Prison statistics          England and Wales          2002Cm 5996
HOME OFFICE                   Prison statistics                England and Wales                              2002        ...
PREVIOUS REPORTS                                2001—Cm. 5743                                2000—Cm. 5250                ...
Prison statisticsEngland and Wales2002                                           CONTENTS                                 ...
LIST OF TABLES (tables cover 1992-2002 unless otherwise shown)                                                            ...
Page3.14        Average time served by discharged prisoners: by sex and length of sentence,            1993-2002          ...
PageChapter 9    Reconvictions of prisoners discharged from prison in 19999.1          Prisoners reconvicted by year of di...
Page11.9    Temporary release failures, 1993-2002                                           20011.10   Overcrowding: by es...
PRISON STATISTICS ENGLAND AND WALES 2002                                  LOCATION OF CONTENTSSubject                     ...
Subject                   Table numberDischargesAdult Female              4.11Adult Male                4.11Home Detention...
INTRODUCTIONThis publication has been prepared by the Criminal Justice System Analysis Team of the Home OfficeResearch Dev...
AcknowledgementsAcknowledgement is made of the contributions from Gordon Barclay, Karl Chads, Ian Cross, PatDowdeswell, Mi...
CHAPTER 1                                 THE PRISON POPULATION IN 2002Key points    ● The average population in custody d...
The population in custody (Tables 1.1-1.8)1.1   The average population in custody during 2002 was 70,860, higher than in a...
Figure 1.2a: Male prison population 1900 - 2002 (annual average)                                   Figure 1.2c: Female pri...
1.4        A detailed description of trends in the male and female prison population in the earlier part of the           ...
courts fell from 2.7 to 2.5 months. Between 1992 and 2002 the total number of adults sentenced for       indictable offenc...
Figure 1.4a                           MALE PRISON POPULATION UNDER AN IMMEDIATE                                CUSTODIAL S...
1.15            Table 1.7b gives more detail on prisoners held for drug offences. The number of prisoners held for        ...
1.20             The number of prisoners received from magistrates’ courts under an immediate custodial sentence          ...
1.26     There were 34 fine defaulters in prison on 30th June 2002. This is just under one-tenth of the level in         1...
1.31   The prison population in European Union Member States increased by 5 per cent between 2001 and       2002. The grea...
Table 1.1        Receptions into prison and average population in custody: by sex and type of custodyEngland and Wales 200...
Table 1.2         Population in custody(1): by sex and type of custody, annual averages and month end figuresEngland and W...
Table 1.2 (continued)               Population in custody(1): by sex and type of custody, annual averages and month end   ...
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  1. 1. Prison statistics England and Wales 2002Cm 5996
  2. 2. HOME OFFICE Prison statistics England and Wales 2002 Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Home Department by Command of Her Majesty November 2003Cm 5996 £25.75
  3. 3. PREVIOUS REPORTS 2001—Cm. 5743 2000—Cm. 5250 1999—Cm. 4805 1998—Cm. 4430 1997—Cm. 4017 1996—Cm. 3732 1995—Cm. 3355 1994—Cm. 3087 1993—Cm. 2893 1992—Cm. 2581 1991—Cm. 2157 1990—Cm. 1800 1989—Cm. 1221 1988—Cm. 825 © Crown Copyright 2003The text in this document (excluding the Royal Arms and departmental logos) may bereproduced free of charge in any format or medium providing that it is reproducedaccurately and not used in a misleading context. The material must be acknowledged asCrown copyright and the title of the document specified.Any enquiries relating to the copyright in this document should be addressed toThe Licensing Division, HMSO, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ.Fax: 01603 723000 or e-mail: licensing@cabinet-office.x.gsi.gov.uk ii
  4. 4. Prison statisticsEngland and Wales2002 CONTENTS PageList of tables ivLocation of contents viiiIntroduction 1Chapter 1 The prison population in 2002 3Chapter 2 Remand prisoners 41Chapter 3 Young people 53Chapter 4 Adult prisoners under sentence 79Chapter 5 Life sentence prisoners 103Chapter 6 Ethnic group and nationality 114Chapter 7 Religion 127Chapter 8 Offences and punishments 139Chapter 9 Reconvictions of prisoners discharged from prison in 1999 150Chapter 10 Parole and home detention curfew 174Chapter 11 Prison regimes, conditions and costs 189Chapter 12 Home Office research on prison related topics 207Chapter 13 Directory of related Internet Sites 214Appendix 1 219Appendix 2 226Glossary 229 iii
  5. 5. LIST OF TABLES (tables cover 1992-2002 unless otherwise shown) PageChapter 1 The prison population in 2002 31.1 Receptions and average population in custody: by sex and custody type 2002 131.1a Initial receptions during 2002 by sex and type of custody 131.2 Population in custody: by sex and custody type, monthly figures 2001-02 141.2a The prison population 1900-2002, by year and sex of prisoner 161.3 Average population in custody: by prisoner type, establishment and sex 2002 171.4 Average population in custody: by type of custody and sex 191.4a Population in custody at 30 June by type of custody and sex 201.5 Sentenced population: by offence, establishment type and sex 2002 211.6 Sentenced population: by offence and sentence length 2002 231.7 Sentenced population: by offence group and sex 261.7a Sentenced population on 30 June 2001 and 30 June 2002 by offence 271.7b Sentenced population on 30 June: by principal drugs offence, 1992-2002 271.8 Sentenced population: by sentence length and sex 281.9 Sentenced population by age and sex 291.10 Prison receptions: by custody type and sex 301.11 Prison receptions and population by court sentencing 311.12 Prison receptions under sentence by prisoner type and sentence length 321.13 Fine defaulters: population, receptions, average time in prison by sex 331.14 Fine defaulters: receptions by age, offence group and sex 341.15 Non-criminal prisoners: population by sex and type of committal 361.16 Non-criminal prisoners: receptions by sex and type of committal 371.17 Average population in custody and CNA: by establishment type 381.18 Prison population by Prison Service establishment 2002 391.19 International prison population comparisons 2000-2002 40Chapter 2 Remand Prisoners2.1 Average remand population: by committal type, age and sex 452.2 Average remand population, receptions and average time in custody 472.3 Untried population: by length of time since first reception 482.4 