Screening & Conditioning for Sports Research Model used for the basis of case study Sanctuary, C. Meir, R. & Sadler, I. 2012. The Seven Step Approach to the Application of Sports Science in English Professional Rugby League: Practical Considerations in Strength & Conditioning. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching Vol 7 (1) pp 33 – 44 Step One: Analysis of the Sports Performance Step Two: Needs Analysis of the Team / Individual Step Three: Design of the Intervention Step Four: Implementing the Intervention Step Five: Monitoring the Intervention and Promoting Adherence Step Six: Evaluating the Intervention – Programme Modifications and Analysis Step Seven: Exiting the Intervention
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step One - Needs Analysis (Sport)• The physiological demands of Rugby League are complex, requiring players to have highly developed speed, agility, muscular strength & power and maximal aerobic power (1)• Body mass and excess body fat have been shown to have a negative effect on sporting performance (2)• Body fat for forwards and backs is reported to be similar (Forwards 15.6%, Backs 12.6%) (2)• VO2 max has been reported in the range of 48.6 - 56.4ml.kg.min (3)• A definite need to move quickly to position themselves for attack and defence (2)• Players rarely sprint distances >40m in a single bout (2)• No significant differences have been observed between forwards and backs for 10m speed, Backs are consistently faster over 40m than forwards (4)• The mean 10m & 40m times for professional rugby league players is in the range of 1.71 – 1.83 and 5.08 – 5.66 seconds, respectively (5)
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step One - Needs Analysis (Sport)• Given the highly intense, intermittent nature of Rugby League, repeated sprint ability is extremely important (1)• A time motion analysis highlighted forwards spending 16.5% of game time in high intensity exercise compared to 17% for backs (6)• This study reported every 4secs of high intensity exercise was followed by approximately 21s of low intensity exercise (6)• Rugby League players require the ability to rapidly accelerate, decelerate and change direction (1)• Players are required to have high levels of strength in order to effectively tackle, lift, push and pull opponents during a match (1)• Meir reported significant differences in 1RM squat between forwards and backs (188 v 168kg) and bench press (119 v 113kg) (7)• Greater strength in professional rugby league players has been attributed to neural adaptations that occurs with long term periodized strength and power training (1)
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step One - Needs Analysis (Sport)• Superior playing performance of elite level players is often attributed to greater physiological capabilities (8)• Players also require the ability to constantly execute complex skills under pressure and while fatigued (9)• The significance of high physical fitness levels are reduced if the physiological parameter does not transfer to improved playing performance (10)
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step Two - Needs Analysis (Athlete) Athlete Description • Rugby League (Hooker) • 18 Years • Age Grade Elite Standard • Injury Status: No recent or relevant injuries • Training Status: Three years within RL Academy setting. Sound knowledge of basic principles and strength training application. Olympic lift and derivatives limited (developed during season). • Personal Goals for Season: Increase muscle mass Increase 1RM scores for Bench Press & Squat Improve 5 & 10m acceleration time • Team / Coaches Goals for the Season: Increase of lean mass Increase speed scores across the board Increase strength scores (end of season) by 20%
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step Two - Needs Analysis (Athlete)Activity Frequency DurationTechnical 3 2 x 1hr 1 x 2hrsS&C 4 4 x 1hr
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step Two - Needs Analysis (Athlete) Body Fat 5 FMS Lean Mass 4 3 Yo-Yo 5m Sprint 2 1 Oct-11 Dec-11 0 Feb-12 Vertical Jump 10m Sprint Prone Row 20m Sprint Bench Press Squat
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step Three - Design• Training variation is increasingly acknowledged as serving a key function in successful training prescriptions (11)• Periodization offers a framework for planned and systematic variation of training parameters, in a way that directs physiological adaptations on the training goals required for the sport (12)• Periodized training offers superior development of strength, power, body composition and other performance variables (13)• A major obstacle for coaches working in seasonal team sports is the frequent matches and extended competition period (11)• Team sports using the classic model would taper considerably for the duration of the competition phase which is clearly counter productive (14)• Coaches must take into account the interaction of metabolic conditioning that is performed alongside strength and power training (15)• It has been suggested that undulating nonlinear periodized approaches are more viable when planning the training year for team sports (16)
