compared to 2 per cent in 2001.Figure 5.2 POPULATION OF LIFE SENTENCE PRISONERS, BY OFFENCE 30 JUNE 2002 Other offences 6% Rape and other sexual offences 10% Manslaughter, other homicide and other violence 13% Murder 70%5.6 There were 160 young offenders who were serving life sentences or who had been detained for life under sections 90-93 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000. Ninety two per cent of the young offenders serving such sentences were male. Sixty nine per cent (or 101) of male young offenders and 54 per cent (or 7) of all female young offenders had been convicted of murder.Population and receptions by age and sex (Table 5.4)5.7 Over a third (35 per cent) of the life-sentenced population on 30th June 2002 were in the age range 30-39 years, and a quarter (25 per cent) were aged 40-49; a similar pattern to June 2001. The life-sentenced population was, in general, older than the prison population as a whole. Only 21 per cent of the life-sentenced population were aged under 30 years, compared to 51 per cent of the sentenced prison population as a whole. Six per cent of the lifer prison population were aged 60 years or over, compared to only 2 per cent of the sentenced prison population.5.8 Of the 530 lifer receptions in 2002, 44 per cent were aged under 30 years. One half (50 per cent) of all male mandatory lifer receptions and over a third (37 per cent) of all male discretionary lifer receptions were aged less than 30. The corresponding figures for female lifer receptions were 20 per cent and 67 per cent respectively. Two per cent of all male lifer receptions were aged 60 years or over. There were no female lifer receptions aged 60 years or over.Population and receptions by ethnicity (Table 5.5)5.9 Of the lifer population at 30th June 2002, 84 per cent were White, 11 per cent were Black, 3 per cent were South Asian and the remaining 3 per cent were Chinese and other. A greater proportion of the lifer population were White compared to the general prison population (77 per cent). Conversely, a lesser proportion were Black, compared to the general prison population (15 per cent). Sixty-nine per cent of White life-sentenced prisoners and 67 per cent of Black life-sentenced prisoners were serving mandatory life sentences. Among South Asians and ‘Chinese and other’, the proportion of mandatory life sentences was 83 per cent and 86 per cent respectively. 105
  • 116. Population by interval since reception (Table 5.6; Figure 5.3)5.10 On 30th June 2002, 16 per cent of those in custody serving a life sentence had been sentenced between 10 and 15 years ago, and another 20 per cent had been sentenced over 15 years ago. The comparable figures for June 1975 were 8 per cent in the 10-15 years group and 2 per cent in the over 15 years group.5.11 The lifer population at 30th June 2002 included 220 prisoners who had been released on life licence that had subsequently been revoked (150 mandatory lifers and 70 others). This represented 4 per cent of the lifer population.Figure 5.3 POPULATION OF LIFE SENTENCE PRISONERS 30 JUNE 1975 AND 30 JUNE 2002 BY TIME SERVED UNDER SENTENCE 2,500 30 June 1975 2,000 1,928 30 June 2002 Number of persons 1,500 1,389 1,010 1,000 819 622 500 398 85 24 0 less than 5 yrs 5 yrs less than 10 yrs 10 yrs less than 15 yrs 15 yrs and over Number of yearsReleases on licence and time served (Tables 5.7, 5.8 and 5.9)5.12 Time served after sentence and before release on life licence by life sentence prisoners varies considerably. In addition to being released on life licence, life sentence prisoners can be discharged for other reasons, such as successful appeals, or transfers to other jurisdictions or to psychiatric hospitals. Of those received under sentence between 1965 and 1974, 58 per cent were still in custody 10 years after reception. Those received between 1975 and 1984 tended to wait longer to be released, with 70 per cent still in custody 10 years after reception.5.13 Of those received between 1965 and 1991 who have since been released on licence, 33 per cent served less than 10 years before their first release, 42 per cent served from 10 to less than 15 years and 25 per cent served 15 years or more.5.14 Table 5.8 shows the number of people first released on life licence in each year from 1992 to 2002 and the average time they served since being sentenced. For mandatory lifers, mean time served has increased from 12.4 years in 1992 to 13.7 years in 2002. It should be noted that the small numbers involved cause a lot of fluctuation in the average. 106
  • 117. 5.15 The introduction of Discretionary Lifer Panels (DLPs) in the 1991 Criminal Justice Act led to an increase in the numbers of discretionary life sentence prisoners who were released for the first time in 1993, as the backlog of prisoners who had served their “relevant parts” (a minimum period to be served under sentence) were reviewed by the DLP. The number of discretionary lifers released was fairly low from 1996. It increased to 30 in 2002. The number of mandatory lifers released on licence has increased steadily since 1996, over 120 being released on licence for the first time in 2002.5.16 The growth of the lifer population does not exactly equal the difference between receptions under sentence (Table 5.1) and first releases on licence (Table 5.8), as a number of other flows affect population size. The most numerous of these are lifers whose life licence has been revoked, though the overall numbers are small, with 26 being recalled to prison in 2002 (Table 5.9), second and subsequent releases on licence (about 17 leaving each year), successful appeals against sentence (again, about 4 leaving each year), transfers to and from special hospitals (usually a few more leaving than arriving), and deaths (about 15 a year).5.17 Life sentence prisoners are released on a life licence which can be revoked if the offender commits another offence, or if the degree of perceived risk to the public is judged to require return to prison. Upon revocation the licensee is immediately recalled to prison to continue serving their life sentence. Home Office Statistical Bulletin “Life Licensees — Reconvictions and Recalls by the end of 1995” indicates that of those released between 1972 and 1994, less than a tenth (9 per cent) were reconvicted of a standard list offence within 2 years; this group includes 1 per cent who were reconvicted for a grave offence(2). A smaller proportion of mandatory life sentence prisoners (8 per cent) than discretionary life sentence prisoners (11 per cent) were reconvicted within 2 years.(2) Grave offences are a subset of standard list offences. They cover all indictable-only offences which have a maximum sentence of life imprisonment; these are mainly offences of homicide, serious wounding, rape, buggery, robbery, aggravated burglary and arson endangering life. 107
  • 118. Table 5.1 Population and receptions of life prisoners by type of prisoner and sexEngland and WalesLife sentence prisoners Number of persons 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Population 30 JuneTotal population 3,000 3,095 3,192 3,289 3,489 3,721 3,934 4,206 4,538 4,810 5,147 Males: 2,904 2,990 3,081 3,176 3,365 3,584 3,797 4,056 4,385 4,648 4,982 Young offenders 87 77 83 83 75 100 121 131 144 137 147 Adults 2,817 2,913 2,998 3,093 3,290 3,484 3,676 3,925 4,241 4,511 4,835 Females: 96 105 111 113 124 137 137 150 153 162 165 Young offenders 4 4 5 5 5 9 5 8 7 10 13 Adults 92 101 106 108 119 128 132 142 146 152 152Annual Receptions under Life SentenceTotal receptions 236 243 222 280 338 384 413 477 492 512 533 Males: 222 225 213 259 327 363 398 458 470 494 512 Young offenders 32 36 32 29 59 66 47 62 54 64 64 Adults 190 189 181 230 268 297 351 396 416 430 448 Females: 14 18 9 21 11 21 15 19 22 18 21 Young offenders – 5 1 3 1 5 1 4 4 4 5 Adults 14 13 8 18 10 16 14 15 18 14 16Table 5.2 Population and receptions of life prisoners by type of life sentence and sexEngland and WalesLife sentence prisoners Number of persons 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002Population 30 JuneTotal population 3,000 3,095 3,192 3,289 3,489 3,721 3,934 4,206 4,538 4,810 5,147 Males: 2,904 2,990 3,081 3,176 3,365 3,584 3,797 4,056 4,385 4,648 4,982 Mandatory lifers 2,298 2,423 2,523 2,623 2,713 2,872 3,002 3,048 3,201 3,322 3,464 Others 606 567 558 553 652 712 795 1,008 1,184 1,326 1,518 Females: 96 105 111 113 124 137 137 150 153 162 165 Mandatory lifers 82 86 95 99 102 112 112 125 126 126 128 Others 14 19 16 14 22 25 25 25 27 36 37Annual Receptions under Life SentenceTotal receptions 236 243 222 280 338 384 413 477 492 512 533 Males: 225 227 213 264 327 363 398 459 470 494 512 Mandatory lifers 116 161 151 134 173 228 160 232 238 270 291 Others 109 66 63 130 154 135 238 227 231 224 221 Females: 11 16 9 16 11 21 15 18 22 18 21 Mandatory lifers 7 11 7 10 4 15 6 15 11 13 15 Others 4 5 2 6 7 6 9 4 11 5 6 108
  • 119. Table 5.3 Population of life prisoners by type of prisoner and principal offenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Life sentence prisoners Number of persons All Males Females Young Adults All Young Adults All Young Adults All offenders offenders offendersPopulation 30 JuneAll offences 160 4,987 5,147 147 4,835 4,982 13 152 165 Murder 109 3,483 3,591 101 3,362 3,464 7 120 128 Manslaughter 5 168 173 4 161 166 1 7 8 Other homicide and attempted homicide 7 128 135 6 121 127 1 7 8 Other violence against the person 14 365 379 11 361 372 3 4 7 Rape 14 472 486 14 472 486 – – – Other sexual offences – 49 49 – 49 49 – – – Other offences 10 215 225 10 213 223 – 2 2 Arson 1 108 109 – 95 95 1 13 13 109
