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Shea chapter 7
Shea chapter 7
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Shea chapter 7

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  • After big Republican gains in the 2010 midterm elections, many had assumed Barack Obama would be a one-term president. But the American electorate decided otherwise and he won a second term.
  • Let’s watch this video to discover how the president became the most public symbol of government in the United States. Author Daniel M. Shea traces the history of the presidency, and illustrates how the expectations placed upon the president have shifted dramatically over time.
    TO THE INSTRUCTOR: To access the videos in this chapter, please enter your Pearson or MyPoliSciLab username and password after clicking on the link on the slide.
  • What do presidents do? The simple answer is “an awful lot.” In this video, you’ll hear what ordinary people think about what presidents should do. In the process, you’ll discover why there is often a gap between what we expect and what we get.
  • Of all the branches of the new government, the framers of the U.S. Constitution were most uncertain about the presidency. On the one hand, they needed to vest the office with real powers. On the other hand, many worried that giving a president too much power would lead to a new monarchy.
    In the end, they set aside most of their reservations because they had given Congress an extensive list of powers, and they wanted the presidency to serve as a check on that power. In addition, they knew that respected and trusted war hero George Washington would be the first president and would set the tone of a powerful yet constrained leader.
  • The framers of the Constitution were concerned that vesting too much power in an executive could lead to tyranny they had recently experienced under King George III. Yet, they had motivation to design some executive power into their new government.
    For one thing, they had all read the leading political philosophers such as Locke, Hobbes, and Montesquieu, who had all noted that governments without strong executives tended to fail. They argued that executives must have some independent power to act in the public interest without the approval of the legislature, known as prerogative power.
    They also knew they had to overcome their fears about executive power because the Articles of Confederation had failed to meet the needs of the young country.
    Perhaps the most mollifying factor was the fact that everyone was in agreement that war hero, General George Washington, should be the first chief executive of the nation, and he was greatly admired, respected, and trusted.
  • The framers debated several models of power division between the legislative and executive branches of government. The Virginia Plan was authored by James Madison, who was principally concerned with legislative power. His plan was so vague on the executive branch that it did not even specify whether the presidency would be held by an individual or an executive council, or what the term of office would be. The New Jersey Plan was mainly focused on state power and kept the executive office weak.
    Ultimately they agreed on a model that would give the president some significant independent powers from the legislature, but would provide for legislative checks on presidential power. The president would not be given a blank check to wield unilateral power but he would be a significant player in the new government, not a figurehead or puppet of Congress.
  • When the Constitution was drafted and sent for ratification by the states, Article II, concerning the executive branch, raised alarms. As careful as the framers were to check and balance executive power, it still sounded to many that there was potential for tyranny.
    Articles both in favor of and opposed to ratification were published in leading newspapers of the day. Under the pseudonym Cato, an opponent wrote that the president’s long term of office would allow him to establish a firm grip on power.
    In rebuttal, Alexander Hamilton wrote that a president is elected for a four-year term, unlike a king who is born into his office, and that the legislature can override a presidential veto, unlike a king whose word is absolute.
    Activity: Find Federalist Paper No. 69 on the Constitution.org website (http://constitution.org/fed/federa69.htm) and AntiFederalist Paper No. 70, (http://www.rightsofthepeople.com/freedom_documents/anti_federalist_papers/anti_federalist_papers_70.html) in which critics of the new Constitution argue that the powers of the presidency are too broad and create the danger of centralizing power in an “elected king.” Ask students to compare and contrast the two perspectives.
  • In the end, it was the people’s trust in General Washington that gave them the courage to accept the executive branch as laid out in the Constitution. Why do you think that Washington inspired their trust?
  • Let’s review a key point we learned in this section. Can you answer this question?
  • The public held Washington in such high esteem that they were willing to ratify the Constitution because they knew that Washington would be the first president.
  • Uncover the historical context that led the framers to fear a strong executive. In this video University of Oklahoma political scientist Glen Krutz not only reveals the reason behind the framers’ apprehension, but also explores how this fear still restricts presidents today as they struggle to create new policies.
  • During much of the nineteenth century, most presidents held to the Whig model of presidential power, meaning that they were limited to the powers expressly granted in the Constitution.
    Beginning with Teddy Roosevelt, and continuing with his cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt, the more activist stewardship model of presidential powers took hold.
