0
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster
Police TechnologyPolice Technology
Chapter NineChapter ...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives
 The history of and devel...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
Sources of InformationSources of Information
Two broad classifica...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
External sources of information are oftenExternal sources of info...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
National Crime Information CenterNational Crime Information Cente...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
NCIC 2000NCIC 2000
 Has reduced fingerprint and photographicHas ...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
 NCIC 2000 provides the softwareNCIC 2000 provides the software
...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
Legal questionsLegal questions
A police officer can checkA police...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
Safety IssuesSafety Issues
During a traffic stop, the violator ha...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
Uniformed Crime ReportsUniformed Crime Reports
The U.S. Departmen...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
UCRUCR
 Agencies voluntarily report crimes to theAgencies volunt...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
National Crime VictimizationNational Crime Victimization
SurveySu...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
DifferencesDifferences
UCRUCR
 Rape: only reportsRape: only repo...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
SimilaritiesSimilarities
 Both UCR and NCVS give lawBoth UCR and...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
National Incident-Based ReportingNational Incident-Based Reportin...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
 Likely to replace UCR in the futureLikely to replace UCR in the...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
Government DatabasesGovernment Databases
 The Regional Informati...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
Driver’s License andDriver’s License and
Motor Vehicle Registrati...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
Commercial Sources of InformationCommercial Sources of Informatio...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond
 Personal information firms also collectPersonal information fir...
Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster
Police TechnologyPolice Technology
Explore Forensic Sci...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

External Systems

148

Published on

The companion PowerPoint for Chapter Nine (External Systems) for the book Police Technology. Currently used in over 100 colleges and universities; and, by police agencies around the globe

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
148
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "External Systems"