  • 120. Table 5.4 Population and receptions of life prisoners by type of life sentence and ageEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Life sentence prisoners Number of persons 60 andAge in years All ages 15–17 18–20 21–24 25–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 overPopulation 30 JuneTotal population 5,147 30 103 355 610 1,825 1,294 641 289 Males 4,982 29 95 342 592 1,770 1,253 616 285 Mandatory lifers 3,464 17 66 260 434 1,193 871 441 183 Others 1,518 13 29 82 158 577 382 175 102 Females 165 1 8 13 18 55 41 25 4 Mandatory lifers 128 – 5 5 13 49 34 19 3 Others 37 1 3 9 5 6 8 6 1Annual Receptions under Life SentenceTotal receptions 533 17 52 74 91 175 90 26 8 Males 512 16 48 72 91 166 87 24 8 Mandatory lifers 291 10 30 52 53 81 48 12 5 Others 221 6 18 20 38 85 39 12 3 Females 21 1 4 2 – 9 3 2 – Mandatory lifers 15 – 2 1 – 8 2 2 – Others 6 1 2 1 – 1 1 – – PercentagesPopulation 30 JuneTotal Population 100 1 2 7 12 35 25 12 6 Males 100 1 2 7 12 36 25 12 6 Mandatory lifers 100 – 2 7 13 34 25 13 5 Others 100 1 2 5 10 38 25 12 7 Females 100 1 5 8 11 33 25 15 2 Mandatory lifers 100 – 4 4 11 38 26 15 2 Others 100 3 8 23 13 15 21 15 3Annual Receptions under Life SentenceTotal receptions 100 3 10 14 17 33 17 5 2 Males 100 3 9 14 18 32 17 5 2 Mandatory lifers 100 3 10 18 18 28 16 4 2 Others 100 3 8 9 17 38 18 5 1 Females 100 5 19 10 – 43 14 10 – Mandatory lifers 100 – 13 7 – 53 13 13 – Others 100 17 33 17 – 17 17 – – 110
  • 121. Table 5.5 Population and receptions of life prisoners by type of life sentence and ethnic groupEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Life sentence prisoners Number of persons Percentages South Chinese Not South ChineseEthnic group All White Asian Black /other known All White Asian Black /otherPopulation 30 JuneTotal population 5,147 4,304 159 546 135 3 100 100 100 100 100 Males 4,982 4,164 154 535 126 3 97 97 97 98 94 Mandatory lifers 3,464 2,872 127 356 108 1 67 67 80 65 80 Others 1,518 1,292 26 179 19 2 29 30 17 33 14 Females 165 140 5 12 9 – 3 3 3 2 6 Mandatory lifers 128 105 5 11 8 – 2 2 3 2 6 Others 37 35 – 1 1 – 1 1 – – 1Annual Receptions under Life SentenceTotal receptions 533 405 19 85 23 1 100 100 100 100 100 Males 512 387 19 83 22 1 96 96 100 98 96 Mandatory lifers 291 214 17 45 15 – 55 53 89 53 65 Others 221 173 2 38 7 1 41 43 11 45 30 Females 21 18 – 2 1 – 4 4 – 2 4 Mandatory lifers 15 13 – 1 1 – 3 3 – 1 4 Others 6 5 – 1 – – 1 1 – 1 –Table 5.6 Population of life prisoners by interval since date of initial reception on life sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Life sentence prisoners Number of persons 5 to 10 to 15 to 20 toInterval since first less than less than less than less than less than 30 yearsreception on life sentence All 5 years 10 years 15 years 20 years 30 years and overOriginal sentence 4,931 1,893 1,356 794 483 338 66 Mandatory lifers 3,445 1,042 1,050 652 402 253 48 Others 1,486 851 306 143 81 86 18Recalls from licence to 30 June2002(1) 216 35 33 25 32 71 20 Mandatory lifers 146 18 18 17 24 54 15 Others 70 17 15 8 8 17 5All types 5,147 1,928 1,389 819 515 409 86 Mandatory lifers 3,591 1,060 1,068 669 426 307 63 Others 1,556 868 321 151 89 103 23(1) Includes time spent on release under licence. 111
  • 122. Table 5.7 Receptions into prison by year of initial reception on life sentenceEngland and WalesLife sentence prisoners Number of persons Year of Total Released Time served under sentence (1) Released Time served under sentence (1) Total not Median(3) first received on licence for other(2) released number of re- by end less than 10 to less 15 to less 20 years reasons by less than 10 to less 15 years to 20 years by end years to ceptions 2002 10 years than 15 than 20 and over end 2002 10 years than 15 less than and over 2002 release on on life years years years 20 years licence sentence 1965 76 64 26 25 6 7 7 5 – – 2 5 11 1966 89 67 23 25 9 10 18 8 2 2 6 4 11 1967 89 71 29 25 7 10 14 6 3 2 3 4 10 1968 92 65 26 29 5 5 23 13 2 3 5 4 10 1969 103 80 34 26 12 8 17 9 1 3 4 6 10 1970 134 98 40 38 8 12 28 14 6 2 6 8 10 1971 128 96 41 27 11 17 21 15 2 2 2 11 10 1972 102 74 32 29 2 11 21 11 2 4 4 7 10 1973 139 76 33 25 10 8 41 24 3 7 7 22 10 1974 169 112 61 28 16 7 34 23 3 3 5 23 9 1975 160 91 32 30 16 13 52 22 8 12 10 17 11 1976 167 109 30 31 39 9 36 22 7 5 2 22 14 1977 185 99 28 31 31 9 61 40 8 4 9 25 13 1978 191 89 28 31 22 8 64 45 9 5 5 38 13 1979 191 96 25 44 19 8 47 30 6 9 2 48 12 1980 222 118 29 55 23 11 63 39 11 8 5 41 12 1981 185 88 19 39 24 6 46 28 15 3 – 51 12 1982 248 120 32 50 35 3 59 37 14 8 – 69 12 1983 175 76 10 36 30 – 50 37 6 7 – 49 14 1984 200 80 16 35 29 – 48 36 6 6 – 72 13 1985 213 72 8 47 17 – 56 41 14 1 – 85 12 1986 247 70 17 39 14 – 80 61 13 6 – 97 12 1987 257 69 14 51 4 – 73 61 12 – – 115 12 1988 262 60 16 44 – – 75 59 16 – – 127 11 1989 248 71 26 45 – – 62 56 6 – – 115 10 1990 229 51 25 26 – – 48 47 1 – – 130 10 1991 263 47 26 21 – – 46 43 3 – – 170 9(1) Excluding any time spent either on remand in custody or following any subsequent recall.(2) Including successful appeals, deaths and transfers to psychiatric hospitals or to outside England and Wales.(3) Number of complete years which 50 per cent of those received, excluding “other” releases, had served before being released on licence. Figures are not available for the latest years because insufficient inmates have been released to establish medians. 112
  • 123. Table 5.8 Number of first releases from prison on life licence and average time servedEngland and WalesLife sentence prisoners Number of persons Year of first Total Mandatory lifers Others release released Number Mean time Median time Number Mean time Median time served served served served (years) (years) (years) (years) 1992 90 67 12.4 12 23 15.3 15 1993 126 66 14.4 14 60 14.6 14 1994 106 77 15.4 14 29 13.6 13 1995 92 60 14.0 13 32 13.5 12 1996 85 71 13.1 12 14 17.3 17 1997 98 88 14.4 14 10 13.3 12 1998 98 90 13.3 13 8 13.6 11 1999 122 113 13.1 12 9 16.2 15 2000 127 113 13.3 12 14 13.5 12 2001 138 126 13.1 13 12 10.0 9 2002 153 123 13.7 13 30 8.3 4Table 5.9 Number of recalls from life licence and time spent on licenceEngland and WalesLife sentence prisoners Number of persons Year Total recalls Time elapsed between last release and recall from licence during less than 12 months to 2 years to 5 years to 10 years or year (1) 12 months under under under more 2 years 5 years 10 years 1999 Murder 22 1 5 6 4 6 Other 12 2 – 4 4 2 2000 Murder 28 3 6 5 8 6 Other 6 3 1 2 – – 2001 Murder 26 2 7 6 1 10 Other 4 2 – – 2 – 2002 Murder 18 4 4 3 2 5 Other 8 2 1 2 1 2(1) Inmates whose licences have been revoked and were recalled to custody excluding abscondees. 113
  • 124. CHAPTER 6 ETHNIC GROUP AND NATIONALITYKey pointsEthnic group ● On 30th June 2002, 16,170 people in Prison Service establishments in England and Wales were from ethnic minority groups. This was an increase of 15 per cent (or 2,120) from the 14,050 held in June 2001. Over the same period, the prison population as a whole increased by 7 per cent. ● The population of ‘Chinese and other’ prisoners has increased the most since 1992 (up 183 per cent), whereas White and South Asian prisoners have increased the least (46 and 58 per cent respectively). ● The increase in the ethnic minority population is linked to the increase in the population of foreign nationals; a considerable proportion (35 per cent) of prisoners belonging to an ethnic minority group are foreign nationals. ● Ethnic minority groups made up 22 per cent of the male prison population and 29 per cent of the female prison population at the end of June 2002. This is a small increase compared to 2001 when ethnic minority groups made up 21 per cent of the male population and 26 per cent of the female prison population. ● Among sentenced males, a higher proportion of White prisoners were in prison for violent or sexual offences (34 per cent) or for burglary (19 per cent) than were Black prisoners (24 per cent and 9 per cent respectively). Black male prisoners were more likely than White males to be held for robbery (21 per cent among Black prisoners, 12 per cent among White prisoners) and for drugs offences (33 per cent among Black prisoners, 13 per cent among White prisoners). ● Among sentenced adults, 51 per cent of the White population were serving sentences of 4 years or more. The equivalent figures among sentenced adults from other ethnic groups were 65 per cent of the Black population, 58 per cent of the South Asian population and 60 per cent from ‘Chinese and other’ ethnic groups.Nationality ● On 30th June 2002, 7,720, or 11 per cent, of the prison population were foreign nationals. This represented an increase in the number of foreign nationals in prison, from 6,930, or 10 per cent of the total population, in 2001. ● Twenty eight per cent of sentenced female British nationals were being held for drugs offences. Among female foreign nationals, the proportion being held for drugs offences was 84 per cent. 114