    In addition, a host of changes broadened presidential powers, including the Executive Office of the President, many additional advisors, and an expanded role for the vice president.
    In this section we will learn why today there is little question that the presidency is at the very center of our political system.
  • Although the framers intended for the legislature to be the primary branch of government, several early presidents were strong leaders. They set precedents for presidential power.
    It made sense that nineteenth-century presidents were not as central to governing, because the economy was agricultural and rural in those pre-industrial times and needed less national supervision. The U.S. was also not yet a global military and economic force. Also, presidents themselves saw their powers as rightfully limited to what was stated explicitly in the Constitution. This was known as the Whig model of presidential power.
  • But as the population shifted from rural to urban and the economy transformed from agricultural to industrial, more national leadership was needed, and the men who stepped into the job of president developed a more flexible view of presidential powers than that provided by the Whig model.
    Theodore Roosevelt was the first modern president, who saw himself as speaking to a “national congregation” from his “bully pulpit.”
  • Roosevelt greatly expanded the use of executive power, arguing that the president has any power not expressly forbidden by the Constitution. This came to be known as the stewardship model.
    Theodore Roosevelt believed that presidents should lead public opinion rather than simply follow it. What makes presidents unique from other elected officials in being able to find compromises and common ground?
  • Woodrow Wilson shared Teddy Roosevelt’s idea of the stewardship model and took it a step further. He believed the president should also lead in international relations. He set his sights on the League of Nations, which would settle disputes among nations.
    The president who most took this model of presidential power and shaped the modern presidency, was Franklin Roosevelt. FDR took office during the Great Depression of the 1930s and forced through Congress a series of programs and initiatives to address the economic crisis that are collectively known as the New Deal.
    Today presidents are expected to solve social, economic, and security problems, and to deal authoritatively with crises of any kind. In short, they must lead the nation, and they are punished soundly at the ballot box by the electorate if they fail to do so successfully.
  • As presidential power has increased, presidents have developed larger staffs of assistants and advisers to help them manage their growing workload.
    Although it is not mandated by the Constitution, every president since Washington has convened a cabinet comprised of the secretaries of the major departments of the bureaucracy. The president relies on these cabinet members to carry out public policy. These officials are appointed by the president and are confirmed by the Senate. They can be removed at the president’s will without the consent of the Senate. The most important cabinet secretaries, for the departments of state, defense, treasury, and justice, are known as the inner cabinet. They work more closely with the president.
    While President Washington could meet easily with his cabinet of four, most modern presidents consult cabinet members individually rather than convening full cabinet meetings. Why do you think that is?
  • This table shows the departments and their responsibilities.
    As the size and scope of the federal government has expanded, the number of advisers has grown. Which cabinet members on this table would have seemed unnecessary in President Washington’s era?
    Activity: Discuss the roles of the heads of the 15 cabinet offices. Have students identify the criteria they would use to fill each position. What positions might be added or eliminated?
  • Here we see President Obama leading a meeting of his cabinet. Which is more important in a cabinet official, loyalty or expertise? That is a question all presidents must ask themselves when they choose the members of their cabinet.
  • After FDR’s New Deal exponentially expanded the size and scope of the federal government, he created the Executive Office of the President to house the advisers needed for these new policy areas. The most significant divisions within the EOP include the National Security Council, which provides advise on, as you would expect, issues of national security, including foreign and domestic threats. The national security adviser is an independent appointee of the president, who provides trusted advice ideally without agency bias.
    The OMB prepares the president’s annual budget and provides advice on the financial ramifications of policy proposals.
    As its name suggests, the economists in the CEA provide the president with recommendations on economy-related policies and prepare his annual economic report to Congress.
  • As of 2012, the Executive Office of the President has grown to include these councils and offices. Why does a president need so many policy advisers?
  • The president’s personal staff comprise the White House Office, led by the Chief of Staff, who serves as gatekeeper for the president, deciding how his valuable time should be allocated down the to level of whom he sees and what documents he reads.
    The dramatic expansion of the president’s staff, and the size and scope of the federal bureaucracy that he controls, has led to the term institutional presidency to describe the scope of presidential powers.
    In addition to policy advice, presidents also receive political advice. In fact, there is some speculation that, with so many aides and advisers seeking the president’s ear, modern presidents are more attuned to their political advisers than their policy advisers. What might the ramifications of this be?
