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    1. 1. The Family in the Caribbean
    2. 2. The Family A relatively permanent group  Who are related by ancestry, marriage or adoption  Who live together
    3. 3.  Form an economic unit  Take care of their young. Robertson, p. 49
    4. 4. Other Aspects of the Family  Geography - Location (urban, rural), migration
    5. 5. Culture or Rhythm of Life Identity - Name, Social Class, etc.
    6. 6. Marriage • A relationship, “usually” between a male and female involving
    7. 7. Marriage (cont.) • Economic considerations • Normative sexual activity that people expect to be enduring
    8. 8. Mating Forming a sexual bond with another individual (usually of the opposite sex)
    9. 9. Seven Types of Family Structures in the Caribbean 1. Extended 2. Nuclear
    10. 10. Seven Types of Family Structures in the Caribbean (cont.) 3.Compassionate 4.Visiting 5.Single Parent
    11. 11. Seven Types of Family Structures in the Caribbean (cont.) 6.Blended 7.Same-Sex Parents
    12. 12. The Extended Family
    13. 13. Extended Family – Many families living under one roof
    14. 14.  Familism – the notion that the individual is always secondary to the family’s welfare
    15. 15. Important Aspects of the Caribbean Extended Family  The individual member is often provided with a secure environment  Children are important economic assets
    16. 16. Important Aspects of the Caribbean Extended Family  The cultural traditions are handed down more easily through direct contact with older members of the family
    17. 17. The Nuclear Family
    18. 18. Nuclear - Parents and Immediate Offspring  Formal marriage • Man and woman are legally united • Share the same residence • Share a sexual union (mating)
    19. 19. Nuclear (cont)  Faithful, Long-term • Often well established and enduring • No formal marriage or legal contract
    20. 20. Nuclear (cont) • Live together in a household in mutual agreement based on love and/or shared responsibility • Share a sexual union • Usually last for three years and more
    21. 21. The Compassionate Family
    22. 22. Compassionate Family  Man and woman are not legally united  Share the same residence (usually for three years or less)  Share a sexual union
    23. 23. Visiting or "Friending" Relationship
    24. 24. Visiting or Friendly Relationship  Man and woman are not legally married  Do not share the same residence
    25. 25. Visiting or Friendly Relationship (cont.)  Man visits the woman at intervals, couple often has a child(ren)  Share a sexual union
    26. 26. Single-parent family
    27. 27. Reasons for Single Parenthood 1. Death of one of the parents 2. Separation of one of the parents through conflict, desertion, migration or legal separation and divorce
    28. 28. Reasons for Single Parenthood (cont.) 3. Deliberate choice to rear child in the absence of the other parent 4. Adoption (usually women and rarely men)
    29. 29. Possible Effects of Single Parenthood  Live on one income while being mother and father to the children  Moonlighting
    30. 30. Possible Effects of Single Parenthood (cont.)  Poverty (half of all children with no father live in poverty); may result in dependence on the state  Children may develop anxiety and stress because of the financial and emotional burdens on one parent
    31. 31. Possible Effects of Single Parenthood (cont.)  Fewer resources for health, education and recreation  Absence of love and affection of both parents  Delinquency (double that of two-parent families)
    32. 32. Blended family
    33. 33. Characteristics of Blended Families  Remarried parents and their children  Usually mother marries a man who does not have custody of his children by a previous marriage
    34. 34. Same-Sex Parents
    35. 35. Characteristics of Families with Same-Sex Parents  Several million American gay men and lesbians are parents  Becoming more common  Children in homosexual families   Seem as well adjusted as other children Large majority are heterosexual
    36. 36. Functions of the Family 1. To produce children to replace society's members 2. To meet the essential needs of life 3. To teach children their role in society
    37. 37. Functions of the Family (cont.) 4. To protect and provide security, including from incest 5. To provide all members, including children, with affection and emotional support 6. To create social placement- identity