  • 125. Ethnic group (Table 6.1; figure 6.1)6.1 In June 2002, 16,170 prisoners held in Prison Service establishments were known to belong to ethnic minority groups. Ethnic minority groups made up 22 per cent of the male prison population and 29 per cent of the female population. This is a small increase compared to 2001 when 21 and 26 per cent respectively were from ethnic minority groups. In 2002, the largest ethnic minority group was of Black prisoners, who accounted for 15 per cent of the male prison population and 24 per cent of the female prison population. South Asians and ‘Chinese and others’ accounted for 3 per cent and 4 per cent respectively of the male population and 1 per cent and 5 per cent respectively of the female population.6.2 The population of ‘Chinese and other’ prisoners has increased the most since 1992 (up 183 per cent), whereas White and South Asian prisoners have increased the least (46 and 58 per cent respectively). The increase in the ethnic minority population is linked to the increase in the population of foreign nationals; a considerable proportion (35 per cent) of prisoners belonging to an ethnic minority group are foreign nationals.Figure 6.1 PRISON POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP: 1992 to 2002 300% 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 White Black South Asian Chinese & Other6.3 Data on the ethnicity of prisoners are collected primarily to provide the management of the Prison Service with information to assist in the development of race relations policy and practices. Between 1985 and 1992, the system of ethnic classification used in prisons was similar to that used for official surveys such as the EC Labour Force Survey. In October 1992, a new ethnic classification system was introduced which is congruent with that used in the 1991 Census of Population. Although the 2 classifications are broadly similar, ethnicity figures before and after October 1992 are not directly comparable (See also Appendix 2). The ethnicity codes used for the statistics in this publication are based on the 1991 Census of Population. Incarceration rates by ethnic group are not presented in this publication because the general population figures are now based on the categories used in the 2001 Census of Population. In 2003, the Prison Service started to introduce the ethnicity classification based on the 2001 Census of Population.Nationality (Table 6.2 & 6.3; figures 6.2-6.5)6.4 In June 2002, 11 per cent of the prison population were known to be foreign nationals, 10 per cent of the male population and 20 per cent of the female population. The population of foreign nationals has increased by 120 per cent since 1993 compared to a 55 per cent increase in British Nationals. Much of the increase in foreign nationals has been since 2000. 115
  • 126. Figure 6.2 PRISON POPULATION BY NATIONALITY: 1993 TO 2002 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0% 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Foreign national British national6.5 Of male foreign nationals, a third (33 per cent) were from the West Indies, 30 per cent had European nationalities, 12 per cent were Asian nationals and 18 per cent were African nationals. Of female foreign nationals, 60 per cent had West Indian nationalities and 18 per cent were European, while 11 per cent were African nationals and 4 per cent were Asian.Figure 6.3 FOREIGN NATIONALS IN THE PRISON POPULATION ON 30 JUNE 2002 BY SEX AND NATIONALITY100% 90% 80% 70% Other Europe 60% N+S America 50% Asia 40% West Indies Africa 30% 20% 10% 0% Males Females 116
  • 127. 6.6 Foreign nationals account for a higher proportion of ethnic minority prisoners than of White prisoners. In 2002, foreign nationals made up 4 per cent of the White prison population, 35 per cent of Black prisoners, 25 per cent of South Asians and 44 per cent of prisoners from ‘Chinese and other’ ethnic groups. Among Black female prisoners, the proportion of foreign nationals was 60 per cent, compared to 5 per cent of White female prisoners.Figure 6.4 MALE PRISON POPULATION 30 JUNE 2002: ETHNIC GROUP BY NATIONALITY 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% White Black South Asian Chinese & Other Unrecorded British Nationals Foreign Nationals Nationality unknownFigure 6.5 FEMALE PRISON POPULATION 30 JUNE 2002: ETHNIC GROUP BY NATIONALITY 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% White Black South Asian Chinese & Other Unrecorded British Nationals Foreign Nationals Nationality unknown 117
  • 128. Type of prisoner (Table 6.3)6.7 Over 8 in 10 (82 per cent) non-criminal prisoners were foreign nationals. The majority of these were held for Immigration Act offences. The total proportion of non-criminal prisoners belonging to ethnic minority groups were as follows: 42 per cent Black, 10 per cent South Asian, 17 per cent from ‘Chinese or other’ ethnic groups.Offence type (Table 6.4; figures 6.6 and 6.7)6.8 For males and females, the proportion sentenced for various types of offence differed considerably between White prisoners and members of ethnic minority groups, and between foreign and British nationals.6.9 In mid-2002, 34 per cent of White sentenced males were in prison for violence against the person or sexual offences, 19 per cent for burglary, 12 per cent for robbery and 13 per cent for drugs offences. The proportions of Black sentenced males who were in prison for robbery (21 per cent) and for drugs offences (33 per cent) were higher than among Whites. But proportionately fewer Black males had been sentenced for burglary (9 per cent) and for violence against the person or sexual offences (24 per cent) than White males.6.10 There was also a slightly higher proportion of drug offenders within the South Asian (25 per cent) and ‘Chinese and other’ (28 per cent) male sentenced populations than among White male prisoners.Figure 6.6 MALE POPULATION UNDER SENTENCE ON 30 JUNE 2002 BY ETHNIC GROUP AND OFFENCE TYPE: ALL NATIONALITIES 100% Other 90% Drugs 80% 70% Theft and fraud 60% Robbery 50% Burglary 40% Violence against the person and 30% sexual 20% 10% 0% White Black South Asian Chinese & Other6.12 Among White sentenced females, 27 per cent were in prison for drugs offences, 22 percent for violence against the person or sexual offences and 18 per cent for theft and handling offences. Among Black sentenced female prisoners, 75 per cent were held for drugs offences.6.13 Twenty one per cent of sentenced female prisoners were foreign nationals, compared with 9 per cent among sentenced male prisoners. The most frequent type of offence among female sentenced prisoners with foreign nationality was drugs offences (84 per cent). This compares with 28 per cent among British female sentenced prisoners. A substantial proportion of female foreign national prisoners have been arrested at ports or other locations and convicted of importing drugs. These offences carry longer sentences than average, which means that such offenders are disproportionately represented among the prison population. Eighty-two per cent of female foreign nationals serving sentences for drugs offences were Black, 11 per cent were White, and 6 per cent were ‘Chinese and other’. 118
  • 129. Figure 6.7 SENTENCED FEMALES BY NATIONALITY AND OFFENCE AT 30 JUNE 2002 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Violence against Burglary Robbery Theft & fraud Drugs Other offences the person & sexual British nationals Foreign nationals6.14 Within the sentenced British female prison population, there are considerable differences in offence type between White females and females from ethnic minorities. The proportion of White British females sentenced for drugs offences was 26 per cent compared to 46 per cent of Black British females. The proportion of Black British females sentenced for drugs offences was higher than the proportion of Black British males sentenced for drugs offences (18 per cent). The difference between the proportions of British White and Black females sentenced for drugs offences (21 percentage points) is higher than between the proportions of British White and Black males sentenced for drugs offences (6 percentage points).Sentence length (Table 6.5; figures 6.8 and 6.9)6.15 Sixty-five per cent of adult Black prisoners were serving sentences of 4 years and over. Among the other ethnic groups, the proportions of adult prisoners who were serving sentences of 4 years and over were 58 per cent of South Asians, 60 per cent of ‘Chinese and others’, and 51 per cent of Whites.6.16 Among young offenders, members of ethnic minority groups appear to be, on average, serving longer sentences than Whites. Eighty-six per cent of sentenced young South Asians, 86 per cent of young Blacks, and 80 per cent of ‘Chinese and others’ were serving sentences of 12 months or more, compared to 74 per cent of young Whites. 119
