6Congress
Video: The Big Picture
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IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch06_Congress_Seg1_v...
Video: The Basics
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6
The Nature and Style of
Representation
 Models of Representation
 Delegate Model
 Trustee Model
 Politico Model
 Cons...
FIGURE 6.1: Representing the Will of the
People
6.1
6.1 Which model of representation
allows a member to vote for the good
of the whole?
6.1
a. Delegate model
b. Trustee mode...
6.1 Which model of representation
allows a member to vote for the good
of the whole?
6.1
a. Delegate model
b. Trustee mode...
Video: In Context
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IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_Congress_v2.html
6.1
 A Bicameral Legislature
 Who Can Serve in Congress?
 Congressional Elections
 Law making
 Redistricting and Reapport...
Senator Mitch McConnell listens to a
question.
6.2
Bicameral Legislature
 House of Representatives
 Representatives elected directly
 Two-year terms
 Senate
 Senators e...
TABLE 6.1: Key Differences between the
House and Senate.
6.2
Who Can Serve in Congress?
 Age Requirements
 Differ for House and Senate
 Residency and Citizenship Requirements
 Als...
 Regulation left to states
 Voting Rights Act of 1965
 National Voter Registration Act
Congressional Elections
6.2
Rep. Aaron Schock 6.2
Lawmaking
 Legislative process
 Both Chambers must pass a bill
 Presidential actions
 Signature, veto, pocket veto
 P...
TABLE 6.2: Powers of Congress under the
U.S. Constitution
6.2
Redistricting and
Reapportionment
 Census
 Determines number of House members from each state;
shift is called reapporti...
FIGURE 6.2: That’s not a salamander; it’s a
gerrymander!
6.2
FIGURE 6.3: Distribution of Congressional
power
6.2
6.2 What power is given to Congress
by the elastic clause?
6.2
a. Regulate commerce
b. Declare war
c. Raise and spend reve...
6.2 What power is given to Congress
by the elastic clause?
6.2
a. Regulate commerce
b. Declare war
c. Raise and spend reve...
Organizing Congress:
Committees
 Standing Committees
 What Committees Do
6.3
Standing Committees
 Subcommittees
 Select committees
 Joint and standing joint committees
 Conference committees
6.3
TABLE 6.3: Standing Committees in the
113th Congress
6.3
What Committees Do
 Referral and jurisdiction
 Committee reports, language “mark up”
 Hearings and investigations
 Bur...
Musician Sheryl Crow 6.3
6.3 Which committee hammers out
differences in bills passed by the
House and Senate?
6.3
a. Conference Committee
b. Joint ...
6.3 Which committee hammers out
differences in bills passed by the
House and Senate?
6.3
a. Conference Committee
b. Joint ...
Organizing Congress: Political
Parties and Leadership
 Parties in the Legislatures
 Legislative Leadership
6.4
Parties in the Legislatures
 Function and role of parties
 Orientation for new members
 Setting the agenda
 Committee ...
Blue Dog Democrats
6.4
Senator Evan Bayh
6.4
Video: Thinking Like a
Political Scientist
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IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_...
Legislative Leadership
 Organization
 Speaker of the House
 Senate President Pro Tempore
 Majority and Minority Leader...
6.4 Which position carries the most
influence in the Senate?
6.4
a. President Pro Tempore
b. Senate President
c. U.S. Vice...
6.4 Which position carries the most
influence in the Senate?
6.4
a. President Pro Tempore
b. Senate President
c. U.S. Vice...
Explore Congress: Can
Congress Get Anything Done?
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ex/pex8.html
6.4
Organizing Congress: Rules
and Norms
 The Filibuster
 Unwritten Rules
 Specialization
6.5
The Filibuster
 Negotiating the terms for debate
 Unanimous consent
 Cloture
 Hold
6.5
Senator Strom Thurmond
6.5
Unwritten Rules
 Seniority
 Deference and power granted to most senior members
of each chamber
 Apprenticeship norm
 C...
Rep. Joe Wilson
6.5
Specialization
 Reciprocity
 “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours.”
 Logrolling
 Members exchange support on ea...
6.5 The unwritten rule of reciprocity
on earmarks is known as:
6.5
a. Pork-barrel legislation
b. Civility
c. Logrolling
d....
6.5 The unwritten rule of reciprocity
on earmarks is known as:
6.5
a. Pork-barrel legislation
b. Civility
c. Logrolling
d....
Video: In the Real World
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IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_Congress_v2.html
6...
How a Bill Becomes a Law
 General Steps
 Unorthodox Lawmaking
 Emergency Legislation
6.6
General Steps
 Introduction of a Bill
 Referral
 Committee Consideration
 Rules for Floor Action
 Floor Consideration...
FIGURE 6.4: How a Bill Becomes a Law 6.6
Unorthodox Lawmaking
 Generic Bills
 Details worked out in conference committee
 “Ping-ponging”
 Amended bills bounce ...
