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Communication Dispatch Centers

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The companion PowerPoint Presentation for Chapter Seven (Communications Dispatch Centers) of the book Police Technology.

The companion PowerPoint Presentation for Chapter Seven (Communications Dispatch Centers) of the book Police Technology.

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  • 1. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter SevenChapter Seven CommunicationsCommunications Dispatch CentersDispatch Centers
  • 2. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  How hardwired and wirelessHow hardwired and wireless universaluniversal emergency numberemergency number calls reach acalls reach a publicpublic safety answering pointsafety answering point..  What kinds of information areWhat kinds of information are automatically included in a 9-1-1 callautomatically included in a 9-1-1 call  Basic functions ofBasic functions of computer aidedcomputer aided dispatchdispatch systemssystems  Basic functions of anBasic functions of an intelligent transportintelligent transport systemsystem
  • 3. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo IntroductionIntroduction The dispatch center’sThe dispatch center’s primary purpose:primary purpose:  Manage calls for serviceManage calls for service from the publicfrom the public  Provide communicationProvide communication and information supportand information support to field police officersto field police officers  Some center’s are theSome center’s are the first point of collection offirst point of collection of police statisticspolice statistics Photograph provided by Gary Allen, Dispatch Monthly Magazine
  • 4. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Public Safety Answering PointPublic Safety Answering Point The first task of the dispatch center is to be theThe first task of the dispatch center is to be the public safety answering point (PSAP)public safety answering point (PSAP) Today, 9-1-1 calls go to the PSAP
  • 5. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Universal Emergency NumberUniversal Emergency Number Before 9-1-1, peopleBefore 9-1-1, people could:could:  dial the operator ordial the operator or  dial the police (fire,dial the police (fire, ambulance) directlyambulance) directly The telephone operator was theThe telephone operator was the de facto public safetyde facto public safety answering point.answering point.
  • 6. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Universal Emergency NumberUniversal Emergency Number  When 9-1-1 service began, you wereWhen 9-1-1 service began, you were connected with your PSAP, but onlyconnected with your PSAP, but only your telephone number was availableyour telephone number was available to the PSAP. No address, name, etc.to the PSAP. No address, name, etc.
  • 7. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Universal Emergency NumberUniversal Emergency Number  Your telephone sends out anYour telephone sends out an automaticautomatic identification number (AIN)identification number (AIN) signal (thesignal (the telephone number and a digit representing thetelephone number and a digit representing the area code).area code). Think about your own caller ID system. The number you see on the display is the AIN signal, IF you pick up, you hear the voice signal!
  • 8. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo  When a 9-1-1 call is made, the voiceWhen a 9-1-1 call is made, the voice signal and the AIN pass through thesignal and the AIN pass through the local exchange carrier switch and arelocal exchange carrier switch and are routed through the 911 tandem.routed through the 911 tandem.  The tandem reads the AIN and forwardsThe tandem reads the AIN and forwards the call to the appropriate PSAP.the call to the appropriate PSAP. Universal Emergency NumberUniversal Emergency Number
  • 9. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Universal Emergency NumberUniversal Emergency Number  Enhanced 9-1-1Enhanced 9-1-1 automatically queries aautomatically queries a telephone company database thattelephone company database that converts AIN information into the physicalconverts AIN information into the physical location of the telephone.location of the telephone.  The information on the location is theThe information on the location is the automatic location information (ALI)automatic location information (ALI)
  • 10. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Universal Emergency NumberUniversal Emergency Number Your telephone number and location are automatically displayed to the PSAP operator Screen capture provided by Crimestar, Inc Telephone Number Location
  • 11. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo What about cellular 9-1-1 calls?What about cellular 9-1-1 calls?  ANI information is obtained in a similarANI information is obtained in a similar manner….manner…. But, cellular telephone do not have a fixedBut, cellular telephone do not have a fixed location…….in the past, cellular telephoneslocation…….in the past, cellular telephones determined the default PSAP by transferringdetermined the default PSAP by transferring your call to a regional agency, like the stateyour call to a regional agency, like the state police.police.
  • 12. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Angle on Arrival (AOA).Angle on Arrival (AOA). A cellular telephoneA cellular telephone location can belocation can be determined using Timedetermined using Time Distance on Arrival andDistance on Arrival and Angle on ArrivalAngle on Arrival