  • 130. Figure 6.8 ADULT OFFENDERS — PERCENTAGE SENTENCED TO 4 YEARS OR MORE BY ETHNIC GROUP 30 JUNE 2002 100 90 80 70 65 58 60 60 51 50 40 30 20 10 0 White Black South Chinese & Asian OtherFigure 6.9 YOUNG OFFENDERS — PERCENTAGE SENTENCED TO 12 MONTHS OR MORE BY ETHNIC GROUP 30 JUNE 2002 100 90 86 86 80 80 74 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 White Black South Chinese & Asian Other6.17 Some of the differences between the sentence lengths being served by the members of different ethnic groups may be explained by the proportions convicted for offences such as drugs offences, which tend to attract longer sentences. Nevertheless, the Home Office Statistical Bulletin ‘The Ethnic Origin of Prisoners’ (HOSB 21/94), concluded that in 1990, Black male adult prisoners received, on average, sentences which were 98 days longer than would be expected, taking into account the age of the offender, the type of offence and the type of court sentencing. Black offenders who were aged under 21 received sentences which were 36 days longer on average than the average for all offenders. Asian offenders (who are not over-represented in the prison population relative to the national population) received sentences which were around 45 days longer than the average. Although the bulletin considered many possible explanatory factors such as age, type of offence and type of court, some factors such as previous convictions and differences in plea rates between ethnic groups were not taken into account. 120
  • 131. Table 6.1 Population in prison by sex and ethnic group(1)England and Wales, 30 JuneMales and females Number of persons and percentages Ethnic group (1) Total White Black(2) South Asian(3) Chinese UnrecordedSex of prisoner & Other(4) number per cent number per cent number per cent number per cent number per cent number per centMales and females1992 45,486 100 37,705 83 4,773 10 1,388 3 1,043 2 577 11993 44,246 100 36,855 83 5,013 11 1,356 3 926 2 96 –1994 48,879 100 40,754 83 5,606 11 1,347 3 1,102 2 70 –1995 51,084 100 42,207 83 5,982 12 1,497 3 1,318 3 80 –1996 55,256 100 45,029 81 6,986 13 1,654 3 1,524 3 63 –1997 61,467 100 50,164 82 7,585 12 1,866 3 1,795 3 57 –1998 65,727 100 53,677 82 7,976 12 2,007 3 2,046 3 21 –1999 64,529 100 52,377 81 7,964 12 1,929 3 2,225 3 34 –2000 65,194 100 52,581 81 8,287 13 1,837 3 2,457 4 32 –2001 66,403 100 52,303 79 9,223 14 1,993 3 2,835 4 49 –2002 71,218 100 54,985 77 11,023 15 2,197 3 2,948 4 63 –Males1992 43,950 100 36,616 83 4,464 10 1,363 3 981 2 526 11993 42,666 100 35,691 84 4,690 11 1,335 3 854 2 96 –1994 47,075 100 39,399 84 5,236 11 1,320 3 1,050 2 70 –1995 49,086 100 40,697 83 5,592 11 1,470 3 1,247 3 80 –1996 52,951 100 43,280 82 6,538 12 1,629 3 1,441 3 63 –1997 58,795 100 48,151 82 7,062 12 1,841 3 1,684 3 57 –1998 62,607 100 51,304 82 7,416 12 1,977 3 1,889 3 21 –1999 61,322 100 49,961 81 7,355 12 1,895 3 2,081 3 30 –2000 61,839 100 50,059 81 7,644 12 1,801 3 2,304 4 31 –2001 62,690 100 49,575 79 8,435 13 1,956 3 2,678 4 46 –2002 66,824 100 51,884 78 9,976 15 2,160 3 2,744 4 60 –Females1992 1,536 100 1,089 71 309 20 25 2 62 4 51 31993 1,580 100 1,164 74 323 20 21 1 72 5 – –1994 1,804 100 1,355 75 370 21 27 1 52 3 – –1995 1,998 100 1,510 76 390 20 27 1 71 4 – –1996 2,305 100 1,749 76 448 19 25 1 83 4 – –1997 2,672 100 2,013 75 523 20 25 1 111 4 – –1998 3,120 100 2,373 76 560 18 30 1 157 5 – –1999 3,207 100 2,416 75 609 19 34 1 144 4 4 –2000 3,355 100 2,522 75 643 19 36 1 153 5 1 –2001 3,713 100 2,728 73 788 21 37 1 157 4 3 –2002 4,394 100 3,101 71 1,048 24 38 1 205 5 3 –– = nil or negligible.(1) Prior to 1993 coding of ethnic group was similar to that used in the EC Labour Force Survey. In 1993 a new ethnic classification system was adopted in prisons which is congruent with that used for the Census of population. The change in coding means that figures for 1992 and 1993 to 2002 are not directly comparable.(2) In 1992 ethnic group classification was ‘West Indian, Guyanese, African’.(3) In 1992 ethnic group classification was ‘Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi’.(4) In 1992 ethnic group classification was ‘Chinese, Arab, Mixed Origin’. 121
  • 132. Table 6.2 Population in prison on 30 June 2002 by nationality and sex Persons PersonsNationality Total Male Female Nationality Total Male FemaleAll Nationalities 71,218 66,824 4,394 Total Europe 2,242 2,080 162UK national 62,553 59,095 3,458 Andorra 1 1 – Albania 74 72 2Foreign national 7,719 6,835 884 Armenia 5 4 1Not recorded 946 895 51 Austria 2 2 – Bosnia-Hercegovina 9 5 4Total Africa 1,297 1,203 94 Belgium 47 41 6 Angola 31 31 – Bulgaria 4 4 – Burundi 3 3 – Croatia 4 4 – Botswana 4 2 2 Czech Republic 34 34 – Cote D Ivoire Cyprus 58 57 1 (Ivory Coast) 9 9 – Germany 99 86 13 Central African Denmark 9 9 – Republic 5 4 1 Estonia 4 4 – Congo 34 33 1 Finland 1 1 – Cameroon, United France 95 85 10 Republic 6 6 – Georgia 2 2 – Democratic Republic Gibraltar 2 2 – of Congo 36 35 1 Greece 23 21 2 Djibouti 1 1 – Hungary 17 17 – Algeria 111 111 – Irish Republic 663 617 46 Egypt 9 9 – Iceland 1 1 – Ethiopia 16 16 – Italy 105 101 4 French Guiana 2 2 – Kazakhstan 1 1 – Ghana 100 92 8 Lithuania 50 47 3 Gambia 16 16 – Latvia 13 12 1 Kenya 49 44 5 Luxembourg 1 1 – Liberia 9 8 1 Moldova 3 3 – Libya 16 16 – Macedonia 4 4 – Morocco 36 32 4 Malta 10 10 – Mali 1 1 – Netherlands 204 181 23 Mayotte 1 1 – Norway 3 1 2 Mauritania 3 3 – Poland 46 41 5 Mauritius 10 10 – Portugal 94 84 10 Malawi 6 6 – Romania 50 42 8 Mozambique 1 1 – Russian Federation 38 38 – Namibia 1 1 – Serbia and Montenegro 114 113 1 Nigeria 265 236 29 Slovakia 4 4 – Rwanda 7 7 – Slovenia 1 1 – Seychelles 5 3 2 Spain 114 99 15 Sudan 11 10 1 Sweden 5 3 2 Sierra Leone 42 40 2 Switzerland 7 6 1 Senegal 2 2 – Turkey 217 216 1 Somalia 156 154 2 Turkmenistan 2 1 1 Sao Tome and Principe 1 1 – Uzbekistan 1 1 – Togo 3 3 – Total Middle East 210 206 4 Tunisia 6 6 – United Arab Emirates 2 2 – Tongo 2 1 1 Afghanistan 32 32 – Tanzania 8 7 1 Iran 58 57 1 Uganda 45 44 1 Israel 6 6 – South Africa 170 143 27 Iraq 68 68 – Zambia 19 17 2 Jordan 6 6 – Zimbabwe 35 32 3 Kuwait 2 2 –Total Asia 856 820 36 Lebanon 11 10 1 Bangladesh 130 127 3 Oman 2 1 1 Burma 2 2 – Qatar 1 1 – China 76 70 6 Saudi Arabia 12 11 1 Hong Kong 2 2 – Syrian Arab Republic 3 3 – Indonesia 3 3 – Republic of Yemen 6 6 – India 185 174 11 Total North America 98 82 16 Japan 1 1 – Canada 24 22 2 Cambodia 1 1 – United States of Korean Dem Peoples America 74 60 14 Rep (Nth) 1 1 – Total Oceania 42 35 7 Korean Republic of (Sth) 3 3 – Australia 30 25 5 Sri Lanka 71 69 2 Fiji 2 2 – Malaysia 13 13 – French Southern Phillipines 12 10 2 Territories 2 2 – Pakistan 314 308 6 Kiribati 1 1 – Singapore 5 4 1 New Zealand 7 5 2 Thailand 4 3 1 Total Other 7 7 – Vietnam 33 29 4 Total West Indies 2,758 2,228 530Total Central or South America 210 174 36 Netherlands Antilles 15 12 3 Argentina 6 6 – Barbados 29 27 2 Bolivia 1 – 1 Bermuda 1 1 – Brazil 27 16 11 Bahamas 3 3 – Belize 1 – 1 Cuba 1 1 – Chile 12 10 2 Dominica 7 7 – Columbia 113 102 11 Dominican Republic 4 3 1 Ecuador 6 5 1 Grenada 19 16 3 Guatemala 2 2 – Guyana 23 20 3 Mexico 4 2 2 Jamaica 2,583 2,077 507 Panama 1 1 – Cayman Islands 1 1 – Peru 3 2 1 St Lucia 19 16 3 Surinam 4 3 1 Montserrat 9 7 2 Uruguay 1 1 – St Christopher & Nevis 2 2 – Venezuela 29 24 5 St Kitts and Nevis 4 2 2 Trinidad and Tobago 31 27 4 St Vincent & The Grenadines 6 6 – Virgin Islands 1 1 – 122
  • 133. Table 6.3 Population in prison by ethnic group, type of prisoner, sex and nationalityEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Males and females Number of personsType of prisoner Ethnic group Total White Black South Asian Chinese & Unrecorded OtherMales and femalesTotal(1)(2) 71,218 54,985 11,023 2,197 2,948 63 British Nationals 62,553 52,449 6,933 1,594 1,519 59 Foreign Nationals 7,719 2,007 3,871 555 1,283 4Untried 7,877 5,603 1,505 284 479 7 British Nationals 6,282 4,892 948 202 233 7 Foreign Nationals 966 260 452 59 195 –Convicted unsentenced 5,204 4,118 727 128 230 1 British Nationals 4,709 3,977 499 103 130 1 Foreign Nationals 457 134 212 22 88 –Sentenced 57,272 44,984 8,434 1,705 2,093 56 British Nationals 51,471 43,503 5,478 1,287 1,153 51 Foreign Nationals 5,607 1,416 2,891 413 884 4Non-criminal 831 258 350 79 144 – British Nationals 61 54 2 2 2 – Foreign Nationals 685 196 314 60 114 –Fine defaulters 34 23 7 1 3 – British Nationals 29 23 6 – 1 – Foreign Nationals 4 – 1 1 2 –MalesTotal(1)(2) 66,824 51,884 9,976 2,160 2,744 60 British Nationals 59,095 49,536 6,525 1,572 1,407 56 Foreign Nationals 6,835 1,853 3,242 539 1,196 4Untried 7,351 5,191 1,429 278 446 7 British Nationals 5,856 4,529 905 198 217 7 Foreign Nationals 901 239 424 57 182 –Convicted unsentenced 4,732 3,719 669 126 217 1 British Nationals 4,289 3,601 466 101 121 1 Foreign Nationals 407 113 187 22 84 –Sentenced 53,936 42,704 7,564 1,676 1,940 53 British Nationals 48,866 41,331 5,148 1,271 1,068 48 Foreign Nationals 4,890 1,310 2,358 399 819 4Non-criminal 774 250 307 79 138 – British Nationals 57 53 1 2 – – Foreign Nationals 633 191 272 60 110 –Fine defaulters 31 21 6 1 3 – British Nationals 26 21 5 – 1 – Foreign Nationals 4 – 1 1 2 –FemalesTotal(1)(2) 4,394 3,101 1,048 38 205 3 British Nationals 3,458 2,913 408 22 112 3 Foreign Nationals 884 153 628 16 87 –Untried 526 412 76 6 32 – British Nationals 427 363 43 4 17 – Foreign Nationals 65 21 29 2 14 –Convicted unsentenced 472 399 58 2 13 – British Nationals 420 376 33 2 9 – Foreign Nationals 50 21 25 – 4 –Sentenced 3,336 2,281 869 30 153 3 British Nationals 2,605 2,172 330 16 84 3 Foreign Nationals 717 106 533 14 65 –Non-criminal 57 8 43 – 6 – British Nationals 4 1 1 – 2 – Foreign Nationals 52 6 42 – 4 –Fine defaulters 3 2 1 – – – British Nationals 3 2 1 – – – Foreign Nationals – – – – – –(1) Includes persons of unknown or unrecorded nationality. 123