Emergency Legislation
 Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of
2008
 “Wall Street Bailout Bill”
 Lessons Learned
 As F...
6.6 Bills that have more than one
issue or topic are called
a. Generic bills
b. Omnibus measures
c. Budget bills
d. Specia...
6.6 Bills that have more than one
issue or topic are called
a. Generic bills
b. Omnibus measures
c. Budget bills
d. Specia...
Explore the Simulation: You
Are a Consumer Advocate
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media
_1/2013_mpsl_sim/s...
Who Sits in Congress?
 Gender, Race, and Ethnicity
 Income, Education, and Occupation
6.7
Gender, Race, and Ethnicity
 Gender
 After slow but steady gains in female representation,
numbers of women in Congress ...
FIGURE 6.5: Percentages of Women in State
Legislatures
6.7
Income, Occupation, and
Education
 Income
 Members of Congress wealthier than general
population
 Senate “Millionaires ...
TABLE 6.4: Top Twenty Richest Members of
Congress in 2012
6.7
FIGURE 6.6: Occupations, Education, Party
Profile, and Gender Composition of the
112th Congress
6.7
6.7 Hispanics make up ___ percent in
Congress.
6.7
a. 17
b. 13
c. 9.5
d. 5
6.7 Hispanics make up ___ percent in
Congress.
6.7
a. 17
b. 13
c. 9.5
d. 5
Are Americans Losing Faith in
the “People’s Branch”?
 Criminal and Ethics Charges
 Perception vs. Reality
6.8
FIGURE 6.7: Public Opinion Poll on
Congressional Ethics
6.8
Criminal and Ethics Charges
 Members of Congress
 Tom Delay indicted on criminal conspiracy
 Larry Craig arrested for l...
Perception vs. Reality
 Perceptions
 Increasing numbers of Americans report dissatisfaction
with Congress
 Increased re...
6.8 This lobbyist was indicted on a
string of corruption charges:
6.8
a. Tom Delay
b. Jack Abramoff
c. Anthony Weiner
d. T...
6.8 This lobbyist was indicted on a
string of corruption charges:
6.8
a. Tom Delay
b. Jack Abramoff
c. Anthony Weiner
d. T...
Video: So What?
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_
MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch06_Congress_Se
g6_v2.html...
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  • Olympia Snow had a long, distinguished career in Congress. In the spring of 2012, however, she decided to step down because Congress had become, in her view, too adversarial; there were too few legislators who were willing to find compromise solutions to the nation’s toughest problems. Moderates, like Snowe, seemed on an endangered species list.
  • So how do 535 members of the legislative branch find common ground? Author Daniel M. Shea explains why the Framers felt most comfortable with the legislative branch and gave it many important powers, and he highlights the ways that Congress organizes that power to make effective policy decisions.
    TO THE INSTRUCTOR: To access the videos in this chapter, please enter your Pearson or MyPoliSciLab username and password after clicking on the link on the slide.
  • Before we begin, let’s watch this video to get an overview of the basic content. Why do we have two houses of Congress? This video reveals the answer this question and explores the differences are between the two houses in their organization and procedures. You will also learn how a bill becomes a law, how Congress is organized, and how members of Congress represent you.
  • Delegates to the Constitutional Convention had their own perspectives on how members of Congress should represent their constituents. In the delegate model, members try to vote the way the people in their district want them to vote. In the trustee model, members consider the will of the people but do what’s best for the nation as a whole. The politico model is somewhere in between; members follow their own judgment on matters where the public is silent. Finally, there is the conscience model, or “pillow test.” If heeding their constituents causes them to lose sleep, they will vote as trustees on important issues.
    Add to these models the duties of constituent service and helping those in the district with various problems, and symbolic representation, speaking on behalf of demographic groups, and it becomes easier to understand, if not accept, the rising congressional gridlock.
  • There are different approaches to representation. This figure highlights the four models we discussed: the Delegate Model, the Politico Model, the Conscience Model, and the Trustee Model. Should legislators vote the way their constituents would? Or should they work to enlarge and refine the public will?
  • Let’s review the four models of representation. By process of elimination, you should be able to arrive at the correct answer.
  • Here, members are “trustees” for the good of the nation as a whole.
  • In this video, we will discover the role that the framers expected Congress to serve in the U.S. government. Columbia University political scientist Greg Wawro discusses how Congress has become more expansive in its powers. Listen as Greg Wawro also delves into the process of creating coalitions in Congress to achieve policy results.
  • The Constitution declares who can run for office, and the requirements are different for the House of Representatives and the Senate. Candidates must be citizens, but for different lengths of time, and the age requirements also differ. We’ll go more in depth on that in a moment.
    The key function of Congress is making laws. The process is complex, and most of it occurs not on the floor of either chamber but in smaller committee rooms. Precise procedures must be followed before a bill can reach the office of the president. And if Congress doesn’t like what the president does with a bill, it has some options.
