TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY
                     CURRICULUM MATRIX
NAME: Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.                    SCHOOL:      ...
STANDARDS

NATIONAL HISTORY STANDARDS:

     Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)

        Standard 1:
        United S...
PORTLAND LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS

       Reading
          • Recognize, pronounce, and know the meaning of words in text b...
FOUNDATIONS OF KNOWLEDGE:

Students will have an underlying understanding of Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion as
a ...
aspect of regional and national focus is covered during the fall term in my scope and sequence,
connections to those topic...
Expansion Teachers Guide.) Tell students that they will be using these terms to learn about
westward expansion in the U.S....
NOTE: Lessons 1-4 use the video and activities from America’s Westward
Expansion. See the Resources section of this unit f...
Procedure:

Reproduce copies of the “Activity Sheet for Lesson 2” from the America’s Westward Expansion
Teacher Guide and ...
After viewing the video, have students write their responses to the questions on the Activity
Sheet for Lesson 3. They may...
protection for all people regardless of race.

1866 The state ban on interracial marriages is extended to include anyone w...
any tribal lands.

1956 Congress terminates Klamath Indian Tribe. Grand Ronde and Siletz reservations are closed.

1957 Th...
NOTE: Lesson 5 uses the Oregon Atlas CD. See the Resources section at the
end of this unit for citation and purchase infor...
Procedure:

Introduction: First, introduce the students to the letters and diaries published in the Oregon
Literature Seri...
Lesson 7: The Portland Project Small Group Activities

Objective: To provide students with additional source documents, sp...
www.archives.gov                                                                November 12, 2004


                      ...
Step 2. Inference

Based on what you have observed above, list three things you might infer from this photograph?

_______...
Champoic County, Oregon Territory 1845   Territorial Census
NOTE: Champic County is now Marrion County

This Census was tr...
12                      Joseph Deslards                 .     1        1     3       .     1       1     .       2     5  ...
17                      Isaac Hutchens                  .     .        .     .       1     1       .     .       1     1  ...
22                      John E. Pickernell              1     2        .     .       1     1       .     .       2     3  ...
27   Louis Plante                                       .     .        .     .       1     .       .     .       1     .  ...
32                      Louis Verenope                  .     .        .     .       1     .       .     .       1     .  ...
Document: The Donation Land Claim Act, 1850
An Act to create the Office of Surveyor-General of the Public Lands in Oregon,...
hundred and fifty, the quantity of one section, or six hundred and forty acres, one half to himself
and the other half to ...
by him for that purpose, and note, temporarily, on the township plats, the tract or tracts so
designated, with the boundar...
Sec.11. And be it further enacted, That what is known as the "Oregon city claim," excepting the
Abernathy Island, which is...
Whitman Massacre
                       (http://www.oregonpioneers.com/whitman.htm)


The era of contact between the India...
appeared in 1836 in the form of Rev. Samuel Parker. Parker was in the area to find a site for the
proposed American Board ...
where several Indians stormed the mission over the issue of property, things quieted down for
awhile.

The following winte...
River. My oldest brother became ill with mountain fever near the Whitman mission, and father,
having an ardent desire to k...
Whitman Massacre--The Aftermath

In the days following the massacre, rumors were rampant. The Oregon Spectator, the territ...
Body. They will give you the particulars of the horrible massacre committed by the Cayuse
Indians on the residents of Waii...
and a young lad brought up by himself, were shot in the house. His lady, Mr. Rogers and the
children had taken refuge in t...
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.
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Westward Expansion by Edna Kovacs, Ph.D.

