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Implementing and Managing Technology

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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Twenty (Implementing and Managing technology) for the book Police Technology.

The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Twenty (Implementing and Managing technology) for the book Police Technology.

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  • 1. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter TwentyChapter Twenty Implementing and ManagingImplementing and Managing TechnologyTechnology
  • 2. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  UnderstandUnderstand Steering CommitteeSteering Committee andand Implementation TeamImplementation Team  Explore the use ofExplore the use of ConsultantsConsultants  Exposed to the concept ofExposed to the concept of BusinessBusiness Reengineering Plan (BPR)Reengineering Plan (BPR)  Concepts ofConcepts of Request for ProposalRequest for Proposal,, Request for QuotationRequest for Quotation andand Sole SourceSole Source ProcurementProcurement
  • 3. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Why Technology Projects FailWhy Technology Projects Fail  Vendors are not forthrightVendors are not forthright  Technologies are new and there has beenTechnologies are new and there has been little research or evaluationlittle research or evaluation  Decision makers don’t perform adequateDecision makers don’t perform adequate researchresearch  Purchasing scheme requires low-bidPurchasing scheme requires low-bid purchasepurchase  Unreasonable user expectationsUnreasonable user expectations
  • 4. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Why Technology Projects FailWhy Technology Projects Fail  Decision makers view the potential of aDecision makers view the potential of a technology and not the realitytechnology and not the reality  Decision makers fail to account for how aDecision makers fail to account for how a technology will change an organizationtechnology will change an organization  Decision makers fail to consider changesDecision makers fail to consider changes to existing systems or practicesto existing systems or practices
  • 5. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Why Technology Projects FailWhy Technology Projects Fail  A review of theA review of the reasons for failurereasons for failure indicate that what isindicate that what is needed is leadershipneeded is leadership
  • 6. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Who should Lead?Who should Lead?  The more complex the project, the moreThe more complex the project, the more the project is likely to change thethe project is likely to change the organization, or the more newer skillsorganization, or the more newer skills required by employees - indicate the needrequired by employees - indicate the need for a dedicated managerfor a dedicated manager
  • 7. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo PlanningPlanning  Planning committeesPlanning committees should encompass ashould encompass a wide variety of users.wide variety of users.  Steering committeesSteering committees are used on largerare used on larger projects to garnerprojects to garner political and financialpolitical and financial support fromsupport from stakeholders – oftenstakeholders – often those outside thethose outside the agencyagency
  • 8. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo PlanningPlanning  TheThe Steering CommitteeSteering Committee develops goals, while adevelops goals, while a second team – the implementation team issecond team – the implementation team is involved in the actual development.involved in the actual development.  TheThe Implementation TeamImplementation Team explores:explores:  Current assets and resourcesCurrent assets and resources  Current infrastructureCurrent infrastructure  End user requirementsEnd user requirements  The implementation team takes the steeringThe implementation team takes the steering committees goals and develop objectives.committees goals and develop objectives.
  • 9. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Activity Steps for Planning ProcessActivity Steps for Planning Process Process Activity Identify Project Assess Needs, develop justifications Preliminary Approval Develop Steering committee, political support, identify funding sources Refine project Develop project implementation team, refine specifications, obtain funding Issue Request for Proposal Identify potential vendors Evaluate Responses Compare product, price, terms and vendor history Select Vendor Negotiate the contract, develop solid project completion timelines Manage the contract Check for compliance, test system, accept completion
  • 10. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Paving the Cow PathPaving the Cow Path  Refers to the processRefers to the process of tending to overlay aof tending to overlay a new technology on anew technology on a prior businessprior business practice.practice.  Fails to account forFails to account for how a technology canhow a technology can change a businesschange a business process.process.  Common Source ofCommon Source of failure and problemsfailure and problems
  • 11. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo ConsultantsConsultants  AA consultantconsultant is oftenis often used to bringused to bring expertise into anexpertise into an organization. Theyorganization. They supplement in-housesupplement in-house talent:talent:  Software engineeringSoftware engineering  System designSystem design  LeadershipLeadership  Contract negotiating,Contract negotiating, etc.etc.
  • 12. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Consultant versus contractingConsultant versus contracting  Consultants are usually hired for aConsultants are usually hired for a relatively short time and for a very specificrelatively short time and for a very specific task. When the task is complete, theirtask. When the task is complete, their services are over. On the other hand, aservices are over. On the other hand, a contracted service, or employee, tends tocontracted service, or employee, tends to be a long-term relationshipbe a long-term relationship
  • 13. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Business Process ReengineeringBusiness Process Reengineering  Somewhat theSomewhat the opposite of paving theopposite of paving the cow path. It is takingcow path. It is taking a ground-up look ata ground-up look at how business ishow business is conducted and howconducted and how technology maytechnology may change the processchange the process
  • 14. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Losing PeopleLosing People  Law enforcementLaw enforcement tends to offer jobstends to offer jobs with liberal retirementwith liberal retirement benefits.benefits.  People who developPeople who develop expertise are oftenexpertise are often courted by the privatecourted by the private sector.sector.  People oftenPeople often sometimes thesometimes the money.money.
  • 15. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Losing PeopleLosing People  Money may not be the prime motivator.Money may not be the prime motivator. Some potential solutions to losingSome potential solutions to losing expertise are:expertise are:  Develop talents younger.Develop talents younger.  Create an Information Technology careerCreate an Information Technology career track in law enforcement.track in law enforcement.  Recognize effort.Recognize effort.  Diversify assignmentsDiversify assignments  BroadbandingBroadbanding
  • 16. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Contracting or OutsourcingContracting or Outsourcing  Somewhat similar,Somewhat similar, however:however:  Contracting tends toContracting tends to be for a longer periodbe for a longer period of time and for aof time and for a broader range ofbroader range of serviceservice  Outsourcing is muchOutsourcing is much like consulting, anlike consulting, an effort to bring ineffort to bring in specific, short-termspecific, short-term expertiseexpertise
  • 17. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo RFP and RFQRFP and RFQ  a means to combat fraud and increasea means to combat fraud and increase government efficiency a competitive bidgovernment efficiency a competitive bid process is used:process is used:  Request for ProposalRequest for Proposal  Used for items generally available from a wideUsed for items generally available from a wide assortment of private firms.assortment of private firms.  Used to get the best priceUsed to get the best price
  • 18. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo RFP and RFQRFP and RFQ  Request for QuotationRequest for Quotation  Used for more complex purchasesUsed for more complex purchases  Not all RFQ processes are the sameNot all RFQ processes are the same  May award the contract on things other thanMay award the contract on things other than price –price –  Best productBest product  ServiceService  ReputationReputation  Value, etc.Value, etc.
  • 19. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Cooperative or Pooled PurchaseCooperative or Pooled Purchase  Different government agencies, eitherDifferent government agencies, either horizontally or vertically combine theirhorizontally or vertically combine their purchasing power to get a better price orpurchasing power to get a better price or value.value.
  • 20. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Sole-Source ProcurementSole-Source Procurement  Generally, the vendorGenerally, the vendor is the only private firmis the only private firm providing the serviceproviding the service
  • 21. Copyright Protected 2005:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com