    America is changing: people are always moving from one place to another. To account for these changes, the Framers required that a census count occur every ten years, and that congressional districts be redrawn based on shifting populations. That process is known as redistricting and reapportionment.
  • Senator McConnell was in his home state of Kentucky to present federal funds he’d secured for the renovation of an historic building. It begs the question: Should legislators always focus on bringing home as much federal aid as possible?
  • The Constitution provides for a bicameral, or two-chambered, legislature. The House of Representatives is the lower chamber, and its members are elected by voters to serve 2-year terms. The Senate is the upper chamber, and its members are elected to 6-year terms. Short term limits for representatives was intended to ensure that leaders followed the wishes of the people. Longer term limits for senators, who were chosen by state legislators, limited democratic participation. The 17th Amendment provided for voter selection of senators.
  • This chart shows key differences in the structure and organization of the House of Representatives and the Senate. How do you think these differences shape the way members of each chamber approach their job of representing “the will of the people”?
  • The number of representatives from each state is allocated according to population and reconfigured, if necessary, following the census every ten years. House members must be at least 25 years old, a citizen for at least seven years and live in the state they represent.
    Senators must be 30 years old, a citizen for 9 years and live in the state they represent. Every two years one-third of them are up for reelection in a process called rotation. All members cannot change at one time if the public becomes enraged over one issue. This affords the Senate more stability than the House.
    Each state determines the manner in which it holds elections. For the most part, Congress has left the regulation of congressional elections to the states, but it has stepped in at important and controversial times, such as to end the poll taxes, literacy tests and excessive residency requirements that had been used to disenfranchise African American voters, particularly in Southern states. Congress also passed the National Voter Registration Act, which required states to allow residents to register to vote at the same time they used other services, such as vehicle registration.
  • Each state determines the manner in which it holds elections. For the most part, Congress has left the regulation of congressional elections to the states, but it has stepped in at important and controversial times, such as to end the poll taxes, literacy tests and excessive residency requirements that had been used to disenfranchise voters. It passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 when southern states tried to keep African Americans from voting. Congress also passed the National Voter Registration Act, which required states to allow residents to register to vote at the same time they used other services, such as vehicle registration.
  • Aaron Schock was just 19 when he won a seat on the Peoria, Illinois, school board. At 27, he won the primary election for a seat in Congress. He also won the general election later that year. Does it make sense to have young people serve in Congress, or should the job be left to more seasoned adults?
  • The main job of Congress, of course, is to make laws. The same piece of legislation must be passed by both chambers before it goes to the president for signature into law. The president has ten days to act. He can sign the bill, veto the bill, allow the bill to become law without his signature in 10 days, or exercise a “pocket veto,” in which he doesn’t sign the bill and Congress adjourns within the 10-day window.
    Congress’s specific powers (such as the power to declare war, raise and spend revenue, regulate commerce) are spelled out in the Constitution. In addition, however, the Framers gave Congress the power to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out its other powers.
  • One of the dangers of spelling out an organization’s powers is the impossibility of knowing what that organization’s future needs will be. So the framers added the elastic clause to the Constitution. In addition to the powers listed here, the elastic clause grants Congress the power to make all laws “necessary and proper” to implement its other powers. Do you think that is too much power?
  • Because the Constitution stipulates that the number of House representatives is based on state population, it requires a census every 10 years. Based on the results of the census, some states gain seats in the House of Representatives while some states lose seats. This change in numbers is called reapportionment. In 1910, Congress capped the number at 435.
    Within states, congressional districts must be redrawn to reflect the gains and losses of seats, as well as population shifts within the state. This process is called redistricting, and can be quite political. Congress gave the power to redraw the boundaries to state legislatures, and these bodies are nearly always partisan. Some have been accused of redrawing boundaries to benefit their party or limit minority representation.
    When boundaries are truly stretched beyond what seems like a reasonable shape, in order to benefit a party or particular member, the process is called gerrymandering.
  • As governor of Massachusetts, Elbridge Gerry urged his fellow Republicans in the state legislature to draw districts that favored their party. One such district looked like a salamander. So the term gerrymandering—drawing strange-looking districts to benefit political friends—was coined.
    Do you think state legislators, or nonpartisan organizations, should redraw the district lines?
  • This figure shows the anticipated changes in states’ congressional seats following the 2010 census. What implications will the changing population have on politics?
  • Let’s test your understanding of the meaning of the elastic clause. Please answer this brief question.
  • Framers granted Congress the power to make any necessary and proper laws to carry out its duties.
  • Many Americans may think that all members of Congress consider the details of every bill that is introduced. In fact, most of the work on bills is actually handled in committee. There are several different types of committees; some are permanent and consistent from one Congress to the next, others are established only for a specific purpose or investigation. Some committees deal with substantive issues and others handle rules and procedures. And it’s important not to forget the staff members who carry significant weight as a bill works its way through their committee.
