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Tracking and Surveillance
 

Tracking and Surveillance

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The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Fifteen (Tracking and Surveillance) for the book Police Technology.

The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Fifteen (Tracking and Surveillance) for the book Police Technology.

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  • THIS IS THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 45TH & 46TH PRESIDENT ARLENEA BALLARD(MARIE)23978554917479-79-44726491-756489-456274-9161-89-816492 & CHIEF OF MESA LIC#246189, NEW YORK LIC#446192 POLICE AS WELL AS THE CHIEF OF THE SHERRIF'S DEPARTMENT LIC#24716472 BENCH WARRANT I WOULD LIKE THIS WARRANT TO BE ISSUES TO OBAMA BARACK. WARRANT NO.74926793 SUBPOENA NO.471769764756191. COURT ORDER NO.447261-FBI AGENT GEORGE MASON MURRAY YOU HAVE BENCH WARRANT FOR YOUR ARREST. BENCH WARRANT NO.44718192647174 & SUBPOENA NO.44719391-7492 & COURT ORDER NO.9710891. REQUESTING PICK-UP AND ESCORT NOW OR JAIL TIME!!!!!!!!! FORMER PRESIDENT OBAMA BARACK & FBI AGENT BISHOP: GEORGE MASON MURRAY.
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    Tracking and Surveillance Tracking and Surveillance Presentation Transcript