Convicted unsentenced population: by length of time since first reception 482.5 Remand population: by length of time since first reception 1999-2002 492.6 Final court outcome for those remanded in 2000-2002; by sex 492.7 Sentenced receptions previously remanded: by sex, offence and length of sentence 2002 502.8 Remand population: by offence and sex 2001-2002 512.9 Remand receptions: by offence and sex 2001-2002 52Chapter 3 Young offenders under sentence3.1 Young offenders sentenced population: by custody type, sex, offence and length of sentence 2002 603.1a Juveniles sentenced population by custody type, sex, offence and length of sentence 2002 613.1b 18-20 year olds sentenced population by custody type, sex, offence and length of sentence 2002 623.2 Population: by sex, age and custody type 2002 633.3 Under 18 population by sex, offence and custody type 2002 643.4 Under 18 population by custody type and sex 1995-2002 653.5 Sentenced population: by sex and offence 663.6 Sentenced male population by previous convictions 1993-2001 673.7 Sentenced population by sex, custody type and length of sentence 683.8 Sentenced receptions: by age, sex and offence 2002 693.9 Sentenced receptions: by age, sex, offence, custody type and length of sentence 703.10 Prison receptions: by age, sex and custody type 2002 713.11 Sentenced receptions: by age, sex and offence 723.12 Sentenced receptions: by age, sex, custody type and length of sentence 743.13 Average time served by discharged prisoners: by sex and length of sentence 2002 76 iv
  6. 6. Page3.14 Average time served by discharged prisoners: by sex and length of sentence, 1993-2002 773.15 Average sentence length of receptions: by sex, age and court 78Chapter 4 Adult prisoners under sentence4.1 Sentenced population: by offence and length of sentence 2002 874.2 Sentenced population: by number of previous convictions 1993-2001 884.3 Sentenced population: by offence 894.4 Sentenced population: by length of sentence 914.5 Sentenced receptions: by age and offence 2002 934.6 Sentenced receptions: by age, offence and length of sentence 2002 964.7 Sentenced receptions: by offence 974.8 Sentenced receptions: by length of sentence 984.9 Sentenced receptions: by age 1004.10 Average sentence length of receptions: by court and reception date 1014.11 Average time served by discharged prisoners: by sex and length of sentence 2002 102Chapter 5 Life sentence prisoners5.1 Population and receptions by type of prisoner and sex 1085.2 Population and receptions by type of life sentence and sex 1085.3 Population: by age and principal offence 2002 1095.4 Population and receptions by type of life sentence and age 2002 1105.5 Population and receptions by type of life sentence and ethnic group 2002 1115.6 Population of life prisoners by interval since date of initial reception 2002 1115.7 Receptions: by year of reception, type of release and sentenced time spent 1965-91 1125.8 Number of first releases on life licence and average time served 1135.9 Number of recalls from life licence and time spent on life licence 1999-2002 113Chapter 6 Ethnic group and nationality6.1 Population: by sex and ethnic group 1216.2 Population on 30 June 2002 by nationality and sex 1226.3 Population: by ethnic group, type of prisoner, sex and nationality 2002 1236.4 Sentenced population: by ethnic group, nationality, offence and sex 2002 1246.5 Population: by ethnic group, sex, type of prisoner and length of sentence 2002 126Chapter 7 Religion7.1 Population by religion 1993-2002 1327.2 Population by religion June 2001, June 2002 1337.3 Population by ethnic group and religion 2002 1347.4 Population by religion, gender and ethnicity 2002 1357.5 Population by age, religion and sex 2002 1367.6 Population by custody type, religion and sex 2002 1377.7 Population under sentence by sentence length, religion and sex 2002 138Chapter 8 Offences and punishments8.1 Offences punished per 100 population: by sex and prison type 1438.2 Offences punished per 100 population: by sex, prison type and offence 2002 1448.3 Offences punished per 100 population: by offence 1458.4 Punishments per 100 population: by sex, prison type and type of punishment, 2002 1468.5 Offences punished and punishments given 2002 1478.6 Punishments per 100 population given by ethnicity and offence 2002 148 v
  7. 7. PageChapter 9 Reconvictions of prisoners discharged from prison in 19999.1 Prisoners reconvicted by year of discharge and sex, within two years of discharge 1987-99 1609.2 Reconviction rates, by time between discharge from prison and first reconviction, number of reconvictions and type of offender within two years of discharge from prison during 1999, within three and four years for those discharged in 1988 and five, six and seven years for those discharged in 1987 1619.3 Prisoners reconvicted, by length of sentence and sentence for the principal offence on first reconviction, within two years of discharge from prison during 1999 1629.4 Young males reconvicted, by length of sentence and sentence for the principal offence on first reconviction, within two years of discharge during 1999 1649.5 Adult prisoners by type of custody, percentage reconvicted and recommitted to prison within two years of discharge 1987-99 1659.6 Young males, percentage reconvicted and recommitted to prison within two years of discharge 1987-99 1679.7 Prisoners reconvicted, by sentence for the principal offence on first reconviction, within two years of discharge from prison 1987-99 1689.8 Prisoners reconvicted, by offence for which originally convicted and offence on first reconviction, within two years of discharge during 1999 1709.9 Prisoners reconvicted, by ethnic group, nationality and offence, within two years of discharge from prison during 1999 1729.10 Prisoners reconvicted and those recommitted to custody within 2 years of release from prison in 1999 by age, gender and number of previous convictions 173Chapter 10 Parole and Home Detention Curfew10.1 Cases considered by the Parole Board 1998/99-2002/03 18210.2 DCR cases considered and released 2002/03 18210.3 DCR cases released on parole by length of licence 2002/03 18310.4 Average lengths of licence by sentence length 1992-2002/03 18310.5 DCR cases considered and released on parole by ethnic group 2002/03 18410.6 Prisoners on parole from determinate sentences recalled 1992-2002/03 18410.7 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by sex and ethnic group 2002 18510.8 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by offence and ethnic group 2002 18610.9 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by sentence length 2002 18710.10 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by age group 2002 18710.11 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by establishment type 2002 18710.12 Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by offence type 2002 18810.13 HDC Reasons for recall to prison 2002 18810.14 Summary of Home Detention Curfew eligibility and release figures by gender 1999-2002 188Chapter 11 Prison regimes, conditions and costs11(a) Key performance indicators 2002/03 19511.1 Purposeful activity and time out of cell, by establishment type, 2001 and 2002 19611.1(a) Purposeful activity 1992/93-2002/03 19611.2 Offending behaviour programme completions, by type of programme, financial years 1993/94-2002/03 19611.3 Offending behaviour programme completions, by establishment type, financial year 2002/03 19711.4 Results of the basic skills assessment screening tests, financial year 2002/03 19811.5 Average hours of education: by establishment type 2000/01-2002/03 19811.6 Education hours delivered 1996-2002/03 19911.7 Releases on temporary licence: by establishment type 1994 -2002 19911.8 Releases on temporary licence: by type of licence, 1994-2002 200 vi