  • 134. Table 6.4 Population in prison under sentence by ethnic group, nationality, offence and sexEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Females Number of persons, per centType of offence Ethnic group Total White Black South Chinese Un- Total White Black South Chinese Asian & Other recorded Asian & Other Number per centAll nationalities(1)Total 3,336 2,281 869 30 153 3 100 100 100 100 100Violence against the person 534 457 46 9 22 1 16 21 5 30 15Rape 5 5 – – – – – – – – –Other sexual offences 17 14 2 – 1 – 1 1 – – 1Burglary 230 198 19 1 12 – 7 9 2 3 8Robbery 310 244 53 1 10 1 9 11 6 3 7Theft and handling 462 407 37 2 16 – 14 18 4 7 11Fraud and forgery 122 77 29 6 11 – 4 3 3 20 7Drug offences 1,331 611 645 9 65 1 41 27 75 30 44Other offences 257 213 30 2 12 – 8 10 3 7 8Not recorded 69 55 9 – 5 –British nationalsTotal 2,605 2,172 330 16 84 3 100 100 100 100 100Violence against the person 507 447 38 6 15 1 20 21 12 37 19Rape 5 5 – – – – – – – – –Other sexual offences 16 14 2 – – – 1 1 1 – –Burglary 219 196 18 – 5 – 9 9 6 – 6Robbery 299 238 49 – 10 1 12 11 15 – 13Theft and handling 447 403 32 2 10 – 18 19 10 12 12Fraud and forgery 90 69 13 2 6 – 4 3 4 12 7Drug offences 726 544 150 5 26 1 29 26 46 32 33Other offences 233 204 20 1 8 – 9 10 6 6 10Not recorded 64 52 8 – 5 –Foreign nationalsTotal 717 106 533 14 65 – 100 100 100 100 100Violence against the person 26 10 7 3 6 – 4 10 1 21 9Rape – – – – – – – – – – –Other sexual offences 1 – – – 1 – – – – – 2Burglary 10 2 1 1 6 – 1 2 – 7 9Robbery 10 5 4 1 – – 1 5 1 7 –Theft and handling 14 4 4 – 6 – 2 4 1 – 9Fraud and forgery 31 7 15 4 5 – 4 7 3 28 8Drug offences 599 66 491 4 37 – 84 64 92 29 57Other offences 24 9 10 1 4 – 3 9 2 7 6Not recorded 4 3 1 – – –– = nil or negligible.(1) Including prisoners where nationality was unrecorded. 124
  • 135. Table 6.4 Population in prison under sentence by ethnic group, nationality, offence and sexEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Males Number of persons, per centType of offence Ethnic group Total White Black South Chinese Un- Total White Black South Chinese Asian & Other recorded Asian & Other Number per centAll nationalities(1)Total 53,936 42,704 7,564 1,676 1,940 53 100 100 100 100 100Violence against the person 11,668 9,539 1,381 374 366 7 22 23 19 23 19Rape 2,918 2,377 357 80 102 2 6 6 5 5 5Other sexual offences 2,365 2,176 81 56 51 1 4 5 1 3 3Burglary 8,922 7,994 665 89 159 15 17 19 9 5 8Robbery 7,197 5,236 1,547 201 205 7 14 12 21 12 11Theft and handling 4,282 3,664 388 86 138 7 8 9 5 5 7Fraud and forgery 917 576 138 91 112 1 2 1 2 6 6Drug offences 8,724 5,331 2,446 414 528 5 16 13 33 25 28Other offences 5,941 5,010 455 238 231 6 11 12 6 15 12Not recorded 1,002 801 106 46 47 2British nationalsTotal 48,866 41,331 5,148 1,271 1,068 48 100 100 100 100 100Violence against the person 10,901 9,305 1,115 259 216 6 23 23 22 21 21Rape 2,655 2,311 244 53 46 2 6 6 5 4 4Other sexual offences 2,252 2,133 55 32 32 – 5 5 1 3 3Burglary 8,696 7,864 610 79 130 14 18 19 12 6 13Robbery 6,780 5,101 1,342 173 158 6 14 13 27 14 15Theft and handling 4,072 3,579 333 69 84 7 8 9 7 6 8Fraud and forgery 685 534 60 54 35 1 1 1 1 4 3Drug offences 6,315 4,855 932 312 211 5 13 12 18 25 20Other offences 5,561 4,861 368 202 124 5 12 12 7 16 12Not recorded 949 788 89 37 33 2Foreign nationalsTotal 4,890 1,310 2,358 399 819 4 100 100 100 100 100Violence against the person 730 221 252 115 142 1 15 17 11 29 18Rape 259 65 111 27 55 – 5 5 5 7 7Other sexual offences 106 39 25 24 17 1 2 3 1 6 2Burglary 210 122 50 10 28 1 4 9 2 3 3Robbery 395 128 196 27 43 – 8 10 8 7 5Theft and handling 188 75 50 16 47 – 4 6 2 4 6Fraud and forgery 222 41 75 35 71 – 5 3 3 9 9Drug offences 2,374 466 1,501 102 305 – 49 36 64 26 38Other offences 357 142 83 34 96 1 7 11 4 9 12Not recorded 50 12 15 9 15 –– = nil or negligible.(1) Including prisoners where nationality was unrecorded. 125
  • 136. Table 6.5 Population in prison by ethnic group, sex, type of prisoner and length of sentenceEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002Males and females Number of personsType of prisoner Ethnic group Total White Black South Asian Chinese & Unrecorded OtherMales and femalesTotal 71,218 54,986 11,019 2,199 2,951 64Remand 13,081 9,720 2,232 412 709 8 Untried 7,877 5,603 1,505 284 479 7 Convicted unsentenced 5,204 4,118 727 128 230 1Sentenced 57,272 44,985 8,429 1,707 2,095 56 Young Offenders 8,855 6,897 1,329 298 322 9 Less than 12 months 2,099 1,807 187 41 64 - 12 months or more 6,756 5,089 1,143 257 258 9 Adults 48,417 38,088 7,100 1,409 1,774 47 Less than 12 months 5,697 4,862 488 148 191 8 12 months to less than 4 years 16,952 13,949 2,021 449 515 18 4 years or more 25,768 19,276 4,591 812 1,067 21Non-criminal 831 258 350 79 144 –Fine defaulters 34 23 7 1 3 –MalesTotal 66,824 51,883 9,973 2,161 2,746 61Remand 12,083 8,910 2,098 404 663 8 Untried 7,351 5,191 1,429 278 446 7 Convicted unsentenced 4,732 3,719 669 126 217 1Sentenced 53,936 42,702 7,562 1,677 1,942 53 Young Offenders 8,368 6,521 1,244 296 298 9 Less than 12 months 1,955 1,686 176 40 53 – 12 months or more 6,413 4,835 1,068 256 244 9 Adults 45,568 36,181 6,318 1,381 1,644 44 Less than 12 months 5,232 4,460 446 144 174 8 12 months to less than 4 years 15,813 13,090 1,786 443 478 16 4 years or more 24,523 18,632 4,085 794 992 20Non-criminal 774 250 307 79 138 –Fine defaulters 31 21 6 1 3 –FemalesTotal 4,394 3,103 1,046 38 205 3Remand 998 811 134 8 46 – Untried 526 412 76 6 32 – Convicted unsentenced 472 399 58 2 13 –Sentenced 3,336 2,282 868 30 153 3 Young Offenders 487 376 85 2 24 – Less than 12 months 144 121 11 1 11 – 12 months or more 343 255 74 1 13 – Adults 2,849 1,906 782 28 129 3 Less than 12 months 465 402 41 4 17 – 12 months to less than 4 years 1,139 859 235 6 37 2 4 years or more 1,245 645 506 18 75 1Non-criminal 57 8 43 – 6 –Fine defaulters 3 2 1 – – – 126
  • 137. CHAPTER 7 RELIGIONKey points ● The largest group of prison inmates was Anglican, who formed 36 per cent of the prison population, followed by Roman Catholics (17 per cent) and Muslims (8 per cent). Free Church and Other Christians accounted for 2 and 3 per cent respectively. Buddhists accounted for about 1 per cent and Sikhs, Hindus and Jews each accounted for less than one percent of the population. ● Buddhists were the fastest growing group of the prison population. This group has more than doubled in size over the last nine years, growing by 279 per cent between 1993 and 2002; the prison population as a whole grew by 69 per cent over the same period. The second highest rate of growth overall was among prisoners with No religion, who increased by 203 per cent between 1993 and 2002. ● Christianity was the most common religion among both White prisoners (63 per cent) and Black prisoners (54 per cent). South Asians, on the other hand, were almost exclusively Muslim (73 per cent), Sikh (14 per cent) or Hindu (6 per cent). ● Female prisoners were slightly more likely to have a religious affiliation than their male counterparts. 127
  • 138. Introduction7.1 The religious affiliation of a prisoner is recorded at reception into a prison establishment, at the same time as other personal details such as name, date of birth and ethnicity. It should be noted that religion, like ethnicity, is self-reported by the prisoner. Subsequent to reception, a member of the chaplaincy team undertakes the duty of interviewing every prisoner, regardless of faith, to check that his or her religion has been correctly recorded. If the prisoner’s faith has been incorrectly recorded, the Chaplain will amend the information on the prisoner’s file.7.2 From 1993 to 1998, statistics on religion were recorded by the Annual Census of Religion carried out by the Chaplaincy of HM Prison Service. Since 1999 information on religion is held as part of the prison’s Local Inmate Data System (LIDS). Information can be amended on LIDS for prisoners who change their religious affiliation during their time in prison. However, there is currently no system for recording such conversions. The constraints presented by the present recording system make it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to count the number and nature of any religious conversion that occurs during the term of a prisoner’s sentence. The statistics do not distinguish those prisoners who may have changed their religion during custody.General Trends (Table 7.1; figure 7.1)7.3 The prison population increased by 69 per cent between 1993 and 2002. All religious groups recorded rises in the population in this period except for Jewish. The largest increase over this period was among the Buddhists, which grew by 279 per cent. The population of all Christians showed less than average growth, increasing by 32 per cent between 1993 and 2002. Within this group the number of Roman Catholics increased by 59 per cent, whilst the rate of growth among Anglicans was 19 per cent.7.4 The second highest rate of growth overall was among prisoners with No religion, this group increased by 203 per cent over 1993-2002. There was a higher than average rate of growth among Muslims who increased by 161 per cent over the same period. Hindus increased by 69 per cent and there was an increase of 59 per cent in prisoners from Non-recognised religious groups.7.5 Figure 7.1 shows the number of prisoners in the main religious groups in the prison population from 1993 to 2002.Figure 7.1 PRISON POPULATION BY RELIGION 1993-2002Number of persons45,00040,00035,00030,00025,00020,00015,00010,000 5,000 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 All Christian All non-Christian No religion 128