  1. 1. TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY CURRICULUM MATRIX NAME: Edna Kovacs, Ph.D. SCHOOL: Fernwood Middle School and UNIT TITLE: Westward Expansion: Settling of the West, Ethnic and Gendered Perspectives TARGET GRADE LEVEL: 8th Grade Language Arts and Social Studies APPROXIMATE TIME NEEDED: 2-3 weeks (3 periods each day) PREREQUISITES: General knowledge of U.S. history, from the 1500’s through the 19th century GENERAL RESOURCES NEEDED: • Infocus machine • VHS Player • Computer(s) • ArcView GIS Software • Overhead Projector OVERVIEW (Abstract): Westward expansion may be viewed through a variety of perspectives including that of women, Chicanos, Native Americans, and the classic story of the white man. Students will study Westward Expansion on a local, regional and national level becoming proficient in the societies of America and the issues they faced during Westward Expansion. Students will create a Wild West Through Many Eyes newspaper that incorporates understanding of key people, places, way of life, and prominent issues such as the Donation Land Act. Students will produce a packet that encompasses multi genre written responses to literature, primary source documents, and GIS materials. Students will gain awareness of Westward Expansion and their own migration to Oregon through a timeline guided interview of family members. Students will meet Portland Public Schools standards in reading, writing, geography, history and social studies. Students will be assessed according to the standardized procedure which examines academic achievement as well as effort.
  2. 2. STANDARDS NATIONAL HISTORY STANDARDS: Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861) Standard 1: United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans. Standard 1B: The student understands federal and state Indian policy and the strategies for survival forged by Native Americans. Standard 1C: The student understands the ideology of Manifest Destiny, the nation’s expansion to the Northwest, and the Mexican-American War. Standard 2: How the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions. Standard 2C: The student understands how antebellum immigration changed American society. Standard 2E: The student understands the settlement of the West. PORTLAND SOCIAL STUDIES STANDARDS History 3. Students will know and understand the factors, experiences and impacts of historical and contemporary movements and settlements of people. 6. Students will know and understand the concept of culture and its relationships to region and place, and influences on cooperation and conflict. Citizenship 1. Students will examine and debate the concept of citizenship, specifically the roles, rights (individual and group) and responsibilities of the citizens of the United States. Fulfill Civic Responsibility 8. Students will participate in formal and informal activities to promote the well being of society Maps and Other Geographic Representations 1. Students will demonstrate their ability to use maps and other geographic representations to locate, organize and interpret information about people, places and environments. Global Economics 3. Students will understand, analyze and study the dynamics and impact of global economic relationships.
  3. 3. PORTLAND LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS Reading • Recognize, pronounce, and know the meaning of words in text by using phonics, language structure, contextual clues, and visual clues. • Locate information and clarify meaning by skimming, scanning, close reading, and other reading strategies. • Demonstrate literal comprehension of a variety of printed materials. • Draw connections and explain relationships between reading selections and other texts, experiences, issues, and events. Literature • Read a variety of selections and recognize distinguishing characteristics of various literary forms. • Analyze how literary works are influenced by history, society, culture, and the author’s life experiences. Writing • Communicate knowledge of the topic, including relevant examples, facts, anecdotes, and details. • Structure information in clear sequence, making connections and transitions among ideas, paragraphs, and sentences. • Use correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, paragraph structure, sentence construction, and other writing conventions. • Use a variety of modes and written forms to express ideas. GEOGRAPHY STANDARDS Standard 1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective. Standard 12: The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement. Standard 17: How to apply geography to interpret the past. LESSONS Introduction: Westward Expansion Lesson 1: Key Figures in America’s Westward Expansion Lesson 2: Clashing Cultures Lesson 3: Understanding Westward Expansion Lesson 4: Mythology and Symbols of the Old West Lesson 5: Oregon Atlas Scavenger Hunt Lesson 6: Letters and Diaries of Oregon Small Group Activity Lesson 7: The Portland Project Small Group Activity Lesson 8: GIS Manifest Destiny Small Group Activity Lesson 9: Additional Small Group Activities Lesson 10: Project Presentations and Sharing
  4. 4. FOUNDATIONS OF KNOWLEDGE: Students will have an underlying understanding of Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion as a result of reading Creating America: A History of the United States, Chapters 13 and 19. There is a reading study guide of these chapters for students acquiring English/ESL and less proficient readers. Chapter summaries are also available in English and Spanish on CD. Gifted and talented students may create electronic posters to advertise passage to the Oregon Territory and the California gold mines, and/or work in small groups to write and record historical fiction stories about one of the following characters: • African-American Exoduster in Kansas • German sodbuster in Nebraska • Norwegian farmer in Minnesota • Female schoolteacher from Philadelphia who has come to teach in Kansas • Railroad tycoon living in Omaha, Nebraska • Grain elevator operator who works for the railroad tycoon in a small town in Nebraska • Widow who inherited the family homestead • Congressman who supported the Homestead Act of 1862 • Native American who was removed from his homeland Chapter 13, “Manifest Destiny 1810-1853,” discusses the westward migration of the American people and the national belief in Manifest Destiny. It also described the Texas Revolution, the War with Mexico, and the California gold rush. (Creating America, page 389a) Chapter 19, “Growth in the West 1860-1900,” discusses the continuing migration of white settlers from the eastern United States to the West, at cost to both Native Americans and people of Mexican heritage. It also described how Westerners challenged the dominant political parties by forming the Populist Party. (Creating America, page 553a) The format for this two to three week unit is based on the utilization of a block schedule that consists of three forty-five minute periods encompassing the subject areas of literature, language arts, and social studies. The Literature block will enable students to explore the many voices and perspectives of writers who share their racial and ethnic identities in the Many Voices Literature Series: A Multicultural Reader (Logan, IA: Perfection Learning, 2002). An accompanying teacher’s guide offers exercises that promotes critical thinking as students gain knowledge and understanding of concept vocabulary, pre-reading assignments, as well as asking students to respond to themes through discussion questions, multi-modal activities such as speaking, visual arts, debate, writing prompts, and making interpersonal connections. Students will have had previous immersion in Native American folklore, literature, and mythology. They will have written pictograph myths, poems, and completed investigative research on a particular tribe of their choice in conjunction with their study of “Societies of North America” in their Social Studies textbook, Creating America, Chapter 1. While this
  5. 5. aspect of regional and national focus is covered during the fall term in my scope and sequence, connections to those topics of related interest, including music and rock art painting, will be referred to as we continue to make regional, national, and local explorations to the thesis topic. The Language Arts block will give students time to research, write, and create a Wild West Through Many Eyes newspaper project. Guidelines will be distributed in conjunction with the Westward Expansion TAH unit. Students will be encouraged to work in small groups. Students will be well familiar with the expository writing mode prior to this assignment. Particular emphasis will be devoted to voice, tone, word choice, organization, and conventions. Primary sources will include online transcriptions of mid-1800s newspapers that are available on the Oregon History Project website (www.ohs.org). The Social Studies block will connect the Literature and Language Arts content to Westward Expansion through the exploration of primary sources, such as the Atlas of Oregon, Oregon Letters and Diaries, GIS and ESRI spatial databases. Due to the size of the class and scope of this project, the ideal learning environment would be to create several learning centers in the classroom, where students can rotate on a daily basis from the RLIS computer, to the Diaries and Letters center, to the Primary Sources table, to the computer lab, in small groups. This outline follows a structural whole class format for the first eight days, with the opportunity to implement small group activities for the remaining five or more class periods of forty-five minutes. LESSON PLANS: Introduction to Unit on Westward Expansion (2 days) Objective: To introduce students to idea of westward expansion and explain that the events can be “seen” through the eyes of many different kinds of people. To introduce students to the terms and concepts that they will be using to think about westward expansion. To provide an Oregon context for thinking about westward expansion. Materials: America’s Westward Expansion Video and Teacher Guide; Concept Definition Mapping Handout and Overhead, OR Atlas CD Procedure: Introduction: Explain expectations to the class using a standards-based evaluation approach. Begin the conceptual mapping exercise. Concept Mapping Activity: Use a shared-responsibility approach to complete the concept mapping handout. Begin the concept definition map with the names, terms, and events discussed in the video (also available in the “Readiness Activity Sheet” in the America’s Westward
  6. 6. Expansion Teachers Guide.) Tell students that they will be using these terms to learn about westward expansion in the U.S., so it is important that everyone have a good understanding of what these terms mean. • Northwest Ordinance • Sacajawea • Oregon Trail • War of 1812 • Lewis & Clark • Andrew Jackson • “Manifest Destiny” • The Mexican War • Stephen Austin • Slavery • Erie Canal • “Texians” • Indian Removal Act • Louisiana Purchase • The Civil War Hand out enough concept maps for each student to have one for each term on the sheet. Use the Concept Map overhead to guide students as they make a concept map of the first word. Ask students to help fill in the map. Map each word together as a class, having students come up to share their work on the overhead map copy. Oregon in Context: Using the Atlas of Oregon CD, explore the settling of Oregon using the “Human Geography” pages in the Atlas. Assessment of students’ prior knowledge of the settling of Oregon can be accomplished through guided discussion using the various Atlas pages. Synthesis: To close, link the concepts and terms with information about the settling of Oregon. How did the national events and ideas that were explored in the concept mapping exercise impact Oregon through its initial settlement period?