  8. 8. Page11.9 Temporary release failures, 1993-2002 20011.10 Overcrowding: by establishment type 2002 20111.11 Mandatory Drug Testing: percentage testing positive by drug group April 2001-March 2002 20111.12 Mandatory Drug Testing: percentage testing positive by drug group April 2002-March 2003 20211.13 Mandatory Drug Testing, by establishment type, financial year 2002/03 20211.14 Escapes: by establishment type 1996-2002 20211.15 Escapes: from escort 1996 to 2002 20311.16 Absconds: by type of establishment 1993-2002 20311.17 Persons restrained by type of establishment, sex and means of restraint 2002 20411.18 Persons restrained: by means of restraint and sex 20511.19 Self-inflicted deaths: by type of establishment, 1992-2002 20611.20 Self-inflicted deaths: by gender 1992-2002 206 vii
  9. 9. PRISON STATISTICS ENGLAND AND WALES 2002 LOCATION OF CONTENTSSubject Table numberPopulationAdult Female 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.9, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4Adult Male 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.9, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4Age 1.9, 2.1, 3.2, 3.4,Average Population 1.1, 1.2, 1.2a, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.2Average Time in Custody 2.2By individual prison 1.18Certified Normal Accommodation 1.17Conditions 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20Court 1.11, 2.1, 2.6Custody Type 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.7Establishment Type 1.3, 1.5Ethnic Group 5.5, 6.1, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 7.3, 7.4Fine Defaulters 1.1, 1.13Home Detention Curfew 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12International Comparisons 1.19Juveniles 3.2, 3.3, 3.4Life Sentence Prisoners 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.8Nationality 6.2, 6.3, 6.4Non-Criminal 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.15Offence 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.7a, 1.7b, 2.8, 3.1,3.3, 3.5, 4.1, 4.3, 5.3, 6.4Parole Board (cases considered) 10.1, 10.2, 10.5,Police Cells 1.3, 1.4Previous Conviction 3.6, 4.2Reconvictions 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10Regimes 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9Remand 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.8Restraints 11.17, 11.18Sentence Length 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 3.1, 3.7, 4.1, 4.4, 6.5, 7.7Time Served 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 3.13, 3.14, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8Young Offenders 1.3, 1.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 5.1, 5.3, 6.5ReceptionsAdult Female 1.1, 1.10, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 5.1, 5.3Adult Male 1.1, 1.10, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 5.1, 5.3Age 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.15, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9Average Sentence Length 3.15Court 1.11, 3.15Custody Type 1.1, 1.1a, 1.10, 3.10, 3.12Fine Defaulters 1.1, 1.1a, 1.14Juveniles 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11Life Sentence Prisoners 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 5.7Non-Criminal 1.1, 1.1a, 1.10, 1.16Offence 1.14, 2.7, 2.9, 3.8, 3.9, 3.11, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7Offences and Punishments 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6Recall to prison 10.12Release 5.7Remand 1.1, 1.1a, 2.2, 2.7, 2.9Sentence Length 1.12, 2.7, 3.9, 3.12, 4.6, 4.8Young Offenders 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.15 viii
  10. 10. Subject Table numberDischargesAdult Female 4.11Adult Male 4.11Home Detention Curfew 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11Life Sentence Prisoners 5.7, 5.8Time Served 3.13, 3.14, 4.11, 5.8Young Offenders 3.13, 3.14 ix
  11. 11. INTRODUCTIONThis publication has been prepared by the Criminal Justice System Analysis Team of the Home OfficeResearch Development and Statistics (RDS) Directorate. This team under Pat Dowdeswell deals withstatistics relating to the criminal justice process (from arrests, through to courts, to probation and prison),projections of correctional services workloads, research on the criminal justice process including treatmentof victims/witnesses and public confidence.As in previous years, this volume comprises commentary and tables covering trends in the prisonpopulation, the remand population, adults and young people, life sentence prisoners, ethnic groups andnationality, religion, offences and punishments, reconvictions of prisoners discharged, parole and homedetention curfew, and prison regime and costs.Other publicationsStatistics on the monthly prison population are published in the Prison Population Brief, which is placed onthe RDS website. A list of Home Office research on prison related topics is listed in Chapter 12.Coverage of the statistics in this volumeAlthough care is taken in processing and analysing the returns, the detail collected is subject to theinaccuracies inherent in any large-scale recording system. Therefore, although some figures in this volumeare shown to the last digit, the figures are not necessarily accurate to the last digit shown. Where thestatistics shown are rounded, the components may not add exactly to the rounded total because they havebeen rounded independently. Further information on data sources and recording practice is given inAppendix 2.References to the population in custody cover prisoners held in Prison Service establishments and policecells, whereas references to the prison population cover those held in Prison Service establishments.EnquiriesIf you have any enquiries about prison population statistics you should contact Ramona Hoyte. The addressis: Room 816 Offending and Criminal Justice Group Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Home Office Abell House John Islip Street London SW1P 4LH Telephone 020 7217 5078or by internet email via: prisonstatistics@homeoffice.gsi.gov.ukPress enquiries should be made to: Prison Service Press Office Room 143 50 Queen Anne’s Gate London SW1H 9AT Telephone 020 7273 4545 1