    38. 38. Mate Selection  Choice Mating ≡ The physical and emotional attraction, as well as the idealization, which generally sees the person in an entirely positive light and fails to recognize negative qualities or traits
    39. 39. Mate Selection (cont.)  Arranged Marriage ≡ Arranged by parents for the social economic and political advantage of the family unit
    40. 40. Love & Male-Female Relationships  Stages of Love • Rapport • Self-revelation • Mutual dependency • Personalityneed fulfillment
    41. 41.  Components of Love • Intimacyfeelings of closeness • Passionromance and sexual pleasure • Commitment
    42. 42. Factors which Influence Mate Selection and Lifestyle  Endogamy ≡ Spouses must be members of the same group (racial, religious, ethnic etc.)  Exogamy ≡ Partner must be chosen from outside one's own group
    43. 43. Types of Life Style  Monogamy ≡ Form of marriage involving one man and one woman
    44. 44. Types of Life Style (cont.)  Polygamy ≡ A marriage which involves more than one spouse at a time  Serial Monogamy ≡ Having more than one spouse in one's lifetime, although only one at a time
    45. 45. Postmarital Residency Patterns  Patrilocality ≡ The newly married take up residence with the husband's family  Matrilocality ≡ The newly married take up residence with the wife's family
    46. 46. Postmarital Residency Patterns (cont)  Bilocality (Neolocality) ≡ A residency pattern in which the married couple form a separate household and live in their own residence
    47. 47. Descent Systems  Patrilineal system ≡ Lineage traced through male line  Matrilineal system ≡ Lineage traced through female line
    48. 48. Patterns of Authority/Dominance  Patriarchy ≡ Father's authority is supreme  Matriarchy ≡ Mother's authority is supreme  Egalitarian ≡ Mother and father share equal authority
    49. 49. Influences from Europe on Family Life and Marriage in the Caribbean 1. A marriage partner should be chosen on the basis of romantic love 2. Dating, courting and marriage should precede the establishment of a family 3. Marriage is “for keeps”
    50. 50. European Influences (cont.) 4. Marriage should be fruitful 5. Sexual conduct is to be limited to the marriage state 6. Monolithic Code- marriage should be monogamous
    51. 51. Influences from Africa & Slavery on Family Life & Marriage in the Caribbean 1. An element of the West African family that was transferred to the Caribbean is patriarchy 2. Extended family 3. Polygamy
    52. 52. African and Slavery Influences (cont.) 4. Marriage should be fruitful 5. Romantic love 6. Because children were the property of their masters, there was no obligation of support by fathers
    53. 53. Influences from India on the Family Life and Marriage in the Caribbean 1. The joint family system (extended) 2. Male domination of the family (father and the eldest son) 3. Marriages are often arranged (romantic love occurs after marriage)
    54. 54. Changes in the Caribbean Family 1. Functions  The state assists in varying degrees with meals, books and transportation  People work in the factories and offices rather than in the home or the fields
    55. 55. Changes in the Caribbean Family (cont.) 2. Size  Greater tendency toward smaller families, especially among middle class
    56. 56. Changes in the Caribbean Family 2. Size (cont.)  Entertainment and leisure provided by age and interests, resulting in families not spending much leisure time together  This has given rise to child-caring arrangements (nurseries, day care centers and paid domestic help)
    57. 57. Changes in the Caribbean Family 3. Family Relationships  Status of Women  More women at all levels of society are finding employment in a variety of occupations  Shared Roles  It is not unusual for fathers to feed the baby, shop and cook
    58. 58. Changes in the Caribbean Family 3. Family Relationships (cont.)  Less Family Time  Due to expanded parental employment outside the home, children spend less time under parental influence and this has often led to delinquency  Intergenerational Conflict  Parents and teenagers often have different expectations, leading to the generation gap and conflict in the family
    59. 59. Reading assignments for Families in the Caribbean:   “Finding a Place for the Slave Family: Historical Anthropological Perspective” by Karen Fog Olwig in Reader I, pp 37-47. Selections from Our Children Now! by the Community Foundation of the Virgin Islands in Reader II.