  7. 7. NOTE: Lessons 1-4 use the video and activities from America’s Westward Expansion. See the Resources section of this unit for citation and purchase information. Lesson 1: Key Figures in America’s Westward Expansion (3-4 days) Objective: Students will learn about key figures in our nation’s history, particularly those involved in America’s westward expansion. Materials: “Activity Sheet for Lesson 1” in America’s Westward Expansion Teacher Guide, Standards-based Evaluation Sheet for Research and Oral Reports Procedure: Reproduce copies of the “Activity Sheet for Lesson 1” from America’s Westward Expansion Teacher Guide and hand them out to each student. Ask students to read the instructions on the sheet carefully. Then answer any questions they might have about what they are to do. Briefly discuss the figures listed on the activity sheet (Thomas Jefferson, Stephen Austin, Meriwether Lewis, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Tecumseh, Andrew Jackson, Sacajawea, James K. Polk). Have students choose one of these figures to research. Using a variety of sources for their research, students should answer the questions on the activity sheet. Some sources include the internet, encyclopedias, history books, U.S. Atlas, and articles from historical journals. Students should also be given ample access to primary and secondary source documents and/or the school library for their research. See RESOURCES for other source material. Allow 2 days for research activities. Synthesis: Once students have completed the activity sheet, a day should be set aside for students to present a 3-4 minute oral report to the class with time for questions and compliments. Both students and teacher will fill out the evaluation scoring sheet. Lesson 2: Clashing Cultures (1 day + independent research time) Objective: Students will learn about the differences in the cultural assumptions of whites and Native Americans. Students will also see how these different cultural assumptions created conflict. Materials: “Activity Sheet for Lesson 2” from America’s Westward Expansion Teacher Guide
  8. 8. Procedure: Reproduce copies of the “Activity Sheet for Lesson 2” from the America’s Westward Expansion Teacher Guide and hand them out to each student. Ask students to read the instructions carefully. Then answer any questions they have. Discuss the concepts on the activity sheet (trade, war, government, property, land use and the environment) to learn more about them. The students should be familiar with some basic information about these concepts so they can make a choice on which to research. Have students choose one of the concepts to research. Using a variety of sources, students should answer the questions on the activity sheet. Have students also write a short essay explaining the significance of each idea. Research sources include the internet, encyclopedias, history textbooks, U.S. Atlas, articles from historical journals. Students should also be given ample access to primary and secondary source documents and/or the school library for their research. See RESOURCES for other source materials. Note: Make sure that students understand that this exercise is not designed for them to take sides or blame whites or Native Americans for wartime atrocities. Instead, this exercise is designed to help students understand why each group acted as it did. Synthesis: Once students have completed the activity sheet, revisit the initial discussion. Ask students to share any insights they have gained about why conflict occurs. Lesson 3: Understanding Westward Expansion (2 days) Objective: To provide students with practice in note taking skills and to test their overall comprehension of the video America’s Westward Expansion. Materials: Video America’s Westward Expansion (30 minutes), “Activity Sheet for Lesson 3” from America’s Westward Expansion Teacher Guide Procedure: Review the basics of good note-taking skills with the class. Discuss why taking good notes is important in understanding ideas, events, and people. Reproduce copies of the “Activity Sheet for Lesson 3” from America’s Westward Expansion Teacher Guide. Hand out the activity sheet before the video so students know what points to look for. Show the video America’s Westward Expansion and ask students to take good notes. Tell them they will be answering questions on the activity sheet based on their notes.
  9. 9. After viewing the video, have students write their responses to the questions on the Activity Sheet for Lesson 3. They may want to use an extra sheet of paper if they need more room. Synthesis: Use these responses to help students evaluate their note taking skills, and as the basis for a class discussion about the important concepts of the video. Note: Hand out Timeline and Guided Questions for Family Interview Timeline This timeline gives some key dates in Oregon history. Notice how often attempts to control resources (land, timber, gold) or to restrict competition in labor result in racist policies. 1787 Northwest Ordinance proclaims Indian land and property will never be taken or disturbed or invaded unless lawfully authorized by Congress. 1844 The Provisional Government of Oregon prohibits slavery in the territory, but also enacts measures to force blacks to leave the state. The Lash Law requires that any blacks remaining in Oregon, be they free or slave, be whipped twice a year until they shall quit the territory. 1845 Sandwich Islander Tax Bill directed against the Pacific Islanders who were being brought to the area to perform manual labor. To discourage Pacific Islanders from becoming permanent residents, employers were required to pay a $5 tax for each Islander they brought to Oregon, and $3 annually for Islanders kept in their service. 1850 Oregon Donation Act grants up to 320 free acres to white males regardless of whether or not Indians resided on the land, and prohibits blacks from taking a claim in Oregon. 1854 Oregon's 1849 Exclusion Law is repealed; however, another Exclusion Law will be written into the State Bill of Rights in 1857. 1857 The Oregon Constitution includes numerous provisions that prevent people of color from entering the state and severely limit the rights of those already here. “No free Negro or mulatto not residing in the state at the time of the adoption of the Constitution shall come, reside, or be within the State, or hold any real estate or make any contracts in the State. No Negro, Chinaman, or mulatto shall have the right of suffrage. No Chinaman shall hold real estate or mine a claim.” 1862 Annual Poll Tax requires all residents of color to pay a $5 tax or be forced to labor for the state at a rate of 50 cents per day. 1864 It becomes illegal to entice an Indian or "half-breed" to leave the reservation. 1866 Oregon's legislature refuses to pass the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided citizenship to blacks, and guaranteed due process and equal
  10. 10. protection for all people regardless of race. 1866 The state ban on interracial marriages is extended to include anyone who is 1/4 or more Chinese or Hawaiian or 1/2 Native American. 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act makes it illegal for Chinese laborers to come to the U.S. or to remain past 90 days if already here. 1883 Despite national passage of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, which states "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude," an effort to remove Oregon's state ban on black suffrage fails. 1919 Portland Board of Realty approves a Code of Ethics prohibiting realtors and bankers from selling property in white neighborhoods to people of color or providing mortgages for such purchases. 1923 The Oregon state legislature, dominated by members of the Klan, passes a number of restrictive laws. The Alien Land Law prevents first generation Japanese Americans (those who had immigrated to the U.S.) from owning or leasing land. The Oregon Business Restriction Law allows cities to refuse business licenses to first generation Japanese Americans. 1926 The Exclusion Law is removed from the Oregon Bill of Rights. 1927 The Oregon Constitution is amended to remove the clause denying blacks the right to vote. 1937-1945 The state passes a number of laws restricting Indians, mostly concerning the possession of alcohol. 1942 Following President Franklin Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066, Japanese Americans residing in Oregon were interned in Portland at what is now the Expo Center, and later sent out of the state. 1948 National Realtors Code (based on an earlier state law) proclaims a realtor shall never introduce into a neighborhood members of any race or nationality whose presence will be detrimental to property values. 1949 Fair Employment Act empowers the State Labor Bureau to prevent discrimination in employment. 1951 Oregon repeals its law prohibiting interracial marriage. 1953 Public Accommodation Law prohibits discrimination in hotels and other public accommodations. 1954 Congress terminates Western Oregon Indian tribes, ending all federal services and selling
  11. 11. any tribal lands. 1956 Congress terminates Klamath Indian Tribe. Grand Ronde and Siletz reservations are closed. 1957 The Dalles Dam is completed, which floods Celilo Falls, the major Indian fishing area on the Columbia River. 1999 The Oregon state legislature holds a Day of Acknowlegment to recognize the past discrimination earlier legislatures had sanctioned. 2000 Oregon removes all racist language from its Constitution. http://www.beyondtheoregontrail.org/timeline.php Lesson 4: Mythology and Symbols of the Old West (1 day) Objective: By researching and looking at the way the West is portrayed and “imagined” in today’s popular culture, students will be able to debate and make better judgments about myths and symbols and their importance in how we, as a nation, view ourselves and history. Materials: “Activity Sheet for Lesson 4” from America’s Westward Expansion Teacher Guide Procedure: Ask students what comes to mind when they think of the West. Have a class discussion about the ways the West is portrayed in today’s society. Can the students identify western “themes” in television shows and movies (e.g. Back to the Future II or Wild Wild West), books (e.g. Little House on the Prairie), or western characters (e.g. Wild Bill or Calamity Jane)? How is the West portrayed in these popular mediums – create a list of “adjectives” to describe the West. Reproduce copies of “Activity Sheet for Lesson 4” from the America’s Westward Expansion Teacher Guide and hand them out to each student. Have students read the instructions on the activity sheet carefully. Then answer any questions that have. Remind your students that they will be creating a Wild West Newspaper from a multicultural perspective in the Language Arts part of this unit and to be sensitive to the significance of symbols and images as cultural stereotypes. Synthesis: Discuss students’ answers to the questions on the Activity Sheet for Lesson 4 as a class. Emphasize and expand on those answers that speak to the issue of cultural stereotyping.