  12. 12. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgement is made of the contributions from Gordon Barclay, Karl Chads, Ian Cross, PatDowdeswell, Michelle Goodman, Farid Guessous, Veronica Hollis, Mark Judd, Peter Kilsby, Mike Lock,Shilpa Patel, Michael Poole, Keith Spicer, Cynthia Tavares, Isobel Walsh and Steve White. We are alsograteful for the contributions made by and the support of the Prison Service, and other Home Officecolleagues.Rachel CouncellEditorHead of Section, Prison Population and Probation Statistics.Research Development and Statistics Directorate Mission StatementRDS is part of the Home Office. The Home Office’s purpose is to build a safe, just and tolerant society inwhich the rights and responsibilities of individuals, families and communities are properly balanced and theprotection and security of the public are maintained.RDS is also part of National Statistics (NS). One of the aims is to inform Parliament and the citizen aboutthe state of the nation and provide a window on the work and performance of government, allowing theimpact of government policies and actions to be assessed.Research Development and Statistics Directorate exists to improve policy making, decision taking andpractice in support of the Home Office purpose and aims, to provide the public and Parliament withinformation necessary for informed debate and to publish information for future use. 2
  13. 13. CHAPTER 1 THE PRISON POPULATION IN 2002Key points ● The average population in custody during 2002 was 70,860, an increase of 7 per cent on 2001. It is an increase of 16 per cent compared to 1997, and a 55 per cent increase compared to 1992. The average population in custody during 2002 was greater than in any previous year. ● The population in custody increased in 2002, apart from the usual seasonal falls, through to the end of October 2002 when it stood at 72,990. ● Prisoners were held in police cells under Operation Safeguard between July and mid December 2002 — a month-end average of 199 prisoners for those 5 months, and an average of 83 for 2002 as a whole. ● The average remand population in custody in 2002 was 14 per cent higher than the average in 2001; 12,790 compared with 11,240 in 2001, and around 200 higher than the average levels observed in 1998 and 1999. The sentenced population increased by 6 per cent between 2001 and 2002 from an average of 54,050 to an average of 57,220. ● Between 2001 and 2002, the number of female prisoners in custody increased by 15 per cent from an average of 3,740 to an average of 4,300, while the male population in custody increased by less (6 per cent). ● Between June 2001 and June 2002 there were above average increases in the population of sentenced males in prison for robbery (up 10 per cent) and drugs offences (up 9 per cent). There were reductions in the male sentenced population for motoring offences (down 5 per cent) and fraud and forgery (down 2 per cent). ● Similarly there were above average increases in the female sentenced population in prison for burglary (up 49 per cent), robbery (up 24 per cent), and offences of violence against the person (up 21 per cent). There were reductions in the female sentenced population for fraud and forgery (down 6 per cent). The increase in drugs offences of 17 per cent was similar to the overall increase in the female sentenced population (15 per cent) between June 2001 and 2002. Forty-five per cent of the increase in the female sentenced prison population between 2001 and 2002 was accounted for by an increase in drugs offences. ● Between 1992 and 2002, the longer sentenced prison population (4 years or more including life) increased as a proportion of all sentenced prisoners from 42 per cent in 1992 to 48 per cent in 2002, whilst the proportion of sentenced prisoners serving sentences of less than 12 months has decreased slightly. ● The numbers of people received into prison under an immediate custodial sentence increased by 3 per cent between 2001 and 2002; this was mainly concentrated amongst offenders receiving sentences of 4 years or more, who increased in number by 14 per cent. ● In England and Wales there were 137 people in custody for every 100,000 members of the general population in 2002. This is the highest among western European countries, followed by Portugal (132 per 100,000 population) and Scotland (126). The USA (702) and Russia (602) had the highest rates amongst those reported. 3
  14. 14. The population in custody (Tables 1.1-1.8)1.1 The average population in custody during 2002 was 70,860, higher than in any previous year. This was an increase of 7 per cent on the average for 2001, an increase of 16 per cent on the average for 1997 and an increase of 55 per cent compared to 1992. The population increased steadily throughout 2002 and peaked in October, at 72,990, which exceeded the peak seen in 2001 (68,450).Figure 1.1 AVERAGE POPULATION IN CUSTODY 75,000 70,000 65,000 60,000 55,000 Non-criminals 50,000 45,000 Sentenced Adults 40,000 35,000 Sentenced Young 30,000 Offenders 25,000 Remand 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 - 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 20021.2 Prisoners were held in police cells under Operation Safeguard between July and mid December 2002; a month-end average of 199 prisoners being held for these 5 months, or an average of 83 over the calendar year as a whole. The average number held in prisons was 70,780 during 2002.Long Term Trends in the prison population (Table 1.2c; figures 1.2a-1.2d)1.3 Since 1900 the average male prison population increased from 14,460 to 66,480 in 2002. Figure 1.2b shows that the pattern of increase when expressed as the rate of prisoners per 100,000 male population is similar, except that the total increase between 1900 and 2002 is less. Between 1900 and 2002 the male prison population increased in absolute terms by over 4 times, but expressed as a rate per 100,000 male population, the rate of increase was just under 3 times. For female prisoners, the pattern is different. The average female prison population in 2002, at 4,300, was 44 per cent higher than in 1900 when the average number of female prisoners was 2,980. The rate per 100,000 general population was 16 in 2002, lower than the rate of 18 per 100,000 in 1900. 4
