Recommendations for the development of informal intercultural training itineraries
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Recommendations for the development of informal intercultural training itineraries



Final report, developed within the framework of work package 3 "Definition of intercultural competences to be trained on informal and non-formal environments".

Final report, developed within the framework of work package 3 "Definition of intercultural competences to be trained on informal and non-formal environments".



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Recommendations for the development of informal intercultural training itineraries Recommendations for the development of informal intercultural training itineraries Document Transcript

  • RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMAL INTERCULTURAL TRAINING ITINERARIES Work Package 3 DEFINITION OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCES TO BE TRAINED ON INFORMAL AND NON FORMAL ENVIRONMENTS DELIVERABLE 4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELPMENT OF INFORMAL INTERCULTURAL TRAINING ITINERARIES P4I - PLAYING FOR INTERCULTURALITY. Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES- GRUNDTVIG-GMP This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained thereinThis project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  • TABLE OF CONTENTSI. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 2II. METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................. 3III. REPORTS FROM THE PARTNERS ..................................................................................................... 4IV. MAIN KNOWLEDGE ...................................................................................................................... 54.1 SUMMARY OF DESK RESEARCH .................................................................................................. 5A. SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE ................................................................................................................. 7B. ANTHROPOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE ........................................................................................ 23C. EDUCATIONAL KNOWLEDGE ................................................................................................... 42D. LAW KNOWLEDGE .................................................................................................................... 49E. GEOPOLITICAL KNOWLEDGE .................................................................................................. 62F. PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE ............................................................................................. 67G. HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE ................................................................ 735. REPORT ON SURVEY CONDUCTED FOCUS GROUP ................................................................. 785.1 OBJECTIVES OF SURVEY CONDUCTED FOCUS GROUP ......................................................... 785.2 SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................... 795.3 SURVEY ON FOCUS GROUP ...................................................................................................... 806. INTERCULTURAL SKILLS................................................................................................................ 1056.1 THEORY AND DEFINITION OF INTERCULTURAL SKILLS............................................................ 1056.2 INTERCULTURAL SKILLS FOR THE SOCIAL GAME .................................................................... 1107. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMAL INTERCULTURAL TRAININGITINERARIES ...................................................................................................................................... 1128. BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................ 115
  • I. INTRODUCTION 2The study below is the result and the synthesis of a nationwide survey conducted by members ofthe LLP Grundtvig project called Playing for Interculturality. This work is done as part of WorkPackage 3 of a project that has 7 work packages, each of which is functional with respect to theother.The organization and implementation WP3 was done by the Italian partner CNIPA Apulia and wasbuilt during the first half of 2012.The aim of the project is to create a social game in 3D that would allow adults to learn key skills,playing.This paper aims to define the intercultural skills necessary to the trainers to interact and learn byplaying, culturally and linguistically different adults in informal and / or non-formal, focusing onaspects of interpersonal relationships in pluralism.Furthermore, after a careful examination of the works received from all partners and conducted atnational and local level, the recommendations adopted will be universally valid, but here, usefulabove all to the manager of WP 4 and the entire group of partners, to develop informalintercultural training itineraries to build a social game, thanks to which, hopefully, adults of differentcultures and located in different countries can, thanks to network, interact and learn through play.Key competences for lifelong learning related to the recommendation adopted by the EuropeanParliament and Council 18 December 2006 that part of a process that began following theEuropean Council in Lisbon in 2000 and known as the Lisbon Strategy , which has as its ultimateobjective of making Europe the knowledge-based economy more competitive and dynamicknowledge.Key competences for lifelong learning are: 1. Communication in the mother tongue; 2. Communication in foreign languages; 3. Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology; 4. Digital competence; 5. Learning to learn; 6. Social and civic competences; 7. Spirit of initiative and entrepreneurship; 8. Cultural awareness and expression.
  • II. METHODOLOGY 3To develop the research Guidelines were drawn up "THEORY OF SOCIAL GAMING DEVICES:Intercultural MEETING" to which all the Project Partners have referred. It’s been asked everyone tolead:A Research Desk that each partner has carried out in their own country to: a. Understand the phenomenon of interculturality and its dynamics and futuredevelopments; b. Determine what skills are necessary for intercultural trainers to be able to transferknowledge (key competences) to teach at informal and non-formal level.A review on the Focus Group aimed at understanding the popularity of the product that you willcreate and define, then, the recommendations to be given to the partnership to continue thework.Some deadlines were established to send material to the WP3 leader. The paper material,collected inside pre-elaborated.
  • III. REPORTS FROM THE PARTNERS 4The works received by Partners with which we produced this text, can be consulted in web site forfurther deepenings, and are listed and explained here below: P1 - INVESLAN and P2 - EIMD (ES)The two Spanish Partners collaborated to realize a Spanish Desk Research and a study on the FocusGroup lead on 6 adults. The work contains considerations and recommendations. P3 - SQLearn (GR)The Greek partner has agreed with the Leader of WP3 a study entitled Intercultural ABOUTLEARNING & SKILLS IN AN INFORMAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT COMETENCES - INPUT FOR GAMEDESIGN. To do this he enlisted the help of the British partner. The paper is accompanied by a focusgroup conducted on a sample of 10 adult trainers. P4 - C.N.I.P.A. PUGLIA (IT)Leader of Wp3, they lead a deepened and detailed Desk Research and an study on a FocusGroup of 15 adults from different ethnic groups. The study is complete and containsrecommendations, content and conclusions. P5 - SOCIEDADE PORTUGUESA DE INOVACAO (PT)They realized a deepened Desk Research on the composition of the population of Portugal. P6 - I.N.C.S.M.P.S. (RO)The Rumanian Partner realized a detailed National Desk Research. The work contains remarks andrecommendations. P7 - LEARNit3D (UK)They collaborated with the Greek Partner to realize the study entitled: LEARNING ABOUTINTERCULTURAL SKILLS & COMPETENCES IN AN INFORMAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT – INPUT FORGAME DESIGN. Desk Research and a study on a Focus Group of 10 adults.