  12. 12. NOTE: Lesson 5 uses the Oregon Atlas CD. See the Resources section at the end of this unit for citation and purchase information. Lesson 5: Oregon Atlas Scavenger Hunt Objective: To provide students with experience in using and interpreting graphic source material. Materials: Laminated handouts of the Atlas of Oregon pages, Human Geography Maps. Procedure: Tell students they will be going on a scavenger hunt. Using laminated copies of map pages from the Atlas of Oregon, students will locate the corresponding map pages on the computer and complete interactive assignments, answering questions based on the text and maps on the Atlas of Oregon pages. Particular pages and questions can be developed based on student skill level and prior experience with the subject matter with the intent to expand on students’ understanding of the settling of Oregon. Questions should be designed to allow for simple answers (e.g. which Native American groups occupied the area where Portland is located in 1850?) that encourage students to look through many of the pages in the Atlas and get exposure to all the different kinds of information available. Note: The “scavenger hunt” could also be one activity center that students rotate to during the remainder of this unit. An alternate idea could be to create a large “hunt” that remains with the activity table where students can write down their answers on a large single poster until the “hunt” is completed. The remainder of this unit consists of Activity Centers where students rotate in small groups to various tables. Tasks at the different “tables” can be tailored to student skill levels, offering opportunities for both students with special needs and advanced students. Lesson 6: Letters and Diaries of Oregon Small Group Activity Objective: To provide students with activities using various forms of literature (in this case letters and diary entries) to gain an understanding of multicultural perspectives on the settling of the West. Materials: Shannon Applegates “Oregon’s Diaries and Letters” book, a variety of old photographs of people, recycled manila envelopes (for “mailing”).
  13. 13. Procedure: Introduction: First, introduce the students to the letters and diaries published in the Oregon Literature Series. I made photocopies of many of the published letters and diary entries with their head notes and just gave my class time to read them. They pass them back and forth and discuss them in small groups, as well participating in a class discussion. Having the students read some aloud also helps them recognize the power of those voices from the past. Student Instructions Step 1: Find an old picture that you think would be interesting to write about. Step 2: Choose one person in that picture to be your main character and start to imagine and develop that person in your head (name, dates lived, hometown, favorite ice cream, etc.). Step 3: Write a head note for your character, similar to the ones you saw in the published letters and diaries. Step 4: Write a journal entry at least two pages long in the voice of the character you have created. Step 5: Exchange your journal entry with another student’s journal entry. Step 6: In the voice of the character you created, write a letter responding to the person whose journal entry you “found.” In your letter you should: 1. Introduce yourself. 2. Explain how you “found” the journal. 3. Describe your setting. 4. Describe an event or crisis in your life. 5. Reflect on yourself. 6. Mention some special relationship you are in. 7. Describe something you hope to accomplish. 8. Remember to stay in character! Step 7: “Mail” your letter to the person whose journal you “found” using the manila envelopes. Step 8: When you get your journal back in the “mail,” write the person who returned your journal a thank-you note that responds to their letter.
  14. 14. Lesson 7: The Portland Project Small Group Activities Objective: To provide students with additional source documents, specifically about Oregon and Portland, to incorporate into the multicultural understanding of the settling of Oregon and the West. Materials: The Portland Project CD and Historic Photographs (from OHS), Champoeg Census Data (from www.rootsweb.com), Donation Land Act, Whitman Massacre document, Photograph Analysis Worksheet. Procedure: Activity #1 Make copies of the Photo Analysis Worksheet (several for each student). Have the students look at the photographs. Have the students choose 2-3 photographs of early Portland that they find interesting. Instruct students to read the directions on the Photo Analysis Worksheet carefully then complete the worksheet. Activity #2 Have copies available of the Champoeg County, Oregon Territory 1945, Territorial Census available for students. Have students make a list (or graph) the demographic characteristics of the population at this time (males/females, age ranges). Have students look at the names and try to imagine where the people are from (French names, Native American, etc.). Have students write a short imaginative story about one of the families in the census. Activity #3 Hand out copies of the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 or the account of the Whitman Massacre. Have students read the documents carefully then create a skit around the Donation Land Claim Act or the events leading up to and including the Whitman Massacre that incorporate various points of view (white settler, Native American, women and/or children, etc.). Have the students volunteer to take on the individual parts and put on the skit for the class. NOTE: The Whitman Massacre document is rather lengthy but includes transcriptions and translations of articles in the Oregon Spectator, letters and meetings (including meetings with Cayuse Tribal members) immediately following the incident that provide valuable primary source material for students. The teacher, however, may wish to “cull” some of the material to make it easier for students to use.
  15. 15. www.archives.gov November 12, 2004 Photo Analysis Worksheet Step 1. Observation A. Study the photograph for 2 minutes. Form an overall impression of the photograph and then examine individual items. Next, divide the photo into quadrants and study each section to see what new details become visible. ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Use the chart below to list people, objects, and activities in the photograph. People Objects Activities
  16. 16. Step 2. Inference Based on what you have observed above, list three things you might infer from this photograph? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Step 3. Questions A. What questions does this photograph raise in your mind? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Where could you find answers to them? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Designed and developed by the Education Staff, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408. Page URL: http://www.archives.gov/digital_classroom/lessons/analysis_worksheets/photo.html U.S. National Archives & Records Administration 700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20408 • 1-86-NARA-NARA • 1-866-272-6272
  17. 17. Champoic County, Oregon Territory 1845 Territorial Census NOTE: Champic County is now Marrion County This Census was transcribed by Teia Neal <silverhelm@triax.com> and proofread by Samantha Chapa as extra credit in her American History class for the USGenWeb Census Project http://www.usgenweb.org/census. Copyright (c) 1999 by Teia Neal <silverhelm@triax.com> Transcriber's notes: This 1845 census was found at the Archives Building in Salem, OR under Provisional and Territorial Records Film 24 Reel 77 Documents 12188 - 12277b ************************************************************************ USGENWEB NOTICE: These electronic pages may NOT be reproduced in any format for profit or presentation by any other organization or persons. Persons or organizations desiring to use this material, must obtain the written consent of the contributor, or the legal representative of the submitter, and contact the listed USGenWeb archivist with proof of this consent. ************************************************************************ State: Oregon Territorial Census District: Champoic County Microfilm: #24 Reel 77 Documents 12188-12277b Enumerator: #12194 Date Enumerated: March, 1845 CENSUS YEAR: 1845 TERRITORY: Oregon Territorial Census DISTRICT: Champoic County ENUMERATOR: #12194 PAGE: 1 ============================================================================================================================================= | |Names of Single Men|Names of |Under 12 Years|12 Under 18 |18 Under 45 |45 & Over |Total No. |TOTAL | PG|Row|Keeping House |Head of Families |Males|Females |Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|All Together| ============================================================================================================================================= 1 1 Joseph Bourgean . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 2 Antoine Bonefant . . 2 1 1 . . . 3 1 4 3 Hypobite Brousllet 2 . . . 1 1 . . 3 1 4 4 Charles Compo 3 . . . 1 1 . . 4 1 5 5 Andre CharLefoux 1 2 . 1 1 1 . 2 4 6 6 Adophus Chamberlain 1 1 . . 1 1 . . 2 2 4 7 Francois Champagne 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 8 X Joseph Canoyer 1 . . 1 1 1 . . 2 1 3 9 Oliver Daubin . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 10 Pierre Degrais . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 11 Pierre Depot 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5
  18. 18. 12 Joseph Deslards . 1 1 3 . 1 1 . 2 5 7 13 Hyacinth Deologes ditLavigeur 3 1 2 . . 1 1 . 6 2 8 14 Joseph Despor dit Frederic . 5 . . 1 . 1 1 2 6 8 15 David Donpier 2 1 1 . 1 1 . . 4 2 6 16 Andre Dribois . . 1 1 . . 1 . 2 1 3 17 Jean BrDubruielle 4 1 . . . . 1 1 5 2 7 18 Jean Bl Ducharme . 2 . . 1 1 . . 1 3 4 19 Jeant Blsto Dupaty dit McKay 1 1 1 . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 20 Louis Forcier 4 1 . 1 1 1 . . 5 3 8 21 Luc Gagnon . 2 . . 1 1 . . 1 3 4 22 Joseph Gagnon 1 2 1 . 1 1 . . 3 3 6 23 Jean Bl Gardiepie 3 . . . 1 1 . . 4 1 5 24 Joseph Gervais 1 . 3 . . . 1 1 5 1 6 25 David Gervais 1 . . . 1 1 . . 2 1 3 26 Jean Gengras . 4 3 . 1 1 . . 4 5 9 27 Etunne Gregoine 1 . 2 . 1 . 1 1 5 1 6 28 Joseph Gendron 1 2 . 1 1 1 . . 2 4 6 29 Joachin Hubert 2 2 1 1 . 1 1 . 4 4 8 30 Francois Jacques 1 3 2 . . . 1 1 4 4 8 31 Charles Jeaudoins . . 1 . 1 1 . . 2 1 3 32 Joseph Kline . 1 . . 1 1 . . 1 2 3 TOTALS 37 34 21 12 24 24 10 5 . . 162 CENSUS YEAR: 1845 TERRITORY: Oregon Territorial Census DISTRICT: Champoic County ENUMERATOR: #12194 PAGE: 2 ============================================================================================================================================= | |Names of Single Men|Names of |Under 12 Years|12 Under 18 |18 Under 45 |45 & Over |Total No. |TOTAL | PG|Row|Keeping House |Head of Families |Males|Females |Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|All Together| ============================================================================================================================================= 2 1 William H. Wilson . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 2 E. E. Parrish 2 2 . . . . 1 1 3 5 8 3 John M. Haley 4 . . 2 7 . 1 1 12 3 15 4 John Howell 1 . 2 . 2 . 1 1 6 1 7 5 William Martin . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 6 James Martin . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 7 Robert Boyd . 4 . . 1 1 . . 1 6 7 8 John M. Carcle . 1 . . 1 1 . . 1 2 3 9 John Topa 1 3 . . 1 . 1 1 3 4 7 10 Batisle Dorien . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 11 Batisle Gaba 2 . . . 1 1 . . 3 1 4 12 John M. Caddon . . . 1 2 1 . . 2 2 4 13 Daniel Waldo 1 2 1 1 1 1 . . 3 4 7 14 Henry Hoster . 1 . . 3 1 . . 3 2 5 15 Ruben Lewis . . . . 2 1 . . 2 1 3 16 Edward Burrows . . . . 3 . . . 3 . 3
