Technology in Investigations
 

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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Thirteen (Technology in Investigations) for the book Police Technology.

The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Thirteen (Technology in Investigations) for the book Police Technology.

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Technology in Investigations Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter ThirteenChapter Thirteen Technology in InvestigationsTechnology in Investigations
  • 2. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  How technology has changed crime sceneHow technology has changed crime scene protection and evidence gatheringprotection and evidence gathering  Basic science of DNABasic science of DNA  Fingerprint technologyFingerprint technology  Issues surrounding DNA databasesIssues surrounding DNA databases  Digital photographyDigital photography  Investigative softwareInvestigative software
  • 3. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Forensic ScienceForensic Science The word forensic comes from the Latin –The word forensic comes from the Latin – Foren. Essentially, it means to debate. InForen. Essentially, it means to debate. In modern terms it has come to mean bringingmodern terms it has come to mean bringing any science into the courtroom. Anyany science into the courtroom. Any sciencescience or specialty brought into the courtroom suchor specialty brought into the courtroom such as:as:  Forensic pathology or forensic accountingForensic pathology or forensic accounting
  • 4. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Transfer TheoryTransfer Theory Whenever two objectsWhenever two objects come into contact theycome into contact they exchange evidence ofexchange evidence of that contact.that contact.
  • 5. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Chain of CustodyChain of Custody  Testimony and documentation that details theTestimony and documentation that details the location and condition of evidence from seizurelocation and condition of evidence from seizure to trial.to trial.  It assures the court that items entered intoIt assures the court that items entered into evidence are in the same condition as when theyevidence are in the same condition as when they were seized.were seized.  The chain of custody and the procedures usedThe chain of custody and the procedures used to analyze evidence are more often challengedto analyze evidence are more often challenged than the science behind the analysis.than the science behind the analysis.
  • 6. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Daubert TestDaubert Test  In order for the analysis of evidence to beIn order for the analysis of evidence to be used against a defendant, the court mustused against a defendant, the court must accept the scientific conclusion as valid.accept the scientific conclusion as valid.  The standard for accepting scientificThe standard for accepting scientific analysis is the Daubert Test – fromanalysis is the Daubert Test – from Daubert v Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals,Daubert v Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals, inc.inc.
  • 7. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym In the Daubert TestIn the Daubert Test The Court asks -The Court asks -  Is the science derived by the scientific method?Is the science derived by the scientific method?  Has the science been subjected to peer reviewHas the science been subjected to peer review or publication?or publication?  Does the relevant scientific community generallyDoes the relevant scientific community generally accept the science?accept the science?  What is the error rate of thee scientific techniqueWhat is the error rate of thee scientific technique used to gain the information?used to gain the information?  Are there standards for controlling theAre there standards for controlling the technology used to obtain the scientifictechnology used to obtain the scientific evidence?evidence?
  • 8. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Crime ScenesCrime Scenes  A crime scene is any location whereinA crime scene is any location wherein evidence of a crime may be located.evidence of a crime may be located.  For instance, a search of an offender’sFor instance, a search of an offender’s home may yield evidence, but not be thehome may yield evidence, but not be the location the crime occurred.location the crime occurred.  Protocols for scene protection,Protocols for scene protection, documentation and evidence recovery aredocumentation and evidence recovery are critical at all crime scenescritical at all crime scenes
  • 9. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Crime ScenesCrime Scenes  Evidence tends toEvidence tends to deterioratedeteriorate  Investigator’s oftenInvestigator’s often refer to the “goldenrefer to the “golden hour;” the time whenhour;” the time when evidence is bestevidence is best recovered.recovered.  Some jurisdictions areSome jurisdictions are taking the crime lab totaking the crime lab to the crime scenethe crime scene Photographs provided by OBS INC.,Photographs provided by OBS INC., Specialty VehiclesSpecialty Vehicles
  • 10. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Fingerprint AdvancesFingerprint Advances  The recovery of latentThe recovery of latent (hidden) fingerprints(hidden) fingerprints is not longer restrictedis not longer restricted to powder:to powder:  Superglue fumingSuperglue fuming  Laser applicationsLaser applications  Unique powdersUnique powders Technology has advanced toTechnology has advanced to the point wherein somethe point wherein some jurisdictions use supergluejurisdictions use superglue fuming wands at the crimefuming wands at the crime scenescene
  • 11. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics  Transfer theory demonstrates thatTransfer theory demonstrates that wherever we are – we leave behindwherever we are – we leave behind evidence we where there!evidence we where there!  Perhaps our fingerprints; or,Perhaps our fingerprints; or,  Our bodies are constantly shedding cells,Our bodies are constantly shedding cells, releasing vapor containing cells andreleasing vapor containing cells and shedding hair – we leave it everywhereshedding hair – we leave it everywhere
  • 12. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics (smaller and smaller)(smaller and smaller)  Our bodies contain 100 trillion cells.Our bodies contain 100 trillion cells.  Most cells contain a center piece called aMost cells contain a center piece called a nucleus.nucleus.  The nuclei of our cells contain 23 pairs ofThe nuclei of our cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes which are the biologicalchromosomes which are the biological instructions of who we areinstructions of who we are  During conception our parents contributeDuring conception our parents contribute one half of each pair.one half of each pair.