  • IV. MAIN KNOWLEDGE 54.1 SUMMARY OF DESK RESEARCHEurope today counts more than 13 million migrants so the issue of integration into a unified politicalvision has become a strategic priority for the growth of society, but also for the European economy.The question, then, is not whether Europe should embrace migration, but rather how it shouldmanage the integration. A set of directions is to develop a common standard of citizenship, whichgradually extends responsibilities and rights of EU citizens to all those who reside there legally. It isworth noting that the EU member states already have plans for common citizenship policies andinclusion, for example, the Treaties of Maastricht and Amsterdam, the Tampere Declaration (whichin 1999 recognized the need for a common policy of Union asylum and immigration), the LisbonAgenda, Thessalonica, the Hague, and the Standards Council of Europe on human rights andequality.There remain, however, differences not easy to reconcile between countries, especially as regardsthe fight against illegal migration. Just remember that the European Council in Seville, Spain in 2002(president in charge) proposed a hard line, which provided, among other things, to cut aid tocountries that do not intend to collaborate in the flow, enjoying the consent of Italy, UnitedKingdom, Netherlands and Denmark. But that option was strongly opposed, for humanitarian andpolitical reasons, from France, Sweden and Luxembourg, eventually leading to a compromise thatrewards countries that cooperate to control the flow, but without penalizing the others.The European Union suffers from strong dynamics in both migratory flows coming from inside andoutside. The data reported above, do not bear the overall situation of Europe, but certainly give anidea of how each country must deal with a phenomenon that also does not have a unified andeffective regulation. From what has been learned, it is clear that migration dynamics over the pastdecade has experienced a strong surge: Italy has reached a 10% of migrants, Spain 12%. Thefinding is disturbing connotations if one takes into account the fact that both countries for historicaland cultural past years did not know the migration phenomenon before. Portugal 4.7% of migrantsand Romania who knows the reverse phenomenon with a percentage above 15% of thepopulation has emigrated abroad. The demographic composition of the immigrant population inItaly sees the prevalence of ethnic groups from North Africa and Eastern Europe, in Spain inaddition to these flows migrants are coming from Latin America as well as in Portugal, theRomanians travel to Italy, Spain, Canada and low percentage in the rest of Europe. This study,however, does not take into account the Chinese.
  • The flows are as sudden as it is inadequate the answer from the EU countries to face thephenomenon with their own welfare policies now outdated. Economic systems persist unwilling toabsorb the massive work power and people are not well informed and reluctant to integration andsocial equality. 6As regards the United Kingdom, its colonial past and its multi-ethnic culture for centuries now,absorbing the phenomenon of migration in a less traumatic.Ethnic groups have lived together for years with history and anthropological structure totallydifferent.The complex problems related to the phenomenon of migration, and more generally, handling ofpeople are highlighting needs to be satisfied as follow:  In social terms, living conditions and access to resources must be provided for the family (houses, use of services for all devices, facilitating ...).  On the structural and belonging, access to citizenship for the children of migrants must be provided, because only then can it be guaranteed full participation, equal rights and duties, identification with the host country.  On the linguistic and cultural level, both devices must be provided to facilitate the learning of the new language - and culture - both moments of recognition, promotion, exchange of language and culture of origin.  In terms of educational inclusion procedures for reception must be made uniform, preventing, for example, cases of "delay", defining devices and resources necessary to deliver effective and targeted responses to specific teaching problems.  in terms of relationship and "interaction among groups", we must act in educational services, in education, in-school gatherings, so that these places become meeting places between childhoods and adolescences, free from stereotypes, closures, mutual distrust.The migration has become a structural element in the European society and intends, therefore towiden over time, until deeply and irreversibly alter the relationship between women and men of theterritory. Everyone has to work and do their part to eliminate the phenomena of exclusion as well asrepresenting high social costs cause repercussions from the human point of view, considerable.