  1. 1. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter NineChapter Nine External SystemsExternal Systems
  2. 2. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  The history of and developments at theThe history of and developments at the National Crime Information Center (NCIC)National Crime Information Center (NCIC)  Uniform Crime ReportingUniform Crime Reporting andand National CrimeNational Crime Victimization SurveyVictimization Survey  National Incident-Based Reporting SystemNational Incident-Based Reporting System  Potential Sources of government informationPotential Sources of government information  Government vs. Commercial databaseGovernment vs. Commercial database  Regional information sharing schemesRegional information sharing schemes
  3. 3. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Sources of InformationSources of Information Two broad classifications of records aTwo broad classifications of records a police officer might access:police officer might access:  Public RecordsPublic Records – Available to the– Available to the public and about something that haspublic and about something that has happenedhappened  Investigative RecordsInvestigative Records – About things– About things that are going on. More restrictive sothat are going on. More restrictive so a case in not compromised.a case in not compromised.
  4. 4. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond External sources of information are oftenExternal sources of information are often more extensive than local sources:more extensive than local sources:  Offenders move around leaving an informationOffenders move around leaving an information trailtrail  Small agencies do not have the resources toSmall agencies do not have the resources to maintain large or extensive databasesmaintain large or extensive databases  Many crimes are complex and cross-Many crimes are complex and cross- jurisdictionaljurisdictional Sources of InformationSources of Information
  5. 5. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond National Crime Information CenterNational Crime Information Center  First database with nationwide accessFirst database with nationwide access  Each participating agency is responsibleEach participating agency is responsible to enter, update and delete their ownto enter, update and delete their own recordsrecords  Local agencies can query NCIC through aLocal agencies can query NCIC through a statestate control terminal agency (CTA)control terminal agency (CTA)  TheThe Interstate Identification Index (III)Interstate Identification Index (III) receives offender information from CTAsreceives offender information from CTAs
  6. 6. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond NCIC 2000NCIC 2000  Has reduced fingerprint and photographicHas reduced fingerprint and photographic information of wanted persons to digitalinformation of wanted persons to digital informationinformation  Allows agencies to submit sameAllows agencies to submit same information in a digital formatinformation in a digital format  Ultimately will allow police officers toUltimately will allow police officers to access fingerprint and photograph dataaccess fingerprint and photograph data from their patrol vehiclesfrom their patrol vehicles
  7. 7. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond  NCIC 2000 provides the softwareNCIC 2000 provides the software application free of chargeapplication free of charge  System is designed to run withSystem is designed to run with standard computer andstandard computer and communications equipmentcommunications equipment  Local agencies must acquire theLocal agencies must acquire the hardware necessary to run the softwarehardware necessary to run the software NCIC 2000NCIC 2000
  8. 8. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Legal questionsLegal questions A police officer can checkA police officer can check for warrantsfor warrants during a brief detention.during a brief detention.  Can the officer take theCan the officer take the person’s fingerprints?person’s fingerprints?  Is the officer escalatingIs the officer escalating the detention by takingthe detention by taking the prints?the prints?  Is taking a fingerprintIs taking a fingerprint during a detention aduring a detention a seizure (4seizure (4thth amendment)?amendment)? Photograph provided by Cross Match Technologies, Inc
  9. 9. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Safety IssuesSafety Issues During a traffic stop, the violator has moreDuring a traffic stop, the violator has more prefect information than the officer.prefect information than the officer.  The violator knows if he was onlyThe violator knows if he was only speeding or fleeing from a crime scene.speeding or fleeing from a crime scene.  With this lack of information, approachingWith this lack of information, approaching the violator for a print is dangerous.the violator for a print is dangerous.  The violator could take this opportunity toThe violator could take this opportunity to flee or attack the officerflee or attack the officer
  10. 10. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Uniformed Crime ReportsUniformed Crime Reports The U.S. Department of Justice hasThe U.S. Department of Justice has two programs that gather statisticstwo programs that gather statistics on crime:on crime:  Uniformed Crime Reports (UCR)Uniformed Crime Reports (UCR)  National Crime Victimization SurveyNational Crime Victimization Survey
  11. 11. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond UCRUCR  Agencies voluntarily report crimes to theAgencies voluntarily report crimes to the FBI monthlyFBI monthly  Consists of crimes categorized as Part I orConsists of crimes categorized as Part I or Part IIPart II  Eight Part I crimes: Homicide, ForcibleEight Part I crimes: Homicide, Forcible Rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault,Rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault, Burglary, Larceny/Theft, Motor VehicleBurglary, Larceny/Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft, and ArsonTheft, and Arson
  12. 12. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond National Crime VictimizationNational Crime Victimization SurveySurvey NCVS statistics come from the victimsNCVS statistics come from the victims themselves.themselves.  Complements the UCR informationComplements the UCR information  Many victims do not report crimesMany victims do not report crimes  UCR and NCVS together provide aUCR and NCVS together provide a more comprehensive picture on crimemore comprehensive picture on crime
  13. 13. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond DifferencesDifferences UCRUCR  Rape: only reportsRape: only reports female victimsfemale victims  Legal definitions ofLegal definitions of crimes importantcrimes important because of specificbecause of specific intentintent NCVSNCVS  Rape: reports bothRape: reports both male and femalemale and female victimsvictims  Does not reportDoes not report homicide, arson,homicide, arson, commercial crimescommercial crimes and crimes againstand crimes against children under 12children under 12
  14. 14. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond SimilaritiesSimilarities  Both UCR and NCVS give lawBoth UCR and NCVS give law enforcement personnel informationenforcement personnel information that can be used strategicallythat can be used strategically  Data have little or no tactical valueData have little or no tactical value  Information provided is a flat fileInformation provided is a flat file
  15. 15. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond National Incident-Based ReportingNational Incident-Based Reporting SystemSystem  NIBRSNIBRS reports all the crimesreports all the crimes that occurredthat occurred during a single occurred or incident (e.g.,during a single occurred or incident (e.g., Burglary, Assault, Murder, Arson)Burglary, Assault, Murder, Arson)  UCR follows theUCR follows the hierarchyhierarchy rulerule  NIBRS looks at a crime and all of itsNIBRS looks at a crime and all of its components as an incident (the elements)components as an incident (the elements)
  16. 16. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond  Likely to replace UCR in the futureLikely to replace UCR in the future  Significantly more detailed, so there will beSignificantly more detailed, so there will be more common information available tomore common information available to analyze cross-jurisdictional crimesanalyze cross-jurisdictional crimes  Will require police officers to spend moreWill require police officers to spend more time completing reports and reducetime completing reports and reduce available timeavailable time  Eventually, agencies will more effectiveEventually, agencies will more effective Byproducts of NIBRSByproducts of NIBRS
  17. 17. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Government DatabasesGovernment Databases  The Regional Information Sharing SystemsThe Regional Information Sharing Systems (RISS)(RISS) www.iir.com/RISSwww.iir.com/RISS  National Drug Pointer Index (NFPIX)National Drug Pointer Index (NFPIX) www.usdoj.gov/dea/programs/ndpix.htmwww.usdoj.gov/dea/programs/ndpix.htm  National Tracing CenterNational Tracing Center www.atf.govwww.atf.gov  National White Collar Crime CenterNational White Collar Crime Center www.nw3c.orgwww.nw3c.org  Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN)Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN) www.fincen.govwww.fincen.gov
  18. 18. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Driver’s License andDriver’s License and Motor Vehicle Registration InformationMotor Vehicle Registration Information  State or local police officers accessState or local police officers access driver’s license information through thedriver’s license information through the agency RMS to the state authorityagency RMS to the state authority  Accessing license information fromAccessing license information from another state is done through NLETSanother state is done through NLETS (National Law Enforcement(National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System)Telecommunications System)
  19. 19. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond Commercial Sources of InformationCommercial Sources of Information  Began with catalog salesBegan with catalog sales  Evolved into direct marketing and marketEvolved into direct marketing and market surveyssurveys  Direct marketers began sharingDirect marketers began sharing information with marketers of non-information with marketers of non- competitive goodscompetitive goods  Companies forms that collect, organize,Companies forms that collect, organize, and sell information.and sell information.
  20. 20. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond  Personal information firms also collectPersonal information firms also collect information from public recordsinformation from public records (marriages, deaths, births, civil actions,(marriages, deaths, births, civil actions, arrests, etc)arrests, etc) Commercial Sources of InformationCommercial Sources of Information
  21. 21. Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Explore Forensic Science atExplore Forensic Science at www.forensicprofiles.comwww.forensicprofiles.com
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×