Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Public Policy and Practice: Decision Making (Part Three)

333
views

Published on

The third in a series of PowerPoint presentation on public policy analysis and decision making. While focusing on criminal justice is applicable to all government fields. The material is geared …

The third in a series of PowerPoint presentation on public policy analysis and decision making. While focusing on criminal justice is applicable to all government fields. The material is geared toward an elective course in Master's Program, or upper division in related government courses.

Published in: Education, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
333
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public Policy and PracticePublic Policy and Practice in Criminal Justicein Criminal Justice Decision MakingDecision Making Part IIIPart III
  • 2. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Management Decision MakingManagement Decision Making ToolsTools  Pareto AnalysisPareto Analysis  Paired ComparisonPaired Comparison AnalysisAnalysis  Grid AnalysisGrid Analysis  Decision TreeDecision Tree AnalysisAnalysis  Plus/Minus/ImplicatioPlus/Minus/Implicatio ns (PMI)ns (PMI)  Force Field AnalysisForce Field Analysis  CombinationsCombinations
  • 3. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Pareto AnalysisPareto Analysis  Looking for changes that will give the mostLooking for changes that will give the most benefit (80/20 Concept)benefit (80/20 Concept)  List potential actionsList potential actions  Score actions based on the problem to beScore actions based on the problem to be solvedsolved  Scoring depends on desired outcomeScoring depends on desired outcome  Choose action based on scoreChoose action based on score
  • 4. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Paired Comparison AnalysisPaired Comparison Analysis  Used to determine relative importance ofUsed to determine relative importance of an actionan action  List actions in table, along header and columnList actions in table, along header and column  Block out duplicatesBlock out duplicates  Score one against the otherScore one against the other  Add scores and rank actionsAdd scores and rank actions
  • 5. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ActionAction ArrestArrest (A)(A) CitationsCitations (B)(B) WarningWarning (c)(c) EducatioEducatio nn (D)(D) ArrestsArrests (A)(A) BlockedBlocked AA AA AA CitationsCitations (B)(B) AA BlockedBlocked BB BB WarningWarning (C)(C) AA BB BlockedBlocked CC EducatioEducatio nn AA BB CC BlockedBlocked Drunk Driving Problem
  • 6. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Grid AnalysisGrid Analysis  An technique that also the decision makerAn technique that also the decision maker to examine a number of alternative andto examine a number of alternative and many factors for each alternativemany factors for each alternative  Create a spread sheet, listing alternatives inCreate a spread sheet, listing alternatives in the header and factors in the columnthe header and factors in the column  Uses scoring and weights to help examine theUses scoring and weights to help examine the factors and the alternativesfactors and the alternatives  First Score and then weightFirst Score and then weight
  • 7. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ControlControl PricePrice MaintenanceMaintenance costscosts FeaturesFeatures TotalTotal WeightWeight PurchasePurchase 44 44 44 11 LeaseLease 33 33 11 22 ContractContract 22 22 33 33 ShareShare 11 11 22 44 New Radio System
  • 8. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ControlControl PricePrice MaintenanceMaintenance costscosts FeaturesFeatures TotalTotal WeightWeight 22 55 44 33 PurchasePurchase 4,84,8 4,204,20 4,164,16 1,31,3 4747 LeaseLease 3,63,6 3,153,15 1,41,4 2,62,6 3131 ContractContract 2,42,4 2,102,10 3,123,12 3,93,9 3535 ShareShare 1,11,1 1,51,5 2,82,8 4,124,12 2626 New Radio System
  • 9. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Decision Tree AnalysisDecision Tree Analysis  Choose based on the value of likelyChoose based on the value of likely outcomesoutcomes  Start with decisionStart with decision  Draw lines to represent the differentDraw lines to represent the different alternativesalternatives  At points different decision are made draw aAt points different decision are made draw a circle and “branch” the treecircle and “branch” the tree  Once tree is drawn, assign values toOnce tree is drawn, assign values to outcomesoutcomes
  • 10. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Radio SystemRadio System Replace Existing System Which Agency Share System County City One City Two
  • 11. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Decision Tree AnalysisDecision Tree Analysis  Creates a clear, visual representationCreates a clear, visual representation  Allows for input on potentialAllows for input on potential consequences of actionconsequences of action  Produces a framework for analysis onProduces a framework for analysis on costs, values and likelihood of occurrencecosts, values and likelihood of occurrence  Decisions are based on current, bestDecisions are based on current, best information, and approximations about theinformation, and approximations about the futurefuture