  • A. SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE 7 ITALYIncoming migration is an almost structural phenomenon in Italian society, so it is intended to lastand increase until it deeply modifies the relationships between men and women in the territory.Its stabilization has consequently led to a steady increase in family reunifications and, therefore, thepresence of so-called "second and even third generation" of young migrants in schools, aphenomenon which see, however, a sharp rise in relation to adopted children or born in mixedcouples.According to Istat latest data on 1st January 2011, 4,570,317 foreigners are living in Italy, 7.5% of theoverall population, an increase of 7.9% (335,000 people) compared to the previous year, slowingdown compared to the increase recorded in 2009 (+343,000) and in general the lowest since 2006.The increase of foreign population that occurred during 2010 is due not only to new arrivals but alsoto a positive natural balance of about 73000 units (resulting from 78000 new births compared to justfive thousand deaths). The acquisition of Italian citizenship is decreasing with nearly 66000foreigners. The phenomenon of naturalization, although steadily increasing in recent years (+11.1%compared to 2009), is still limited in our country. To compare, consider that in France only in 2005and 2006, a total of 303 000 new citizenships were granted.The foreign population has a much lower average age than the Italian one, in 2009 minors were932,675 (22% of total) while foreigners born in Italy (the so-called second generation) were already573,000, that means 13.5 % of the overall number of strangers. In particular, foreigners born in Italy in2010 represented 14% of total number of births, an incidence approximately twice the one of thetotal population of foreign residents.Analysing the areas of origin, it can be seen that in recent years there has been a strong increase inflows from Eastern Europe, which have exceeded those from the countries of North Africa, verystrong up to the nineties. This is particularly due to the rapid increase of the Romanian community,in particular in 2007 that has roughly doubled, from 342,000 to 625,000 people and thusrepresenting the largest foreign community in Italy. This is probably due to the entry of Romania intothe European Union which has encouraged the flows and linguistic affinity. Until 1 st January 2011,the Romanians, with nearly one million residents, are the first foreign community (more than a fifthof foreigners in Italy).Beside them, the main foreign communities in Italy are Albanian, Moroccan, Chinese andUkrainian. Until 1st January 2011, about half of foreign residents come from countries of Eastern
  • Europe, in particular a quarter of the countries of the region that joined the European Unionbetween 2004 and 2007.The distribution is strongly non-homogeneous in the Italian territory: 35% of foreigners live in theNorth-west, 26.3% in the Northeast, 25.2% in Central Italy and 13.5%. in Southern islands. In 2010, 8however, as early as 2009, the increase of foreign population was larger in the South than in theCentre-North.Such changes require society to equip adequately to address this new challenge by developingnew initiatives and actions so that our citizens get used to co-living in a cross-cultural environmenton one side and guide and support the migrants on the other side in their way to interact with thehosting society. SPAINFew countries in Europe have experienced such a major change in its demographic configurationas Spain in the last two decades. In 1981 the percentage of foreigners in Spain was 0,5%, themajority coming from other European countries. Between 1986 and 1999 Spain started receivingmore people from Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. In 2001, Spain stopped being a country ofemigration to be an immigration country. Between 2001 and 2012 the percentage of foreigners inSpain went from 3,3% to 12%, changing significantly the social structure of the Spanish society interms of cultural diversity.Immigration in Spain in the last decade:On a first stage, the main reason for that significant increment of immigration in Spain was theeconomic growth and the need for low-skilled work force that Spain experienced at the beginningof the 20th century. On a second phase, in addition to new arrivals, the numbers increased due tofamily reunification.During the last decade the percentage and origin of foreigners has diversified. In 1998, the numberof foreigners from the European Union constituted 41,3% of total residents born outside Spain. InJanuary 2011, the percentage decreased to 20%. The main foreigner groups in Spain in 2011 wereRumanians (895.970, 15% of foreign population), Moroccans (783.137, 13,4%), British (397.535, 6,8%),Ecuadorians (306.380, 6,2%) and Colombians (244.670, 4,7%).The nationalities that have increased more in 2011 are Pakistan (79.626, increased a 13,5%) andChina (175.813, increased a 5,2%).Since 2010 and due to the economic crisis, the percentage of immigrant population is decreasing.As a result some people are leaving the country (going back to their countries or moving to others)and less people are immigrating into Spain. The main groups leaving are Latin Americans(Argentina, Bolivia, Peru) and from other European countries such as Poland or Italy.
  • Another interesting phenomenon currently taking place is that Spain is becoming an emigrationcountry again. The economic crisis being the main reason why especially young Spanish workersare emigrating. 9 ROMANIARomanian communities live with various other ethnic communities, cultural traditions, linguistic andreligious specific. Regions with the greatest ethnic diversity in Romania are Transylvania, Banat,Bucovina and Dobrogea. In areas with less ethnic diversity, Oltenia and Moldova, there is theslightest opening to ethnic pluralism and to the political. Coldest attitudes towards Hungarians inRomania occur in areas where they are least present (Oltenia, Valahia, Dobrogea, Moldova) andthe positive perception of them is recorded in Transylvania. However, the cold attitudes ofHungarians in Romania Romanians to show the areas where Romanians are the least present(Harghita, Covasna)According with Romanian Census of October 20, 2011 the number and proportion of each ethnicgroup in Romania is presented in Table 1. Table 1 Ethnicity number % Ethnicity number % Romania 16,869,81 88,6 Turkish 28,226 0,1 ns 6 Hungaria 1,237,746 6,5 Lipoveni 23,864 0,1 ns (Russians) Gypsies 619,007 3,2 Tatars 20,464 0,1 Ukrainians 51,703 0,3 Others 96,040 0,5 Germans 36,884 0,2 Undeclare 59,186 0,3 d Total 19.042.936During the past one hundred years Romania was predominantly a country of emigration, with arather impressive record regarding the number of persons involved, the outcomes and the varietiesof migratory arrangements. Shortly after the 1989 revolution, Romanias population was over 23million inhabitants. But since 1991, it entered a gradual downward trend, currently reaching about21 million inhabitants- officially (according of 2002 Census) or 19 million unofficially (according of2011 Census’s provisional results). This is due to free movement in the States living abroad, but ratherlow birth rate.
