Personnel and Training

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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Nineteen (Personnel and Training) for the book Police Technology.

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Personnel and Training

  1. 1. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter NineteenChapter Nineteen Personnel and TrainingPersonnel and Training
  2. 2. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  History and factors of Scheduling andHistory and factors of Scheduling and DeploymentDeployment  Tracking problem officersTracking problem officers  Continuous training in law enforcementContinuous training in law enforcement
  3. 3. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Scheduling and DeploymentScheduling and Deployment  DeploymentDeployment is theis the minimum numberminimum number operating forceoperating force necessary to providenecessary to provide police services withinpolice services within a jurisdictiona jurisdiction
  4. 4. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Scheduling and DeploymentScheduling and Deployment  SchedulingScheduling is the process of movingis the process of moving personnel resources around to meet thepersonnel resources around to meet the needs of deployment.needs of deployment.
  5. 5. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Scheduling and DeploymentScheduling and Deployment  Sometimes, the number of police officersSometimes, the number of police officers required is relatively fixed – there are arequired is relatively fixed – there are a certain number of beats within acertain number of beats within a jurisdiction.jurisdiction.  At other times, the number of policeAt other times, the number of police officers needs to be increased becauseofficers needs to be increased because the work load – like calls for service –the work load – like calls for service – increases.increases.
  6. 6. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Scheduling and DeploymentScheduling and Deployment  Early research into deployment:Early research into deployment:  Patrol Car Allocation Model (PCAMPatrol Car Allocation Model (PCAM))  Hypercube ModelHypercube Model  Queuing theoryQueuing theory – a method of– a method of mathematically determining a level ofmathematically determining a level of serviceservice
  7. 7. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Scheduling and DeploymentScheduling and Deployment  Level of Service FactorsLevel of Service Factors  Response time to calls for serviceResponse time to calls for service  Free time for officers to conduct investigationsFree time for officers to conduct investigations  Crime rateCrime rate  Community satisfactionCommunity satisfaction  Geographic areaGeographic area
  8. 8. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Scheduling and DeploymentScheduling and Deployment  Computer-AidedComputer-Aided Dispatch (CAD) canDispatch (CAD) can be helpful inbe helpful in determining thedetermining the number of calls fornumber of calls for service, and thusservice, and thus deployment needsdeployment needs Screen Capture Provided by Crimestar
  9. 9. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Scheduling and DeploymentScheduling and Deployment  Data can be viewedData can be viewed by hour (as withby hour (as with previous slide) or byprevious slide) or by day (this slide).day (this slide). Screen Capture Provided by Crimestar
  10. 10. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Case ManagementCase Management  Detective supervisorsDetective supervisors and managers areand managers are concerned withconcerned with managing the workmanaging the work load and productivityload and productivity of detectives. Caseof detectives. Case managementmanagement software is oftensoftware is often helpful.helpful. Screen Capture Provided by Crimestar
  11. 11. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Problem OfficersProblem Officers  It is believed that a smallIt is believed that a small percentage of policepercentage of police officers garner the lion’sofficers garner the lion’s share of citizenshare of citizen complaints, on-duty trafficcomplaints, on-duty traffic accidents and civil suits.accidents and civil suits.  Agencies are looking forAgencies are looking for ways to introduce early-ways to introduce early- warning systemswarning systems Screen capture provided by the Institute for Police Technology and Management
  12. 12. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Problem OfficersProblem Officers  Software may help because:Software may help because:  Much of police work is conducted outside theMuch of police work is conducted outside the view of supervisorsview of supervisors  Police work is 24/7 and officers move fromPolice work is 24/7 and officers move from shift to shift, sometimes before a supervisorshift to shift, sometimes before a supervisor notes a pattern or problem.notes a pattern or problem.  In larger agencies, police officers can transferIn larger agencies, police officers can transfer from one region to another before patterns orfrom one region to another before patterns or problems are detected.problems are detected.
  13. 13. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Problem OfficersProblem Officers  Difficulties:Difficulties:  Legal and PoliceLegal and Police Union concernsUnion concerns  High MaintenanceHigh Maintenance costscosts  Does productivityDoes productivity counter-balancecounter-balance negative input?negative input?  What is tracked?What is tracked?  All complaints?All complaints?  Only sustainedOnly sustained complaints?complaints?
  14. 14. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  Police officers do not use all of their skillsPolice officers do not use all of their skills everyday, but they need to be able to useeveryday, but they need to be able to use their skills at a moment’s notice.their skills at a moment’s notice.  People tend to default to the level of theirPeople tend to default to the level of their training.training.  Practice does not make perfect, but canPractice does not make perfect, but can make response automatic.make response automatic.
  15. 15. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  Routine use of jobRoutine use of job skills tends to improveskills tends to improve employeeemployee performance.performance.  When job skills areWhen job skills are not used, employeenot used, employee performance declines.performance declines.  In reality, tacticalIn reality, tactical skills (like shooting,skills (like shooting, pursuit driving, etc.)pursuit driving, etc.) are rarely used.are rarely used.
  16. 16. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining Knowledge + Practice Ability =
  17. 17. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  Early forms ofEarly forms of interactive traininginteractive training used film and thenused film and then videos to enhancevideos to enhance training andtraining and sometimes rolesometimes role playing.playing.
  18. 18. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  One use ofOne use of technology as atechnology as a means to impart andmeans to impart and refresh knowledge isrefresh knowledge is through the use ofthrough the use of multimediamultimedia instructionalinstructional technology like DVDstechnology like DVDs Screen capture provided by Video-ID Teleproductions
  19. 19. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  In this DVD a policeIn this DVD a police officer is given theofficer is given the opportunity to reviewopportunity to review and test theirand test their knowledge about Useknowledge about Use of Forceof Force Screen capture provided by Video-ID Teleproductions
  20. 20. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  Interactive trainingInteractive training simulators give policesimulators give police officers the ability toofficers the ability to practice theirpractice their application ofapplication of knowledge…or theirknowledge…or their skills.skills. Photograph provided by Advanced Interactive Systems
  21. 21. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  Simulators can beSimulators can be used for driving, asused for driving, as well as shooting andwell as shooting and tactical skillstactical skills Photograph provided by FAAC Inc
  22. 22. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  Training simulatorsTraining simulators are becomingare becoming increasingly moreincreasingly more sophisticated.sophisticated.  Here the simulator isHere the simulator is configured like a patrolconfigured like a patrol vehicle.vehicle.  And, it gives manyAnd, it gives many different views of thedifferent views of the simulation.simulation. Photographs provided by FAAC Inc
  23. 23. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  A response to these criticisms is thatA response to these criticisms is that simulators, much like video games aresimulators, much like video games are becoming very interactive.becoming very interactive.  Simple patrol with unexpected hazards.Simple patrol with unexpected hazards.  High-speed pursuit drivingHigh-speed pursuit driving  Traffic StopsTraffic Stops  A controller can change the scenario andA controller can change the scenario and interact with the traineeinteract with the trainee  If the trainee negotiates or tactically deploysIf the trainee negotiates or tactically deploys the shooting situation can be avoided.the shooting situation can be avoided.
  24. 24. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo TrainingTraining  Some caution that some narrowly definedSome caution that some narrowly defined simulators may not teach a full range ofsimulators may not teach a full range of decision-making or negotiating skills.decision-making or negotiating skills.  Or, others believe that simulatorsOr, others believe that simulators concentrated on “shoot - - no shoot”concentrated on “shoot - - no shoot” situations may convey the impression thatsituations may convey the impression that every call for service contains an armedevery call for service contains an armed adversary.adversary.
  25. 25. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com

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