  • 12. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Plus/Minus/ImplicationsPlus/Minus/Implications  Previous tools looked at alternatives, thisPrevious tools looked at alternatives, this tool looks at the possible consequences oftool looks at the possible consequences of the decisionthe decision  Again, in a spreadsheet list in one column theAgain, in a spreadsheet list in one column the positive consequences and the other thepositive consequences and the other the negative consequences, the third column isnegative consequences, the third column is used to record the implication of the factorused to record the implication of the factor  Most of the time, the consequences of theMost of the time, the consequences of the decision become very clear, but if not thedecision become very clear, but if not the factors can be (subjectively) weightedfactors can be (subjectively) weighted
  • 13. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Choosing to PurchaseChoosing to Purchase PlusPlus MinusMinus ImplicationImplication Control over designControl over design FeaturesFeatures Requires expertise that mayRequires expertise that may not be inside organization,not be inside organization, requiring a consultantrequiring a consultant High intra-operabilityHigh intra-operability Low interoperabilityLow interoperability Communication good inside,Communication good inside, cooperation outside may becooperation outside may be impactedimpacted Requires huge sunk costsRequires huge sunk costs Equipment may beEquipment may be technologically out of datetechnologically out of date at time of final installationat time of final installation
  • 14. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Force Field AnalysisForce Field Analysis  Designed to aide in the analysis of the strengthDesigned to aide in the analysis of the strength of the forces for and against a policy, or aof the forces for and against a policy, or a decisiondecision  Good visual representation through the use of aGood visual representation through the use of a modelmodel  Positive forces and negative forces are listed andPositive forces and negative forces are listed and weightedweighted  Decision maker can determine if the policy is doable;Decision maker can determine if the policy is doable; or, determine where pressure should be increased oror, determine where pressure should be increased or decreased to allow policy implementationdecreased to allow policy implementation
  • 15. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Current System failing City Budget Fire Department needs system also Public concern over terrorism Officer concern Over safety Some Grant Money available Previous Tech failures Other Department Needs Changing Technology New Radio System
  • 16. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Combining ToolsCombining Tools  Some of the decisionSome of the decision making tools can bemaking tools can be combined with othercombined with other concepts, forconcepts, for instance, ainstance, a Stakeholder AnalysisStakeholder Analysis can be accomplishedcan be accomplished through a 2X2 Matrixthrough a 2X2 Matrix
  • 17. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Stakeholder AnalysisStakeholder Analysis andand 2X2 Matrix2X2 Matrix Keep SatisfiedKeep Satisfied Manage CloselyManage Closely MonitorMonitor Keep InformedKeep Informed POWER High Low High Low II NN TT RR EE SS TT
  • 18. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Research TechniquesResearch Techniques  Questionnaires,Questionnaires, Surveys andSurveys and ChecklistsChecklists  InterviewsInterviews  Document Review Document Review   ObservationObservation  Focus GroupsFocus Groups  Case studiesCase studies
  • 19. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Questionnaires, Surveys andQuestionnaires, Surveys and ChecklistsChecklists  Information and dataInformation and data can be obtaincan be obtain relatively quickly andrelatively quickly and a in a non-threateninga in a non-threatening mannermanner  Easily organized andEasily organized and analyzedanalyzed
  • 20. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Questionnaires, Surveys andQuestionnaires, Surveys and ChecklistsChecklists  AdvantagesAdvantages  AnonymousAnonymous  SomewhatSomewhat inexpensiveinexpensive  ease of analysisease of analysis  Large GroupsLarge Groups  DataData  Many types pre-existMany types pre-exist  PotentialPotential DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Survey can biasSurvey can bias responseresponse  ImpersonalImpersonal  Sampling IssuesSampling Issues  Incomplete informationIncomplete information
  • 21. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster InterviewsInterviews  Used to gain aUsed to gain a greater depth ofgreater depth of understanding of theunderstanding of the experiences,experiences, knowledge andknowledge and activities ofactivities of individuals.individuals.
