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Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems

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This presentation gives a brief overview of the capabilities of software packages known as 'computer algebra systems'. The stress is on symbolic and graphic computations. Maple is used as a vehicle to …

This presentation gives a brief overview of the capabilities of software packages known as 'computer algebra systems'. The stress is on symbolic and graphic computations. Maple is used as a vehicle to illustrate the concepts.

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  • 1. Computer Algebra Systems Dr. V. N. Krishnachandran Department of Computer Applications Vidya Academy of Science and Technology Thrissur – 680 501 1
  • 2. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Outline Introduction Numerical computations Symbolic computations Some popular CAS’s : Maple, Matlab, … Maple in action Maple syntax Algebra with Maple Calculus with Maple Differential equations with Maple Maple packages LinearAlgebra package inttrans package Graphics with Maple V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 2
  • 3. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Introduction V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 3
  • 4. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Computer Algebra Systems A CAS is a software package having capabilities for • numerical computations • symbolic computations • graphical computations V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 4
  • 5. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Introduction Numerical computations V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 5
  • 6. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Numerical computation Example 1 l Let T = 2π g Find T when g = 981, π = 3.14, l = 51.5 . Use logarithm tables or an electronic calculator to calculate this expression and get T = 1.439 . V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501
  • 7. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Numerical computation Example 2 Evaluate the following integral using trapezoidal rule: 1 x 2 − ∫ 0 e 2 dx V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 7
  • 8. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Introduction Symbolic computations V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 8
  • 9. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Symbolic computation Example 3 Solve the quadratic equation: ( a − b ) x + (b − c ) x + (c − a ) = 0 2 Solution : c−a x = 1, a−b V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501
  • 10. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Symbolic computation Example 4 Obtain the general solution of the differential equation: 2 d y dy 2 + p = ax + b dx dx (See next slide for solution) V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 10
  • 11. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Symbolic computation Example 4 : Solution Complementary Function = C1 + C2 e − px 1 ⎛ a x 2 + ⎛b − a ⎞x ⎞ Particular Integral = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ p⎝2 ⎝ p⎠ ⎠ y = C. F. + P.I. V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501
  • 12. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Introduction Graphical computations V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 12
  • 13. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphical computation Example 5 Draw the curve: (ax ) + (by ) = a − b 2/3 2/3 ( 2 ) 2 1/ 3 for a = 5 , b = 3 (See next slide for solution) V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 13
  • 14. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphical computation V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 14
  • 15. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphical computation Example 6 Draw the curve (polar coordinates): r = 2 − 3 sin ( 3θ ) (See next slide for solution) V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 15
  • 16. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphical computation V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 16
  • 17. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphical computation Example 7 Plot the surface: x − y = z 2 2 (See next slide for solution) V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 17
  • 18. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphical computation V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 18
  • 19. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Introduction Some popular CAS’s V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 19
  • 20. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Some popular CAS’s V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 20
  • 21. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Some popular CAS’s V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 21
  • 22. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Some popular CAS’s V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 22
  • 23. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Some popular CAS’s Symbolic Math Toolbox in V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 23
  • 24. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 24
  • 25. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action Maple syntax V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 25
  • 26. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple syntax Operation Symbol Example Addition + a+b Subtraction - a-b Multiplication * a*b Division / a/b Exponentiation ^ (**) a^b(a**b) V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 26
  • 27. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple syntax Math Maple Math Maple sin x sin(x) sin -1 x arcsin(x) cos x cos(x) cos -1 x arccos(x) tan x tan(x) tan -1 x arctan(x) sec x sec(x) sec -1 x arcsec(x) cosec x csc(x) cosec -1 x arccsc(x) cot x cot(x) cot -1 x arccot(x) V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 27
  • 28. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple syntax Math Maple log x log(x) |x | abs(x) e^x exp(x) √x sqrt(x) V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 28
  • 29. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple syntax Example 8 Mathematical expression −1 ⎛ x ⎞ e ax cos (bx + c ) + sin 6 1 + log ⎜ 2⎟ ⎝x +a ⎠ Maple expression: exp(a*x)*(cos(b*x+c))^6 + arcsin( sqrt(1 + log(x/(x+a^2)) ) ) V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 29
  • 30. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action Algebra with Maple V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 30
  • 31. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Algebra Example 9 Expand the following and assign the expression to F: (x − 2 x y ) 2 3 Maple input > F:=expand((x-2*x^2*y)^3); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 31
  • 32. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Algebra Example 9 (continued) Maple output: V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 32
  • 33. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Algebra Example 10 To solve the quadratic equation ( a − b ) x + (b − c ) x + ( c − a ) = 0 2 Maple input > solve( (a-b)*x^2+(b-c)*x+(c-a)=0,x); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 33
  • 34. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Algebra Example 10 (continued) Maple output: V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 34
  • 35. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Algebra Example 11 Solve the cubic equation 2 x +3 x −x +5 =0 3 2 Maple input > solve(2*x^3+3*x^2-x+5=0,x); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 35
  • 36. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Algebra V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 36
  • 37. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Algebra Example 12 To find the solutions as floating point numbers: Maple input > evalf(%); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 37
  • 38. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Algebra Example 12 (continued) Maple output: V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 38
  • 39. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action Calculus with Maple V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 39
  • 40. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differentiation General format to evaluate derivatives: To find ∂ f( x , y , z ) ∂y Maple input: > diff( f(x,y,z) , y ); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 40
  • 41. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differentiation Let us consider the function: f( x, y, z ) = x e 2 ( −z ) ⎛x⎞ + ( 2 y − x ) arctan ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎜z⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Maple input > f := x^2 * exp(-z) + (2*y^3 - x) * arctan(x/z); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 41
  • 42. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differentiation Example 13 To obtain the derivative of f with respect to x Maple input > diff(f,x); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 42