  19. 19. 17 Isaac Hutchens . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 18 Charles P. Matt . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 19 Jessey Looney 2 1 . 1 1 1 . . 3 3 6 20 John Anderson . . . 2 2 . . . 2 2 4 21 David Delancy . . . . 3 . . 3 . 3 22 Webley Hauxhurst 2 . . . 1 1 . . 3 1 4 23 Joseph Holman 1 1 . . 1 1 . . 2 2 4 24 Tobias Cordell . 2 . . 1 1 . . 1 3 4 25 David Strickner . . . . 1 . . 1 . 1 26 Amabe Argnoitte 2 1 2 . 1 1 1 . 6 2 8 27 Alexis Aubichon . 3 . 1 . 1 1 2 4 6 28 Joseph Barnabe 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 29 Francois Bouche . 1 . . 1 1 . . 1 2 3 30 James Bouche . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 31 Jean Baptisto Bouche . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 32 Lyloan Bourgean . 3 . . 1 1 . . 1 4 5 TOTALS 20 26 5 9 46 18 6 5 . . 138 CENSUS YEAR: 1845 TERRITORY: Oregon Territorial Census DISTRICT: Champoic County ENUMERATOR: #12194 PAGE: 3 ============================================================================================================================================= | |Names of Single Men|Names of |Under 12 Years|12 Under 18 |18 Under 45 |45 & Over |Total No. |TOTAL | PG|Row|Keeping House |Head of Families |Males|Females |Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|All Together| ============================================================================================================================================= 3 1 Paul Gilbo 4 1 . . . 1 1 . 5 2 7 2 Ruel Olds 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 3 Allen Davie . 1 . . 1 1 . . 1 2 3 4 Gabriel Brown . 1 1 . . . 1 1 2 2 4 5 Pierre Belleck 2 1 2 . . 1 2 . 6 2 8 6 Eiken Lucie 3 . . . 1 . 1 1 5 1 6 7 Franciois Bernie 1 . . . 1 1 . . 2 1 3 8 Samuel Painter 2 . . . 1 1 . . 3 1 4 9 David Leslie . 2 . . 1 1 1 . 2 3 5 10 James Force 1 1 . . 1 1 . . 2 2 4 11 Aaron Downer . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 12 Jeremiah Horegon 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 13 Zuwashen Ubra 2 . . 1 . . 1 1 3 2 5 14 Alamson Beers 2 2 . 1 2 1 . . 4 4 8 15 David Carter 2 . . . 1 1 . . 3 1 4 16 James Caves 3 2 1 . 1 1 1 . 6 3 9 17 Elisha Packwood . . . . 1 . 1 . 2 . 2 18 William H. Bailey . 2 . . 1 1 . . 1 3 4 19 Batisle Pero . 1 . . 1 1 . . 1 2 3 20 Richard Eiken . . . 1 1 . . . 1 1 2 21 Theodore Uancott . . . 1 1 . . . 1 1 2
  20. 20. 22 John E. Pickernell 1 2 . . 1 1 . . 2 3 5 23 Gilbert H. Frost . 1 . . 1 . . . 1 1 1 24 Richard Goodman 2 2 . 2 1 1 . . 3 5 8 25 Thomas D. Keyser 2 2 1 . 2 . 1 1 6 3 9 26 Henry Patterson . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 27 william W. Raymond . 2 . . 1 1 . . 1 3 4 28 Hamilton Campbell 1 2 . . 1 1 . . 2 3 5 29 Horace Holden 2 2 . . 1 1 . . 3 3 6 30 L. H. Judson 2 2 . . 1 . . . 3 2 5 31 Bartles Lee 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 TOTALS 38 32 5 6 29 22 10 4 . . 146 CENSUS YEAR: 1845 TERRITORY: Oregon Territorial Census DISTRICT: Champoic County ENUMERATOR: #12194 PAGE: 4 ============================================================================================================================================= | |Names of Single Men|Names of |Under 12 Years|12 Under 18 |18 Under 45 |45 & Over |Total No. |TOTAL | PG|Row|Keeping House |Head of Families |Males|Females |Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|All Together| ============================================================================================================================================= 4 1 Joseph Labombaro . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 2 Andre Lachapelle . 2 . . . 1 1 . 1 3 4 3 Pierre Lacourse . 2 . . 1 1 1 . 2 3 5 4 Chas Lafantiesiu . 1 . . 1 1 . . 1 2 3 5 Louis Laroeque 1 1 . . 1 1 . . 2 2 4 6 A. Laparade . 2 . . . 1 1 . 1 3 4 7 Pierre Larocque . . 1 . . . 1 1 2 1 3 8 Martial Lavallie . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 9 Moyise Lor . . 1 1 . . . . 1 1 2 10 Andre Lonctain 1 2 . 1 . . 1 1 2 4 6 11 Joseph Matte 1 . . . 1 1 . . 2 1 3 12 Antoine Masta . 1 . . 1 1 . . 1 2 3 13 Hevier Mathews . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 14 George Moutour 1 2 . . 1 1 . . 2 3 5 15 Pierre Minard 3 . . . 1 1 . . 4 1 5 16 Nichola Montour . 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 3 2 5 17 Thomas Moison . . . . 2 1 . . 2 1 3 18 Jean Btst Obichon . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 19 Antonio Ortigas . . . . . . 1 . 1 . 1 20 Louis Osisn 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 21 Jean Bl Perreault . 1 . . . 1 1 . 1 2 3 22 Jean Portier . 1 . . . 1 1 . 1 2 3 23 Amabe Petite . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 24 Herbert Petite . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 25 Andre Picard 1 . 1 . . 1 1 . 3 1 4 26 Joseph Pin 2 2 1 . 1 1 . . 4 3 7
  21. 21. 27 Louis Plante . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 28 Chase Plante . . 1 . 1 1 . . 2 1 3 29 Joussaint Poirier 1 1 1 . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 30 Augustin Raymond . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 31 Pierre Raymond . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 32 Antoine Rivet 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 TOTALS 15 21 7 2 24 26 10 3 . . 103 CENSUS YEAR: 1845 TERRITORY: Oregon Territorial Census DISTRICT: Champoic County ENUMERATOR: #12194 PAGE: 5 ============================================================================================================================================= | |Names of Single Men|Names of |Under 12 Years|12 Under 18 |18 Under 45 |45 & Over |Total No. |TOTAL | PG|Row|Keeping House |Head of Families |Males|Females |Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|All Together| ============================================================================================================================================= 5 1 Francois Rivet . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 2 2 Joseph Rivet 1 2 . . 1 1 . . 2 3 5 3 Hugustin Rochon . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 4 Chas Rodeau 1 1 1 . . 1 1 . 3 2 5 5 Thomas Roi 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 6 Gideon Senechal . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 7 Hearvier Sequin dit Laderoute 4 1 . . 1 1 . . 5 2 7 8 Jacques Servant 1 1 . 1 1 1 . . 2 3 5 9 Waccan Umpherville 1 3 3 1 1 1 . . 5 5 10 10 Louis Vandall 3 1 . . 1 1 . . 4 2 6 11 Daniel Girtman 1 . . . 1 1 1 . 2 2 4 12 Pierre Gochi . 1 . . 1 1 . . 1 2 3 13 Pierre Stiboin . 4 . . 1 1 . . 1 5 6 14 John Saunden 2 3 . 1 1 . . . 3 4 7 15 Pierre Bona . . . . 2 . . . 2 . 2 16 Francois Walkah 1 . 2 . 1 1 . . 2 1 3 17 Pierre Walkah . . . . 2 . 1 . 4 1 5 18 Fabiah Maloin 1 1 . . 1 1 . . 2 2 4 19 Langevius . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 2 20 Angus McDonald . . . . 1 . 1 . 2 . 2 21 Robert Newell 5 . . . 1 1 . . 6 1 7 22 Alick Neel 3 1 1 . 1 . . . 5 2 7 23 Louis Roudeau . . . . . 1 1 . 1 2 3 24 Issac Flanery . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 25 Joseph Larocque 2 . . 1 1 1 . . 3 2 5 26 Chauncey D. Spencer . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 27 James Bean 2 1 . . 1 1 . . 3 2 5 28 Louis Langevius . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 29 Perre DeVos . . . . 1 6 . . 1 6 7 30 Michael Accoti . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 31 Antoine Ravally . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1
  22. 22. 32 Louis Verenope . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 TOTALS 30 21 7 6 31 25 6 1 . . 127 CENSUS YEAR: 1845 TERRITORY: Oregon Territorial Census DISTRICT: Champoic County ENUMERATOR: #12194 PAGE: 6 ============================================================================================================================================= | |Names of Single Men|Names of |Under 12 Years|12 Under 18 |18 Under 45 |45 & Over |Total No. |TOTAL | PG|Row|Keeping House |Head of Families |Males|Females |Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|Males|Females|All Together| ============================================================================================================================================= 6 1 Jean Bl Boldue . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 2 Modeste Demers . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 3 Albert Weysinger . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 4 Joseph Gertain . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 5 Noah Newnan . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 6 Montrose McGilloray . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 7 Napolean McGilloray . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 8 John Saxton . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 9 William Morrison . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 10 Oliver Neel 2 2 . . 1 1 . . 3 3 6 11 John Hochstatter . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 12 John Dunn . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 13 Pierre Grosbuy . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 14 John Brown . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 15 Joseph Bertron . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 16 Beuisto Lasso . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 17 Louis Springer . . . . 1 . . . 1 . 1 TOTALS . . . . . . . . . . 22 NOTES: Champic County is now Marrion County http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/or/census/1845/1845champoeg.txt