  • 22. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster InterviewsInterviews  AdvantagesAdvantages  Allows for a fullerAllows for a fuller appreciation of pointsappreciation of points of view,of view,  Can lead toCan lead to information you didn’tinformation you didn’t know existed.know existed.  Can lead to theCan lead to the development of newdevelopment of new ideas.ideas.  DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Time ConsumingTime Consuming  Difficult to analyze andDifficult to analyze and determine themes anddetermine themes and trendstrends  CostlyCostly  Interviewer biasInterviewer bias
  • 23. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Document ReviewDocument Review  Policy and programsPolicy and programs can be analyzedcan be analyzed without interruptingwithout interrupting themthem  Sometimes referredSometimes referred to as an audit.to as an audit.  ApplicationsApplications  Financial InformationFinancial Information  Productivity dataProductivity data  Etc.Etc.
  • 24. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Document ReviewDocument Review  AdvantagesAdvantages  ComprehensiveComprehensive information ofteninformation often availableavailable  Can be one of theCan be one of the least disruptiveleast disruptive  Data existsData exists  Biases are somewhatBiases are somewhat reducedreduced  DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Time ConsumingTime Consuming  Information may beInformation may be incompleteincomplete  Need to make specificNeed to make specific requests – have therequests – have the area to be examinedarea to be examined clearly identified.clearly identified.  Must use existing dataMust use existing data  Unrestricted accessUnrestricted access requiredrequired
  • 25. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ObservationsObservations  Used to obtain dataUsed to obtain data and information onand information on how a policy orhow a policy or program actuallyprogram actually operatesoperates  Can be used toCan be used to examine processesexamine processes and outcomesand outcomes
  • 26. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster ObservationsObservations  AdvantagesAdvantages  Real-time informationReal-time information  Adaptable and flexibleAdaptable and flexible methodmethod  Can pursue avenues asCan pursue avenues as they become apparentthey become apparent  DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Outside experts may lackOutside experts may lack expertise of institutionalexpertise of institutional knowledge necessary toknowledge necessary to correctly interpret internalcorrectly interpret internal behaviorsbehaviors  Difficulties inherent in theDifficulties inherent in the classification of behaviorsclassification of behaviors  Observation affects theObservation affects the observedobserved  ExpenseExpense
  • 27. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Focus GroupsFocus Groups  A topic can beA topic can be examined in-depth byexamined in-depth by the groupthe group  Useful for obtainingUseful for obtaining stakeholderstakeholder impressions,impressions, reactions, feedback,reactions, feedback, etc.etc.
  • 28. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Focus GroupsFocus Groups  AdvantagesAdvantages  quick and reliablequick and reliable method to obtainmethod to obtain group impressionsgroup impressions  A more efficient way ofA more efficient way of gathering informationgathering information similar to interviews.similar to interviews.  Can be used as a two-Can be used as a two- way form ofway form of communicationcommunication  DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Difficult to analyzeDifficult to analyze responsesresponses  The skill of the focusThe skill of the focus group leader orgroup leader or facilitator is critical.facilitator is critical.  ExpenseExpense  Scheduling concerns –Scheduling concerns – getting the groupgetting the group togethertogether
  • 29. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Case studiesCase studies  A completeA complete understanding of aunderstanding of a policy may bepolicy may be obtained by aobtained by a comprehensivecomprehensive examination of theexamination of the policy andpolicy and comparison to similarcomparison to similar policiespolicies
  • 30. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Case studiesCase studies  AdvantagesAdvantages  Full examination ofFull examination of inputs, processes andinputs, processes and outputsoutputs  Very good way toVery good way to represent the policy torepresent the policy to external stakeholdersexternal stakeholders  DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Time consuming andTime consuming and expensiveexpensive  Usually portrays inUsually portrays in depth of information ordepth of information or policy rather thanpolicy rather than breadthbreadth
  • 31. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Public Policy and PracticePublic Policy and Practice in Criminal Justicein Criminal Justice Search for Military BooksSearch for Military Books atat www.military-writers.comwww.military-writers.com