    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter SixteenChapter Sixteen Hi-Tech CrimeHi-Tech Crime
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  The difference between computer crime,The difference between computer crime, computer related crime and technologycomputer related crime and technology crime.crime.  Why Hi-Tech crime may be under-reported.Why Hi-Tech crime may be under-reported.  How the Internet changed traditional crime.How the Internet changed traditional crime.  Explore system attack, theft of services andExplore system attack, theft of services and software piracy.software piracy.  Explore the Independent ComponentExplore the Independent Component Doctrine.Doctrine.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Hi Tech CrimeHi Tech Crime Technology has changed theTechnology has changed the nature of crime – to prevent, deternature of crime – to prevent, deter and arrest you must understandand arrest you must understand the nature of the crime.the nature of the crime. Was the computer the target?Was the computer the target? Was the technology inside theWas the technology inside the computer the target? Did thecomputer the target? Did the computer facilitate the crime? Or,computer facilitate the crime? Or, has the technology morphed thehas the technology morphed the nature of a traditional crime?nature of a traditional crime?
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer CrimeComputer Crime  The computer is the object of the attack;The computer is the object of the attack; however, the attack is not physical, it ishowever, the attack is not physical, it is virtual –virtual –  VirusVirus  HackingHacking  Theft of servicesTheft of services
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime  These types of crimes occur when theThese types of crimes occur when the offender uses a computer to:offender uses a computer to:  Commit a traditional crimeCommit a traditional crime  The computer is used to commit the crime.The computer is used to commit the crime.  Stores evidence of a crimeStores evidence of a crime  The computer is used to facilitate the crime.The computer is used to facilitate the crime.  Software PiracySoftware Piracy
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Technology CrimeTechnology Crime  A crime directed at a technology, otherA crime directed at a technology, other than a computerthan a computer  Theft of services – cellular telephones, cableTheft of services – cellular telephones, cable televisiontelevision  Theft of computer componentsTheft of computer components
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Hi Tech CrimeHi Tech Crime Classification Unique Feature Types of crime Computer Computer system or capability is the object of the crime. Viruses, theft of system capabilities Computer Related Computer facilitates crime or keeps records of crime. Some are traditional crimes, others are crime created as a result of computer age. Traditional: Child pornography, Narcotics Trafficking Non-Traditional: Software Piracy, Internet Fraud. Technology Crime Technology is stolen, or other technology services are stolen Computer Hardware theft, theft of cellular telephone service, theft of cable television services
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer CrimeComputer Crime VirusesViruses  A malicious software program whichA malicious software program which attempts to replicate itself and spread.attempts to replicate itself and spread.  Most commonly spread by emailMost commonly spread by email attachment, file download or infected discattachment, file download or infected disc  Attaches to executable programAttaches to executable program  Sometimes to use host computer to infectSometimes to use host computer to infect others via email list.others via email list.  Causes disruption, including complete failureCauses disruption, including complete failure
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer CrimeComputer Crime VirusesViruses  Viruses can spreadViruses can spread rapidly, in somerapidly, in some instances a computerinstances a computer virus canvirus can circumnavigate thecircumnavigate the globe in under anglobe in under an hour – infectinghour – infecting millions of computersmillions of computersScreen Capture – Panda SoftwareScreen Capture – Panda Software
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer CrimeComputer Crime Hacking, Cracking and WhackingHacking, Cracking and Whacking  Hacking refers to the non-malicious virtualHacking refers to the non-malicious virtual entry into a software program.entry into a software program.  May still be illegalMay still be illegal  A non-illegal aspect might be purchasing aA non-illegal aspect might be purchasing a computer game and hacking it to ease yourcomputer game and hacking it to ease your playplay  Cracking refers to the illegal and oftenCracking refers to the illegal and often malicious virtual entry into a softwaremalicious virtual entry into a software program, system or network.program, system or network.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer CrimeComputer Crime Hacking, Cracking and WhackingHacking, Cracking and Whacking  Whacking is theWhacking is the illegal and oftenillegal and often malicious virtual entrymalicious virtual entry into a softwareinto a software program, system orprogram, system or network via wirelessnetwork via wireless connection.connection.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer CrimeComputer Crime Virtual Street NamesVirtual Street Names  Coders – Semi-professional softwareCoders – Semi-professional software engineers who write code and experimentengineers who write code and experiment in virtual zoos. Their codes arein virtual zoos. Their codes are sometimes used by the cyber-punks.sometimes used by the cyber-punks.  Cyber-punks – anti-social, angry; theyCyber-punks – anti-social, angry; they write and use code for maliciouswrite and use code for malicious purposes.purposes.  Old Guard Hackers – Generally, noOld Guard Hackers – Generally, no malicious intent. However, their softwaremalicious intent. However, their software is often used by cyber-punks.is often used by cyber-punks.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer CrimeComputer Crime Virtual Street NamesVirtual Street Names  Cyber-terrorists – Professional criminalsCyber-terrorists – Professional criminals who sell their computer skills. Often usedwho sell their computer skills. Often used in corporate espionage.in corporate espionage.  Old-School Hackers – Belief that InternetOld-School Hackers – Belief that Internet is open source. No criminal intent.is open source. No criminal intent.  Script kiddies – juvenile cyber-punks.Script kiddies – juvenile cyber-punks.  Phreaker – uses technology to stealPhreaker – uses technology to steal telephone system capabilitiestelephone system capabilities