  • 13. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics (smaller and smaller)(smaller and smaller)  Inside each chromosome there are asInside each chromosome there are as many as a hundred thousand pair ofmany as a hundred thousand pair of genes – the fundamental building blocks ofgenes – the fundamental building blocks of our hereditary traits.our hereditary traits.  There are many variations for genes, butThere are many variations for genes, but really two classifications.really two classifications.  General – those that identify us as humansGeneral – those that identify us as humans  Specific – those that give us individualSpecific – those that give us individual characteristicscharacteristics
  • 14. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics (smaller and smaller)(smaller and smaller)  Our genes are made up ofOur genes are made up of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)  DNA consists of a long string of fourDNA consists of a long string of four repeating nucleotides:repeating nucleotides:  Adenine (A)Adenine (A)  Cytosine (C)Cytosine (C)  Guanine (G)Guanine (G)  Thymine (T)Thymine (T) This longThis long string ofstring of repeatingrepeating nucleotides isnucleotides is called acalled a polymerpolymer
  • 15. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics (smaller and smaller)(smaller and smaller) CellsCells NucleusNucleus ChromosomesChromosomes GenesGenes DNADNA
  • 16. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics (smaller and smaller)(smaller and smaller)  The order of the four nucleotides (A, C, G,The order of the four nucleotides (A, C, G, T) within the polymer determine theT) within the polymer determine the information contained therein.information contained therein.  Different order – different informationDifferent order – different information
  • 17. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics  A complete DNAA complete DNA molecule has tomolecule has to polymer strands withpolymer strands with four bases – it is afour bases – it is a tightly woven, doubletightly woven, double helix, with 3.3 billionhelix, with 3.3 billion pairs of nucleotidespairs of nucleotides Base PairsBase Pairs
  • 18. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics  DNA, like digital information has beginningDNA, like digital information has beginning codes and ending codes – to tell us wherecodes and ending codes – to tell us where “packets of genetic data” or segments“packets of genetic data” or segments begin and end.begin and end.  With DNA, at the end and beginning ofWith DNA, at the end and beginning of DNA stands are A/T and G/CDNA stands are A/T and G/C
  • 19. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics  Most of our DNA is exactly the same, onlyMost of our DNA is exactly the same, only a small percentage is different from eacha small percentage is different from each other.other.  The location where specific DNAThe location where specific DNA information is located is called a locus.information is located is called a locus.  The information that is different betweenThe information that is different between individuals is called Polymorphisms – theindividuals is called Polymorphisms – the part examined during forensic DNApart examined during forensic DNA analysis.analysis.