  • Here we see President Obama talking with Hillary Clinton. Although they both ran for president in 2008, Secretary of State Clinton became one of Obama’s closet political advisors.
  • Officially, the vice president breaks ties in the Senate and waits around in case he is needed to take over the presidency (as nine vice presidents have had to do). That waiting time is used for mainly ceremonial duties. The office was considered so superfluous in the nineteenth century that some potential candidates simply declined the offer to run.
    As government, especially in terms of national security, grew more complex, it became necessary for vice presidents to be better informed, in case they had to step into the role of president at a moment’s notice. This need for information has helped the vice presidency grow into an advisory role and, largely beginning with Al Gore, modern vice presidents have played increasingly larger roles in policy advocacy.
  • Modern vice presidents, like Joe Biden, pictured here, expect to be consulted on policy and utilized to go public as advocates of the president’s agenda. They are not content to merely attend funerals of foreign dignitaries that are not considered importance enough to warrant presidential attendance.
  • We have discussed the units that make up the EOP. Let me test your recall by asking you to answer this brief question.
  • The NSC is one of the most important component of the EOP. It gives the president advice about important national security matters.
  • Astute presidents have learned that much of their power comes from their own skills, the trappings of the office, and a steadfast spouse. That is, the powers outlined in the Constitution are just the beginning. In this section we will learn that successful presidents have harnessed an array of tools to push their agenda forward. They have understood that the most effective tools are those that best match the larger political context of the day.
  • Political scientist Richard Neustadt has argued that the president’s real power lies not in his Constitutional mandates but in his power to persuade. The informal powers of the office, such as its prestige, others’ fears of retribution, and the president’s bargaining skills and ability to grant special favors are central to the success of presidents.
    When presidents want to persuade members of Congress to vote for their policies, they can bypass them and speak directly to their constituents, a tactic known as going public. Beginning with FDR’s fireside chats on the radio, presidents have utilized the media and new technology to get their messages directly to the people.
  • But the same techniques might not work for all presidents in all times. Political scientist Stephen Skowronek argues that a president’s power is largely determined by broader political forces, what scholars call the political order or context. He sees this context varying in four distinct periods.
    In the earliest era of the new republic, from 1789-1832, presidents garnered power through close, personal interactions with Eastern political elites. If the president was able to forge close, personal relations with a small group of decision makers, he was more likely to prevail.
    Presidential powers during the second period, from 1832 until the end of the eighteenth century, hinged on the ability of presidents to forge agreements with local party bosses as the franchise expanded and electoral politics became more important.
    The period from the turn of the nineteenth century until the departure of Richard Nixon in 1973 exemplified pluralist politics. Here, presidential power sprung from the ability to bargain and negotiate agreements among competing interests.
    Finally, the most recent era has featured plebiscitary politics, in which forging a personal connection with the public is imperative.
  • Why do presidents try to persuade you to support their policies? In this video, University of Oklahoma political scientist Glen Krutz discloses why persuasion is vital to a president’s success and how technology has created obstacles and opportunities for presidents.
  • This graph shows how presidential approval ratings fluctuate. Fluctuations can be based upon a range of factors both within and outside of the president’s control. But, notice that approval usually declines as a president’s term of office progresses. A few presidents have been an exception to this general rule. Who are they and why did their approval ratings resurge in their second terms?
  • We’ve talked about president advisors. Now let’s consider the first ladies. Although they have no official Constitutional role on the federal government, first ladies since Martha Washington have provided their husbands with behind-the-scenes political advice. They appear largely symbolic, the first hostess of the nation, but modern first ladies have taken strong policy stands and advocated publicly for them, sometimes being appointed to official commissions, such as Hillary Rodham Clinton who led a health care reform task force during her husband’s administration.
    One of the most powerful first ladies was Edith Wilson, who was essentially acting president after her husband Woodrow suffered an incapacitating stroke. Abigail Adams advocated (unsuccessfully) for women’s rights in the new government, and Eleanor Roosevelt spoke on behalf of New Deal policies and her own policy interests.
  • Michelle Obama has an anti-obesity campaign, and has led efforts to help families of veterans. She also helped Obama win reelection by helping out the campaign trail.
    When will we see a first gentleman, and what will his role be?
  • We examined a graph about approval ratings. If you were paying attention, you should be able to answer this question.
  • Although there are exceptions, a president’s approval rating generally goes down the longer the president stays in office.
