Technology in the Street
 

Technology in the Street

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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Eighteen (Technology in the Street) for the book Police Technology.

The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Eighteen (Technology in the Street) for the book Police Technology.

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Technology in the Street Technology in the Street Presentation Transcript

  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter EighteenChapter Eighteen Technology in the StreetTechnology in the Street
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  Constitutional and case law that hasConstitutional and case law that has motivated the development of less-lethalmotivated the development of less-lethal use-of-force devicesuse-of-force devices  Use of radar and laser technology in trafficUse of radar and laser technology in traffic  Technologies used in vehicle pursuitsTechnologies used in vehicle pursuits  Gunfire-reduction technologyGunfire-reduction technology  Automated external defibrillatorsAutomated external defibrillators  Body ArmorBody Armor
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo IntroductionIntroduction  Nightstick and revolver were the firstNightstick and revolver were the first technologies police officers used to protecttechnologies police officers used to protect themselvesthemselves  Today, officers carry semiautomaticToday, officers carry semiautomatic handgunshandguns  Shotgun is second-most common firearmShotgun is second-most common firearm carried by police officerscarried by police officers
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Less-Lethal Use-of-Force DevicesLess-Lethal Use-of-Force Devices The offender’sThe offender’s actions dictate theactions dictate the Police officer’sPolice officer’s response.response.  Level 1 – CooperationLevel 1 – Cooperation  Level 2 – PassiveLevel 2 – Passive ResistanceResistance  Level 3 – ActiveLevel 3 – Active ResistanceResistance  Level 4 – Threat ofLevel 4 – Threat of bodily harmbodily harm  Level 5 – Use-of-forceLevel 5 – Use-of-force
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Less-Lethal Use-of-Force DevicesLess-Lethal Use-of-Force Devices The levels of use of force is not a stair-step approach…in other words an officer may not try one before the other….the officer chooses the correct response to the offender’s actions….more link a tool kit.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo 44thth Amendment & Use-of-forceAmendment & Use-of-force Is the foundation for the use of force byIs the foundation for the use of force by police officers (Search and Seizure)police officers (Search and Seizure) Any timeAny time police officers stop someone,police officers stop someone, they are seizing that person.they are seizing that person.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Tennessee v. GarnerTennessee v. Garner  The use of deadly force against anThe use of deadly force against an offender whooffender who does notdoes not appear to pose aappear to pose a threat to police officers or others inthreat to police officers or others in unconstitutional.unconstitutional.  This ruling established theThis ruling established the ““defense-of-life”defense-of-life” standardstandard  Introduced the concept that all force mustIntroduced the concept that all force must bebe reasonablyreasonably applied.applied.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Less-lethal use-of-force devices – toolsLess-lethal use-of-force devices – tools that can overcome offenders’ resistancethat can overcome offenders’ resistance with awith a minimum amount of forceminimum amount of force andand minimal injuryminimal injury to the offender andto the offender and officers.officers. AnyAny form of force can beform of force can be deadly.deadly.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Less-lethal featuresLess-lethal features  Must improve on present practiceMust improve on present practice  Must be accessible to the officer yet notMust be accessible to the officer yet not overburden the officer.overburden the officer.  Must be relatively inexpensiveMust be relatively inexpensive  Must be ruggedizedMust be ruggedized  Cannot require intensive or frequentCannot require intensive or frequent trainingtraining  Must work under adverse conditionsMust work under adverse conditions
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo The Police BatonThe Police Baton The most widely used and accepted impact/leverageThe most widely used and accepted impact/leverage tool used by police officers.tool used by police officers.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Chemical AgentsChemical Agents Chloroacetophenone (Chloroacetophenone (CNCN) and) and OrthochlorobenzalmalononitrileOrthochlorobenzalmalononitrile ((CSCS))  Both work on the centralBoth work on the central nervous system of thenervous system of the offender.offender.  Induce pain by activatingInduce pain by activating receptor cells via neuralreceptor cells via neural transmitters within the brain.transmitters within the brain.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Any change in an offender’s system canAny change in an offender’s system can diminish or negate the effectiveness of thediminish or negate the effectiveness of the chemical agents (e.g., drugs, endorphins)chemical agents (e.g., drugs, endorphins) CNCN  Burning pain in theBurning pain in the eyes, nose, andeyes, nose, and throat.throat. CSCS  Pain in the nose,Pain in the nose, throat, and chestthroat, and chest  Can cause nauseaCan cause nausea and vomiting.and vomiting.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)  A natural substanceA natural substance found in cayenne pepper.found in cayenne pepper.  Is an inflammatory agent,Is an inflammatory agent, not an irritant. Causesnot an irritant. Causes swelling of the eyes andswelling of the eyes and breathing passages andbreathing passages and burning sensation.burning sensation.  Can cause shortness ofCan cause shortness of breath, involuntarybreath, involuntary closing of eyes andclosing of eyes and coughing.coughing. Photograph provided by ZARC International
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)  UnlikeUnlike conventionalconventional “tear gas” OC“tear gas” OC works on dogsworks on dogs