  • Canada has a Romanian community of about 150,000 people (December 2007). Romania isranked fifth in the world among source countries of immigrants to Canada.In May 2009 the Romanian registered at Spanish town halls was over 720,000, of which over 250,000pay social contributions. 10In July 2010, the EU Member States were about 2.5 to 2,700,000 Romanian immigrants. The 2.8million immigrants under observation by the World Bank in 2010, Romania ranks 18 the world interms of immigration.The slow and socially burdensome transition from a centrally planned economy to an effectivelyfunctioning market economy (over the past one and a half decades) has provided anotherimpetus for Romanians to search for employment abroad. Emigration, combined with an ageingpopulation, will likely make Romania turn to labour immigration in the future. Here the country willface considerable challenges, from finding a way of managing – and perhaps reversing – theoutflow of workers to developing policies for managing the reception and integration of largenumbers of immigrants, an area in which it has little experience.Emigration in Romania.About 45,000 foreigners are present in the local labor market, of which about 30,000 workers.The number of immigrants in Romania remains low (10,000 in 2008 to 5 percent more than last year).Total number of work permits issued to foreigners in 2008 was 76,700, up 30 percent more than in2007)1 In May 2009, in Romania there were about 200,000 Kurds. PORTUGALAccording to Estanque, class structure in Portugal has suffered relevant transformations in the lastfour decades, since April 25th 1974 revolution. The transformations can be classified has increasinglycomplex as a result of trade internationalization and geographical mobility between countries andcontinents. New factors of class instability and fragmentation emerged as a result. In a nutshell suchtransformations have been revealed thusly: - Internal divisions between manual labour and non-manual labour and increasing leverage of the latter. - Higher social mobility - Coastal and urban concentration - Lower levels of unionism - Proletarization of the services sector (i.e. call centres) - (Growing) weakness of social movements and collective action.Market and labour internationalization has contributed to highlight structural weaknesses of thePortuguese economy, namely low levels of qualifications and school attainment, high levels of1 OCDE: 2,7 milioane de emigranți români în UE, 12 Iulie 2010,,
  • unemployment, prevalence of work barriers to young people, women and senior citizens, andvulnerable productive structures, traditionally underpinned on labour-intensive, low-payingactivities.The cited transformations have also been unable to alter resource distribution that is means of 11production, qualifications, organizational resources and power.In recent years, weak economic growth, expenditure restraint and structural top-down reform haveresulted in the “narrowing” of the middle class. Contrary to what happened in the 80s, wealth hasonce again concentrated in the hands of business men and top executives, reinforcing revenuedisparities and lowering qualified professional/liberal class. In fact, the recent lingering economicand social crisis have accentuated precariousness and helped generate wider cleavages andinequalities in society.Such negative tendencies have still not been transformed in social conflict. The reason for thisbehaviour can firstly be explained in 48 years of a totalitarian regime, which invested heavily increating a mind-set of conformism and resignation towards the exercise of power. Secondly, thefew years after 1974 revolution, where a “storm of social and political struggle exhausted thepopulation, and rapidly turned to sentiments of frustration and apathy” (Estanque, 2008). ModernPortuguese population place great distrust in political institutions, and are disinterested in anypolitical affiliation or collective intervention.Hence, the current social and economic climate has placed considerable strain in the weakerclasses of society, especially young people and minorities.In the following chapters, social composition of these minorities is further investigated.
  • International migrations and main interpretation modelsTrying to offer a short presentation of the main models used in the attempt to understand the 12migration flows, we start from a faraway period, the beginning of the twentieth century, a periodmoreover that already had many of the structural features of the economic globalization that areconsidered typical of the present era (Hirst and Thompson, 1997).When we wonder who and what creates a change, we focus, following a “macro” perspective,elements- mechanisms working in the social system that means, it is consistent with a view to the“micro” social actors and agents. Even in the scientific study of migration started as early as thenineteenth century, social scientists were divided between those who preferred approaches thatadopted a holistic paradigm (perhaps the majority) and those who adopted an individualistparadigm, while there were also those who have tried to find a sort of mix between the twoparadigms.At the first group belongs the classical view of migration, which considers the individual as homooeconomicus able to rationally calculate the benefits of its location in a different economic andgeographic space (Cifiello S., 1993, p. 156).Moving in the wake of classical scholars such as Marx and Durkheim, this paradigm sees the actoras hyper-socialized and the action as governed by macro-social elements-mechanisms. The mostwidely known analytical tool and applied to a variety of contexts is defined by the dichotomoustype push/pull (in the sense that the choice of migration can be attributed to the dominance ofexpulsive factors in areas of origin or in attractive elements in reception areas) 2. The study ofmigration is driven, in this perspective, by the search of conditions, rules or regulationsdifferentiating the areas of inward migration to the ones of outgoing migration. In an attempt toexplain the dimensions, orientations and trends of migration flows, these researchers usuallyindicate the existing wage imbalances between different geographical areas, differences in theaccess to capital in its various forms (Scidà, 2003); uneven in terms of available technologies;significant differences in both the density and in the pace of population growth, and so on. Forsupporters of the “macro” perspective, one or more of these macro-social factors- mechanismsmay explain the large international migrations in a way that their outcomes, in terms of humanmobility, can be for some aspects foreseen and their developments to some extent controlled.For a long time, therefore, research on international migration flows tried to examine thisphenomenon using economic categories in the framework of a "questioning" concept. Theprevailing reference was to the labour market and the attraction that lead strong economies2The reasons for migrations, therefore, are different and complex and that are both push factors, that can be of economic,political, religious, ethnic, ecological kind and pull factors (Bohening W.R., 1984) due to territories and better living conditions.