  • 139. Religion in the Prison Population in 2002 (Table 7.2; figure 7.2)7.6 Christians form the largest single group, accounting for 58 per cent of all inmates in June 2002. Among Christian inmates, the largest group are Anglican who comprise 36 per cent of the total population. The second largest group are Roman Catholics who comprise around 17 per cent of the total. Free Church and Other Christians accounted for 2 and 3 per cent of the population.7.7 The largest group of prisoners from religions other than Christianity is Muslims who comprise 8 per cent of the total population. One per cent of prisoners were Buddhists. Other religious groups, such as, Hindus, Jews and Sikhs, each form less than 1 per cent of the population. Inmates with No religion form an important minority at around 32 per cent of the total population. Less than 1 per cent of these were Agnostics and Atheists. The remainder had no stated religious affiliation.Figure 7.2 PRISON POPULATION BY RELIGION, JUNE 2002 Free Church 2% Roman Catholic 17% Anglican 36% Other Christian 3% Muslim 8% Other 3% No religion 32%Religion and ethnicity (Table 7.3)7.8 In 2002, the majority (84 per cent) of Christian inmates were White. Christianity was the most common religion among both White prisoners (63 per cent) and Black prisoners (54 per cent). South Asians, on the other hand, were almost exclusively Muslim (73 per cent), Sikh (14 per cent) or Hindu (6 per cent).7.9 The ethnic composition of Muslim prisoners was more diverse than for other religions; 33 per cent were Black prisoners, 29 per cent were South Asian, 26 per cent were ‘Chinese and other’, and 12 per cent were White. Of the inmates with No religion 84 per cent were White, and 13 per cent were Black. ‘Chinese and other’ accounted for 2 per cent of this groupReligion, gender and age (Tables 7.4 and 7.5; figures 7.3 and 7.4)7.10 There were some differences in the religious profile of the male and female populations. Female prisoners were slightly more likely to have a religious affiliation than their male counterparts. In 2002, 28 per cent of women were of No religion, compared to 32 per cent of males. Sixty eight per cent of females were Christians compared to 57 per cent of males. In contrast, 8 per cent of the male population were Muslims compared with 3 per cent of the female population.7.11 The percentage of prisoners with no religion declined with age for both males and females. Fifty-seven per cent of 15-17 year old males were of no religion compared with 16 per cent of male prisoners aged 60 years and over. The proportion of Anglican male prisoners increased with age from 21 per cent among 15-17 year olds to 52 per cent among prisoners aged 60 years and over 129
  • 140. Figure 7.3 MALE PRISON POPULATION BY RELIGION, JUNE 2002 Free Church 2% Roman Catholic 17% Anglican 36% Other Christian 3% Muslim 8% Other 3% No religion 32%Figure 7.4 FEMALE PRISON POPULATION BY RELIGION, JUNE 2002 Free Church 5% Roman Catholic Anglican 21% 39% Other Christian 3% Muslim 3% Other 1% No religion 28%Custody Type (Table 7.6)7.12 There was variation by custody type across religions. Amongst males, Anglicans accounted for 37 per cent of sentenced prisoners, 33 per cent of untried and convicted unsentenced prisoners and 13 per cent of non criminal prisoners. Amongst females, Anglicans accounted for 40 per cent of sentenced prisoners, 35 per cent of untried, 39 per cent of convicted unsentenced prisoners and 28 per cent of non criminal prisoners.7.13 Amongst males, only 17 per cent of non criminal prisoners (mainly immigration offences, but also include offences such as contempt of court) had no declared religion, compared to 31 per cent of sentenced prisoners and 34 per cent of untried prisoners. For females, the figures were 28 per cent, 27 per cent and 35 per cent. 130
  • 141. 7.14 For males, Muslims were the largest group amongst non criminal prisoners, accounting for 33 per cent. Roman Catholics and Other Christians each accounted for 14 per cent, 13 per cent were Anglicans and 17 per cent fell under the category No Religion.7.15 Amongst males, non-criminal prisoners (mainly immigration offences, but also include offences such as contempt of court) accounted for 8 per cent of Hindus, 6 per cent of Other Christians, 4 per cent of Sikhs and 5 per cent of Muslims in prison.Sentence length (Table 7.7)7.16 Among males, Hindus and those with no declared religion were most likely to be serving sentences of less than 12 months (17 and 18 per cent respectively) followed by Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Sikhs (each 12 per cent). Buddhists were least likely to be serving sentences of less than 12 months (2 per cent) and most likely to be serving 4 years or more, including life, (83 per cent). This compares with 50 per cent of Anglicans, 47 per cent of Hindus and 73 per cent of those with Other religion. 131
  • 142. Table 7.1 Population in prison by religion(1)England and Wales, 30 JuneMales and females Number of persons 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2001 2002 March March March March March March March March March June JuneTotal 42,048 46,624 44,253 53,509 57,970 64,456 64,212 65,463 65,394 66,403 71,218All Christian 31,375 32,516 29,027 35,187 37,129 40,609 39,103 38,944 38,686 38,755 41,325 Anglican 21,612 22,349 20,868 23,856 25,223 27,299 25,725 25,567 24,720 24,599 25,754 Free Church 1,049 1,178 1,119 1,291 1,119 1,337 1,158 1,132 1,200 1,193 1,397 Roman Catholic 7,766 8,457 6,540 9,457 10,238 11,172 11,386 11,327 11,435 11,505 12,375 Other Christian 948 532 500 583 549 801 833 919 1,332 1,457 1,798Buddhist 177 168 182 230 226 324 306 285 449 486 672Hindu 161 157 162 201 198 304 243 246 267 293 271Jewish 209 198 178 203 288 214 192 160 166 159 179Muslim 2,106 2,513 2,745 3,327 3,681 4,188 4,314 4,298 4,882 5,046 5,495Sikh 323 363 353 381 394 491 447 394 414 431 442Other non-Christian 142 147 57 119 79 95 92 89 112 134 168Non-recognised 140 157 129 144 135 159 144 152 185 181 222No religion 7,415 10,405 11,420 13,717 15,840 18,072 19,371 20,888 20,221 20,907 22,435Not recorded – – – – – – 3 7 11 12 10(1) Figures for 1993-1998 were recorded by the Annual Census of Religion in Prisons carried out by the Chaplaincy of HM Prison Service. Figures for 1999 onwards are recorded by the Prison Service on the Local Inmate Data Base (LIDS). 132
  • 143. Table 7.2 Population in prison by religionEngland and Wales Numbers Percentages Jun-01 Jun-02 Jun-01 Jun-02All Prisoners 66,403 71,218 100.0 100.0Anglican 24,599 25,754 37.0 36.2of whom Anglican 37 39 0.1 0.1 Church in Wales 164 130 0.2 0.2 Church of England 24,383 25,575 36.7 35.9 Church of Ireland 14 9 – – Episcopalian 2 2 – –Roman Catholic 11,505 12,375 17.3 17.4Free Church 1,193 1,397 1.8 2.0of whom Baptist 179 204 0.3 0.3 Celestial Church of God 24 55 – 0.1 Church of Scotland 328 296 0.5 0.4 Congregational 4 3 – – Methodist 295 299 0.4 0.4 Non Conformist 56 111 0.1 0.2 Pentecostal 200 312 0.3 0.4 Presbyterian 31 35 – – Quaker 31 38 – 0.1 Salvation Army 35 30 0.1 – United Reformed Church 9 9 – – Welsh Independent 1 5 – –Buddhist 486 672 0.7 0.9Hindu 293 271 0.4 0.4Jewish 159 179 0.2 0.3Muslim 5,046 5,495 7.6 7.7Sikh 431 442 0.6 0.6Other 1,591 1,966 2.4 2.8of whom Protestant 212 218 0.3 0.3 Mormon Church of JC 122 156 0.2 0.2 Jehovah’s Witness 138 160 0.2 0.2 Greek/Russian Orthodox 117 121 0.2 0.2 Seven Day Adventist 119 167 0.2 0.2 Ethiopian Orthodox 14 14 – – Spiritualist 29 25 – – Christadelphian 11 13 – – Christian Scientist 68 47 0.1 0.1 Other Christian religion 646 897 1.0 1.3 Calvinist 3 3 – – Evangelist 5 2 – – Coptic 3 2 – – Pagan 75 109 0.1 0.2 Druid 4 2 – – Other non-Christian religion 23 21 – – Ba Hai 1 2 – – CN 1 – – – Taoist 1 3 – – Parsi – 1 – – Jain – 3 – – Zoroastrian – 1 – –Non-recognised 181 222 0.3 0.3of whom Rastafarian 180 219 0.3 0.3 National of Islam 1 3 – – Scientology – – – –No religion 20,907 22,435 31.5 31.5of whom No religion 20,695 22,254 31.2 31.2 Agnostic 69 59 0.1 0.1 Atheist 143 123 0.2 0.2Not recorded 12 10 – – 133
  • 144. Table 7.3 Population in prison by ethnic group and religion England and Wales, 30 June 2002 Males and females Number of persons Per cent Per cent Religion Ethnic Group South Chinese Un- South Chinese Un- South Chinese Total White Black Asian & Other recorded Total White Black Asian & Other recorded Total White Black Asian & Other All Prisoners 71,218 54,985 11,023 2,197 2,948 63 100 77 15 3 4 – 100 100 100 100 100 All Christian 41,325 34,609 5,901 74 704 37 100 84 14 – 2 – 58 63 54 3 24134 Anglican 25,754 22,291 3,193 35 214 21 100 87 12 – 1 – 36 41 29 2 7 Roman Catholic 12,375 10,726 1,215 28 392 14 100 87 10 – 3 – 17 20 11 1 13 Free Church 1,397 866 511 4 15 1 100 62 37 – 1 – 2 2 5 – 1 Other Christian 1,798 725 982 7 83 1 100 40 55 – 5 – 3 1 9 – 3 Buddhist 672 533 45 1 92 – 100 79 7 – 14 – 1 1 – – 3 Hindu 271 11 15 140 105 – 100 4 6 52 39 – – – – 6 4 Jewish 179 148 20 – 10 – 100 83 11 – 6 – – – – – – Muslim 5,495 675 1,817 1,595 1,403 4 100 12 33 29 26 – 8 1 16 73 48 Sikh 442 9 10 315 107 1 100 2 2 71 24 – 1 – – 14 4 Other 168 138 22 2 6 – 100 82 13 1 4 – – – – – – Non-recognised 222 8 214 – – – 100 4 96 – – – – – 2 – – No religion 22,435 18,850 2,977 70 516 22 100 84 13 – 2 – 32 34 27 3 18 Not recorded 10 5 1 – 4 – 100 50 10 – 40 – – – – – –
