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Public Policy and Practice: Decision Making (Part Two)
 

Public Policy and Practice: Decision Making (Part Two)

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A PowerPoint presentation on decision making in public policy. While the presentation focuses on criminal justice, it applies to all government fields.

A PowerPoint presentation on decision making in public policy. While the presentation focuses on criminal justice, it applies to all government fields.

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    Public Policy and Practice: Decision Making (Part Two) Public Policy and Practice: Decision Making (Part Two) Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public PolicyPublic Policy and Practiceand Practice in Criminal Justicein Criminal Justice Decision MakingDecision Making Part IIPart II
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public PolicyPublic Policy  Clarke E. Cochran, et al.: "the actions of government and the intentions that determine those actions."  Clarke E. Cochran, et al.: "the outcome of the struggle in government over who gets what."  Thomas Dye: "Whatever governments choose to do or not do."  Charles L. Cochran and Eloise F. Malone: "political decisions for implementing programs to achieve societal goals."  B. Guy Peters: "sum of government activities, whether acting directly or through agents, as it has an influence on the life of citizens."
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public PolicyPublic Policy  Because of limitedBecause of limited (scarce) resources(scarce) resources choiceschoices about the objectives must be made:  Which?  How?  Importance?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster What is Policy Analysis?What is Policy Analysis?  Refers to a variety of analysis techniquesRefers to a variety of analysis techniques used to develop, analyze and evaluateused to develop, analyze and evaluate policypolicy  The choice of tool may be dependent on theThe choice of tool may be dependent on the questionquestion
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ToolsTools  Seven Criteria of Good PolicySeven Criteria of Good Policy  The 6 C’s of Policy OptionsThe 6 C’s of Policy Options  The 3 E’s of Policy OptionsThe 3 E’s of Policy Options  Cost-Benefit AnalysisCost-Benefit Analysis  Cost-Effectiveness AnalysisCost-Effectiveness Analysis  ModelingModeling  Decomposition AnalysisDecomposition Analysis  Ideological AnalysisIdeological Analysis  Point of View AnalysisPoint of View Analysis
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Seven Criteria of Good PolicySeven Criteria of Good Policy  EffectivenessEffectiveness  ExternalitiesExternalities  EfficiencyEfficiency  TheoryTheory  ComplianceCompliance  EquityEquity  Measurable EffectMeasurable Effect
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster EffectivenessEffectiveness  What is the bottom line?What is the bottom line?  What was is it that the policy intended toWhat was is it that the policy intended to do? The bottom line.do? The bottom line.  Perhaps for a private firm, profitPerhaps for a private firm, profit  Is the Policy Working?Is the Policy Working?  Are goals met as opposed to activity takesAre goals met as opposed to activity takes place.place.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Traffic CitationsTraffic Citations  The goal is trafficThe goal is traffic safety!safety!  A motor officer canA motor officer can efficiently issueefficiently issue citations, but does hiscitations, but does his activities add to theactivities add to the bottom line of trafficbottom line of traffic safety.safety.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ExternalitiesExternalities  Side effectsSide effects  Many actions haveMany actions have intended andintended and unintended positiveunintended positive and negative sideand negative side effectseffects
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster EfficiencyEfficiency  If effectiveness is concentrating on theIf effectiveness is concentrating on the outputs or goals, essentially doing theoutputs or goals, essentially doing the right things.right things.  Efficiency is doing things right. Using theEfficiency is doing things right. Using the least amount of inputs (resources) toleast amount of inputs (resources) to produce the output.produce the output.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster TheoryTheory  The underlying assumptions and theoriesThe underlying assumptions and theories supporting the theorysupporting the theory  Recall, nearly all justice policy is foundedRecall, nearly all justice policy is founded in criminological theoryin criminological theory
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ComplianceCompliance  Does the policyDoes the policy comply with thecomply with the fundamentals of ourfundamentals of our system of laws?system of laws?  Is it Constitutional?Is it Constitutional?  Is it consistent withIs it consistent with the American systemthe American system of justice?of justice?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster EquityEquity  Are outputsAre outputs andand burdensburdens equitablyequitably distributed?distributed? 3 or ½3 or ½ ExerciseExercise