  • against the weak and backward, with a consequent flow of poorer areas to richer ones, wherethere is higher demand for labour (Tognetti Bordogna M., 1989, p. 33).According to this theory "it is always the need to use the capital of the country of incomingmigration, which promotes the exodus, and never the need to migrate” (Ferrarotti F., 1988, p. 101). 13The economic law of demand continues to have its validity even if "there is no longer the extensionof labour demand with the possibility of residual occupations for newcomers, but a significantmodification of the same demand itself that shows an increase in jobs good only for incomingmigrants"(E. Pugliese, 1985).It’s interesting, as stated by Ferrarotti (F., 1988, p. 102) to focus on the mode of creation of the offer,on the creation of giant reservoirs of available labour and forced to the more rapid horizontalmobility and vertical mobility by a whole of factors, including political and cultural that end upbeing decisive.Symmetrical and opposite, however, is the theory that belongs to the second group, assuming asonly cause of the migration process, a deep feeling of moral and material hardship, of theindividual or a large segment of the population (Cifiello S., 1993, p. 156). It is important to overcomethe economic condition, which, in one way or another he speaks, living a commodified system,considering the human and existential aspect. This is because migrants are reduced only to labour,a commodity-employment they are judged only according to the usefulness and functionality tothe labour market so they cannot have human problems, which remain the exclusive property ofthose who can afford them. At the bottom you go back to the old edifying discussion whether ornot these barbarians have a soul (L. Perrone,1995).The individualist paradigm, in the wake of sociologists such as Weber and Simmel, sees the actor ashypo-socialized and the action as highly self-interested. This approach sees individual motivationsand intentions underlying the actions of the actor, not necessarily rational or conscious, which leadin our case to the decision to migrate. Analysts, therefore, focus their investigation on reasons of theactor, as well as on diversity, including areas affected by migration flows, as they can offer in thehosting country increasing degrees of individual freedom with respect to political and/or religiousbelonging, to value system and protection of human rights but also, and perhaps prevalently, withreference to the possibility of guaranteeing the actor: survival, autonomy, a social status, comfort,etc.. In an individualistic perspective, mobility is not only justified by differences in levels of wagesbut also (and perhaps to a greater extent) by a higher share of labour demand.
  • Phenomena of migrationThe phenomenon of migrations is old but has reached a consistent size with the creation of modernindustrial society. Since the conquest of America in the early twentieth century, in fact, the 14migration flows are directed from Europe to the poor and overpopulated "new worlds" to beexploited, such as North and South America, Australia and Southern Africa. After the Second WorldWar, however, the direction of these flows was reversed. Italy itself becomes from a land ofoutgoing migration, a land of inward migration.In the last two decades our society has been characterized by deep social and cultural changesthat have increased its complexity (A. Perucca, 1998, p. 11-29). The ability to move capitals andgoods in a sudden way, looks like one of the phenomena that characterize, in a significant way,the modern and postmodern society.Emerging phenomena of new multi-cultural co-habitationWhen Italy "realizes" that it is a country of inward migration and not only outgoing migrants, with thewell-known delays and negative effects, the expert Italian outgoing migrants are the ones whostudy the phenomenon of inward migration. We already defined this phenomenon, on otheroccasions, to be "affected with strabismus": to see the present time through the eyes of the past [L.Perrone, 1995].No doubt that the new studies on incoming migration are entitled to a scientific and culturalheritage of respect, derived from extensive studies on migration, but also inherit some defects, suchas the confusion of historical periods and the projection of past methods on the present. Despitethe changed international and national scenarios (from fordism to post-fordism) [L. Perrone, 2005],this structural element is often overlooked and is used for proposals out of time.Either we keep talking about models (assimilationist or integrationist), in a reality that clearly needsto plow new grounds, perhaps through the new practice of "good practices" in search ofsomething feasible, practicable and consolidate. We no longer have monocultural flows, butpolycentric and multicultural flows.3.One indicator of this difficulty is the wrong use of some words. An all-Italian situation which is notfound elsewhere, from the old countries of migration, where these terms were created andstructured in time. Words with a long history, therefore, disregarded in Italy.Terms such as integration or assimilation have a location and a history that cannot be forgotten, ashappens in Italy4. So this is true for words like trans-cultural, multicultural or intercultural, used3 In Italy, according to the most reliable data, we have migrants coming from 402 different countries [Caritas-Roma, 2010].An un common phenomenon that pushes us not to search for models [Perrone L., ibidem].4 The Assimilation (French model) was demonized, while the integration (English model) is proposed as a model in everyinstitutional document.
  • interchangeably, despite their different meaning. This is not a semantic matter but a philosophicalone highlighting the confusion created in Italy by migration. Associations are very important in thissituation. Nevertheless only recently the migrants have had access to some fields that oncebelonged only to the Italians. A delay due to the type of migration that has affected Italy and the 15non-recognition of qualifications, which allowed the under-acknowledge of migrants in marginaland underpaid jobs.In Italy migrants do not speak, others speak about them and in the best cases they talk aboutthemselves. This lead to have jobs and proposals despite their participation, or we see thatdiscussion about migrants that made the old topic of outsider and insider emerging, and even thisone was discussed more abroad than in Italy [Perrone L., ibidem].Being absent, or (currently) with a limited presence of the major players, we have, in large part,works of outsiders, mostly living room intellectuals, away from the problems of people concernedand very close to public power (academic but mainly political). People that treats migrants likenumbers, write well paid reports, with many tables, copy and paste of methodological notes andmaybe doing the apotheosis of participatory technique. They are unable to grasp social reality,because the participatory cultural scripts are absent from their vivid minds. Actually they write a lotabout migration but they would not be able to distinguish an African from an Indian.Symmetrical to them are the "blacks with a white head", migrants who have understood the gameand are moved by the same categories of having and appearing. at the expense of anyone,migrants or locals.Families and second generations of immigrantsTo define the family has always been a difficult problem. As explained by P. Donati (1995), eachculture has a precise representation of the family so that this term designates a wide range ofprimary social forms that have different relational structures and vary from culture to cultureaccording to different societies and their traditions (Ashen RN, 1974). According to Leclercq (J.,1964), "the family is composed of human beings living in a given country at one time”It is therefore a mistake to think the family institution as isolated from the society, because itcommunicates and interacts with it: there is no society without the family nor the family withoutsociety. Fundamental is the central role that family plays in the migratory strategy of the individualin choosing to migrate and the choice of the one in the family that has to leave or can leave(Scabini E., P. Donati, 1984; W. Dumon, 1993, pp. 27-53).The decision to migrate taken by the individual is the result of a strategy honed in the extendedfamily, according to a selection process that he or she has the "features" to make the long jump orto start a path which can then be followed by family members. Often there is a network ofrelationships in the country of migration, which serves as a place of attraction for the decision and