  • 13. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Angle on Arrival (AOA).Angle on Arrival (AOA). The signal from at leastThe signal from at least two cell sites is used totwo cell sites is used to calculate the position ofcalculate the position of the vehiclethe vehicle
  • 14. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Angle on Arrival (AOA).Angle on Arrival (AOA). Based on the positionBased on the position asas calculated, the cellularcalculated, the cellular system routes the callsystem routes the call to the appropriateto the appropriate PSAP,PSAP,
  • 15. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Computer-Aided DispatchComputer-Aided Dispatch  CAD describesCAD describes software applicationssoftware applications and hardware thatand hardware that assist in theassist in the management ofmanagement of dispatching calls fordispatching calls for service.service.  It is a managementIt is a management tool that automatestool that automates the many functions ofthe many functions of a dispatch center.a dispatch center. Photograph provided by Randall Larson, Editor, 9-1-1 Magazine
  • 16. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Computer-Aided DispatchComputer-Aided Dispatch  Also provides access to other databasesAlso provides access to other databases and acts as interface software in the two-and acts as interface software in the two- way voice communications betweenway voice communications between dispatch and the field units.dispatch and the field units.
  • 17. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Computer-Aided DispatchComputer-Aided Dispatch  CAD systems areCAD systems are used by manyused by many companies thatcompanies that dispatch vehicles –dispatch vehicles – delivery, taxis, buses,delivery, taxis, buses, etc.etc. Photograph provided by Randall Larson, Editor, 9-1-1 Magazine
  • 18. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Computer-Aided DispatchComputer-Aided Dispatch The most important part of CAD isThe most important part of CAD is thethe software and various othersoftware and various other systemssystems with which CAD can interface.with which CAD can interface.  The workstation is connectedThe workstation is connected to the commercial telephoneto the commercial telephone networknetwork  It captures information aboutIt captures information about 9-1-1 calls and field-generated9-1-1 calls and field-generated incidents – constructs a hugeincidents – constructs a huge relational databaserelational database Photograph provided by Randall Larson, Editor, 9-1-1 Magazine
  • 19. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Computer-Aided DispatchComputer-Aided Dispatch On the strategic side, a fully integratedOn the strategic side, a fully integrated CAD system can be sued toCAD system can be sued to  Assess deployment needsAssess deployment needs  Provide information on problemProvide information on problem locationslocations  Provide the initial incident numberProvide the initial incident number that will be sued to reference allthat will be sued to reference all subsequent evidence, reports, andsubsequent evidence, reports, and police activitiespolice activities Photograph provided by Randall Larson, Editor, 9-1-1 Magazine
  • 20. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Some PSAPsSome PSAPs  Handle emergency calls for police, fire,Handle emergency calls for police, fire, and emergency medical servicesand emergency medical services  Handle the police, but transfer fire/medicalHandle the police, but transfer fire/medical callscalls  Have dispatchers handling business callsHave dispatchers handling business calls throughout the police stationthroughout the police station
  • 21. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Obtain Info Location? Offense? Weapons? Descriptions ? Caller Info? Update Info Keep Caller on Line CALL RECEIVED Emergency ? Yes ? E 9-1-1 provides ANI and converts the info into the call for service. Verify ANI info
  • 22. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Obtain Info Location? Offense? Weapons? Descriptions ? Caller Info? Update Info Keep Caller on Line CALL RECEIVED Emergency ? Yes ? No? Transfer? Provide info Yes ? No? Information? Yes ? No? Cold Crime? No? Other Action
  • 23. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Obtain Info Location? Offense? Weapons? Descriptions ? Caller Info? Update Info Keep Caller on Line CALL RECEIVED Emergency ? Yes ? No? Transfer? Provide info Yes ? No? Information? Yes ? No? Cold Crime? No? Other Action Yes ? Obtain Info Offense? Location? When? Caller Info? Contact at?
  • 24. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Nonemergency Points of ContactNonemergency Points of Contact  3-1-1: Non-emergency3-1-1: Non-emergency telephone calls (sometelephone calls (some jurisdictions)jurisdictions)  4-1-1: Directory information4-1-1: Directory information  6-1-1: Telephone repair6-1-1: Telephone repair
  • 25. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Intelligent Transportation SystemsIntelligent Transportation Systems ITS allows dispatcher accessITS allows dispatcher access to real-timeto real-time Traffic information from:Traffic information from:  Closed-circuit televisionClosed-circuit television (CCTV)(CCTV) camerascameras  Sensors under the street.Sensors under the street.
  • 26. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Intelligent Transportation SystemsIntelligent Transportation Systems  Can give emergencyCan give emergency respondersresponders information on:information on:  Nature of emergencyNature of emergency  Best Route to locationBest Route to location
  • 27. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com

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