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step Three – Design (Macro Cycle)It is the merging of science and sweat that will allow athletes to excel (17)• Block One – Hypertrophy (German Volume Training)• Block Two – Strength (22)• Block Three – Strength Speed (20)• Block Four – Speed Strength (22)
Screening & Conditioning for SportsStep Four – Implementation (Meso & Micro Cycles) Week No 6 Day → Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Session ↓ Weight Training Heavy Heavy Medium Rest Speed Light Medium Medium Rest Agility Rest Plyometrics Rest Technical Heavy Medium Rest
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step Six - EvaluationPositive• Sequence of training day (18)• Block Periodized model (19)• Use of Olympic Lifts (20 & 22)• Skill Based Conditioning Games (21)Develop• Monitoring of Training Loads (23)• Loading parameters
Screening & Conditioning for Sports Step Seven - Exit • Professional contract signed • Integrated approach with 1st team S&C • Monitoring of test scores • Off season conditioning plan to be implemented
Screening & Conditioning for Sports References1 Gabbett T, King T and Jenkins D. 2008. Applied Physiology of Rugby League. Sports Med 38(2) pp 119 – 1382 Meir R. et al. Physical qualities of professional rugby league football players: Determination of positional differences. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 15 pp 450 – 4583 Brewer J. & Davis J. Applied Physiology of Rugby League. Sports Medicine 20 pp 129 – 1354 Clark L. 2003. A comparison of the speed characteristics of elite rugby league players by grade and position. Strength Cond Coach 10 pp 2 – 125 Baker D. and Nance S. 1999. The relation between running speed and measures of strength and power in professional rugby league players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 13 pp 230 – 2356 King T. Jenkins D. & Gabbett T. 2009. A time motion analysis of professional rugby league match play. Journal of Sports Sciences 27 (3) pp 213 – 2197 Meir R. 1993. Evaluating players fitness in professional rugby league reducing subjectivity. Strength and Conditioning Coach 1 pp 11 – 178 Gabbett T. 2005. Science of Rugby League Football: A review. Journal of Sports Science 23 pp 961 – 769 Gabbett T. 2002. Influence of physiological characteristics on selection in a semi professional rugby league team: A case study. Journal of Sports science 20 pp 399 – 40510 Gabeet T et al. Relationship between physical fitness and playing ability in rugby league players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research In Press11 Gamble P. 2006. Periodization of Training for Team Sports athletes. Strength and Conditioning Journal Vol 28 (5) pp 56 – 6612 Brown L. & Greenwood M. 2005. Periodization essentials and innovations in resistance training protocols. Strength and Conditioning Journal Vol 27(4) pp 80 – 8513 Fleck S. 1997. Periodized strength training: A critical review. Journal of strength and Conditioning Research Vol 13 (1) pp 82 - 89
Screening & Conditioning for Sports References14 Baker D. 1998. Applying In Season periodization of strength and power training to football. Strength and Conditioning Journal Vol 25(3) pp 23 – 2815 Gamble P. 2004. Physical preparation of elite level rugby union football players. Strength and Conditioning Journal Vol 26(4) pp 10 – 2316 Fleck S. & Kraemer W. 1997. Designing resistance training programs. (2nd edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics17 Meyers M. 2006. Enhancing sports performance: Merging sports science with coaching. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching Vol 1(1) pp 89 – 10018 Gamble P. 2006. Periodization of Training for Team Sports Athletes. Strength and Conditioning Journal Vol 28 (5) pp 56- 6619 Issurin V. 2010. New Horizons for the Methodology and Physiology of Training Perioidzation. Sports Med 40 (3) pp 189 – 20620 Hori N. & Stone M. 2005. Weightlifting Exercises Enhance Athletic Performance That Requires High Load Speed Strength. Strength and Conditioning Journal Vol 27 (4) pp 50 – 5521 Gabbett T. 2006. Skills Based Conditioning Games As An Alternative to Traditional Conditioning for Rugby League Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Vol 20 (2) pp 309 – 31522 Kawamori N. & Haff G. 2004. The Optimal Training Load for the Development of Muscular Power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Vol 18 (3) pp 675-68423 Kelly V. & Coutts A. 2007. Planning and Monitoring Training Loads During Competition Phase in Team Sports. Strength and Conditioning Journal Vol 29 (4) pp 32 - 37
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