  • next-business integration. Migrants go away to assure their family an income or to prepare the thesubsequent arrival of family members. Migration is frequent in the construction of a kinship-basedsociety, which produces a protection and solidarity among members of the same community orbetween individuals of the same area, the same region. It forms a substitute family, social, not 16genealogical, the so-called "ethnic niche", often the only relation for the migrants (Scabini E., P.Donati, 1984).Regardless of the model of family, the family that migrates is still a broken family. A broken family,because on one hand their members are located in different countries, on the other new styles oflife that accompany the migration cause fractures, contrasts with the culture of origin and thepattern of extended family, tradition . The migrating family is a family that is between a family whois afraid of losing their roots, or in an opposite dynamic, in a process of forced acculturation, cuttingits roots in a violent manner with often devastating consequences over time.The migrating family fluctuates, therefore, between "memory", understood as a reminder of its past,and "project", which is a set of expectations for the future, giving rise to that particular conditiondefined by Perotti "dynamic feel" (A. 1994, p. 12-20). The migration requires, therefore, more energyfor the construction and reorganization of the family structures capable of taking into account notonly the family and society of origin, but also the needs of the targeted society while preservingtheir cultural identity, since one of the risks of globalization is the tendency for cultural leveling and,therefore, the cultural uprooting and loss of identity (Favaro G., 1998).The settlement of people in the hosting country follows multiple paths and structures, family re-unions, inter-ethnic and/or mixed marriages with an Italian bride/groom, or couples withoutchildren, “families” living together but not relatives that form a sort of ethnic niche, often only link inmigration. Facing this reality we have to follow a multi-dimensional approach that is not ethno-centric, it’s necessary to approach the culture of foreign families, taking into consideration a seriesof shared visions of the world, meanings and adapting attitudes, coming from the different forms ofcultural organization of the family and the system of values that is below it 5. Scabini and Regalia(E., C., 1993) underline the need to overcome the very frequent stereotype that considers theincoming migrant as a subject without family links, that autonomously manages his/her migrationpath.The topic of migration in a family perspective is a challenge and an ethic and scientific need andthe social sciences cannot avoid to face that. The migrant family is not a very precise object ofstudy, as Bensalah points out: “when we talk about migrant family, we define significant space andtime fields, on one side the one of migration that is the one of separation and departure, on theother side the one of family, that is the one of continuity and links” (N., 1984, p. 238). However, weknow that this is the history of men, “migration” is as old as the world, and because we know wecannot go against the roots of men, today that we have even faster movements and they are5 To deepen this topic cfr. Zincone, 2001.
  • included in a world system that is more complicated than yesterday, we need to constantly re-elaborate our scientific paths. It’s important to have a “social order” where the identities areelaborated starting from the categories of the different, here and elsewhere, before and after. Themigrant, says Ciola, live a new and “combinatorial” experience where aspects of his/her culture 17are mixed with another, to have a new original and unique individual (A., 1997).Migration plansThe situation of fear, short-sightedness gave less importance to the positive effects of migration(cultural, economic, contributing to the social welfare) and to the migrant as citizen with rights andduties. The presence of migrants represent an opportunity to think again and discuss the limitspresent in the Italian Welfare system, social policy, in particular social and welfare policies. Thinkingabout the system of social services we need not only an enlargement of the access but more thanthis a re-organization of the mechanisms that rule the access, because we cannot talk about anoutright inclusion but a selective inclusion, so we have to proceed with a detailed analysis of theinclusion processes to better identify the possible unclear points, the bottlenecks that are usual inthe interaction migrant-service (Tognetti Bordogna M., 1992, pag. 157). In the inclusion strategieswe need to find the mix that can take into account the cultural elements and structuraldiscriminations, because it’s not enough the simple inclusion in the system of services of peoplecoming from the south of the world, but it’s necessary to check the specific conditions of living(Ibidem, p. 158).An appropriate policy must take into account the needs of involved social people, considered asmen in their recent and past story.Starting from a first knowledge of the needs linked to the dimension of the migrationphenomenon, most of problems are represented by the discomfort and the accommodationexclusion, conditions of isolation and marginalization lived by the woman in migration, integrationof minors in society and schools.Since their arrival, together with primary needs (board, lodging and employment), the need tocommunicate, understand and be understood, to know the direction in many unknown placesand different communication codes, is fundamental. Both in the case that the migrant finds ananswer to these communication needs with the people from the same country already includedin society, both if he/she tries to learn the “rules of the game”, communicative and cultural,observing the local people, he/she immediately understands the need to learn.Adaptations and refusals, fluctuations and assimilations towards the country of residence, areconstant elements at level of psychological and social overcoming of conflicts for the migrant.The individual, young or adult, the single worker or the family units are engaged in a research of
  • new balances that is not easy, to escape the condition of conflict that characterizes themigration.The learning of a second language, the professional mobility, the scholastic success, the access toinformation, the contact with local people are some of the fields that need psychic and 18intellectual resources for the migrant.So it’s hard the research of distinctive rights: the possibility to lose the linguistic roots, to have placesand moments recognized to express their cultural identity.If we consider the socio-educational needs of migrants it can be useful, for the planning ofinterventions, establish a sequence of training needs that lead them through the different stages ofmigration. We can identify the reception, inclusion, integration and re-entry needs that are allinterlinked in a systematic way6.It’s above all in the studies about children and migration that the topic of identity is recurring,defines as “hanging on, multi-colour, mosaic, vulnerable…”. Identity that concerns the life andpsychological condition of the human being and the fact of feeling “between”: between twocultures, between two languages, between family expectations and society messages (inparticular the school).Children in migration have to combine messages and different requests, sometimes contradictoryones, that come from the family on one side and from the school and the hosting society from theother side. They have here and now to give value and realize the family projects, justifying in thisway the difficulties of the travel and the hardness of exile but at the same time maintaining thereferences and the links as a symbol of fidelity to the origins and continuity of the family history.On the topic of cultivation process of migrants, Sélim Abou (1981) distinguishes among the processof re-interpretation that is of interest especially for the first generation adults and the process ofsynthesis, that is typical of migrants’ children. In the strategy of material cultivation, because it ispartial, the contents and new attitudes are re-interpreted according to the cultural system of originand invested with “old” meanings.In the second case, the process of synthesis happens when the cultivation is formal and modifiesthe structures of mind and feelings. It deals in particular with the second generation people,divided between home and school, target society and group of origin, obliged to internalize thetwo cultural codes and elaborate the conflicts that come from this.To succeed in this difficult path, to be positively included without losing or refuse their differences,children need a “double authorization”: one from the family and the other from the school and theeducational services.The migrant parents must allow their children to be a little different from the expectations andimage they had, the school has to give value to the knowledge and the origin of the foreign6 To deepen this topic Favaro G., 1989.