  • 145. Table 7.4 Population in prison by religion, gender and ethnicityEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002 South Chinese Un- Total White Black Asian & Other recordedAll Male Prisoners 66,824 51,884 9,976 2,160 2,744 60Prisoners with declared religion 45,615 33,981 7,226 2,095 2,274 39of whom Anglican 24,021 20,970 2,814 35 183 20 Roman Catholic 11,442 10,008 1,063 26 332 12 Free Church 1,196 831 350 3 11 1 Other Christian 1,686 697 910 7 71 1 Buddhist 656 521 45 1 88 – Hindu 256 10 13 135 98 – Jewish 172 143 20 – 9 – Muslim 5,379 652 1,772 1,580 1,371 4 Sikh 430 8 10 306 105 1 Other 162 134 21 2 5 – Non-recognised 216 8 208 – – –No religion 21,201 17,900 2,748 65 465 22Blank 8 3 1 – 4 –All Female Prisoners 4,394 3,101 1,048 38 205 3Prisoners with declared religion 3,158 2,149 819 33 154 3of whom Anglican 1,734 1,321 380 – 32 1 Roman Catholic 933 718 152 2 60 2 Free Church 201 35 162 1 4 – Other Christian 113 29 72 – 12 – Buddhist 16 12 – – 4 – Hindu 15 1 2 5 7 – Jewish 7 6 – – 1 – Muslim 115 23 45 16 32 – Sikh 12 1 – 9 2 – Other 6 4 1 – 1 – Non-recognised 6 – 6 – – –No religion 1,234 950 229 5 51 –Blank 2 2 – – – – 135
  • 146. Table 7.5 Population in prison by age, religion and sexEngland and Wales, June 2002 15-17 18-20 21-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60 and Total years years years years years years years overAll Male Prisoners 66,824 2,500 7,816 12,331 12,711 19,014 7,824 3,145 1,483Prisoners with declared religion 45,615 1,083 4,152 7,482 8,559 14,237 6,235 2,630 1,237of whom Anglican 24,021 537 1,985 3,825 4,474 7,538 3,331 1,561 771 Roman Catholic 11,442 349 1,269 1,976 2,102 3,523 1,457 548 218 Free Church 1,196 12 60 84 146 382 253 155 105 Other Christian 1,686 15 145 243 318 569 273 90 33 Buddhist 656 – 9 61 110 275 133 50 18 Hindu 256 8 30 35 48 78 32 16 9 Jewish 172 – 4 7 10 52 47 40 12 Muslim 5,379 153 597 1,125 1,197 1,538 590 119 60 Sikh 430 4 34 84 93 130 48 30 7 Other 162 2 6 16 19 71 35 11 2 Non-recognised 216 3 14 26 42 81 37 11 2No religion 21,201 1,417 3,664 4,850 4,152 4,773 1,587 514 244Not recorded 8 – – – – 4 2 1 1All Female Prisoners 4,394 114 501 829 885 1,359 528 156 22Prisoners with declared religion 3,158 51 289 515 640 1,050 453 139 20of whom Anglican 1,734 31 171 307 359 541 245 70 11 Roman Catholic 933 17 89 150 193 316 123 41 4 Free Church 201 – 8 17 40 87 40 10 – Other Christian 113 2 3 16 16 55 18 3 – Buddhist 16 – – – 2 7 5 2 – Hindu 15 – 2 2 5 3 3 – – Jewish 7 – – – – 2 – 5 – Muslim 115 1 14 21 23 35 13 6 3 Sikh 12 – 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 Other 6 – – – – 1 4 1 – Non-recognised 6 – – 1 1 3 1 – –No religion 1,234 64 212 314 244 308 74 17 2Not recorded 2 – – – – 1 1 – – 136
  • 147. Table 7.6 Prison population by custody type, religion and sexEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002 Convicted Fine Non- Total Untried Unsentenced Sentenced defaulter criminalAll Male Prisoners 66,824 7,351 4,732 53,936 31 774Prisoners with declared religion 45,615 4,833 2,892 37,230 20 640of whom Anglican 24,021 2,415 1,580 19,912 12 102 Roman Catholic 11,442 1,241 775 9,320 2 105 Free Church 1,196 104 47 1,023 – 22 Other Christian 1,686 150 89 1,338 2 107 Buddhist 656 20 14 616 – 6 Hindu 256 46 11 179 – 21 Jewish 172 15 10 146 – 1 Muslim 5,379 733 320 4,071 4 252 Sikh 430 65 30 320 – 15 Other 162 11 2 146 – 2 Non-recognised 216 35 14 159 1 7No religion 21,201 2,517 1,840 16,700 11 132Not recorded 8 1 – 6 – 1All Female Prisoners 4,394 526 472 3,336 3 57Prisoners with declared religion 3,158 342 328 2,443 3 41of whom Anglican 1,734 186 184 1,346 2 16 Roman Catholic 933 118 116 688 1 10 Free Church 201 10 11 172 – 9 Other Christian 113 5 4 101 – 3 Buddhist 16 1 1 14 – – Hindu 15 2 – 12 – 1 Jewish 7 – – 7 – – Muslim 115 14 12 87 – 3 Sikh 12 4 – 8 – – Other 6 2 – 4 – – Non-recognised 6 1 – 5 – –No religion 1,234 184 143 892 – 16Not recorded 2 – 1 1 – – 137
  • 148. Table 7.7 Population in prison under an immediate custodial sentence by sentence length, religion and sexEngland and Wales, 30 June 2002 Over Over Over 18 Over 3 mths up Over 6 12 mths up mths up to 4 years up Over 5 up Up to and to and mths to to and and Over 3 to to and to and Over 10 yrs including including less than including including less than including including less than Total 3 mths 6 mths 12 mths 12 mths 18 mths 3 yrs 4 yrs 4 yrs 5 yrs 10 yrs Life LifeAll Male Prisoners 53,936 1,555 3,562 2,070 1,693 3,507 11,146 4,120 3,502 5,414 9,772 2,614 4,982Prisoners with declared religion 37,227 953 2,103 1,201 1,048 2,164 7,219 2,821 2,420 3,886 7,470 2,151 3,791of whom Anglican 19,906 539 1,223 716 627 1,221 4,079 1,594 1,281 1,954 3,749 966 1,958 Roman Catholic 9,320 261 576 315 261 551 1,868 704 571 957 1,824 560 872 Free Church 1,023 8 39 26 18 40 158 70 62 109 256 56 182 Other Christian 1,341 29 43 29 20 70 214 101 107 200 358 71 96 Buddhist 615 2 8 5 5 11 57 20 29 62 186 68 162 Hindu 179 7 21 2 4 12 41 9 11 17 25 11 19 Jewish 146 2 2 3 3 8 23 6 13 18 32 14 22 Muslim 4,072 92 166 88 96 219 674 284 296 500 925 363 370 Sikh 320 9 18 12 12 23 64 13 24 32 48 18 46 Other 146 2 5 3 0 8 17 5 8 9 25 9 55 Non-recognised 159 3 2 2 2 2 24 15 17 28 41 15 9No religion 16,703 601 1,459 870 645 1,343 3,926 1,299 1,080 1,528 2,301 463 1,188Not recorded 6 1 – – – – 1 – 1 – – – 3All Female Prisoners 3,336 164 260 185 142 269 736 245 196 324 539 111 165Prisoners with declared religion 2,444 105 175 123 92 184 517 179 149 249 441 93 138of whom Anglican 1,347 58 102 80 64 113 311 103 80 136 193 38 68 Roman Catholic 688 37 61 31 21 48 151 45 34 66 122 24 48 Free Church 173 2 1 2 2 10 22 11 21 26 69 4 3 Other Christian 101 1 4 2 3 3 12 14 8 14 28 6 6 Buddhist 14 2 1 – – 1 3 1 1 – 1 1 3 Hindu 12 1 2 1 1 2 – – – – 4 – 1 Jewish 7 – 1 – – 1 1 1 – 1 1 1 – Muslim 87 5 3 6 1 3 16 4 4 4 18 17 6 Sikh 8 – – 1 – 1 – – – 1 2 – 3 Other 4 – – – – 2 – – – – 1 – 1 Non-recognised 5 – – – – – 1 – – 1 2 1 –No religion 891 58 85 62 50 85 220 66 48 75 98 18 27Not recorded 1 1 – – – – – – – – – – – 138
  • 149. CHAPTER 8 OFFENCES AND PUNISHMENTSKey pointsOffences ● There were 106,200 proven offences against prison discipline in 2002, 2,200 less than in 2001. The rate of adjudications fell between 2001 and 2002, down from 163 to 150 per 100 population. ● Between 1992 and 2002 there was a decrease in the rate of offending for all types of establishments. ● The rate of offending was highest in young offender institutions and in female establishments. The most common offences were disobeying lawful orders, threatening or abusive words or behaviour, and drugs offences. ● There were 6,500 proven assaults in 2002, decrease of 300 compared with 2001, while offences of fighting increased from 10,100 to 11,000. These increases were in line with the increase in the prison population in 2001 so the overall rate of violent offending remained the same, at 25 offences per 100 population. ● Unauthorised transactions declined e.g. drug use and possession fell to 10,800 offences (from 14,300 in 2001), while disobedience/disrespect increased from 44,400 to 45,400 in 2002. ● Black male prisoners committed around 20 per cent more proven offences per 100 population than White males. This is a fall compared with 2001 when the adjudication rate for Black males was 30 per cent higher than for White males. Among females, White prisoners had 70 per cent more proven offences per 100 population than Black females. South Asian and ‘Chinese and other’ male prisoners had relatively low adjudication rates.Punishments ● Forfeiture of privileges was the most common punishment, followed by the stoppage/reduction of earnings. The use of additional days as a punishment fell in 2002 compared with 2001 and 2000. This was because this punishment ceased from April 2001 for juveniles on Detention and Training Orders, and following a European ruling in July 2002, the powers to impose additional days as a punishment was withdrawn from governors and handed to independent adjudicators. ● Patterns of punishment varied between different establishment types. The type of offence committed also affected the punishment given. ● On average, male prisoners received a higher number of punishments per offence than female prisoners (1.7 and 1.5 punishments per offence, respectively). 139
