Introduction to Police Technology
 

Introduction to Police Technology

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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter One (Introduction to Police Technology) of the book Police Technology.

The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter One (Introduction to Police Technology) of the book Police Technology.

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    Introduction to Police Technology Introduction to Police Technology Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter OneChapter One Introduction toIntroduction to Police TechnologyPolice Technology
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  tactical and strategic informationtactical and strategic information  What technology is meant inWhat technology is meant in conjunction and why technology inconjunction and why technology in law enforcement should belaw enforcement should be explored.explored.  efficiency and effectiveness.efficiency and effectiveness.  Community PolicingCommunity Policing ..  Situational crime prevention.Situational crime prevention.  Fragmentation.Fragmentation.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Ask yourself …Ask yourself …  How does the line-How does the line- employee (whetheremployee (whether sworn or non-sworn)sworn or non-sworn) view his or herview his or her technology?technology?  What are the issuesWhat are the issues for the supervisor orfor the supervisor or manager?manager?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Multiple Points of ViewMultiple Points of View  Line employeeLine employee  SupervisorSupervisor  Police managerPolice manager End User Oversight Decision maker
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond View technology againstView technology against the backdrop ofthe backdrop of . . .. . .  Efficiency/effectivenessEfficiency/effectiveness  Community policingCommunity policing  Situational crime preventionSituational crime prevention  FragmentationFragmentation
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Technology in theTechnology in the 21st century is not21st century is not defined by what it isdefined by what it is or what is does, butor what is does, but more by how it ismore by how it is used. It is in theused. It is in the context of usecontext of use thatthat technology istechnology is defined.defined. What is technology? Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, CaliforniaPhotograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency ServicesGovernor’s Office of Emergency Services
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Why Examine InformationWhy Examine Information Technology?Technology? Most work done by police employeesMost work done by police employees involves information. When a policeinvolves information. When a police officer is:officer is:  interviewinginterviewing a victim or witness,a victim or witness,  interrogatinginterrogating a suspect, ora suspect, or  cultivatingcultivating an informantan informant - - - he or she is gathering information- - - he or she is gathering information
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond An education about law enforcement ITAn education about law enforcement IT can:can:  Improve the chances for successful useImprove the chances for successful use and implementation;and implementation;  Enhance the prosecution of offenders;Enhance the prosecution of offenders;  Allow supervisors or managers to lead,Allow supervisors or managers to lead, train, and supervise; and,train, and supervise; and,  Increase success and satisfaction withIncrease success and satisfaction with technology as end-user and decision-technology as end-user and decision- maker increase.maker increase.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Reliance onReliance on information frominformation from official sourcesofficial sources resulted in . . .resulted in . . . Reduced publicReduced public contact, and maycontact, and may have reducedhave reduced public confidencepublic confidence
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Tactical InformationTactical Information  Devices that can beDevices that can be used in the field forused in the field for immediate decisionimmediate decision making will be referredmaking will be referred to asto as tactical informationtactical information technologies.technologies.  Decisions that policeDecisions that police officers make in theofficers make in the field, those required tofield, those required to be immediate, can bebe immediate, can be thought of asthought of as tacticaltactical decisions.decisions.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Strategic InformationStrategic Information  Strategic informationStrategic information can be thought of ascan be thought of as information used ininformation used in planning, such as inplanning, such as in crime analysis.crime analysis.  Information is usedInformation is used strategicallystrategically by policeby police officers andofficers and detectives, and bydetectives, and by police managers inpolice managers in other ways.other ways. Photographs provided by OBS INC., Specialty Vehicles
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Strategic InformationStrategic Information For detectives,For detectives, informationinformation (statements,(statements, evidence, and theirevidence, and their observations) isobservations) is organized andorganized and analyzed in order toanalyzed in order to determine whatdetermine what happened and whohappened and who did it.did it. Police managers lookPolice managers look as issues likeas issues like deployment,deployment, scheduling, training,scheduling, training, and riskand risk management.management.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond EfficiencyEfficiency and Effectivenessand Effectiveness EfficiencyEfficiency is defined as doingis defined as doing something cheaper; or, the ability tosomething cheaper; or, the ability to complete an activity using fewercomplete an activity using fewer inputs.inputs. Typically, informationTypically, information technology istechnology is evaluated byevaluated by comparing costscomparing costs against benefitsagainst benefits
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond The real goal ofThe real goal of effectivenesseffectiveness is theis the attainment of some goal. Therefore,attainment of some goal. Therefore, an organization can be effective butan organization can be effective but not efficient and vice versa.not efficient and vice versa. Efficiency andEfficiency and EffectivenessEffectiveness Does the technology impact efficiency? Does this technology impact effectiveness?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Estimating benefits is much harderEstimating benefits is much harder in law enforcement because thein law enforcement because the benefits are intangible or difficult tobenefits are intangible or difficult to quantify.quantify. Efficiency and EffectivenessEfficiency and Effectiveness