  • children, recognize their history, language, “other” references as worth to be known andrecognized.That’s why, two educational partners have to be convinced that the bi-cultural and bi-lingualsituation is a privileged one that has to be supported and valorised. 19Messages, values and daily practices linked to the process of family cultivation, messages, valuesand daily practices linked to the process of cultivation in the educational services and school.So what are the conditions to be promoted to have a real “interaction” involving all the dimensionsof life?On the social level, life conditions and equal access to the resources have to be granted to thefamily (accommodation, use of services for everybody, facilitation mechanisms…).On the structural and origin level, there should be access to the citizenship for the migrants’children because only in this way the full involvement, equal rights and duties, identification withthe hosting country will be granted.On the linguistic and cultural level, there should be not only facilitation tools for learning the newlanguage – and so the culture – but also recognition, valorisation, exchange of language andculture of origin.On the level of scholastic inclusion, the procedures of reception should be homogeneous avoidingfor instance cases of “delay”, defining the tools and resources necessary to offer specific answersand efficient to solve specific didactic problems.On the level of relationship and “interaction among groups”, we have to modify the educationalservices, the school and the moments of extra-school networking, so that such places becomemeeting places between children and teenagers, free from stereotypes, closures and mutualdistrusts.Places of Exchange, mestizo places, “middle earths” that becomes places for everybody 7.The migration phenomenon has become a structural element of Italian society and so it is meantfor lasting and widening in time until it deeply modifies the relationship among men and women inthe territory.Such presences force society to equip itself appropriately to face this new challenge, to betterknow the phenomenon and manage it with appropriate policies, developing actions and initiativesthat lead the citizens towards an intercultural cohabitation.Not understanding that the “movement towards west” – for what it is or represents compared toother historical and political experiences – is a reality that is not a temporary period, would be oneof the biggest mistakes ever. It’s necessary to be equipped with information and evaluation tools,we need “organization”, capacity and will to plan in front of such great sociological events. Interms of cultural dynamic it would be appropriate to plan positive actions in order to make thesociety at ease and go beyond an epidemic racism, contrasting the fear of ethnic and cultural7 Cfr. Favaro G., 1989.
  • news, making them aware of the dimensions of the migration phenomenon, criticizing any idealisticsolution to the problem, as if it was simple to shape - quoting Vance Packard – a “nation offoreigners”. Shaping from practical social interactions an “open culture” does not mean useuncommon harmonic syncretism with superficiality (Cfr. Mauri L., 1992, p. 11). So, it is known that – 20as Clifford Geertz (1974) proved – symbolic and cultural self-referential systems such as the religiousones 8 aren’t static neither unchangeable.It’s possible to think about a social rooting of intercultural elements, communicatively strong, suchas the result of a slow and difficult process, of positive cohabitation of different systems of culturalreference of social groups that live in the same territory and cross the same social places.The current presence of foreign migrants in our country is relatively restrained compared to thewestern European context, so the situation is still manageable.We have the economic, social and cultural potential not to feed perverse approaches to theproblem, not to create scapegoats or xenophobe violent cultures.At the same time we have the strong need to act with rationality – with method – on the effectsproduced by the inward migration phenomenon. This is the task of policy and all the intellectualsthat want to live their time and contribute in a useful way to that (Bourdieu P., 1971, pp. 11-12).The problems of housing and work, law and order, political involvement, bureaucracy, healthsystem management are old problems never solved for local people too. Now they are worse,transforming the impact of the new guests from the south of the world into an hopeless competitionwith limited resources available, a conflict of interests among peoples that cannot have a winnerand a defeated (Micheli G. A., 1992).Offer writes:a further aspect of the inefficiency (of the welfare state) is that it does not delete the causes ofunexpected accidents and individual needs (such as sick leaves, urban disorders produced by acapitalist market of buildings, obsolescence of qualifications, unemployment and so on) butcompensate (partly) to the consequences of such events (offering health services and assurancesin case of illness, housing benefits, possibility to be trained and re-trained, unemployment benefitsand so on). In general, the most characteristic social intervention of the Welfare State in Italy is “toolate” and so the procedures are more expensive and less efficient than an “exact” interventionwould be (Offe C., 1977).We need to redefine the rules for a social cohabitation of different groups.We need to explicitly say what is in our social system the cornerstone of the habeas corpus, theuntouchable rights of citizenship, and the different laws that are comparable and can be appliedto temporary and stable foreigners, hosts and hosting people (Micheli G. A., 1992, p. 20).We need to foresee what is unforeseeable, underlining what are the reasonable criteria ofcohabitation that can be applied without perverse effects.8 To deepen this topic Bourdieu P., 1971.