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Intervention EffectIntervention Effect  Can the effect beCan the effect be measured?measured?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster The 6 C’s of Policy OptionsThe 6 C’s of Policy Options  ConcentrationConcentration  ClarityClarity  ChangeabilityChangeability  ChallengeChallenge  CoordinationCoordination  ConsistencyConsistency
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ConcentrationConcentration  Concentration of resources on meaningfulConcentration of resources on meaningful aspect of the problem.aspect of the problem.  Do the resources exist to implement theDo the resources exist to implement the policy – personnel, time, equipment,policy – personnel, time, equipment, money, etc.money, etc.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ClarityClarity  Are the goals and action steps clearlyAre the goals and action steps clearly outlined?outlined?  Are all the stakeholders identified?Are all the stakeholders identified?  Do the stakeholders implementing theDo the stakeholders implementing the policy understand their roles?policy understand their roles?  Do stakeholders affected by the policyDo stakeholders affected by the policy understand it?understand it?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster StakeholdersStakeholders  Any organization,Any organization, governmental entity, orgovernmental entity, or individual that has a stakeindividual that has a stake in or may be impacted byin or may be impacted by a policy.a policy. Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Determining StakeholdersDetermining Stakeholders  Stakeholders can be determining byStakeholders can be determining by analyzing their role in relationship to theanalyzing their role in relationship to the problem or policy:problem or policy:  RightsRights  ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities  Revenues and RewardsRevenues and Rewards  RelationshipsRelationships
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ChangeabilityChangeability  How flexible is the policy to change ifHow flexible is the policy to change if conditions change?conditions change?  Are the Stakeholders (individuals andAre the Stakeholders (individuals and organizations) responsible fororganizations) responsible for implementing the policy able to adapt toimplementing the policy able to adapt to the change in policy?the change in policy?  Are the Stakeholders (individuals andAre the Stakeholders (individuals and organizations) affected by policy able toorganizations) affected by policy able to adapt to the change in policy?adapt to the change in policy?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ChallengeChallenge  Is the policy doable?Is the policy doable? Is it realistic in termsIs it realistic in terms of availableof available resources,resources, stakeholder supportstakeholder support and outcomes?and outcomes?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster CoordinationCoordination  Is there effective coordination andIs there effective coordination and communication between all stakeholders.communication between all stakeholders.  Is there a feedback mechanism for courseIs there a feedback mechanism for course corrections?corrections?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ConsistencyConsistency  Are the actions consistent with theAre the actions consistent with the objectives; are the objectives consistentobjectives; are the objectives consistent with the goal?with the goal?  Is the policy consistent with other policies?Is the policy consistent with other policies?  Is the policy action delivered consistently?Is the policy action delivered consistently?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Goals and ObjectivesGoals and Objectives  Goals are broad whileGoals are broad while objectives areobjectives are narrower, concretenarrower, concrete results that supportresults that support goals:goals:  Reduce traffic injuriesReduce traffic injuries (Goal)(Goal)  Encourage use ofEncourage use of seatbelts (Objective)seatbelts (Objective)  Enforcement ofEnforcement of seatbelt law (Action)seatbelt law (Action)
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Policy OpportunitiesPolicy Opportunities  Opportunities for new policies or policy change occur with:  Political change  Structural change  Introduction of change agents into organizations  Response to unpredictable major events, trends and changes  Leverage points  Opportunities where the application of relatively minor resources provides huge gains.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Incremental and complex  Policy is often incremental, making smallPolicy is often incremental, making small changes rather than large changes.changes rather than large changes.  ExperimentationExperimentation  Chance eventsChance events  Learning from mistakesLearning from mistakes  Political/financial/stakeholder realitiesPolitical/financial/stakeholder realities
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Policy Analysis TechniquesPolicy Analysis Techniques  Cost-Benefit AnalysisCost-Benefit Analysis  Cost-Effectiveness AnalysisCost-Effectiveness Analysis  Influence AnalysisInfluence Analysis  ModelingModeling  Decomposition AnalysisDecomposition Analysis  Forecasting / Futures AnalysisForecasting / Futures Analysis  Ideological AnalysisIdeological Analysis  Point of View AnalysisPoint of View Analysis