  • 43. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differentiation Example 13 (continued) Maple output: V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 43
  • 44. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differentiation Example 14 To find ∂2 f( x , y , z ) ∂y ∂z Maple input > diff(f, y, z) ; V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 44
  • 45. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differentiation Example 14 (continued) Maple output: V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 45
  • 46. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differentiation Example 15 To obtain the taylor series x (x + 1 ) (x − 2 ) Maple input > taylor( x/((x+1)*(x-2)), x=1, 4); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 46
  • 47. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differentiation Example 15 (continued) Maple output: V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 47
  • 48. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration The general format for evaluating indefinite integrals: To find ∫ f ( x) dx Maple input > int(f(x),x); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 48
  • 49. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration Example 16 A simple example: ∫ (x − sin( x) dx ) 2 Maple input > int(x^2 - sin(x), x); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 49
  • 50. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration Example 16 (continued) Maple output: V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 50
  • 51. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration Example 17 A very complicated integral ax + b ∫ px + qx + r 2 dx Maple input > int( (a*x+b)/sqrt(p*x^2+q*x+r) , x ); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 51
  • 52. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 52
  • 53. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration Example 18 Sometimes Maple may not be able to obtain an explicit expression for an integral. ∫ x x dx Maple input > int(x^x,x); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 53
  • 54. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration Example 18 (continued) Maple output: V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 54
  • 55. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration The general format for evaluating definite integrals: To find b ∫ f ( x)dx a Maple input: > int ( f(x) , x=a..b ); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 55
  • 56. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration Example 19 Evaluate: 1 x ∫ 1+ x2 0 dx Maple input > int(x/(1+x^2), x = 0 .. 1); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 56
  • 57. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration Example 20 Limits can contain π (Pi) and ∞ (infinity) π /2 ∫ x sin( nx ) dx π − /2 Maple input > int(x*sin(n*x), x=-Pi/2 .. Pi/2); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501
  • 58. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Integration Example 20 (continued) Maple output V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 58
  • 59. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action Differential equations with Maple V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 59
  • 60. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differential equations Example 21 First order equations dy x +y=x dx Maple input > dsolve( x*diff(y(x), x) + y(x) = x ); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 60
  • 61. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differential equations Example 21 (continued) Maple output V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 61
  • 62. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differential equations Example 22 Second order equations 2 d y 2 +a y = x 2 dx Maple input > dsolve( diff(y(x),x,x)+a^2*y(x)=x); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 62
  • 63. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Differential equations Example 22 (continued) Maple output V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 63
  • 64. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action Maple packages V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 64
  • 65. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Packages Some packages combinat combinatorial functions inttrans integral transforms LinearAlgebra Linear algebra networks graph networks numtheory number theory plots displaying graphs V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 65
  • 66. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action LinearAlgebra package V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 66
  • 67. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems LinearAlgebra package This is a collection of functions for symbolic computations involving vectors and matrices. V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 67
  • 68. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems LinearAlgebra package Load LinearAlgebra package > with(LinearAlgebra); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 68
  • 69. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems LinearAlgebra package To define the matrix ⎡ 1 −3 4⎤ ⎢ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 3 4⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢−4 ⎥ ⎣ 0 5⎥ ⎦ Maple input >A:=Matrix([[1, -3, 4],[2, 3, 4],[-4, 0, 5]]); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 69
  • 70. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems LinearAlgebra package Example 23 To find the inverse of A Maple input > MatrixInverse(A); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 70
  • 71. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems LinearAlgebra package Example 24 To find the characteristic polynomial in terms of lambda Maple input> CharacteristicPolynomial(A,lambda); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 71
  • 72. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems LinearAlgebra package Example 25 To find the eigen values of A Maple input > Eigenvalues(A); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 72
  • 73. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action inttrans package V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 73
  • 74. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems inttrans package The inttrans package is a collection of functions designed to compute integral transforms like Laplace transforms and Fourier transforms. V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 74
  • 75. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems inttrans package To load inttrans packge > with(inttrans); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 75
  • 76. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems inttrans package Example 26 To find the Laplace transform of 2 −4 t t sin( 3 t ) e Maple input > laplace(t^2*sin(3*t)*exp(-4*t), t, s); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 76
  • 77. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems inttrans package Example 27 To find the inverse Laplace transform of s (s 2 + s +1 ) 2 Maple input > invlaplace(s/((s^2+s+1)^2), s, t); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 77
  • 78. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Maple in action Graphics with Maple V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 78
  • 79. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphics Example 28 To plot the graph of the function x −x+5 3 Maple input > plot( x**3 – x + 5 , x = -2..2 ); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 79
  • 80. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 80
  • 81. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphics Example 29 To plot the surface given by the function f ( x , y ) = sin( xy ) Maple input > plot3d(sin(x*y), x=-Pi..Pi, y=-Pi..Pi); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 81
  • 82. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 82
  • 83. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphics:plots package To use the plots package > with(plots); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 83
  • 84. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphics:plots package Example 30 To plot the curve given by the equation x + y = 3 xy 3 3 Maple input > implicitplot(x^3 + y^3 = 3*x*y, x = -2..2, y = -2..2); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 84
  • 85. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 85
  • 86. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems Graphics:plots package Example 31 To plot the surface given by the equation x + y + z + 1 = ( x + y + z + 1) 3 3 3 3 Maple input > implicitplot3d( x^3 + y^3 + z^3 +1 = (x+y+z+1)^3, x=-2..2, y=-2..2, z=- 2..2); V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 86
  • 87. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 87
  • 88. Introduction to Computer Algebra Systems THANK YOU … V. N. Krishnachandran, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur - 680501 88

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