  23. 23. Document: The Donation Land Claim Act, 1850 An Act to create the Office of Surveyor-General of the Public Lands in Oregon, and to provide for the Survey, and to make Donations to Settlers of the said Public Lands. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That a surveyor-general shall be appointed for the Territory of Oregon, who shall have the same authority, perform the same duties respecting the public lands and private land claims in the Territory of Oregon, as are vested in and required of the surveyor of lands in the United States northwest of the Ohio, except as hereinafter provided. Sec. 2 And be it further enacted, That the said surveyor-general shall establish his office at such place within the said Territory as the President of the United States may from time to time direct; he shall be allowed an annual salary of two thousand five hundred dollars, to be paid quarter- yearly, and to commence at such time as he shall enter into bond, with competent security, for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office. There shall be, and hereby is, appropriated the sum of four thousand dollars, or as much thereof as is necessary for clerk hire in his office; and the further sum of one thousand dollars per annum for office rent, fuel, books, stationary, and other incidental expenses of his office, to be paid out of the appropriation for surveying the public lands. Sec.3. And be it further enacted, That if, in the opinion of the Secretary of the Interior, it be preferable, the surveys in the said Territory shall be made after what is known as the geodetic method, under such regulations, and upon such terms, as may be provided by the Secretary of the Interior of other Department having charge of the surveys of the public lands, and that said geodetic surveys shall be followed by topographical surveys, as Congress may from time to time authorize and direct; but if the present mode of survey be adhered to, then it shall be the duty of said surveyor to cause a base line, and meridian to be surveyed, marked, and established, in the usual manner, at or near the mouth of the Willamette River; and he shall also cause to be surveyed, in townships and sections, in the usual manner, and in accordance with the laws of the United States, which may be in force, the district of country lying between the summit of the Cascade Mountains and the Pacific Ocean, and south and north of the Columbia River: Provided, however, That none other than township lines shall be run where the land is deemed unfit for cultivation. That no deputy surveyor shall charge for any line except such as may be actually run and marked, nor for any line not necessary to be run; and that the whole cost of surveying shall not exceed the rate of eight dollars per mile, for every mile and part of mile actually surveyed and marked. Sec.4. And be it further enacted, That there shall be, and hereby is, granted to every white settler or occupant of the public lands, American half-breed Indians included, above the age of eighteen years, being a citizen of the United States, or having made a declaration according to law, of his intention to become a citizen, or who shall make such declaration on or before the first day of December, eighteen hundred and fifty, and who shall have resided upon and cultivated the same for four consecutive years, and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of this act, the quantity of one half section, or three hundred and twenty acres of land, if a single man, and if a married man, or if he shall become married within one year from the first day of December, eighteen
  24. 24. hundred and fifty, the quantity of one section, or six hundred and forty acres, one half to himself and the other half to his wife, and enter the same on the records of his office; and in all cases where such married persons have compiled with the provisions of this act, so as to entitle them to the grant as above provided, whether under the late provisional government of Oregon, or since, and either shall have died before patent issues, the survivor and children or heirs of the deceased shall be entitled to the share or interest of the decreased in equal proportions, except where the deceased shall otherwise dispose of it by testament duly and properly executed according to the laws of Oregon: Provided, That no alien shall be entitled to a patent to land, granted by this act, until he shall produce to the surveyor-general of Oregon, record evidence of his naturalization as a citizen of the United States has been completed; but if any alien, having made his declaration of intention to become a citizen of the United States, after the passage of this act, shall die before his naturalization shall be completed, the possessory right acquired by him under the provisions of this act shall descend to his heirs at law, or pass to his devisees, to whom, as the case may be, the patent shall issue: Provided, further, That in all cases provided for in this section, the donation shall embrace the land actually occupied and cultivated by the settler thereon: Provided, further, That all future contracts by any person or persons entitled to the benefits of this act, for the sale of the land to which he or they may be entitled under this act before he or they have received a patent therefor, shall be void: Provided, further, however, That this section shall not be so construed as to allow those claiming rights under the treaty with Great Britain relative to the Oregon Territory, to claim both under this grant and the treaty, but merely to secure them the election, and confine them to a single grant of land. Sec.5. And be it further enacted, That to all white male citizens of the United States or persons who shall have made a declaration of intention to become such, above the age of twenty-one years, emigrating to and settling in said Territory between the first day of December, eighteen hundred and fifty, and the first day of December, eighteen hundred and fifty-three; and to all white male citizens, not hereinbefore provided for, becoming one and twenty years of age, in said Territory, and settling there between the times last aforesaid, who shall in other respects comply with the foregoing section and the provisions of this law, there shall be, and hereby is, granted the quantity of one quarter section, or one hundred and sixty acres of land, if a single man; or if married, or if he shall become married within one year after becoming twenty-one years of age as aforesaid, the quantity of one half section, or three hundred and twenty acres, one half to the husband and the other half to the wife in her own right, to be designated by the surveyor-general as aforesaid: Provided always, That no person shall ever receive a patent for more than one donation of land in said Territory in his or her own right: Provided, That no mineral lands shall be located or granted under the provisions of this act. Sec.6. And be it further enacted, That within three months after the survey has been made, or where the survey has been made before the settlement commenced, then within three months from the commencement of such settlement, each of said settlers shall notify the surveyor- general, to be appointed under this act, of the precise tract or tracts claimed by them respectively under this law, and in all cases it shall be in a compact form; and where it is practicable by legal subdivisions; but where that cannot be done, it shall be the duty of the said surveyor-general to survey and mark each claim with the boundaries as claimed, at the request and expense of the claimant; the charge for the same in each case not to exceed the price paid for surveying the public lands. The surveyor-general shall enter a description of such claims in a book to be kept
  25. 25. by him for that purpose, and note, temporarily, on the township plats, the tract or tracts so designated, with the boundaries; and whenever a conflict of boundaries shall arise prior to issuing the patent, the same shall be determined by the surveyor-general: Provided, That after the first December next, all claims shall be bounded by lines running east and west, and north and south: And provided, further, That after the survey is made, all claims shall be made in conformity to the same, and in compact form. Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That within twelve months after the surveys have been made, or, where the survey has been made before the settlement, then within twelve months from the time the settlement was commenced, each person claiming a donation right under this act shall prove to the satisfaction of the surveyor-general, or of such other officer as may be appointed by law for that purpose, that the settlement and cultivation required by this act has been commenced, specifying the time of the commencement; and at any time after the expiration of four years from the date of such settlement, whether made under the laws of the late provisional government or not, shall prove in like manner, by two disinterested witnesses, the fact of continued residence and cultivation required by the fourth section of this act; and upon such proof being made, the surveyor-general, or other officer appointed by law for that purpose, shall issue certificates under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the commissioner of the general land office, setting forth the facts of the case, and specifying the land to which the parties are entitled. And the said surveyor-general shall return the proof so taken to the office of the commissioner of the general land office, and if the said commissioner shall find no valid objections thereto, patents shall issue for the land according to the certificates aforesaid, upon the surrender thereof. Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That upon the death of any settler before the expiration of the four years' continued possession required by this act, all the rights of the deceased under this act shall descend to the heirs at law of such settler, including the widow, where one is left, in equal parts; and proof of compliance with the conditions of this act up to the time of the death of such settler shall be sufficient to entitle them to the patent. Sec.9. And be it further enacted, That no claim to a donation right under the provisions of this act, upon sections sixteen or thirty-six, shall be valid or allowed, if the residence and cultivation upon which the same is founded shall have commenced after the survey of the same; nor shall such claim attach to any tract or parcel of land selected for a military post, or within one mile thereof, or to any other land reserved for governmental purposes, unless the residence and cultivation thereof shall have commenced pervious to the selection or reservation of the same for such purposes. Sec.10. And be it further enacted, That there be, and hereby is, granted to the Territory of Oregon the quantity of two townships of land in the said Territory, west of the Cascade Mountains, and to be selected in legal subdivisions after the same has been surveyed, by the legislative assembly of said Territory, in such a manner as it may deem proper, one to be located north, and the other south, of the Columbia River, to aid in the establishment of the university in the Territory of Oregon, in such manner as the said legislative assembly may direct, the selection to be approved by the surveyor-general.