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Cost-Benefit AnalysisCost-Benefit Analysis  Identify CostsIdentify Costs  Resources, money, personnel, equipment,Resources, money, personnel, equipment, etc.etc.  Identify BenefitsIdentify Benefits  Assign a monetary amount to bothAssign a monetary amount to both  If benefit greater than cost, implementIf benefit greater than cost, implement policypolicy
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Cost-Benefit AnalysisCost-Benefit Analysis  Opportunities CostOpportunities Cost  Intangible benefitsIntangible benefits  ExternalitiesExternalities  Difficulty in assigningDifficulty in assigning real or exact dollarreal or exact dollar amounts to the futureamounts to the future
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Cost-Effectiveness AnalysisCost-Effectiveness Analysis  Effectiveness of a policyEffectiveness of a policy relative to costs.relative to costs.  Expensive policies areExpensive policies are sometimes justified bysometimes justified by their effectiveness.their effectiveness.  While some policies areWhile some policies are more effective thanmore effective than alternatives, less costlyalternatives, less costly might be preferred if themight be preferred if the difference is considereddifference is considered minor.minor.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Influence AnalysisInfluence Analysis  Sphere of InfluenceSphere of Influence  Everyone or a few individuals?Everyone or a few individuals?  General behavior or specific behavior?General behavior or specific behavior?  MechanismsMechanisms  Degree of coerciveness of policy?Degree of coerciveness of policy?
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Influence AnalysisInfluence Analysis Laws againstLaws against murdermurder Conditions ofConditions of paroleparole State TrafficState Traffic regulationsregulations City ParkingCity Parking OrdinancesOrdinances Number of people affected by policy High Low High Low CC OO EE RR CC II VV EE NN EE SS ss
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ModelingModeling  Modeling is the creation of a simplifiedModeling is the creation of a simplified version of reality.version of reality.  They are used to understand policy and toThey are used to understand policy and to make predictions about what will happenmake predictions about what will happen  Models are used to so causal andModels are used to so causal and functional relationshipsfunctional relationships  Models can be graphic or descriptive.Models can be graphic or descriptive.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster 2X2 Matrix2X2 Matrix  The 2X2 Matrix is anThe 2X2 Matrix is an example of aexample of a descriptive anddescriptive and analytical model.analytical model. LawsLaws againstagainst murdermurder ConditionsConditions of Paroleof Parole StateState TrafficTraffic regulationsregulations CityCity ParkingParking OrdinanceOrdinance ss
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Decomposition AnalysisDecomposition Analysis  Breaking down aBreaking down a complex problem intocomplex problem into smaller parts.smaller parts.  View relationship ofView relationship of the parts to eachthe parts to each othersothers  View relationship ofView relationship of parts to the wholeparts to the whole  View the relationshipView the relationship of parts to thingsof parts to things external to the policyexternal to the policy
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Forecasting / Futures AnalysisForecasting / Futures Analysis  Predicting the futurePredicting the future  Sometimes based onSometimes based on the pastthe past  Sometimes based onSometimes based on other variables thatother variables that indicate a change isindicate a change is on the horizonon the horizon  Often involves if/thenOften involves if/then statementsstatements  If this occurs, this willIf this occurs, this will happen, etc.happen, etc.
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Ideological AnalysisIdeological Analysis  Policy approaches can be examined byPolicy approaches can be examined by political or ideological point of view. Forpolitical or ideological point of view. For instance:instance:  ConservativeConservative  LiberalLiberal  RadicalRadical  AlternativeAlternative
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Point of View AnalysisPoint of View Analysis  For criminal justice policy, this would beFor criminal justice policy, this would be an analysis based on criminological theoryan analysis based on criminological theory point of view. Essentially, how would apoint of view. Essentially, how would a policy response change by the applicationpolicy response change by the application of a different criminological theoryof a different criminological theory
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ReferencesReferences  International Fund for AgriculturalInternational Fund for Agricultural Development, www.ifad.orgDevelopment, www.ifad.org
    • Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public Policy and PracticePublic Policy and Practice in Criminal Justicein Criminal Justice Explore Forensic Science atExplore Forensic Science at www.forensicprofiles.comwww.forensicprofiles.com