  15. 15. Figure 1.2a: Male prison population 1900 - 2002 (annual average) Figure 1.2c: Female prison population 1900 - 2002 (annual average) 70,000 5,000 4,500 60,000 4,000 50,000 3,500 3,000 40,000 2,500 30,000 2,000 20,000 1,500 1,000 10,000 500 0 0 60 20 70 00 10 30 40 50 80 90 00 00 10 40 70 90 20 60 00 30 50 80 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 195 Figure 1.2b: Male prisoners, rate per 100,000 population Figure 1.2d: Female prisoners, rate per 100,000 population 1900 - 2002 22 1900 - 2002 300 20 250 18 16 200 14 12 150 10 8 100 6 50 4 2 0 0 30 40 00 00 00 40 50 60 70 80 20 60 70 80 00 10 20 30 90 10 50 90 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19
  16. 16. 1.4 A detailed description of trends in the male and female prison population in the earlier part of the twentieth century is given in previous editions of Prison Statistics England and Wales.1.5 Policy changes and events which may have affected the size of prison population in the last 10 years are listed in Appendix 1 with some estimates of their likely impact. The changes and events are summarised in Figure 1.3 which shows how the population in custody varied over this period. Key changes and events in 2002 which impacted on the size of population in custody include: ● Around 750 prisoners were released in July 2002 following a decision of the European Court of Human Rights on 15th July in the cases of Ezeh and Conners. It was decided that punishments involving the imposition of additional days should only be imposed by independent adjudicators. From October 2002, District Judges were engaged as independent adjudicators to deal with the most serious cases. ● Two changes to the Home Detention Curfew (HDC) scheme were made in 2002: the introduction of the Presumptive HDC scheme for prisoners serving between three months and under 12 months, and the increase of the maximum curfew period to 90 days. ● There was a temporary slow-down in the increase in the population in June 2002 due in part to the increased number of Bank Holidays that month.Figure 1.3 POPULATION IN CUSTODY(1) — POLICY INTERVENTIONS 1992-2002 Seasonally adjusted HDC maximum 75,000 curfew increased Presumptive HDC 70,000 Narey scheme Indictable only measures Crime (Sentences) Act Added days 65,000 1997 judgement Crime and disorder 60,000 Act (1988) (Home Detention Curfew) 55,000 General election Narey measures CJA 1991 (2) CJ & PO Act 1994 (3) Human Rights Act 2000 50,000 CJA 1993 (2) CP & I Act 1996 (4) 45,000 Home Sects 27 point speech Bulger murder 40,000 92 2 93 3 94 4 95 5 6 6 97 7 98 8 99 9 00 0 01 1 02 2 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- 9 l-9 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- l-9 n- l-0 n- l-0 n- l-0 Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju Ja Ju 1. Seasonally adjusted series 2. CJA = Criminal Justice Act 3. Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 4. Criminal Procedures and Investigations ActCourt sentencing trends1.6 The main factors influencing the prison population are the custody rate at the courts, the average sentence lengths given and the number of cases passing through the courts. The Crown Court has the greatest impact on the prison population, although magistrates’ courts also make a contribution, particularly on receptions where more than half come from magistrates’ courts. The custody rate is the proportion of those found guilty at court who are given a custodial sentence. Between 1992 and 2002 the custody rate at the Crown Court rose from 45 per cent to 63 per cent. The average sentence length for adults also increased, from 21 months to 28 months. There was however, a decrease in the number of adults sentenced at the Crown Court between 1992 and 2002, down from 60,900 to 56,600, a fall of 7 per cent. At magistrates’ courts the custody rate for indictable offences more than tripled from 5 per cent in 1992 to 17 per cent in 2002. Average sentence lengths for adults at magistrates’ 6
  17. 17. courts fell from 2.7 to 2.5 months. Between 1992 and 2002 the total number of adults sentenced for indictable offences increased by almost 11 per cent, from 157,700 to 176,700. Full information on court sentencing trends is given in Chapter 7 of Criminal Statistics England and Wales 2001. Figures for 2002 quoted here are provisional.Components of the population in custody (Tables 1.3 and 1.4)1.7 Among the population in custody in 2002 were an average 57,220 prisoners under sentence (81 per cent of the total). These included 45,600 sentenced adult males, 8,320 sentenced male young offenders (generally aged under 21) and 3,300 sentenced females. The population held on remand consisted on average of 12,790 prisoners (18 per cent of the total), with 11,850 males and 940 females. The population in custody also included 850 non-criminal prisoners, who were mainly persons held under the Immigration Act 1971, but also included those held for civil offences such as contempt of court. The total population in custody increased by 4,560 or 7 per cent between 2001 and 2002, from 66,300 to 70,860. The sentenced population increased by 6 per cent (3,170), from 54,050 to 57,220. The average remand population, at 12,790, was 14 per cent higher than the average in 2001 (11,240).1.8 The female population in custody increased by 15 per cent from an average 3,740 in 2001 to 4,300 in 2002. The male population in custody increased by 6 per cent, from 62,560 to 66,560. Females accounted for a greater proportion of the total prison population in 2002 than in 2001, at 6.1 per cent compared with 5.6 per cent during the previous year. This appears to be part of an ongoing trend, with the proportion of females having been 3.4 per cent in 1992, 3.9 per cent in 1995, 4.4 per cent in 1997, and 5 per cent in 1999.1.9 The male population in custody in 2002 consisted of an average of 82, or 0.1 per cent, held in police cells under Operation Safeguard, 2,980 (4.5 per cent) held in remand centres, 26,070 (39 per cent) held in local prisons, 29,470 (44 per cent) held in training prisons and 7,960 (12 per cent) in young offender institutions. Included among these were 3,950 (6 per cent) held in open conditions. The number of male prisoners held in open conditions was higher than in 2001, when 3,490 were in open conditions.1.10 Sentenced young offenders and remand prisoners aged 15 to 20 accounted for 16 per cent of the male population in custody in 2002, with an average population of 10,720, of whom 74 per cent (7,950) were held in young offender institutions. 