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime  The Internet affords a wider net of victims.The Internet affords a wider net of victims.  The Internet affords greater anonymityThe Internet affords greater anonymity  The Internet can connect offendersThe Internet can connect offenders togethertogether  The Internet makes jurisdiction issuesThe Internet makes jurisdiction issues difficult.difficult.  The Internet is new to law enforcement.The Internet is new to law enforcement.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime Crimes Against ChildrenCrimes Against Children  Use of Internet Relay Chat (IRC) toUse of Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to contact children.contact children.  Arrange meetings.Arrange meetings.  Engage in sexual talk, exchange of images.Engage in sexual talk, exchange of images.  Use of the Internet to exchange ideas onUse of the Internet to exchange ideas on committing crimes against children.committing crimes against children.  Use of the Internet to exchange images ofUse of the Internet to exchange images of children.children.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime New InformationNew Information  Steganography – from the greekSteganography – from the greek “steganos” meaning hidden and “graphy”“steganos” meaning hidden and “graphy” meaning writing.meaning writing.  The process of hiding messages orThe process of hiding messages or images inside of the coding of images.images inside of the coding of images.  It is considered the newest challenge to lawIt is considered the newest challenge to law enforcement’s prosecution of pedophiles.enforcement’s prosecution of pedophiles.  It may have been used by internationalIt may have been used by international terrorist to transmit messages to remote cells.terrorist to transmit messages to remote cells.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime FraudFraud  The “box of rocks” becomes auction fraud.The “box of rocks” becomes auction fraud.  On the street – offender uses a sealedOn the street – offender uses a sealed package to entice victim. On the Internet –package to entice victim. On the Internet – photographs and descriptions are used.photographs and descriptions are used.  The Pigeon Drop becomes the NigerianThe Pigeon Drop becomes the Nigerian 419 scam.419 scam.  On the street found money entices the victim.On the street found money entices the victim. On the Internet – email is used to describeOn the Internet – email is used to describe inheritances, overages, etc.inheritances, overages, etc.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime FraudFraud  In most fraud wereIn most fraud were the victim is an activethe victim is an active participant the streetparticipant the street and the Internet shareand the Internet share a common theme –a common theme – The victim’s thoughtThe victim’s thought they were gettingthey were getting something forsomething for nothing!nothing!
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime Software PiracySoftware Piracy  A very broad category that involves theA very broad category that involves the theft of any intellectual property usingtheft of any intellectual property using computer, primarily the internet.computer, primarily the internet.  Illegal music downloads.Illegal music downloads.  Copy Right infringementCopy Right infringement  Trademark infringementTrademark infringement  Illegal downloads of music.Illegal downloads of music.  Copying any work, including software, music,Copying any work, including software, music, written work and providing it to a third person.written work and providing it to a third person.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime FraudFraud  Credit card fraud and theftCredit card fraud and theft  Email used to “Phish.” An email looksEmail used to “Phish.” An email looks like it comes from a legitimate source.like it comes from a legitimate source. Asks for personal information which isAsks for personal information which is then to steal the victim’s identity orthen to steal the victim’s identity or using the victim’s credit.using the victim’s credit.  Personal information is hacked from aPersonal information is hacked from a legitimate sourcelegitimate source
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Computer Related CrimeComputer Related Crime FraudFraud  Pump and DumpPump and Dump  Emails and websitesEmails and websites used to drive up orused to drive up or down the price of andown the price of an equity. The offenderequity. The offender then sells/buysthen sells/buys accordinglyaccordingly  ToutingTouting  Employee of legitimateEmployee of legitimate publication publishespublication publishes false or exaggeratedfalse or exaggerated newsnews
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Technology CrimeTechnology Crime  Theft of components.Theft of components.  ShopliftingShoplifting  BurglaryBurglary  HijackingHijacking  Theft of cellular telephone services.Theft of cellular telephone services.  Theft of telephone serviceTheft of telephone service  Theft of cable televisionTheft of cable television
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Legal Aspects of Computer CrimeLegal Aspects of Computer Crime  Approximately half of theApproximately half of the states modeled theirstates modeled their computer crime relatedcomputer crime related statutes after the 1977 andstatutes after the 1977 and 1979 versions of the1979 versions of the Federal ComputerFederal Computer Systems Protection Act.Systems Protection Act.
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Independent Component DoctrineIndependent Component Doctrine  The Search and Seizure of computerThe Search and Seizure of computer equipment is protected by the Fourthequipment is protected by the Fourth Amendment.Amendment.  Generally, a desk top computer consists ofGenerally, a desk top computer consists of a computer, monitor, printer and othera computer, monitor, printer and other peripheral devices.peripheral devices.  Investigators should consider listing eachInvestigators should consider listing each component separately on the searchcomponent separately on the search warrantwarrant
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym JurisdictionJurisdiction  One of the mostOne of the most difficult issues.difficult issues.  Greatly benefits theGreatly benefits the offender.offender.  Offender can live inOffender can live in one state (or country)one state (or country) and victim in another.and victim in another.  Different laws.Different laws.  Poor interagencyPoor interagency cooperationcooperation
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Under-ReportedUnder-Reported  Federal Bureau of Investigation recentlyFederal Bureau of Investigation recently updated the Uniform Crime Reporting toupdated the Uniform Crime Reporting to include certain technology related crimes.include certain technology related crimes.  Victims don’t know they are victimsVictims don’t know they are victims  Companies stand to loose customerCompanies stand to loose customer confidence if breach is reported.confidence if breach is reported.  Law enforcement is often weak in itsLaw enforcement is often weak in its responseresponse
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Task ForcesTask Forces  Combine investigative and computerCombine investigative and computer expertise.expertise.  Share costs.Share costs.  Help solve jurisdictional problems.Help solve jurisdictional problems.  Help the exchange of information andHelp the exchange of information and trend identificationtrend identification
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym Protection - TheftProtection - Theft  The recording ofThe recording of serial numbers andserial numbers and periodic audits canperiodic audits can detect theft.detect theft.  Some companiesSome companies have installedhave installed software that if asoftware that if a laptop is stolen, it willlaptop is stolen, it will report its locationreport its location when it connects towhen it connects to the Internetthe Internet Screen capture provided by Absolute Software CorpScreen capture provided by Absolute Software Corp
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raym ProtectionProtection  Software and hardware is being used toSoftware and hardware is being used to detect intrusions in real-time.detect intrusions in real-time.  Software and hardware is used to preventSoftware and hardware is used to prevent SPAM and email attachments that mightSPAM and email attachments that might contain viruses.contain viruses.  Education programs reduce haplessEducation programs reduce hapless victimizationvictimization
    • Copy Right Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources page atpage at www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com