  26. 26. Sec.11. And be it further enacted, That what is known as the "Oregon city claim," excepting the Abernathy Island, which is hereby confirmed to the legal assigns of the Willamette Milling and Trading Companies, shall be set apart and be at the disposal of the legislative assembly, the proceeds thereof to be applied by said legislative assembly to the establishment and endowment of a university, to be located at such place in the Territory as the legislative assembly may designate: Provided, however, That all lots and parts of lots in said claim, sold or granted by Doctor John McLaughlin, previous to the fourth of March, eighteen hundred and forty-nine, shall be confirmed to the purchaser or donee, or their assigns, to be certified to the commissioner of the general land office, by the surveyor-general, and patents to issue on said certificates, as in other cases: Provided, further, That nothing in this act contained shall be so construed or executed, as in any way to destroy or affect any rights to land in said Territory, holden or claimed under the provisions of the treaty or treaties existing between this country and Great Britain. Sec.12. And be it further enacted, That all persons claiming land under any of the provisions of this act, by virtue of settlement and cultivation commenced subsequent to the first of December, in the year eighteen hundred and fifty, shall first make affidavit before the surveyor-general, who is hereby authorized to administer all such oaths or affirmations, or before some other competent officer, that the land claimed by them is for their own use and cultivation; that they are not acting directly or indirectly as agent for, or in the employment of others, in making such claims; and that they have made no sale or transfer, or any arrangement or agreement for any sale, transfer, or alienation oft he same, or by which the said land shall ensure to the benefits of any other person. And all affidavits required by this act shall be entered of record, by the surveyor-general, in a book to be kept by him for that purpose; and on proof, before a court of competent jurisdiction, that any such oaths or affirmations are false or fraudulent, the persons making such false or fraudulent oaths or affirmations are false or fraudulent, the subject to all the pains and penalties of perjury. Sec.13. And be it further enacted, That all questions arising under this act shall be ajudged by the surveyor-general as preliminary to a final decision accord to law; and it shall be the duty of the surveyor-general, under the direction of the commissioner of the general land office, to cause proper tract books to be opened for the lands in Oregon, and to do and perform all other acts and things necessary and proper to carry out the provisions of this act. Sec.14. And be it further enacted, That no mineral lands, nor lands reserved for salines, shall be liable to any claim under and by virtue of the provisions of this act; and that such portions of the public lands as may be designated under the authority of the President of the United States, for forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful public uses, shall be reserved and excepted from the operation of this act; Provided, That if it shall be deemed necessary, in the judgement of the President, to include in any such reservation the improvements of any settler made previous to the passage of this act, it shall in such case be the duty of the Secretary of War to cause the value of such improvements to be ascertained, and the amount so ascertained shall be paid to the party entitled hereto, out of any money not otherwise appropriated. Approved, September 27, 1850.
  27. 27. Whitman Massacre (http://www.oregonpioneers.com/whitman.htm) The era of contact between the Indians and whites in the Oregon Territory had started in 1811 when some fifteen hundred Cayuses, Walla Wallas and Nez Perce had met with representatives of John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Company. With a domain that stretched from the Snake-Columbia confluence across the vast plateau to the Snake borderlands, the Cayuses were truly a majestic tribe. Much of their influence they owed to the animal that they had ridden to power. These sure-footed horses varied in color and stood twelve to fifteen hands high. It was able to withstand hunger and rough treatment and its speed and endurance were exceptional. In the early nineteenth century a Cayuse Indian owning fifteen to twenty horses would hardly be considered affluent. Wealthier owners kept up to two thousand for recreation, travel and trading purposes. By the late 1820's, the importance of the Cayuses, far outweighed their numbers. The deeply ingrained incursive life-style of the Cayuses had kept their numbers small. They were, in fact, the smallest tribe in the vicinity. The three largest Cayuse villages being: one under Chief Camaspelo on the headwaters of the Umatilla, another downstream on the Umatilla under two chieftain brothers, Five Crows (Achekaia or Pahkatos) and Young Chief (Tauitau), and a third on the upper Walla Walla under the aged Chief Umtippe. Nevertheless, despite their lack in numbers, they still controlled the routes through which the fur brigades passed into the Snake Country. [McLoughlin, who was widely regarded as a stern disciplinarian of dissident Indians, handled the Cayuses with restraint.] Cayuse trade continued to be chiefly in horses, which never ceased to be an important measure of their wealth. However, the natural simplicity of their clothing and ornaments, in which, as with their horses, they had taken great pride, was compromised by trappings and ornaments obtained from traders. In some case, they had surrendered to the white man's style by sporting trousers, shirt and cap. The Cayuse were in a struggle to retain their supremacy among the tribes. Their population had dwindled [by 1841 one conservative estimate put their numbers at approximately 200] and their mother tongue was giving way to the more fluid speech of their more numerous neighbors the Nez Perces. If the best their Great Spirit could offer was only Indian knowledge, they believed it necessary to find an additional powerful Supreme Being. In their contacts with the traders they had heard of a new God, a new magic. Would this new magic bring them guns, blankets, and other goods that would restore them to power and prestige? In 1834, the Cayuse Indians met with Methodist Jason Lee near Fort Hall. Although Lee decided to establish his mission in the Willamette Valley, a new hope for a mission in their country
  28. 28. appeared in 1836 in the form of Rev. Samuel Parker. Parker was in the area to find a site for the proposed American Board mission that was to be headed by Dr. Marcus Whitman. After several days, he selected a site twenty-five miles east of Fort Walla Walla at Waiilatpu [ "The Place of the Rye Grass"] on the lands of three chiefs: Umtippe, Waptashtakmahl, and Tiloukaikt. In the first week of October Dr. Whitman arrived with Rev. Spalding. The meeting with the Cayuse was friendly as the Indians assessed the newcomers. A site was selected for Whitman's home, which would serve as the heart of the mission. [In later years, the controversy over whether Parker had promised to pay for these lands added to the hostility.] Almost from the beginning the difference in cultures laid the ground work for misunderstandings and conflict. The few Cayuses who had not gone to hunt buffalo helped with the house building, but it was strange work for them. Women put up the Indians' lodges. It was noted that Narcissa, Whitman's wife, did not help with hers. Many of the Indians in the area were suffering from sickness, primarily inflammation of the lungs. The sick accepted Whitman's medicine, but many found his cures of temporary benefit, for they did not take care of themselves and relapsed. It was Indian custom that if a prominent member of the tribe died at the hands of a medicine man, then the medicine man must give his life to avenge the loss. Chief Umtippe, "a savage creature in his day", became ill and turned to Dr. Whitman. The doctor's medicine helped the chief survive, a fate better than that of a war- chief relative who, sick only six days, died at the hands of the Walla Walla tewat [medicine man]. The day the war chief died, Umtippe's younger brother, Isiachalakia (Wet Wolf), shot the tewat dead. All were avenged. From these developments, Whitman must have gathered that a doctor in Indian country had little security. The basic differences continued to cause conflicts. Whitman had only one wife while the Indians believed that when there were many wives they all "had more to eat". The missionaries did much of the menial tasks that the Indian wives were expected to perform which diminished their power in the eyes of the Indians. Equally contradictory was the concepts of hospitality. When Mrs. Whitman took a little Indian boy into her home, his relatives, who had abandoned him, believed that such generosity should have extended to them. It was also noticed by the Indians that the missionary lady did not welcome them into her house, not even to eat, or worse yet, to worship. Why were they scolded for looking through the windows of the house? After all, they had helped build it and it was on their land. And why did the missionaries extend their hospitality to travelers when they did not extend it to the ones they called their children? There was no end of Cayuse anxiety. Were the American Board missionaries, from whom they had expected special magic, saving it all for themselves? Were not the missionaries rich and getting richer? Why could their horses not graze on the land near the mission? It was Cayuse land and there were no fences. And if the horses were eating corn, was that not the fruit of the earth? Soon the Indians were not merely asking questions but striking blows, with Tilkanaik, in the summer of 1841, delivering a sharp one to Whitman's chest in the continuing argument over ownership of the land. There were numerous incidents but after a confrontation in October 1841,
  29. 29. where several Indians stormed the mission over the issue of property, things quieted down for awhile. The following winter Whitman left for the east to gain support for his mission. Rumors were persistent among the Indians that he was planning to return with men to fight them. When Whitman returned in late fall with a party of immigrants, the apprehension of the Indians was somewhat softened by the opportunity to trade. But, as preceding immigrations appeared they became increasingly hostile. In 1845, due to increased tensions, Whitman rode out to warn a large company of immigrants that a large party of Cayuses and Walla Wallas was headed their way. Upon finding Whitman with the immigrants, the Indians backed off of their planned confrontation. By the fall of 1846, a fear of invasion by the Indians was felt as far south as California. The turmoil had no chance to cool before the fall immigration arrived, bringing with it measles. The Indians took Whitman's medicine along with some treatments he did not prescribe such as the sweat bath and cold water plunge. Deaths were rampant and the Indians blamed the deaths on the white people in general and on Whitman, their high chief, in particular. Tensions were increased by the French Canadians, eastern Indians and others who planted the seeds of suspicion. There were rumors of whites uncorking bottles to release disease germs to kill the Indians for their land and tales that the Whitman's were plotting to poison the Indians. As the deaths continued, the Indians moved closer and closer toward an uprising and revenge. By the fall of 1847 tensions were coming to a head. The fall immigration had brought more disease and the Indians were quick to note that the doctor's mission family were not being affected at the same rate as the Indian population. This increased the belief that they were being poisoned. Adding fuel to the fire was one Joe Lewis. Lewis, was a half breed who was said to have been born in Canada and brought up in Maine as a Catholic. He had been in Fremont's camp in the Mexican War and had joined the 1847 emigrants at Fort Hall. He was much disliked by the emigrants and was not allowed to rejoin them after reaching Whitman mission. From almost the moment he was hired by Dr. Whitman he commenced inciting unrest among the native population by telling them that the white men were poisoning them in order to claim their lands. By the late fall the mission house was overflowing with additional people. Josiah Osborn, a millwright who had been previously employed by the Whitmans, rushed to add an addition to the mission house. Joseph Smith and Elam Young of Missouri were sent with their families to live at the sawmill in the Blue Mountains. Rebecca Hays, a widow with a four-year-old son, was hired to help cook. Also stopping at the mission in the late fall of 1847 was a group of emigrants led by Capt. John William Bewley. Several in the party were ill, including Crockett Bewley and his friend Amos Sales. An exerpt from a newspaper article reportedly attributed to one of the younger sons of Capt. Bewley said: "...many were sick of fever and several graves were made on the Snake