  • No job prepares a person for the presidency. Along with expanding powers comes a dizzying array of jobs and responsibilities in both domestic and foreign affairs. In this section we will learn about some of these roles. For example, the president is a chief of state and must lead the nation in ceremonial events.
    The president is also a chief legislator and must recommend measures to Congress and report to Congress on the “state of the union.”
    The president is a chief diplomat and must appoint and receive ambassadors and represent the United States abroad in often delicate economic and security negotiations.
    The president is commander in chief and must make decisions about when to deploy the armed forces.
    Finally, the president is chief executive and must carry out the will of Congress by enforcing laws and spending the funds that are allocated and appropriated.
  • Can any job prepare one for the complex role of president? Some would say state governor is useful experience, and a number of two-term presidents have been former governors. On a smaller scale, they have experience with the juggling act of executive leadership.
    As chief of state, the president performs duties that were, and are still in countries that retain them, performed by members of the monarchy. As we have seen, the framers did not want a monarch, but they did consider that perhaps the president should be addressed with some sort of title, such as “His High Mightiness” and they wondered if he should have any sort of ceremonial staff or uniform designating his office. Ultimately, all of these suggestions were rejected, and most Americans today would be shocked that the idea of bowing when the president entered a room was considered at all.
    President Washington held formal events, called levees, and presidents today still conduct formal and solemn ceremonial duties, such as funeral eulogies, but many of a modern president’s ceremonial duties are much more informal, such as throwing out the first baseball or congratulating winning sports teams and athletes.
  • Don’t underestimate the importance of the president’s ceremonial duties. Even just throwing the first pitch at a baseball has tremendous symbolic value and help bring us together as a nation.
    In some countries, ceremonial and governing duties are split between a figure-head monarch and a political leader such as a prime minister. In the U.S., we combine those roles in one person.
  • The Constitution empowers Congress to pass laws and the president to execute them, but the president also has considerable powers to influence legislation. Until the twentieth century, few presidents chose to influence legislation, leaving it largely up to Congress. But that changed definitively and permanently in 1933 when FDR began to push his extensive legislative proposals for dealing with the problems caused by the Great Depression.
    The annual State of the Union Address is an opportunity for the president to publicly set the legislative agenda for the coming year.
    In addition to taking the lead on policymaking, presidents can veto policies they disagree with. A president must sign or veto a bill within ten days or it becomes law, unless Congress adjourns during those ten days, in which case the bill can receive what is called a pocket veto if the president simply does not sign it. Often the mere threat of a veto is enough to persuade Congress to amend a piece of legislation.
  • Congress can override a presidential veto but, as this table shows, they have rarely done so. Which president has used the power of the veto most frequently, and which one has used it the least?
  • It makes sense that presidents would have more legislative success when their party controls one or both houses of Congress. Let’s look at this chart. Some presidents had more luck with Congress than others.
    Occasionally presidents can shepherd favored legislation through even in a situation of divided government. Why might a president get lucky with a hostile legislature?
  • Now let’s look at the president as the chief diplomat. The framers intended for the president to have more autonomy in foreign affairs than domestic. Can you think of some reasons why this makes sense?
    As part of their diplomatic duties, presidents travel abroad to meet with foreign leaders. They conduct negotiations leading to trade and military treaties and agreements. The main differences between treaties and executive agreements are that treaties must be ratified by the Senate and can require changes in domestic legislation. Executive agreements do not need to be ratified and they cannot require changes in legislation.
    Presidents have increasingly relied on executive agreements more than treaties. Can you suggest some reasons why presidents might favor executive agreements over treaties?
    Presidents appoint ambassadors to other nations, who must be confirmed by the Senate, and they also receive ambassadors from foreign lands. This is significant because it implies that the U.S. is acknowledging the legitimacy of a sovereign country and its government.
  • As commander in chief of the armed forces, the president can deploy them around the world at will. However, Congress is given the power to officially declare war and to allocate funding for the military.
    Prior to Lincoln, presidents usually asked for, and received, authorization from Congress before they deployed troops. But the Civil War, and the necessity to preserve the Union and, therefore, the Constitution, changed the attitude of presidents. In fact, presidents have deployed troops much more often than Congress has declared war, and it would be politically risky for Congress to withhold funding to support troops deployed abroad.
    So how important is Congress’s power in this policy area today?