2,600 (24 per cent) were held in remand centres and 160 (one per cent) were held in local prisons during 2002.Components of the prison population (Tables 1.5-1.9; figures 1.4a, 1.4b and 1.5)1.11 A summary of the sentenced prison population by offence group is given in Table 1.7a. Between 2001 and 2002 (taking June 30th as a reference date) there were above average increases for male sentenced prisoners among those sentenced for robbery (up 10 per cent) and drugs offences (up 9 per cent). There were reductions in the numbers of males serving sentences for motoring offences (down 5 per cent) and fraud and forgery (down 2 per cent).1.12 Amongst the female sentenced prison population, between 2001 and 2002 there were above average increases among those sentenced for burglary (up 49 per cent), robbery (up 24 per cent) and offences of violence against the person (up 21 per cent). There was a reduction in the female sentenced prison population for fraud and forgery (down 6 per cent). The increase in drugs offences of 17 per cent was similar to the overall increase in the female sentenced prison population (15 per cent). Forty-five per cent of the increase in the female sentenced prison population between 2001 and 2002 was accounted for by an increase in drugs offences. The increases in offences of violence against the person and burglary accounted for 21 and 18 per cent respectively. This compares to the increase between 2000 and 2001, when three-quarters of the increase was accounted for by an increase in drugs offences.1.13 Over the 10 years shown in Table 1.7, the male sentenced prison population increased by 57 per cent. This included 3 times the number of drug offenders, up from 2,900 in 1992 to 8,720 in 2002. The rate of increase was also above the average for males sentenced for rape (increase of 84 per cent). 7
  18. 18. Figure 1.4a MALE PRISON POPULATION UNDER AN IMMEDIATE CUSTODIAL SENTENCE 1992 AND 2002 15,000 1992 2002 10,000 5,000 0 Violence Rape Other Burglary Robbery Theft Fraud Drugs Other Offence against the sexual and and offences offences not person offences handling forgery recorded1.14 Over the same period, the female sentenced prison population increased by 184 per cent, from 1,180 in 1992 to 3,340 in 2002. There were above average increases for females held after conviction for robbery, where the numbers increased from 60 in 1992 to 310 in 2002, an increase of 453 per cent. Increases were also observed in the numbers held for drugs offences (up from 260 to 1,330 or 414 per cent), and burglary (up from 50 to 230 or 350 per cent).Figure 1.4b FEMALE PRISON POPULATION UNDER AN IMMEDIATE CUSTODIAL SENTENCE 1992 AND 2002 1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100 1,000 1992 900 2002 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Violence Rape Other Burglary Robbery Theft and Fraud Drugs Other Offence against the sexual handling and offences offences not person offences forgery recorded 8
  19. 19. 1.15 Table 1.7b gives more detail on prisoners held for drug offences. The number of prisoners held for unlawful supply has increased by 5 times since 1992 and the number held for possession with intent to supply has tripled in the same time period. Six hundred prisoners held for drugs offences in 2002 had been convicted of possession without intent to supply.1.16 Figure 1.5 and Table 1.8 show that since 1992 longer sentence prisoners (sentences of 4 years or more in this chart) have tended to increase as a proportion of all sentenced prisoners. By 2002, 48 per cent of sentenced prisoners were serving 4 years or more, compared with 42 per cent in 1992. Between 1992 and 2002 the proportion of sentenced prisoners serving sentences of less than 12 months decreased slightly, whilst the proportion of sentenced prisoners serving sentences of 12 months to less than 4 years reduced from 42 per cent to 38 per cent.Figure 1.5 SENTENCED PRISON POPULATION BY LENGTH OF SENTENCE 1992-2002 60,000 50,000 4 years or more including life Number of persons 40,000 12 months to less than 4 years 30,000 Less than 12 months 20,000 10,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year1.17 Table 1.9 shows that the sentenced prison population aged under 21 on 30th June 2002 was 8,240, an increase of 1 per cent compared to 2001 when the figure was 8,140. Between 1992 and 2002 the number of sentenced prisoners aged 15-17 increased by 186 per cent; whilst those aged 18-20 increased by 55 per cent. The largest increase was observed for those aged 60 and over (an increase of 203 per cent) whereas the smallest increases were for those aged 21-24 and 25-29 (increases of 32 and 33 per cent respectively).1.18 Chapters 2, 3, and 4 in this report contain more details about the characteristics of remand prisoners, young and adult prisoners under sentence.Receptions into prison (Tables 1.1, 1.10, 1.11 and 1.12; figure 1.6)1.19 In 2002, 136,200 persons were initially received into Prison Service establishments. A person received into a Prison Service establishment to serve a sentence may previously have been received on remand after conviction prior to sentence, and before that as a remand prisoner awaiting trial. Table 1a gives the number of initial receptions in each category excluding subsequent receptions in a different category. 47,250 persons were initially received under an immediate custodial sentence in 2002; this compares with 93,620 receptions under sentence (excluding fine defaulters) when, as in Table 1.1, those previously received on remand are included. 9
  20. 20. 1.20 The number of prisoners received from magistrates’ courts under an immediate custodial sentence (i.e. excluding fine defaulters) increased between 1992, when there were 17,470 receptions, up to 51,960 in 2002. Receptions from the Crown Court increased from the low point of 29,040 in 1993 to 42,370 in 1997, but there was no further increase in receptions from the Crown Court in 1998. From 1999 to 2001 there were decreases in the number of receptions, but in 2002 the number increased by 1,600 (or 4 per cent) to a level just below that observed in 1999.1.21 The Crown Court accounts for a large proportion of the sentenced prison population, reflecting the longer sentences generally given at the Crown Court. Between 1992 and 1999 the Crown Court’s share of the sentenced population was broadly stable, at around 87 to 89 per cent. In 2000 and 2001 the share fell by around 5 percentage points each year, but in 2002 it increased slightly to 82 per cent.1.22 The numbers of prisoners received under an immediate custodial sentence increased by 3 per cent between 2001 and 2002; this was mainly concentrated amongst offenders receiving sentences of 4 years or more, who increased in number by 14 per cent. The numbers received with sentences of 12 months to less than 4 years increased by 7 per cent between 2001 and 2002. The numbers received with sentences of less than 12 months increased by just 1 per cent. Details of these trends for adults and young offenders are given in chapters 3 and 4.Figure 1.6 ANNUAL RECEPTIONS UNDER IMMEDIATE CUSTODIAL SENTENCE 1992-2002 100,000 90,000 4 years or more including life 80,000 70,000 Number of Receptions 12 months to less