  • 150. The disciplinary system8.1 The adjudication process exists to allow prison governors and independent adjudicators to deal with breaches of prison discipline, as set out in the Prison Rules 1999, as amended by the Prison (Amendment) Rules 2000, the Prison (Amendment) (No2) and the Prison (Amendment) Rules 2000, and the Young Offender Institution Rules 2000 as amended by the Young Offender Institution (Amendment) Rules 2002. Governors and independent adjudicators may also refer possible criminal offences to the police.8.2 The tables in this chapter count only proven offences. They exclude not proven, dismissed, quashed, pending and other not completed charges (20,878 in total) and cases referred for prosecution.Offences (Tables 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5 and 8.6)8.3 There were 150 proven offences against prison discipline for every 100 prisoners in 2002, a 9 per cent decrease from 2001. This represents a total of 106,200 offences down 2,200 on 2001. The rate of offending in female establishments fell in 2002 compared with 2001 (from 225 per 100 population to 208) There was also a decrease in the rate of offending in male establishments between 2001 and 2002 from 160 to 146. Historically, the offending rate has tended to be lower in adult male prisons and higher in young offender institutions and female establishments. This pattern continued in 2002. The rate of offending increased for open prisons between 2001 and 2002.8.4 Between 1992 and 2002 the number of offences punished per 100 population decreased for most types of establishments. The largest decrease was for female young offender institutions, which showed a decrease of 36 per cent. The corresponding decrease for male young offender institutions was 7 per cent.8.5 The overall offence rate was nearly a third (33 per cent) lower than the peak in 1993 and 1994. Disobedience/disrespect was down by 39 per cent compared with the levels in 1993 and 1994. Unauthorised transactions/possession was down by 52 per cent from the 1996 level that followed the introduction of Mandatory Drug Testing (MDT) in late 1995, allowing the detection of many offences that would previously have gone unpunished.8.6 There were 6,500 proven assaults in 2002, a decrease of 300 compared with 2001, while offences of fighting increased from 10,100 to 11,000. These increases were in line with the increase in the prison population in 2001 so the overall rate of violent offending remained the same, at 25 offences per 100 population. The overall rate of violent offences has remained fairly constant over the last ten years. The rates for male young offender institutions stabilised to 109 after an increase in 2001 (increasing from 94 per 100 population in 2000 to 107 in 2001). While in female young offender institutions the rate decreased from 79 to 73. 140
  • 151. Figure 8.1 OFFENCES PUNISHED PER 100 AVERAGE POPULATION BY TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT, 1992-2002 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Male prisons and remand centres Male young offender establishment Female prisons and remand centres Female young offender establishmentFigure 8.2 TYPES OF OFFENCES COMMITTED IN 1997 AND 2002 1997 2002 9% 13% 11% 17% 1% 1% 22% 33% 38% 7% 43% 5% Violence Escape/abscond Disrespect etc. Wilful damage Unauth. Transactions Other offences8.7 The types of offence committed varied greatly between types of establishment. Violence and wilful damage were most common in remand centres, closed young offender institutions and juvenile young offender institutions. Disobedience and disrespect were low in open prisons, moderate in male local and closed training prisons and high elsewhere. ‘Other’ offences, many of which are associated with freedom of movement, were most common in open establishments. The most common offences overall were disobeying lawful orders, threatening or abusive words or behaviour and possession of an unauthorised article. 141
  • 152. 8.8 Black male prisoners had a proven adjudication rate nearly 20 per cent higher than White male prisoners. The difference was particularly marked for violent offences, with 59 per cent more proven offences per 100 population for Black prisoners, whereas Black males had fewer adjudications for wilful damage. The difference in rates between Black and White males has narrowed since 2001 when the proven adjudication rate for Black male prisoners was 30 per cent higher than for White males. South Asian, ‘Chinese and other’ ethnic origin male prisoners had fewer adjudications than either group, especially for disobedience/disrespect.8.9 Among females, White prisoners had 70 per cent more proven offences per 100 population than Black females. The female South Asian and ‘Chinese and other’ ethnic origin population is so small that adjudication rates are unstable and any differences are not significant.Punishments (Tables 8.4, 8.5 and 8.6)8.10 Forfeiture of privileges was the punishment most often awarded with 96 such punishments per 100 population, an increase from 80 in 2001. The use of additional days fell by 49 per cent from 2001. This was because, from 1st April 2001, additional days were no longer available as a punishment for juveniles on Detention and Training Orders, and a European ruling in July 2002 led to the withdrawal of the governor’s power to impose additional days. This power passed to independent adjudicators, and from 7th October 2002 district judges began conducting adjudications in establishments, imposing additional days where appropriate. Most of these would have been completed within the time frame of these statistics. Stoppage of earnings increased slightly from 69 per 100 population to 72, and cellular confinement increased from 20 to 24.8.11 The type of punishment awarded varied by establishment and according to the offence. Forfeiture of privileges was common in young offender institutions and remand centres and low in Open prisons. Escapes and drug-related offences were particularly likely to result in a punishment of added days.8.12 There was a decrease in the number of offences punished per 100 of population for all types of establishments between 1992 and 2002. The largest decrease of 41 per cent was for female young offender institutions. There were decreases of 32 per cent for male and 36 per cent for female prisons and remand centres and 7% for male young offender institutions.8.13 On average, male prisoners received a higher number of punishments per offence than female prisoners (1.7 and 1.5 punishments per offence, respectively). For both male and females, Black prisoners received a slightly higher number of punishments per offence than White prisoners.Note8.14 The adjudication statistics refer to incidents rather than individuals so that a relatively small number of individuals with repeat disciplinary offences can account for a large number of offences in particular establishments or, for example, by particular groups (ethnic or otherwise) of prisoners. An analysis of the discipline and population data for 1996 showed that a higher proportion of black males than white males had at least one disciplinary offence to their name and that the difference was confined to British citizens. (In fact, black foreign nationals had lower offending rates than white foreign nationals.) The difference was not explained by differences in age or criminal offence, both of which are connected with behaviour in custody. 142
  • 153. Table 8.1 Offences(1) punished per 100 population: by sex and type of prisonEngland and WalesMales and females Number of offences punished per 100 populationType of establishment 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002All establishments 200 226 225 207 209 177 171 161 163 163 150MalesAll establishments 196 222 220 204 206 174 168 158 159 160 146Prison and remand centres 171 201 200 188 190 157 149 135 132 130 117 Remand centres 321 370 359 312 277 264 290 267 268 243 209 Local prisons 142 186 194 184 195 151 145 131 132 135 118 Open prisons 116 140 119 90 93 96 84 86 79 77 81 Closed training prisons 183 195 191 189 189 153 139 120 116 118 109Young offender institutions 393 405 410 348 339 316 314 355 364 377 365 Open young offender institutions 407 396 414 383 403 318 326 345 271 303 310 Closed young offender institutions(2) 387 388 375 308 310 281 277 324 296 280 277 Juvenile young offender institutions 550 566 579 484 422 426 423 445 541 553 523 Short sentence young offender institutions 303 * * * * * * * * * *FemalesAll establishments 311 340 343 262 268 244 233 213 232 225 208Prisons and remand centres 284 316 316 245 240 226 218 200 216 198 181 Local prisons 317 383 368 299 288 277 245 224 237 217 200 Open prisons 218 159 211 128 122 128 158 146 138 145 216 Closed training prisons 278 307 307 225 236 213 213 193 216 195 159Young offender institutions 752 719 785 471 624 489 411 338 354 459 443 Open young offender institutions 396 431 642 275 316 271 279 318 392 321 598 Closed young offender institutions 891 831 832 518 695 533 419 341 351 468 416(1) Including attempts. 143
  • 154. Table 8.2 Offences punished per 100 population: by sex, type of prison and offence(1)England and Wales 2002Males and females Number of offences punished per 100 population Escapes Disobedience All or or Wilful Unauthorised OtherType of establishment offences Violence absconds disrespect damage transactions(2) offencesAll establishments 150 25 1 64 10 33 17MalesAll establishments 146 24 1 63 10 33 15Prisons and remand centres 117 13 1 52 7 32 13 Remand centres 209 65 – 79 21 29 16 Local prisons 118 15 1 53 8 30 12 Open prisons 81 – – 11 – 41 28 Closed training prisons 109 7 – 53 5 32 12Young offender institutions 365 109 2 145 37 42 31 Open young offender institutions 310 33 5 83 8 76 106 Closed young offender institutions 277 63 2 129 20 41 22 Juvenile young offender institutions 523 197 1 181 70 38 36FemalesAll establishments 208 32 1