  • After the Vietnam War, Congress attempted to regain some control of military deployment by passing the War Powers Resolution of 1973 over President Nixon’s veto. This act requires:
    • that the president consult with Congress in “every possible instance” before sending troops to combat
    • that the president report to Congress in writing within 48 hours after ordering troops into harm’s way
    • and that any military engagement must end within 60 days unless Congress either declares war or otherwise authorizes the use of force. But every president since has considered this law unconstitutional but have avoided having it tested in court.
    As mentioned earlier, Congress must allocate funds to support military action undertaken by the president. Although it is rare for Congress to refuse to do this, Congress refused President Reagan’s request to fund rebel forces fighting the leftist government in Nicaragua and the president channeled funds to the mission anyway. The responsibility was deflected away from the president but some of his officials were prosecuted.
  • As the toll of American lives in Iraq and Afghanistan has climbed, public support has waned. The president can order the deployment of the U.S. military but is there a point when Congress should revoke funding for an unpopular war?
  • President Johnson had some substantial policy achievements while in office, not least among them the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and his Great Society programs. But the unpopular Vietnam War tarnished his legacy substantially.
    How should presidents be judged? By one event or one policy or their overall record?
  • We mentioned earlier that the president implements the laws passed by Congress, which might seem to limit the president’s powers to shape existing laws. But have you ever actually read a piece of legislation? Give it a try. Some laws are very specific but many are vague and give the president wide leeway for interpretation.
    Also, the federal bureaucracy that is the president’s tool for executing policy has grown to such an enormous size and scope, and has so much discretion, that legislative power is shifted substantially to the executive branch.
    Executive orders are laws issued by the president autonomously, but they have substantial limitations. Proclamations have a ceremonial purpose, declaring holidays and celebrations. National security directives and presidential decision directives are used to deal with urgent security issues. It was an executive order issued by President Lincoln, the Emancipation Proclamation, that freed the slaves.
    Although presidents are constitutionally barred from having a line item veto, they can declare how they will interpret a bill that they are signing into law by issuing a signing statement. President Bush issued nearly 200 of these, challenging about 1,200 provisions in federal law. The constitutionality of signing statements is debatable, but it is clear why presidents like them and will continue to use them liberally unless the Court prohibits it.
  • Modern presidents continue to take on more roles in the running of government. Since FDR, they have been expected to monitor and intervene in the economy. Some expect presidents to be moral or ethical leaders and set standards although this role is embraced to varying degrees by presidents. Presidents are also heads of their political parties and are expected to attempt to implement the party’s policy agenda, and raise money and campaign on behalf of party candidates.
  • The lines between the president’s many roles can be drawn in a variety of ways. In 1966, political scientist Aaron Wildavsky saw the division between the president’s foreign and domestic policy roles as being the most significant. Do you see this as a logical division or would you describe the president’s roles some other way?
  • The president plays many roles and has specific powers granted by the Constitution. Can you answer this question?
  • The president can negotiate treaties with foreign powers, although Congress must ratify them.
  • Should President Obama have used an executive order to change immigration policy? The president bypassed Congress to implement his own agenda. Find out why some people believe the president abused his powers and others think he was entirely justified.
  • Presidents have many responsibilities, some outlined in the Constitution and others acquired over time. Political scientists have grouped them into categories commonly known as the roles of the presidency. In this simulation, you will learn these roles as you address the challenges of a first-term president.
  • While there is no one formula for presidential success, there are shared characteristics of great presidents. Truly successful presidents have vision, but they are also pragmatic. They understand the importance of public conscience, and they are trustworthy and charismatic.
    Perhaps because of growing demands and forces beyond their control, however, it seems that successful presidents are increasingly rare. The expectations that the public places on the president continue to grow. These expectations stem in part from an emotional connection that the public develops with the president via his many television appearances, and the observation of his expanding powers and the increasing size of the federal government.
    But the president’s powers have not necessarily kept pace with expectations. Presidents are increasingly unable to meet the public’s demands, leading to perceptions of failure.
  • Most of the presidents who are considered “great” have confronted major challenge while in office, such as Lincoln and the Civil War and FDR and the Great Depression.
    But other presidents have seen major policy triumphs in some areas overshadowed by failure in others, such as President Johnson with his civil rights accomplishments and his Vietnam War failures.
    Can a president be great without facing an exceptional circumstance?