than 4 years 60,000 50,000 Less than 12 months 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 YearFine defaulters and non-criminal prisoners in prison (Tables 1.13-1.16)1.23 Receptions of fine defaulters were also much reduced on earlier years being, at 1,190 during 2002, around 6 per cent of the number in 1992 (19,830). The great majority of these receptions were males, 93 per cent in 2002. The total number of females received into prison as fine defaulters was 79 during 2002.1.24 Table 1.14 gives receptions of fine defaulters into prison by age, offence group and sex. Fine defaulters were most likely to be received into prison after defaulting on a fine imposed for motoring offences (21 per cent of receptions of male fine defaulters).1.25 Most fine defaulters serve only very short periods of detention or imprisonment. In 2002 the average time served in prisons was 10 days for males and 6 days for females. As a result of the comparatively short time served, fine defaulters form a smaller proportion of the total sentenced prison population (0.1 per cent in 2002) than they do of receptions (2.2 per cent). 10
  21. 21. 1.26 There were 34 fine defaulters in prison on 30th June 2002. This is just under one-tenth of the level in 1992. Two major developments which affected fine enforcement practice account for the fall. In November 1995 a Queen’s Bench Judgement in Cawley and Others(1) clarified the legislative position whereby all enforcement measures have to be actively considered or tried before imprisonment can be imposed by the courts. A number of initiatives under the Government’s Working Group on the Enforcement of Financial Penalties were taken forward in 1996 and will also have contributed to the fall in the use of imprisonment for fine defaulters. These included issuing good practice guidance for the courts in July 1996 and the extension of the power to impose an attachment of earnings order in the Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996.1.27 Statistics on non-criminal prisoners at 30th June 2002 are presented in tables 1.15 and 1.16. The number of non-criminal prisoners held decreased by 26 per cent between 2001 and 2002, from 1,130 to 830. The majority of non-criminal prisoners (760 or 91 per cent) were held under the 1971 Immigration Act, although this does not include persons held in detention centres controlled by the Immigration Service. Fifty-five non-criminal prisoners were held for contempt of court (7 per cent of all non-criminal prisoners).1.28 Receptions of non-criminal prisoners decreased by 42 per cent between 2001 and 2002; receptions of prisoners held under the 1971 Immigration Act decreased from 4,040 to 2,090.Accommodation (Tables 1.17 and 1.18; figure 1.7)1.29 In-use Certified Normal Accommodation (CNA) recorded on 30th June 2002 was 64,230, 700 more than a year earlier. The average population in custody during 2002 was 6,630 more than the CNA on 30th June. Table 1.18 gives the number of prisoners held on 30th June 2002 at each establishment, together with the CNA on that date.Figure 1.7 POPULATION IN CUSTODY AND CERTIFIED NORMAL ACCOMODATION75,000 POPULATION C.N.A70,00065,00060,00055,00050,00045,00040,000 M 01 M 1 Ju 1 N 01 Ja 01 Ja 8 Se 1 Ja 00 M 00 Ju 0 Se 02 M -02 Ja 02 M 99 3 M 98 M 00 Ju 2 Se 0 M 02 M -98 N 98 M 99 N 99 N 00 M 3 N 02 Ju 9 Se 8 Se 99 Ja 99 Ju 8 Ja 97 Ju 7 N 97 M 97 M 97 Se 7 0 -0 -9 l-0 -0 -0 -0 l-0 0 -9 l-9 -9 -9 l-9 - n- p- - - n- l- - n- n- - p- n- - p- p- n- p- l- - - p- n- - ar ay ov ov ov ay ar ov ar ar ay ar ar ay ov ay ov ay ar JaInternational comparisons (Table 1.19; figure 1.8)1.30 Table 1.19 shows information on the total number of prisoners (including pre-trial detainees), the rate of imprisonment in relation to the general population and the rate of occupancy of prison establishments in a number of countries. When making comparisons of prison population statistics across different jurisdictions it should be borne in mind that there are differences in both the definitions and the recording methods used.(1) R v Oldham Justices and another, ex parte Cawley and other applications. Queen’s Bench Division. 30, 31 October, 28 November 1995. 11
  22. 22. 1.31 The prison population in European Union Member States increased by 5 per cent between 2001 and 2002. The greatest increases in the countries listed in the table were in Lithuania (up 22 per cent), Northern Ireland (up 18 per cent), France (up 14 per cent), Finland (up 12 per cent), Denmark (up 10 per cent), Malta and the Netherlands (both up 8 per cent), Sweden (up 7 per cent) and England and Wales (up 6 per cent). The largest decreases in the table were the Czech Republic (down 16 per cent) and Russia (down 11 per cent).1.32 In England and Wales there were 137 people in custody for every 100,000 members of the general population in 2002. This is the highest among western European countries, followed by Portugal (132 per 100,000 population) and Scotland (126). The USA (702) and Russia (602) had the highest rates amongst those reported.Figure 1.8 RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION IN 2002 U.S.A. 702 Russia 602 South Africa 431 Latvia 370 Estonia 351 Lithuania 333 Romania 225 Poland 210 Hungary 177 Czech Republic 158 New Zealand 144 Slovakia 143 England & Wales 137 Portugal 132 Scotland 126 Spain 126 Bulgaria 124 Australia 116 Netherlands 101 Canada 101 Italy 96 France 87 Austria 87 Germany 86 Belgium 86 Turkey 84 Ireland 78 Luxembourg 77 Greece 76 Sweden 73 Malta 70 Switzerland 68 Finland 67 Denmark 63 Norway 61 Northern Ireland 61 Slovenia 58 Japan 53 Cyprus 52 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 12
  23. 23. Table 1.1 Receptions into prison and average population in custody: by sex and type of custodyEngland and Wales 2002Males and females Number of persons(1) Receptions into Average population in custody(2) Prison Service establishments Males Females All males Males Females All males and females and femalesAll persons in custody(3) 134,484 13,380 147,864 66,562 4,299 70,861Prisoners on remand 82,835 8,690 91,525 11,847 945 12,792 Untried prisoners 53,754 4,954 58,708 7,231 496 7,728 Convicted unsentenced prisoners awaiting sentence or enquiry 47,851 5,450 53,301 4,616 449 5,064 Received under Section 37 Mental Health Act 1983 180 29 209 Others 47,671 5,421 53,092Prisoners under sentence 87,008 7,799 94,807 53,922 3,301 57,222 Young offenders 19,011 1,335 20,346 8,320 459 8,779 Detention in a young offender institution/Detention and Training Order 18,310 1,298 19,608 8,170 446 8,616 559 } Section 91 PCC(S)(4) (excluding life) 530 29 Life (Section 90 PCC(S), Section 91 PCC(S) - life and custody for life)(4) 64 5 69 148 13 160 In default of payment of a fine 107 3 110 2 - 2Adults 67,997 6,464 74,461 45,601 2,842 48,443 Immediate imprisonment (excluding life) 66,543 6,372 72,915 40,724 2,687 43,411 Life 448 16 464 4,845 152 4,997 In default of payment of a fine 1,006 76 1,082 32 3 35Non criminal prisoners 2,534 140 2,674 793 54 847 Held under the 1971 Immigration Act(5) 1,988 105 2,093 726 51 777 Others 546 35 581 67 2 70(1) The components do not always add up to the totals, because they have been rounded independently.