  30. 30. River. My oldest brother became ill with mountain fever near the Whitman mission, and father, having an ardent desire to know the good doctor decided to stop there and consult him about treatment for my brother. It was late in the fall and the doctor was in the valley. Mrs. Whitman informed us that he would return in about three weeks and prevailed on us to remain to see him." "The doctor prescribed rest and put the patient to bed. Mrs. Whitman needed help in her many cares with the sick children so it was arranged to leave my sister, Lorinda to assist her. The good doctor promised to bring these two children with him in the spring to the Willamette Valley." Whitman Massacre On the 29th of November the early morning fog created a blanket of eery silence. The mission population had grown to include seventy two individuals. Just as illness filled the mission houses, it had also struck beyond in the Cayuse encampments. Death became almost certain in the crowded lodges despite Whitman's every effort. In a short two months nearly half of the Cayuse population had died, including several children of Chief Tilaukait. On the day of the funeral for Chief Tilaukait's latest dead son, only the relatives attended, but no other Cayuse. On the way from the burial ground Whitman had stopped by to see Mrs. Saunders at the mansion house. Green Cap had followed him inside, taking a chair in the Saunders' home. Then he had shadowed Whitman through the fog as far as the mission house. There had been a time when the doctor would have told him to be about some useful business. But not now. By the time the doctor reached home and finished dinner it was almost two o'clock. He then climbed the steep stairs to check on Lorinda Bewley, who reportedly was deeply troubled by a presentiment of evil to come. Unable to comfort her, he returned downstairs to get her some milk and a prescription that was probably a mild sedative. He was soon met by a frightened Narcissa who informed him that Tilaukait and Tomahas were in the kitchen demanding to see him. As he entered the kitchen he was engaged in a brief parley with Tilaukait. While his attention was diverted, Tomahas brought down a tomahawk upon the head of the unsuspecting doctor. During the struggle, one or the other pressed the muzzle of their white man's weapon to the base of Marcus Whitman's throat and pulled the trigger. In the ensuing chaos, thirteen of the 72 individuals at the mission were killed. These included: Narcissa Whitman, Andrew Rogers, Jacob Hoffman, the schoolmaster L.W. Sanders, Mr. Marsh, John Sager, Francis Sager, Nathan Kimball, Isaac Gilliland, and Young Jr. Crockett Bewley and Amos Sales escaped the initial massacre unharmed. However, it is reported that upon hearing of the treatment of his sister, Lorinda, Crockett Bewley confronted the captors, resulting in his death and the death of Amos Sales. Peter Hall, who had also escaped the original massacre, was subsequently killed several days later by Indians.
  31. 31. Whitman Massacre--The Aftermath In the days following the massacre, rumors were rampant. The Oregon Spectator, the territorial newspaper which was published at Oregon City, provided a glimpse of the events as they unfolded. ****** Oregon Spectator Dec 10, 1847 "Fort Vancouver, 7th Dec. 1847 Geo. Abernethy, Esq. Sir, having received intelligence last night, by special express, from Walla Walla of the destruction of the Missionary settlement at Waiilatpu, by the Cayuse Indians of that place; we hasten to communicate the particulars of that dreadful event, one of the most atrocious which darkens the annals of Indian crime. Our lamented friend Dr. Whitman, his amiable and accomplished lady, with nine other persons have fallen victims to the fury of these remorseless savages, who appear to have been instigated to this appalling crime by a horrible suspicion which had taken possession of their superstitious minds, in consequence of the number of deaths from dysentery and measles, that Dr. Whitman was silently working the destruction of their tribe by administering poisonous drugs under the semblance of salutary medicines. With a goodness of heart and benevolence truly his own, Dr. Whitman had been laboring incessantly since the appearance of the measles and dysentery among his Indian converts, to relieve their sufferings, and such has been the reward of his generous labors. A copy of Mr. McBean's letter herewith, will give you all the particulars, known to us, of this indescribably painful event. Mr. Ogden with a strong party will leave this place as soon as possible for Walla Walla, to endeavor to prevent further evil; and we beg to suggest to you the propriety of taking instant measures for the protection of the Rev. Mr. Spaulding; who for the sake of his family, ought to abandon the Clear Water Mission, without delay, and retire to a place of safety, as he cannot remain at that isolated station without imminent risk, in the present excited, and irritable state of the Indian population. I have the honor to be, Sir, Your most obedient servant, JAMES DOUGLAS" ***** Oregon Spectator Dec 10, 1847 "Oregon City, Dec. 8, 1847 Gentlemen-- It is my painful duty to lay the enclosed communication before your Honorable
  32. 32. Body. They will give you the particulars of the horrible massacre committed by the Cayuse Indians on the residents of Waiilatpu. This is one of the most distressing circumstances that has occurred in our Territory, and one that calls for immediate and prompt action. I am aware to meet this case, funds will be required, and suggest the propriety of applying to the Hon. Hudson's Bay Company and the Merchants of this place for a loan to carry out whatever plan you may fix upon. I have no doubt but the expenses attending this affair will be promptly met by the United States Government. The wives and children of the murdered persons, Rev. Mr. Spaulding and family and all others who may be in the upper country, should at once be proffered assistance, and an escort to convey them to a place of safety. I have the honor to remain, Gentlemen, Your ob't servant, GEO. ABERNETHY" ***** Oregon Spectator Dec. 10, 1847 "Fort Nez Perces, 30th Nov 1847 TO THE BOARD OF MANAGEMENT: Gentlemen, It is my painful task to make you acquainted with a horrid massacre which took place yesterday at Waiilatpu, about which I was first apprised early this morning by an American who had escaped, of the name of Hall, and who reached this half naked and covered with blood. As he started at the onset, the information I obtained was not satisfactory. He, however, assured me that the Doctor and another man were killed, but could not tell me the persons who did it, and how it originated. I immediately determined on sending my interpreter and one man to Dr. Whitman's to find out the truth, and if possible to rescue Mr. Manson's two sons, and any of the survivors. It so happened that before the interpreter had proceeded half way, the two boys were met on their way hither escorted by Nicholas Finlay, it having been previously settled among the Indians that these boys should not be killed as also the American women and children. Peloquoit is the Chief who recommended this measure. I presume you are well acquainted that fever and dysentery has been raging here, and in this vicinity, in consequence of which a great number of Indians have been swept away, but more especially at the Doctor's place where he attended upon the Indians. About 30 souls, of the Cayuse tribe died, one after another, who eventually believed the Doctor poisoned them, and in which opinion they were unfortunately confirmed by one of the Doctor's party. As far as I have been able to learn, this has been the sole cause of the dreadful butchery. In order to satisfy any doubt on that point, it is reported that they requested the Doctor to administer medicine to three of their friends, two of whom were really sick, but the third only feigning illness, and that the three were corpses next morning. After they were buried, and while the Doctor's men were employed slaughtering an ox, the Indians came one by one to his house, with their arms concealed under their blankets and being all assembled, commenced firing on those slaughtering the animal, and in a moment the Doctor's house was surrounded. The Doctor
  33. 33. and a young lad brought up by himself, were shot in the house. His lady, Mr. Rogers and the children had taken refuge in the garret, but were dragged down and dispatched (excepting the children) outside, where their bodies were left exposed. It is reported that it was not their intention to kill Mr. Rogers, in consequence of an avowal to the following effect, which he is said to have made, and which nothing but a desire to save his life could have prompted him to do so. He said, `I was one evening lying down and I overheard the Doctor telling Rev. Mr. Spaulding that it was best you should be all poisoned at once, but that the latter told him it was best to continue slowly and cautiously, and between this and spring not a soul would remain, when they would take possession of your lands, cattle and horses.' These are only Indian reports, and no person can believe the Doctor capable of such an action, without being as ignorant and brutal as the Indians themselves. One of the murderers not having been made acquainted with the above understanding, shot Mr. Rogers. It is well understood that eleven lives were lost and three wounded. It is also rumored they are to make an attack upon the Fort; let them come! If they will not listen to reason; thought I have only five men at the establishment I am prepared to give them a warm reception; the gates are closed day and night, and bastions in readiness. In company with Mr. Manson's two sons was sent a young half breed Lad, brought up by Doctor Whitman--they are all here and have got over their fright. The ring-leaders in this horrible butchery, are Telequoit, his son, Big Belly, Tamsuchy, Esticus, Toumoulish, etc. I understand from the interpreter that they were making one common grave for the deceased. The houses were stripped of everything in the shape of property, but when they came to divide the spoil, they fell out among themselves, and all agreed to put back the property. I am happy to state the Walla Wallas had no hand in the whole business--they were all the Doctor's own people, (the Cayuses.) One American shot another and took the Indian's part, to save his own life. Allow me to draw a veil over this dreadful affair which is too painful to dwell upon, and which I have explained comfortably to information received, and with sympathizing feelings. I remain, with much respect, Gentlemen, Your most obe't hum. serv't WILLIAM MCBEAN N.B. I have just learnt that the Cayuses are to be here to-morrow to kill Serpent Jaune the Walla Walla chief. W.McB. NAMES OF THOSE WHO WERE KILLED: 1. Doctor Whitman 2. Mrs. Whitman 3. Mr. Rogers 4. Mr. Hofman 5. Mr. Sanders (Schoolmaster) 6. Mr. Osborne (Carpenter) 7. Mr. Marsh 8. Jno. Sager 9. Frs. Sager

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