  • Can we distill presidential greatness into a concrete list of characteristics? We will make an attempt here. A great president must have a vision for the nation’s better future and how he is going to lead it there. He must also be realistic, and he must understand that developing innovative policy requires building consensus. He must be able to act and express himself in a way that earns respect and admiration. Finally, he must have an aura of credibility.
    Activity: Take the argumentative position that the “presidency is failing,” noting the lack of presidential success after Kennedy. (Even Reagan and Clinton, the only presidents since who served two full terms, had major scandals and failures in their final years.) Then ask students if this is due to inflated public expectations, the intrusiveness of the media, structural factors (economy, international system), the constitutional design, or something else.
  • Various organizations have ranked the presidents. Rankings tend to vary between public polls and polls of professional political scientists. What do you think accounts for these differences of opinion?
  • We have learned that presidents’ approval ratings change according to events that are often outside of his control. What is the one reason that has affected why some presidents are considered great?
  • Successful presidents have served during a time of national crisis and challenge.
  • Let’s explore the topic of approval ratings by completing this activity. What factors affect approval ratings of the president? How much control does the president have over these factors?
  • Find out why presidents never seem to fulfill their campaign promises. Author Daniel M. Shea discusses the powers that the president does and does not have, and argues that understanding the limitations of the president is essential for citizens who do not want to be disappointed when the election is over.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 7The Presidency
    • 2. Video:The Big Picture http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch07_The_Presidency_Seg1 _v2.html 7
    • 3. Video:The Basics http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_The_Presidency_v2.html 7
    • 4. President and the Constitution  Powerful Executive  Debate at the Convention  Article II and Ratification 7.1
    • 5. Powerful Executive  Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu  Prerogative power  Articles of Confederation  Washington the war hero 7.1
    • 6. Debate at the Convention  Legislative versus executive power  Virginia Plan  New Jersey Plan 7.1
    • 7. Article II and Ratification  Debate between opponents and proponents of ratification  Cato  Alexander Hamilton  President ≠ king 7.1
    • 8. Prayer at Valley Forge 7.1
    • 9. 7.1 People were wiling to ratify the Constitution because a. the president would play a strong role. b. Washington would be the first president. c. the president’s role was clearly described. d. they were persuaded by Alexander Hamilton’s arguments in the Federalist Papers. 7.1
    • 10. 7.1 People were wiling to ratify the Constitution because 7.1 a. the president would play a strong role. b. Washington would be the first president. c. the president’s role was clearly described. d. they were persuaded by Alexander Hamilton’s arguments in the Federalist Papers.
    • 11. Video: In Context http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_Presidency_v2.html 7.1
    • 12. Evolution of the Presidency  Models of Presidential Power  Institutional Changes  Transformation of the Vice Presidency 7.2
    • 13. Models of Presidential Power  Strong early presidents:  George Washington  Thomas Jefferson  Andrew Jackson  Abraham Lincoln  Whig model 7.2
    • 14. Models of Presidential Power  Stewardship model  Theodore Roosevelt 7.2
    • 15. Theodore Roosevelt 7.2
    • 16. Models of Presidential Power  Stewardship model  Woodrow Wilson  Modern presidency  FDR and the New Deal 7.2
    • 17. Institutional Changes  Cabinet  Members of inner cabinet have more access to president 7.2
    • 18. TABLE 7.1: Departments of the President’s Cabinet 7.2
    • 19. Cabinet 7.2
    • 20. Institutional Changes  Executive Office of the President (EOP)  National Security Council (NSC)  National Security Adviser  Office of Management and Budget (OMB)  Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) 7.2
    • 21. TABLE 7.2: Executive Office of the President in 2012 7.2
    • 22. Institutional Changes  White House Office  Chief of staff  Ramifications of staffing changes  Institutional presidency  Political as well as policy advice 7.2
    • 23. Hillary Clinton 7.2
    • 24. Transformation of theVice Presidency  Insignificant office  “I do not propose to be buried until I am dead”  Modern vice presidents  Albert Gore  Richard Cheney  Joseph Biden 7.2
    • 25. Vice President Joe Biden 7.2