  • Standing committees perform the detailed work of a legislature, such as drafting bills for consideration. Members become experts on a particular subject or issue and can better determine the importance and effects of bills. Dividing the legislature’s work among dozens of committees, or “mini-legislatures,” allows many bills to be considered at the same time, thus increasing the efficiency of Congress.
    Members can serve on committees that handle issues important to their districts. Standing committees allow citizens to express concerns about proposed legislation. Nearly all standing committees have subcommittees under their jurisdiction. Examples of standing committees include Armed Services, Budget, and Intelligence.
    Select committees are temporary committees that exist to deal with a particular issue or problem. They are primarily investigative and cannot approve legislation. Joint committees are composed of members from each chamber. Their work generally involves investigation, research, and oversight of agencies closely related to Congress.
    Conference committees play an important role in the legislative process. For legislation to become law, both chambers must pass exactly the same bill. Conference committees, which have members from both chambers, work out the differences in these bills.
  • Members of Congress, especially in the House, “specialize” in a few issues, and serve on standing committees that handle those issues. Some examples include Agriculture, Foreign Relations, Appropriations, and Education and Labor.
  • Every piece of legislation introduced for consideration must first be referred to a committee. It sounds simple, but deciding which committees to refer a bill to can be contentious. The role of referral falls to the Speaker of the House or, in the Senate, the majority leader. The committee to which a bill is referred is said to have jurisdiction.
    The vast majority of bills that are assigned to a committee and then a subcommittee wind up being killed. If the bill doesn’t move out of the committee, it dies at the end of the legislative term. If a bill does have a chance at committee approval, a hearing may be held. Hearings are fact-finding, informational events at which experts or even regular citizens sometimes give testimony. If the bill is still alive after hearings, it goes to markup, where the actual language is hammered out.
    Sometimes bills involve bureaucratic oversight, in which Congress keeps a close eye on the federal bureaucracy’s implementation of federal law.
    Committee staffers play a key role in the legislative process. Sometimes they are even called “unelected representatives,” because they research and draft bills, prepare presentations, write speeches and carry out other duties.
  • This image shows musician Sheryl Crow, a breast cancer survivor, testifying before a congressional committee about the importance of federal funding for medical research. Why do you suppose members of Congress seem to pay more attention when famous people testify?
  • This question checks your understanding of the different committees. Can you you answer this before we move on?
  • Conference committees, which can vary in size, work out the differences in bills passed by the House and Senate. The final version must be exactly the same.
  • Political parties play a key role in the operations of Congress. They orient new members to the process, help set the agenda, and organize the committee appointment process. Also, the parties determine the legislative leadership in both chambers.
  • When new members are elected to Congress, they have much to learn. Political parties provide extensive orientation for their members, from informational sessions to receptions. The political parties also set the agenda for Congress; they set the priorities and thus choose the issues that will get a hearing. The parties also help members with similar interests collaborate on a single bill that deals with a particular issue. Finally, the parties guide the process of committee appointments. Some committee assignments are more in demand than others, and the party helps determine the pecking order.
    Obviously, it is very important which party has the majority of representatives. The speaker of the House and the Senate majority leader have significant control over who sits on which committee and which bills make it to the full floor.
    Congressional caucuses are groups who meet voluntarily to discuss issues and share ideas. They are partisan groups and encourage party unity. Party unity has its drawbacks; it was responsible for gridlock and the reason some members cited when they decided not seek reelection.
  • Historically, both parties boasted members that were considered “centrists.” In recent years, however, there are fewer and fewer moderates. Why do you think there are fewer middle-of-the-road lawmakers when most Americans still consider themselves to be centrists?
  • Senator Evan Bayh, a moderate Democrat, announced in 2010 that he would retire from the Senate. He pointed to excessive partisanship as the reason for his decision. Do you agree that partisanship in Congress has become excessive? Why?
  • Why has the United States become more polarized in the last decade? Columbia University political scientist Greg Wawro examines this central question and explains why polarization may be correlated to the income gap between the wealthy and the poor. He also explores recent research on the Senate as a super-majoritarian institution.
  • At the start of each term, members of the House vote for a speaker, who historically is a member of the majority party. Under the speaker is the House majority leader. Together with the speaker, the majority leader and whips who provide assistance garner support for the party’s agenda. The minority party also has a minority leader and a minority whip, who perform similar functions to their majority counterparts.
    The Constitution mandates that the vice president of the United States serve as Senate President. However, the vice president can only vote to break a tie. When the vice president is not there, which is usually the case, the Senate is led by the president pro pempore, or pro tem, usually the most senior member of the party. The Senate also has majority and minority leaders and whips. The Senate majority leader who generally has the most power.