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Beanbag ShotgunBeanbag Shotgun  By changing theBy changing the ammunition, theammunition, the traditional shotgun istraditional shotgun is changed to a less-changed to a less- lethal use-of-forcelethal use-of-force device.device.  Projectile is aProjectile is a beanbag-like round.beanbag-like round. Photograph provided by Defense Technology Federal laboratories
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Foam baton roundFoam baton round  Cousin to the beanbag shotgun.Cousin to the beanbag shotgun.  Is a tactical crowd control less-lethalIs a tactical crowd control less-lethal device (to move large groups of people)device (to move large groups of people)  Fired from a 37 mm launcher.Fired from a 37 mm launcher.  Round ricochets into crowd.Round ricochets into crowd.  Large psychological effect (noise, smoke,Large psychological effect (noise, smoke, flash).flash).
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Electrical Control DevicesElectrical Control Devices The most common is the Taser.The most common is the Taser.  Handheld, used like a pistol.Handheld, used like a pistol.  Compressed nitrogen is used to propelCompressed nitrogen is used to propel two projectiles or probes.two projectiles or probes.  The electrical charge interferes with theThe electrical charge interferes with the electrical communication between theelectrical communication between the brain and the muscles.brain and the muscles.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Radar Speed DetectionRadar Speed Detection The traditional method of speed detectionThe traditional method of speed detection is theis the radarradar..  A radar is a transceiver designed to pickA radar is a transceiver designed to pick up its own RF signals.up its own RF signals.  Police radar uses a constant RF wavePolice radar uses a constant RF wave  Good up to about 1,000 feetGood up to about 1,000 feet
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Laser speed detectionLaser speed detection  The laser unit reflects light off theThe laser unit reflects light off the violator’s vehicleviolator’s vehicle  Using the TDOA formula, calculatesUsing the TDOA formula, calculates the speed of the vehicle.the speed of the vehicle.  More expensive, but more specificMore expensive, but more specific  Dedication range of up to 2000 feetDedication range of up to 2000 feet
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Vehicle PursuitsVehicle Pursuits The first tool is aThe first tool is a pursuit policypursuit policy thatthat guides the actionsguides the actions of police officersof police officers during stressfulduring stressful events.events. Basic technology hasBasic technology has not changed - policenot changed - police vehicle emergencyvehicle emergency lights and sirenslights and sirens Photograph provided by Woodcrest Vehicle Center
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo How to stop an offenderHow to stop an offender Two commonTwo common mechanical means:mechanical means:  Tire deflation spikes –Tire deflation spikes – difficult to deploydifficult to deploy  PrecisionPrecision immobilizationimmobilization techniquetechnique (PIT maneuver)(PIT maneuver)
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Gunfire-Reduction TechnologyGunfire-Reduction Technology It is nearly as dangerous toIt is nearly as dangerous to fire a gun into the air as it isfire a gun into the air as it is to fire a gun at someone.to fire a gun at someone. When the bullet returns toWhen the bullet returns to Earth, it has nearly theEarth, it has nearly the same energy that it did onsame energy that it did on the way up.the way up.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Gunfire-Reduction TechnologyGunfire-Reduction Technology Some new technologiesSome new technologies available to detect andavailable to detect and locate gunfire use GISlocate gunfire use GIS principles to provide localprinciples to provide local police officers withpolice officers with information as to theinformation as to the location of the gunfire.location of the gunfire.Screen capture provided by ShotSpotter, Inc.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo  Acoustic devices are placed onAcoustic devices are placed on telephone poles, rooftops, andtelephone poles, rooftops, and streetlamps within a one-square milestreetlamps within a one-square mile area.area.  These devices detect gunfire and feedThese devices detect gunfire and feed information about sound and directioninformation about sound and direction to a computer.to a computer.  The computer uses TDOA to determineThe computer uses TDOA to determine the location of the gunfire.the location of the gunfire. Gunfire-Reduction TechnologyGunfire-Reduction Technology
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Gunshot ResidueGunshot Residue  The use of chemicals to detect theThe use of chemicals to detect the presence of gunpowder residue.presence of gunpowder residue.  Technologies are improving so that theTechnologies are improving so that the techniques can be applying in the field.techniques can be applying in the field.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Body ArmorBody Armor Soft body armor startedSoft body armor started out as tire treadsout as tire treads (Kevlar). Two basic(Kevlar). Two basic types of body armor:types of body armor:  SoftSoft  HardHard Soft – a series of tightlySoft – a series of tightly woven nylon threadswoven nylon threads that act tothat act to dispersedisperse the energy of a bullet.the energy of a bullet. Hard – Metal or ceramicHard – Metal or ceramic plates. Itplates. It deflectsdeflects gunfire.gunfire.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Automated External DefibrillatorAutomated External Defibrillator Your heartbeat is controlled by electricalYour heartbeat is controlled by electrical impulses. Sometimes, these electricalimpulses. Sometimes, these electrical impulses beat out of synchronization. Theimpulses beat out of synchronization. The heart contracts irregularly, does not pumpheart contracts irregularly, does not pump blood throughout your body, and canblood throughout your body, and can cause you to die.cause you to die.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo If your heart isIf your heart is defibrillateddefibrillated (shocked), survival(shocked), survival rates can be high.rates can be high. AnAn automatedautomated external defibrillatorexternal defibrillator (AED)(AED) is a deviceis a device designed to allow firstdesigned to allow first responders toresponders to diagnose anddiagnose and administeradminister defibrillation.defibrillation. Photograph provided by Cardiac Science, Inc.
  • Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com