    • 26. 7.2 Which of the following is part of the Executive Office of the President? a. National Security Council b. Department of Homeland Security c. Department of Education d. Department of Justice 7.2
    • 27. 7.2 Which of the following is part of the Executive Office of the President? 7.2 a. National Security Council b. Department of Homeland Security c. Department of Education d. Department of Justice
    • 28. Informal Powers of the President  Power to Persuade  Political Context  First Ladies 7.3
    • 29. Power to Persuade  Presidential Power by Richard Neustadt = bedside reading for presidents  Personality and political skills  Going public  Using media, technology 7.3
    • 30. Political Context  Political order or context  Skowronek’s 4 eras:  1789-1832  1832-1900  1900-1973  1973-Present 7.3
    • 31. Video:Thinking Like a Political Scientist http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_Presidency_v2.html 7.3
    • 32. FIGURE 7.1: Ups and Downs of Presidential Approval Ratings 7.3
    • 33. First Ladies  Martha Washington  Abigail Adams  Edith Wilson  Eleanor Roosevelt  Hilary Rodham Clinton  Michelle Obama 7.3
    • 34. Michelle Obama 7.3
    • 35. 7.3 As a president’s time in office increases, his approval ratings a. also increase b. generally go down c. remain stable d. decline but then rise 7.3
    • 36. 7.3 As a president’s time in office increases, his approval ratings 7.3 a. also increase b. generally go down c. remain stable d. decline but then rise
    • 37. Roles of Modern Presidents  President as Chief of State  President as Chief Legislator  President as Chief Diplomat  President as Commander in Chief  President as Chief Executive  President’s Other Roles  Two Presidencies 7.4
    • 38. President as Chief of State  Can any job prepare you to be president?  Ceremonial functions  “His High Mightiness”?  From levees to baseball 7.4
    • 39. George W. Bush 7.4
    • 40. President as Chief Legislator  FDR  Legislative Tools  State of the Union  Veto/Pocket veto 7.4
    • 41. TABLE 7.3: Presidential Vetoes 7.4
    • 42. FIGURE 7.2: Congressional Support for Presidential Initiatives 7.4
    • 43. President as Chief Diplomat  More autonomy in foreign affairs  Treaties  Executive agreements  Ambassadors 7.4
    • 44. President as Commander in Chief  President can deploy, but Congress declares war  Congress holds purse strings 7.4
    • 45. President as Commander in Chief  War Powers Resolution (1973)  Iran-Contra Affair 7.4
    • 46. War casualties 7.4
    • 47. Lyndon Johnson 7.4
    • 48. President as Chief Executive  Vague policy  Increasing size of federal bureaucracy  Executive orders  Proclamations  National security directives  Presidential decision directives  Signing statements 7.4
    • 49. President’s Other Roles  Economist in chief  Moral leader  Head of his political party 7.4
    • 50. Two Presidencies  Domestic policy  Often frustrated  Foreign policy  Better equipped  Integrated into dual presidency model by Aaron Wildavsky 7.4
    • 51. 7.4 Which of the following powers is given to the president? a. Declare war b. Negotiate treaties c. Write legislation d. Declare laws unconstitutional 7.4
    • 52. 7.4 Which of the following powers is given to the president? 7.4 a. Declare war b. Negotiate treaties c. Write legislation d. Declare laws unconstitutional
    • 53. Video: In the RealWorld http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_The_Presidency_v2.html 7.4
    • 54. Explore the Simulation:You Are a First-Term President http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media _1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL=8 7.4
    • 55. Presidential Greatness  Personal presidency  Growing size of federal bureaucracy  Expansion of presidential powers  Use of television in campaigning 7.5
    • 56. Lincoln 7.5
    • 57. Presidential Greatness  What makes a president great?  Vision  Pragmatism  Consensus building  Charisma  Trustworthiness 7.5
    • 58. TABLE 7.4: Rankings of American Presidents 7.5
    • 59. 7.5 Presidents who are considered among the greatest a. presided during a strong economy. b. didn’t expand the powers of the office. c. served only one term. d. confronted a major crisis. 7.5
    • 60. 7.5 Presidents who are considered among the greatest 7.5 a. presided during a strong economy. b. didn’t expand the powers of the office. c. served only one term. d. confronted a major crisis.
    • 61. Explorer: What Influences a President’s Public Approval? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_ magleby_mpslgbp_25/pex/pex3.html 7.5
    • 62. Discussion Question How do presidents use the “power to persuade” to implement their agenda? In what way is this power considered to be their most important? 7
    • 63. Video: SoWhat? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA _1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch07_The_Presidency_Seg6_v2. html 7

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