    Legislative leaders have both formal powers, as spelled out in the Constitution (bill referral) and informal powers (force of personality), and historically have used both.
  • Now I want to test your understanding of the leadership in Congress by asking you to answer this brief question.
  • President Pro Tem is largely ceremonial, and the Senate President and U.S. Vice President, who are the same person, can only vote to break a tie.
  • Let’s explore the topic of polarization in more depth by completing this activity. As the parties become more polarized, Congress is less able to pass a permanent budget and the national debt increases.
  • Over the years, Congress has adopted its own way of doing things. These rules and procedures, some of which are written down and others passed down according to tradition, still govern the way issues are handled today.
  • When a bill is brought to the floor for debate, the Senate’s members will try and use unanimous consent to agree to the conditions of debate. The purpose is to try to establish some limits and predictability.
    To block legislation or confirmation votes, Senate minorities may try use a filibuster, an unlimited debate in which one senator or a group a senators keeps talking without interruption unless three-fifths of the chamber (60 senators) votes to end the discussion. Conservative Democrats were particularly known for filibustering civil rights bills in 1950s and 1960s. Even without a filibuster, senators can try other delaying tactics until that three-fifths majority votes to end the discussion, or “invoke cloture.” Senators could also block legislation by using a hold, in which a senator indicates it is pointless to consider a bill because he or she intends to filibuster.
  • The longest speech in the history of the U.S. Senate was made by Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. Thurmond, a Democrat who later became a Republican, spoke for 24 hours and 18 minutes during a filibuster against passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
    Do you think filibusters are undemocratic, or are they an important procedural tool?
  • Certain unwritten rules, such as seniority, regulate Congressional procedures. Seniority is the deference and power granted to the most senior members of each chamber. Add to that the apprenticeship norm: the idea that junior members should be seen and not heard for their first years in service.
    There is the rule of civility: political disagreements should not become personal, and members should show each other courtesy, even when they dislike a fellow member. For example, even in heated debate members will refer to each other as “the distinguished gentleman.”
  • South Carolina Congressman Joe Wilson shouts “You lie!” at President Barack Obama during an address by the president to a joint session of Congress on Sept. 9, 2009. This was considered a serious breach of the unwritten rule of civility that governs Congress. Wilson apologized, and was given a formal reprimand by the House.
    Do you think the decrease in civility in Congress reflects changes in culture, or politics, or both?
  • It isn’t possible for every member of Congress to know the details of every bill on which they vote. Specialization allows members to become experts on the issues they care the most about, by serving on those committees or subcommittees. Reciprocity is part of that; members support each others’ projects in a “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” fashion. Logrolling is when members exchange support, especially for earmarks or pork-barrel legislation, which is federal money that benefits a member’s district.
  • Can you correctly choose the key term that answers this question?
  • This is the term used when lawmakers exchange support on earmarks, or federal funding that benefits their districts.
  • Congress today is the most divided it has been since the end of WWII. It is also the least effective. Is compromise the answer? Real people consider the benefits and the dangers of compromise, and they discuss issues—like abortion—where compromise seems impossible.
  • The lawmaking process is complicated and has multiple layers. Generally, a specific process is followed, but not in every single case. Sometimes more unorthodox methods are used, and of course there is the occasional need for emergency legislation.
  • After a member introduces a bill, it must be referred to a committee. There, it could either linger and die (as most bills do) or it could have a hearing, in which experts and other individuals testify about the bill. If the bill is approved by the committee, it heads to the full floor for consideration.
    In the House, however, the bill must first go to the Rules Committee, where it will be determined how long the bill can be debated and what types, if any, of amendments will be accepted. If a majority of members approves the bill in one chamber but a slightly different version is passed in the other chamber, it must go to conference committee to work out the details.
    From there, it goes to the president, who can sign the bill, veto the bill, allow the bill to become law without a signature after ten days, or issues a pocket veto, in which the president doesn’t sign the bill and Congress adjourns within the ten day window. If the president vetoes the bill, Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds vote in each chamber.
  • Let’s review the steps by using this graphic about the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
    Some would say that the system of checks and balances weeds out unnecessary measures, but others argue that the system is too cumbersome and that it makes change too difficult. Do you think this complex process serves the nation or does it inhibit needed change?
    Activity: Select several bills from the last legislative session. Divide your class into several small groups, and have each group trace the path of one bill through the legislative process. The Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report would be a good source to begin the search. Each group should elect a spokesperson to report on the bill in class.
  • Some bills don’t always follow the traditional path. It is increasingly common for each chamber to pass generic bills, knowing the true details will be ironed-out in conference committee. Ping-ponging, in which amended bills bounce back and forth between the chambers, has become more common, as have omnibus measures. These are mega-bills that cram numerous issues and topics into one single bill.