(2) Includes police cells.(3) Total receptions cannot be calculated by adding together receptions in each category, because there is double counting (see paragraph 26 of the Notes).The total receptions figures given are estimates of initial receptions (see paragraph 1.19 and table 1(e) of the commentary.(4) Section 53 of the Children & Young Persons Act 1933 was repealed on 25th August 2000 and its provisions transferred to sections 90-92 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000.(5) Schedule 2, paragraph 16; Schedule 3, paragraph 2.Table 1.1a Initial receptions during 2002 into prison by sex and type of custody(1)England and Wales Estimated number of receptions(2) Males Females All malesPersons initially received as: and femalesAll initial receptions 123,550 12,650 136,200 All remand receptions 77,500 8,350 85,850 Untried 53,750 4,950 58,700 Convicted Unsentenced 23,750 3,400 27,150 Immediate custodial sentence 43,100 4,100 47,250 Fine Defaulter 1,050 50 1,100 Non-criminal 1,900 100 2,000(1) Excludes police cells.(2) Rounded to the nearest 50. 13
  24. 24. Table 1.2 Population in custody(1): by sex and type of custody, annual averages and month end figuresEngland and WalesMales and females Thousands(1) Prisoners on remand(1) Male prisoners under sentence(1)(2) Males Females Untried Convicted All Young unsentenced remand offenders Adults by sentence length AUR ACR DCR 12 months 4 years & All Less than less than over sentenced 12 months 4 years (inc. life) adult malesAnnual averages 1998 7.73 4.13 0.70 12.57 8.17 5.57 15.29 20.76 41.62 1999 7.51 4.26 0.75 12.52 8.01 5.27 14.26 21.68 41.21 2000 6.70 3.87 0.70 11.28 8.07 5.47 14.24 22.28 41.99 2001 6.49 3.97 0.78 11.24 8.18 5.42 14.58 22.92 42.95 2002 7.23 4.62 0.95 12.79 8.32 5.28 15.73 24.57 45.60Financial year averages 1997-98 7.96 3.65 0.63 12.24 7.79 5.37 14.70 19.77 39.84 1998-99 7.70 4.17 0.72 12.59 8.15 5.46 15.16 21.02 41.64 1999-00 7.34 4.25 0.74 12.32 8.00 5.36 14.20 21.86 41.42 2000-01 6.55 3.79 0.69 11.03 8.10 5.40 14.19 22.39 41.99 2001-02 6.69 4.14 0.95 11.66 8.21 5.54 14.88 23.21 43.63 2002-03 7.30 4.66 0.97 12.93 8.31 5.20 15.80 25.08 46.08Month end figures2001 January 6.26 3.89 0.69 10.84 8.16 4.78 13.91 22.52 41.21 February 6.21 3.87 0.69 10.77 8.47 5.43 14.07 22.57 42.07 March 6.25 3.72 0.68 10.65 8.23 5.52 14.39 22.74 42.64 April 6.40 3.79 0.70 10.89 8.18 5.55 14.35 22.74 42.63 May 6.38 4.01 0.75 11.13 8.19 5.59 14.37 22.71 42.67 June 6.35 3.94 0.77 11.06 8.32 5.68 14.51 22.81 43.00 July 6.57 4.04 0.82 11.43 8.32 5.65 14.73 22.91 43.32 August 6.62 3.98 0.85 11.44 8.35 5.63 14.64 22.96 43.24 September 6.75 4.09 0.86 11.70 8.17 5.57 14.89 23.03 43.49 October 6.73 4.18 0.85 11.76 8.26 5.65 15.00 23.21 43.87 November 6.75 4.31 0.87 11.92 8.33 5.64 15.18 23.36 44.17 December 6.66 3.82 0.79 11.27 7.85 4.76 14.89 23.46 43.112002 January 6.87 4.52 0.89 12.27 7.89 5.26 15.07 23.59 43.92 February 7.11 4.57 0.91 12.59 8.25 5.92 15.40 23.77 45.10 March 7.05 4.47 0.88 12.40 8.36 5.57 15.47 24.00 45.04 April 7.12 4.71 0.98 12.81 8.20 5.59 15.68 24.22 45.49 May 7.09 4.71 0.94 12.75 8.36 5.61 15.74 24.43 45.78 June 7.35 4.73 1.00 13.08 8.37 5.26 15.81 24.52 45.60 July 7.36 4.72 0.97 13.05 8.34 5.21 15.79 24.63 45.63 August 7.22 4.77 0.98 12.97 8.30 5.21 15.82 24.73 45.76 September 7.55 4.80 0.99 13.34 8.49 5.25 16.02 24.89 46.17 October 7.57 4.73 0.98 13.29 8.61 5.44 16.22 25.09 46.75 November 7.24 4.55 0.95 12.75 8.60 5.17 16.27 25.35 46.79 December 7.24 4.10 0.87 12.21 8.09 4.22 15.42 25.56 45.202003 January 7.31 4.76 0.91 12.99 7.93 4.57 15.42 25.66 45.65 February 7.23 4.77 0.97 12.97 8.11 5.33 15.64 25.86 46.83 March 7.31 4.55 1.05 12.91 8.29 5.48 15.78 26.07 47.33(1) Includes police cells.(2) Including fine defaulters. 14
  25. 25. Table 1.2 (continued) Population in custody(1): by sex and type of custody, annual averages and month end figuresEngland and WalesMales and females Thousands Number Prisoners under sentence (1)(2) Of which Prison Non- Total Service All criminal All All in establish- Police Males Females sentenced prisoners(1) males(1) females(1) custody(1) ments cellsAnnual averages 1998 49.80 2.38 52.18 0.55 62.19 3.11 65,298 65,298 – 1999 49.22 2.47 51.69 0.56 61.52 3.25 64,771 64,771 – 2000 50.06 2.63 52.69 0.64 61.25 3.35 64,602 64,602 – 2001 51.13 2.93 54.05 1.01 62.56 3.74 66,301 66,301 – 2002 53.92 3.30 57.22 0.85 66.56 4.30 70,861 70,778 83Financial year averages 1997-98 47.63 2.16 49.78 0.56 59.78 2.81 62,584 62,584 – 1998-99 49.79 2.41 52.20 0.56 62.20 3.16 65,353 65,353 – 1999-00 49.42 2.51 51.93 0.56 61.54 3.28 64,816 64,816 – 2000-01 50.09 2.67 52.76 0.74 61.14 3.38 64,523 64,523 – 2001-02 51.83 3.30 57.22 0.85 66.56 4.30 67,474 67,474 – 2002-03 54.39 3.33 57.72 0.94 67.23 4.35 71,581 71,498 83Month end figures2001 January 49.00 2.62 51.62 0.94 60.06 3.34 63,403 63,403 – February 50.18 2.75 52.93 0.93 61.17 3.46 64,631 64,631 – March 50.87 2.85 53.72 1.02 61.84 3.55 65,394 65,394 – April 50.81 2.85 53.66 1.06 62.02 3.58 65,604 65,604 – May 50.86 2.90 53.76 1.12 62.33 3.69 66,012 66,012 – June 51.31 2.90 54.21 1.13 62.69 3.71 66,403 66,403 – July 51.64 2.94 54.57 1.09 63.29 3.80 67,092 67,092 – August 51.59 2.98 54.57 1.04 63.19 3.87 67,056 67,056 – September 51.66 3.06 54.72 1.05 63.51 3.96 67,465 67,465 – October 52.12 3.14 55.26 1.03 64.02 4.04 68,053 68,053 – November 52.50 3.10 55.60 0.93 64.43 4.02 68,452 68,452 – December 50.96 3.02 53.98 0.80 62.18 3.87 66,049 66,049 –2002 January 51.81 3.11 54.92 0.68 63.81 4.06 67,870 67,870 – February 53.34 3.20 56.54 0.72 65.70 4.15 69,847 69,847 – March 53.40 3.28 56.68 0.71 65.58 4.21 69,784 69,784 – April 53.68 3.34 57.02 0.76 66.22 4.37 70,589 70,589 – May 54.14 3.40 57.54 0.82 66.71 4.40 71,112 71,112 – June 53.97 3.34 57.31 0.83 66.82 4.39 71,218 71,218 – July 53.96 3.35 57.31 0.88 66.88 4.37 71,247 71,154 93 August 54.07 3.33 57.40 0.96 66.96 4.36 71,324 71,207 117 September 54.65 3.37 58.02 0.95 67.91 4.40 72,315 72,097 218 October 55.36 3.39 58.75 0.95 68.56 4.42 72,986 72,572 414 November 55.39 3.36 58.75 0.93 68.06 4.37 72,424 72,272 152 December 53.29 3.15 56.44 0.97 65.54 4.08 69,612 69,612 –2003 January 53.58 3.24 56.82 1.10 66.69 4.21 70,903 70,903 – February 54.94 3.31 58.25 1.06 67.94 4.35 72,286 72,286 – March 55.61 3.38 58.99 1.06 68.48 4.47 72,954 72,954 –(1) Includes police cells.(2) Including fine defaulters. 15
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