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Efficiency and EffectivenessEfficiency and Effectiveness How muchHow much crime is there?crime is there? Crime is often unreported: •Victim doesn’t report – burglary from motor vehicle •Stigma •Victim doesn’t know
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Community PolicingCommunity Policing  Although there are a number of differentAlthough there are a number of different definitions, there are four fairly commondefinitions, there are four fairly common themes:themes:  Partnership with the communityPartnership with the community  DecentralizationDecentralization  Organization-wide implementationOrganization-wide implementation  Problem solvingProblem solving
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Community PolicingCommunity Policing ((Partnership with the community)Partnership with the community)  The police cannotThe police cannot solve all communitysolve all community problems –problems – partnerships withpartnerships with other agencies andother agencies and the community arethe community are requiredrequired  Police officers andPolice officers and other personnelother personnel should be assigned toshould be assigned to specific geographicspecific geographic boundaries.boundaries.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Community PolicingCommunity Policing ((Decentralization)Decentralization)  Decision makingDecision making and accountabilityand accountability must bemust be decentralized,decentralized, allowingallowing employees at allemployees at all levels to makelevels to make decisions withindecisions within their areas oftheir areas of responsibilityresponsibility Photograph provided by Cross Match Technologies, Inc.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Community PolicingCommunity Policing ((Organization-wide implementation)Organization-wide implementation)  Patrol officers, detectives, supervisors,Patrol officers, detectives, supervisors, members of specialized units and policemembers of specialized units and police managers must be committed tomanagers must be committed to community policingcommunity policing..
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Community PolicingCommunity Policing (Problem Solving)(Problem Solving)  Problem solving is the use of theProblem solving is the use of the scientificscientific methodmethod (observe,(observe, hypothesize, experiment,hypothesize, experiment, conclude) as a means to remedyconclude) as a means to remedy or mitigate community problems.or mitigate community problems.  For police officers, the scientificFor police officers, the scientific method is often restated as themethod is often restated as the problem solving modelproblem solving model SARASARA (Scan, Analyze, Respond, and(Scan, Analyze, Respond, and Assess).Assess).
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Problem SolvingProblem Solving  It is ultimately moreIt is ultimately more efficientefficient andand effectiveeffective toto fix a problem than the alternative offix a problem than the alternative of repeatedly responding to the symptoms of arepeatedly responding to the symptoms of a problem – calls for service.problem – calls for service.  Problem solving efforts are very likely toProblem solving efforts are very likely to create new partnerships and bonds betweencreate new partnerships and bonds between the community, the police and other servicethe community, the police and other service providers.providers.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Crime preventionCrime prevention targets the roottargets the root causes of crime and disorder in twocauses of crime and disorder in two ways:ways:  EducationEducation; and,; and,  Problem solvingProblem solving.. Problem SolvingProblem Solving
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Situational Crime PreventionSituational Crime Prevention There are three parts to situational crimeThere are three parts to situational crime prevention:prevention:  Targeting specific forms of crimeTargeting specific forms of crime  Changing the environment.Changing the environment.  Increasing offender riskIncreasing offender risk
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Community PolicingCommunity Policing In the definition ofIn the definition of community policingcommunity policing published by thepublished by the Department of JusticeDepartment of Justice (DOJ), Technology is(DOJ), Technology is viewed as anviewed as an ““enhancer” ofenhancer” of community policing.community policing.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond FragmentationFragmentation Many adjoining andMany adjoining and overlapping lawoverlapping law enforcementenforcement jurisdictions cannotjurisdictions cannot communicate on thecommunicate on the radio or readilyradio or readily exchange data.exchange data.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond FragmentationFragmentation Criminal justice isCriminal justice is intentionally fragmentedintentionally fragmented in order to maintain thein order to maintain the checks and balanceschecks and balances essential to ouressential to our democracy.democracy. This fragmentation alsoThis fragmentation also serves to protect theserves to protect the privacy of incriminatingprivacy of incriminating information about theinformation about the people who come inpeople who come in contact with thecontact with the criminal justice system.criminal justice system.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond FragmentationFragmentation InteroperabilityInteroperability or theor the ability for different agenciesability for different agencies to communicate viato communicate via technology is often causedtechnology is often caused by theby the fragmentationfragmentation.. Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of EmergencyPhotograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency ServicesServices In later chapters you will see this is a device used to increase interoperability
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond FragmentationFragmentation A thought………..Some peopleA thought………..Some people believe that criminal justice isbelieve that criminal justice is fragmented because of institutionalfragmented because of institutional paranoia; agencies don’t want otherparanoia; agencies don’t want other agencies to know what they know andagencies to know what they know and thereby be in a position to challengethereby be in a position to challenge their decisions.their decisions.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com