  • Sometimes, an emergency arises, and there isn’t time for the full legislative process to take place, or it must be sped up. Such was the case with the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, the so-called “Wall Street Bailout Bill.” The subprime mortgage crisis had reached a critical stage, and the executive branch was warning of an imminent crisis. Congress acted, but not as quickly as the administration had hoped. In the end, Congress approved the $700 billion bailout.
    The situation also revealed a few lessons. It showed the executive can move more quickly than the legislative branch, that what’s good for one member’s district may not be so in another’s, and senators, who face reelection less frequently than their House counterparts, can better weather the effects of important but unpopular legislation.
  • This question is based on what we’ve just discussed. Can you answer it now?
  • Omnibus measures, increasingly common, are numerous measures that are packaged into one bill, which is voted on with a single vote.
  • The main function of Congress is to pass bills into laws. This process is more complicated than it may seem. In this simulation, you will find out how to introduce a bill, what goes on in committees and subcommittees, and the challenges bills face once on the floor of the House and the Senate.
  • Representation means that someone speaks and works on behalf of others. Some feel that this process can be enhanced when those doing the representing understand the issues and concerns that affect a district, perhaps because they share economic or ethnic backgrounds with a majority of voters in the district. This preference for symbolic or descriptive representation is the logic behind the drive, for example, to create majority-minority districts.
  • Prior to the 2010 midterm election, there had been a steady increase in the number of women serving in Congress since the 1980s, with a big jump that came after the 1992 election (called by journalists the “Year of the Woman”). However those gains have decreased slightly, and are nowhere near being representative of the number of women in the United States.
    The picture for African Americans in Congress is similar to that of women. In all, only five African Americans have been elected to the Senate. In the House, just over 100 African Americans have served. That may be discouraging, but the numbers have improved since the 1980s.
    And while the Hispanic population is the fasting growing in the U.S., that growth has yet to be reflected in Congress. Only 5 percent of those in Congress are Hispanic, compared to about 17 percent of the general population.
  • This figure lists the percentage of women in state legislatures around the country. Why do you suppose these figures are generally higher than in Congress, and what could explain regional differences?
  • Without question, members of Congress are wealthier than the general population. They also are better educated than the general population. The Senate is often called the “Millionaires Club” and members of Congress often have jobs that pay very well: Roughly 40 percent are lawyers, and another 40 percent are bankers and business professionals. At least 40 first-time members of the 112th Congress reported a minimum net worth of $1 million. During that same time, the average American household brought in $45,000.
  • This figure lists the top 20 richest members of Congress. Do you recognize any of the names here?
  • What conclusions can you draw about the occupations, education, and gender of Congress? How can it become more diversified and representative of the average citizen?
  • Changing demographics can lead to changing social and public policies. Can you answer this question?
  • Hispanics make up 5 percent of members of Congress, and 17 percent of the general population. The other figures: African Americans make up 13 percent of the general population and 9.5 percent of Congress.
  • Americans seem to be losing faith in members of Congress, at least if the poll numbers are to be believed. We’ve seen a number of high-profile criminal charges and ethical lapses in recent years. But is it really all that bad? Political scholars suggest that the rates of actual corruption are down, though it’s not clear that Americans are buying it.
  • This figure suggests that over the last three decades, Americans have been skeptical about the ethical standards of members of Congress. Perhaps ironically, most scholars believe the actual level of corruption has actually declined. What is your impression?
  • Among the more visual criminal and ethical lapses of late: Texas Rep. Tom Delay was indicted on criminal conspiracy charges of election violations. Idaho Senator Larry Craig was arrested for lewd behavior. Alaska Senator Ted Stevens was charged with corruption (although he was later acquitted). New York Rep. Anthony Weiner was forced to resign following a “sexting” scandal. And Alabama Rep. Spencer Bachus was investigated for insider trading. They were all members of Congress at the time.
    Add to their cases powerhouse lobbyist Jack Abramoff, who was indicted on a string of charges, and it’s not hard to wonder why so many Americans are feeling disenchanted.
  • Given the criminal and ethics cases we just went over, it’s no surprise many Americans are reporting increased dissatisfaction with Congress. Poll numbers show approval ratings for Congress at an all-time low. But some scholars suggest the opposite is actually true: more stringent reporting requirements and other procedures have actually brought the overall rate of corruption down. But when it comes to perception versus reality, too often perception wins.
  • Let’s conclude our study of ethics violations with this question.
  • Jack Abramoff is the only lobbyist in this list; the rest were members of Congress.
  • Who deserves the blame for the government's sluggishness? Author Daniel M. Shea explores why Congress moves slowly on time-sensitive pieces of legislature and identifies what challenges Congress faces today that it has never had to face before.