  • 20. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics  DNA analysis can compare:DNA analysis can compare:  short repeating patterns and look atshort repeating patterns and look at the variation in length – called Variablethe variation in length – called Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VTNR)Number of Tandem Repeats (VTNR)  base pairs – called Polymerase Chainbase pairs – called Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) within PolymorphismsReaction (PCR) within Polymorphisms (specific genes)(specific genes)
  • 21. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA BasicsDNA Basics Recall general and specific genes:Recall general and specific genes:  General genes (DNA) are calledGeneral genes (DNA) are called MonomorphismsMonomorphisms  Specific genes (DNA) are calledSpecific genes (DNA) are called PolymorphismsPolymorphisms DNA Analysis is conducted onDNA Analysis is conducted on PolymorphismsPolymorphisms
  • 22. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA DatabasesDNA Databases  Like fingerprint information, DNA information isLike fingerprint information, DNA information is converted to a numerical value for ease ofconverted to a numerical value for ease of search.search.  Combined DNA Information System (CODIS) isCombined DNA Information System (CODIS) is actually a combination of databases.actually a combination of databases.  153 Laboratories in 49 states153 Laboratories in 49 states  Actually includes three different type of databasesActually includes three different type of databases  Convicted Sex Offender, other offenders, missing personsConvicted Sex Offender, other offenders, missing persons
  • 23. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym DNA DatabasesDNA Databases Database ConcernsDatabase Concerns  Who is included? Convicted, arrested orWho is included? Convicted, arrested or suspected? It varies from state to state.suspected? It varies from state to state.  What about juveniles? While juvenile arrestWhat about juveniles? While juvenile arrest records don’t necessarily follow a juvenile intorecords don’t necessarily follow a juvenile into adulthood, the DNA database does?adulthood, the DNA database does?  Since a portion of DNA information is familial – ifSince a portion of DNA information is familial – if your sibling or parent is in the database – so is ayour sibling or parent is in the database – so is a part of you.part of you.  What about research?What about research?
  • 24. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym SoftwareSoftware Investigative workloadInvestigative workload  Case assignmentCase assignment  Clue managementClue management  Witness managementWitness management  Case coordinationCase coordination  ProductivityProductivity Screen Capture provided by Crimestar CorporationScreen Capture provided by Crimestar Corporation
  • 25. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym SoftwareSoftware Crime Scene DrawingsCrime Scene Drawings Crime scene drawings areCrime scene drawings are often used as a means ofoften used as a means of documenting the locationdocumenting the location of evidence, assisting inof evidence, assisting in determining the sequencedetermining the sequence of events and explaining aof events and explaining a crime to a jury. Software,crime to a jury. Software, some very similar to draftingsome very similar to drafting software aids in thesoftware aids in the production of two dimensionproduction of two dimension crime scene representations.crime scene representations. Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, CaliforniaPhotograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency ServicesGovernor’s Office of Emergency Services
  • 26. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym SoftwareSoftware Link AnalysisLink Analysis  Link analysis softwareLink analysis software can often help incan often help in organizing the vastorganizing the vast amount of informationamount of information and evidence aand evidence a complex case cancomplex case can produceproduce Screen Capture provided by Pen-Link™Screen Capture provided by Pen-Link™
  • 27. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Digital PhotographyDigital Photography  Digital photography is a picture stored in theDigital photography is a picture stored in the language a computer can understand. It takeslanguage a computer can understand. It takes that information and converts it into a visualthat information and converts it into a visual display.display.  It has numerous benefits like storage and analysis.It has numerous benefits like storage and analysis.  Because it is easier to manipulate a digital image thanBecause it is easier to manipulate a digital image than a traditional photograph, additional software security,a traditional photograph, additional software security, procedures and protocols are necessary to maintainprocedures and protocols are necessary to maintain the chain of custodythe chain of custody
  • 28. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym High Definition SurveyHigh Definition Survey  Using laser technology a threeUsing laser technology a three dimensional representation of adimensional representation of a crime scene is created.crime scene is created. New InformationNew Information Hyperlink to more InformationHyperlink to more Information Photograph provided by lecia-Photograph provided by lecia- geosystemsgeosystems
  • 29. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym High Definition SurveyHigh Definition Survey New InformationNew Information Investigators, prosecutorsInvestigators, prosecutors and juries can now return toand juries can now return to the scene of the crime in athe scene of the crime in a virtual world.virtual world. ReconstructionReconstruction TrialsTrials TrainingTraining A three dimensional representation of aA three dimensional representation of a seated man with a gunseated man with a gun Photograph provided by lecia-geosystemsPhotograph provided by lecia-geosystems
  • 30. Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com