  • Shea chapter 6

    1. 1. 6Congress
    2. 2. Video: The Big Picture http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch06_Congress_Seg1_v2.ht ml 6
    3. 3. Video: The Basics http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_Congress_v2.html 6
    4. 4. The Nature and Style of Representation  Models of Representation  Delegate Model  Trustee Model  Politico Model  Conscience Model  Constituent Service and Symbolic Representation 6.1
    5. 5. FIGURE 6.1: Representing the Will of the People 6.1
    6. 6. 6.1 Which model of representation allows a member to vote for the good of the whole? 6.1 a. Delegate model b. Trustee model c. Politico model d. Conscience model
    7. 7. 6.1 Which model of representation allows a member to vote for the good of the whole? 6.1 a. Delegate model b. Trustee model c. Politico model d. Conscience model
    8. 8. Video: In Context http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_Congress_v2.html 6.1
    9. 9.  A Bicameral Legislature  Who Can Serve in Congress?  Congressional Elections  Law making  Redistricting and Reapportionment 6.2 Congress and the Constitution
    10. 10. Senator Mitch McConnell listens to a question. 6.2
    11. 11. Bicameral Legislature  House of Representatives  Representatives elected directly  Two-year terms  Senate  Senators elected by state legislature  Six-year terms 6.2
    12. 12. TABLE 6.1: Key Differences between the House and Senate. 6.2
    13. 13. Who Can Serve in Congress?  Age Requirements  Differ for House and Senate  Residency and Citizenship Requirements  Also differ for House and Senate  Rotation 6.2
    14. 14.  Regulation left to states  Voting Rights Act of 1965  National Voter Registration Act Congressional Elections 6.2
    15. 15. Rep. Aaron Schock 6.2
    16. 16. Lawmaking  Legislative process  Both Chambers must pass a bill  Presidential actions  Signature, veto, pocket veto  Powers of Congress  Elastic clause, or “necessary and proper” clause 6.2
    17. 17. TABLE 6.2: Powers of Congress under the U.S. Constitution 6.2
    18. 18. Redistricting and Reapportionment  Census  Determines number of House members from each state; shift is called reapportionment  Redistricting  States redraw congressional districts to reflect population shifts  Gerrymandering  Redistricting for political gain 6.2
    19. 19. FIGURE 6.2: That’s not a salamander; it’s a gerrymander! 6.2
    20. 20. FIGURE 6.3: Distribution of Congressional power 6.2
    21. 21. 6.2 What power is given to Congress by the elastic clause? 6.2 a. Regulate commerce b. Declare war c. Raise and spend revenue d. Make laws as needed to implement powers
    22. 22. 6.2 What power is given to Congress by the elastic clause? 6.2 a. Regulate commerce b. Declare war c. Raise and spend revenue d. Make laws as needed to implement powers
    23. 23. Organizing Congress: Committees  Standing Committees  What Committees Do 6.3
    24. 24. Standing Committees  Subcommittees  Select committees  Joint and standing joint committees  Conference committees 6.3
    25. 25. TABLE 6.3: Standing Committees in the 113th Congress 6.3
    26. 26. What Committees Do  Referral and jurisdiction  Committee reports, language “mark up”  Hearings and investigations  Bureaucratic oversight  Committee staffers  Research, “unelected representatives” 6.3
    27. 27. Musician Sheryl Crow 6.3
    28. 28. 6.3 Which committee hammers out differences in bills passed by the House and Senate? 6.3 a. Conference Committee b. Joint Committee c. Standing Committee d. Select Committee
    29. 29. 6.3 Which committee hammers out differences in bills passed by the House and Senate? 6.3 a. Conference Committee b. Joint Committee c. Standing Committee d. Select Committee
    30. 30. Organizing Congress: Political Parties and Leadership  Parties in the Legislatures  Legislative Leadership 6.4
    31. 31. Parties in the Legislatures  Function and role of parties  Orientation for new members  Setting the agenda  Committee appointments and floor votes  The importance of majority status  Congressional caucuses 6.4
    32. 32. Blue Dog Democrats 6.4
    33. 33. Senator Evan Bayh 6.4
    34. 34. Video: Thinking Like a Political Scientist http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_Congress_v2.html 6.4
    35. 35. Legislative Leadership  Organization  Speaker of the House  Senate President Pro Tempore  Majority and Minority Leaders  Whips  Leadership Powers  Formal powers  Informal powers 6.4
    36. 36. 6.4 Which position carries the most influence in the Senate? 6.4 a. President Pro Tempore b. Senate President c. U.S. Vice President d. Majority Leader
    37. 37. 6.4 Which position carries the most influence in the Senate? 6.4 a. President Pro Tempore b. Senate President c. U.S. Vice President d. Majority Leader
    38. 38. Explore Congress: Can Congress Get Anything Done? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_shea_mpslld_4/p ex/pex8.html 6.4
    39. 39. Organizing Congress: Rules and Norms  The Filibuster  Unwritten Rules  Specialization 6.5
    40. 40. The Filibuster  Negotiating the terms for debate  Unanimous consent  Cloture  Hold 6.5
    41. 41. Senator Strom Thurmond 6.5
    42. 42. Unwritten Rules  Seniority  Deference and power granted to most senior members of each chamber  Apprenticeship norm  Civility  “The distinguished gentleman” vs. “You lie!” 6.5
    43. 43. Rep. Joe Wilson 6.5
    44. 44. Specialization  Reciprocity  “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours.”  Logrolling  Members exchange support on each other’s bills  Earmarks and Pork-Barrel Legislation  Federal money that benefits a member’s district 6.5
    45. 45. 6.5 The unwritten rule of reciprocity on earmarks is known as: 6.5 a. Pork-barrel legislation b. Civility c. Logrolling d. Seniority
    46. 46. 6.5 The unwritten rule of reciprocity on earmarks is known as: 6.5 a. Pork-barrel legislation b. Civility c. Logrolling d. Seniority
    47. 47. Video: In the Real World http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_Congress_v2.html 6.5
    48. 48. How a Bill Becomes a Law  General Steps  Unorthodox Lawmaking  Emergency Legislation 6.6
    49. 49. General Steps  Introduction of a Bill  Referral  Committee Consideration  Rules for Floor Action  Floor Consideration  Conference Committee  Presidential Action  Overriding a Presidential Veto 6.6
    50. 50. FIGURE 6.4: How a Bill Becomes a Law 6.6
    51. 51. Unorthodox Lawmaking  Generic Bills  Details worked out in conference committee  “Ping-ponging”  Amended bills bounce back and forth between the chambers  Omnibus Measures  Numerous issues and topics in one bill 6.6
    52. 52. Emergency Legislation  Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008  “Wall Street Bailout Bill”  Lessons Learned  As Framers intended, executive can move more quickly than legislative  Constituencies: What’s good in one member’s district not necessarily good in another’s  Senators generally more able to weather effects of important but unpopular legislation 6.6
    53. 53. 6.6 Bills that have more than one issue or topic are called a. Generic bills b. Omnibus measures c. Budget bills d. Specialization 6.6
    54. 54. 6.6 Bills that have more than one issue or topic are called a. Generic bills b. Omnibus measures c. Budget bills d. Specialization 6.6
    55. 55. Explore the Simulation: You Are a Consumer Advocate http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media _1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL=7
    56. 56. Who Sits in Congress?  Gender, Race, and Ethnicity  Income, Education, and Occupation 6.7
    57. 57. Gender, Race, and Ethnicity  Gender  After slow but steady gains in female representation, numbers of women in Congress dipped after 2010 elections  Race and Ethnicity  African Americans underrepresented, but numbers have improved since the 1980s  Hispanic American (Latino) representation in Congress also lags well behind general population 6.7
    58. 58. FIGURE 6.5: Percentages of Women in State Legislatures 6.7
    59. 59. Income, Occupation, and Education  Income  Members of Congress wealthier than general population  Senate “Millionaires Club”  Occupation and Education  Roughly 40% of Congress are lawyers  Bankers and business professionals, who are generally well educated, also make up about 40% of congressional population 6.7
    60. 60. TABLE 6.4: Top Twenty Richest Members of Congress in 2012 6.7
    61. 61. FIGURE 6.6: Occupations, Education, Party Profile, and Gender Composition of the 112th Congress 6.7
    62. 62. 6.7 Hispanics make up ___ percent in Congress. 6.7 a. 17 b. 13 c. 9.5 d. 5
    63. 63. 6.7 Hispanics make up ___ percent in Congress. 6.7 a. 17 b. 13 c. 9.5 d. 5
    64. 64. Are Americans Losing Faith in the “People’s Branch”?  Criminal and Ethics Charges  Perception vs. Reality 6.8
    65. 65. FIGURE 6.7: Public Opinion Poll on Congressional Ethics 6.8
    66. 66. Criminal and Ethics Charges  Members of Congress  Tom Delay indicted on criminal conspiracy  Larry Craig arrested for lewd behavior  Ted Stevens charged with corruption (later acquitted)  Anthony Weiner forced to resign following “sexting” scandal  Spencer Bachus investigated for insider trading  Lobbyists  Jack Abramoff indicted on string of charges 6.8
    67. 67. Perception vs. Reality  Perceptions  Increasing numbers of Americans report dissatisfaction with Congress  Increased reporting of ethical lapses  Reality  Overall corruption has decreased  Members of Congress now face tougher rules and procedures. 6.8
    68. 68. 6.8 This lobbyist was indicted on a string of corruption charges: 6.8 a. Tom Delay b. Jack Abramoff c. Anthony Weiner d. Ted Stevens
    69. 69. 6.8 This lobbyist was indicted on a string of corruption charges: 6.8 a. Tom Delay b. Jack Abramoff c. Anthony Weiner d. Ted Stevens
    70. 70. Video: So What? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_ MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch06_Congress_Se g6_v2.html 6.8

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