  • We need to find right rules to exploit in the best way the anthropological heritage.We need to plan solutions to make the working and production systems more flexible, enablingmechanisms of economic exchange to use at best the possible synergies with different forms ofwork organizations, without distorting their task and wasting their impulsion. 21We need to invent new tasks for the Welfare State, anchoring the guarantees of social citizenshipnot only to the regulation of the system of services but also to the standardization of time, spaceand interpersonal relationships.It is necessary to identify, if any, practical rules of living together to safeguard the cultural andsymbolic identity of minorities resident and minorities guests without breaking the law of the hostingpopulation, indeed enhancing its founding principles.We should, in fact, be able to manage with anthropological sensitivity the impact between asecular and pluralistic society and fragments of religious societies –extolling what is essential in theprinciples of freedom and autonomy of individual consciences and at the same time recoveringthe roots of inherently religious foundations of the society of welfare.The phenomenon of migration brings to reflect upon the basic concepts of the law system in thesociety of Welfare.The old and the new poverty does not produce so much anxiety. The immigrants put radically intoquestion the universality of the system of citizenship of democratic regimes, highlighting the limits ofthe principle of inclusion and strategies to make it operative. The ones who are not included, areexcluded: the formalization of the exclusion is - metaphorically of course - apartheid. Not to beholders of a privilege, that of full citizenship, which discriminates on grounds of nationality is betterto attribute to reasons other than the failure or delay or partial inclusion (Manconi L., 1990).Inward migration is increasingly becoming a structural fact, a social element that runs through ourdaily lives, living places and common areas, changing the cultural landscape, language, ethniccities and neighborhoods. Migrants since some time are "taking root", they are stopping here,beside us, often without having consciously decided to stay. From project and individual travel,migration becomes familiar, involving different people, and asks within the nucleus, and outside toservices, a new type of questions and needs. This makes no longer procastinable a politicalinteraction that might focus on new social actors and actions between them and services for all.Beyond the many meanings that can be attributed to the term interaction, two aspects seem tobe crucial: the interaction does not happen by chance but is the result of a process that must bedesigned, built, maintained, the interaction is a bilateral process, which originates from the manyopportunities for exchange, debate, confrontation between migrants and local communities. Inthis interaction process, destined to radically change places, city services, the migrant family playsa central role from various points of view.What makes blatantly gasping our social policy for the phenomenon of migration is not – yet - thesize of the phenomenon itself, but the speed with which it is increased in recent years combined
  • with the inability of policy makers to give general guidelines for social policy inextricably togetherand finally coherent foreign policy choices.We are, in short, at the right time and in the ideal conditions for building a just and supportivepolicy. It is a matter of "doing" and to recover an ethical thrust towards effectiveness. 22 UKDefinition of numerous ethnic groupsDefining ethnic groups is a complex task and the definitions relating to these groups are perceivedby the research as fluid and dynamic. One source of definitions of UK ethnic groups is the UKNational Census which provides a set of categories which aim to describe the ethnic groups of theUK. The 2001 UK Census, for example, is based on a 13 group classification that includes threecategories of ‘White’ (White British, White Irish, White Other), three categories of ‘Black’ (BlackCaribbean, Black African, Black Other) and Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, ‘Other Asian’ andChinese. There are also categories labelled ‘Mixed’ and ‘Other’ (Finney, 2011: 459). Much of theresearch surrounding such categorisations concur that the meanings and possible interpretations ofthese ethnic group categories are variable and contested and these groupings do not effectivelycapture the ethnic diversity of the UK (Finney, 2011; Aspinall 2000; Burton et al. 2010). There may beextensive diversity within these categories and different ethnic groups are constantly beingdeveloped and formed as people move across and within countries and communities,demonstrating that these groupings are fluid and subject to change depending on shifting social,political and cultural perspectives. ‘Indians’ in Britain, for example, are referred to by the 2001Census as one ethnic group but within this group there exists extensive linguistic and culturaldiversity where hundreds of different mother tongues may require the use of English as a LinguaFranca for ‘Indians’ to communicate with each other. As individuals in India the group labelled‘Indian’ in Britain would belong to varying groups in terms of caste and language (Scott andMarshall, 2009).Migratory PhenomenaMigration activity is generated by a wide range of factors which include work, study, family ties ormarriage and graduate migration (or what is colloquially known as ‘the brain drain’). UK HomeOffice data on entry clearance visas and admissions of those who are subject to immigrationcontrol coming to the United Kingdom for study, work and family reasons show various migratoryphenomena developing in the UK over the last six years. For example, student immigration hasseen a general increase since 2005, rising particularly rapidly in 2009 but the latest visa data for 2011
  • indicate that numbers wishing to study have fallen since a peak in the year ending June 2010.(Great Britain Home Office, 2011). Inequality of opportunity or variations in human capital tend toencourage migration, and this is particularly true in the case of university graduates who may morelikely to apply for study and be less likely to return home after they have graduated if there are 23fewer opportunities for work in their home context. Cost of living, crime rates and highunemployment are also factors which influence migration trends, particularly of graduates(Faggian et al., 2006, p.469).In contrast to this, work-related immigration has fallen overall since 2006 and work visas havecontinued to fall after a slight increase to the year ending March 2011. Family immigration has alsoshown a slow overall decrease since 2006 (Great Britain Home Office, 2011). The number of peoplegranted settlement (i.e. permission to remain indefinitely in the UK) in 2011 fell by a third (-32%) to163,477, compared with 2010 (241,192). There were 177,878 grants of British citizenship in 2011, 9%fewer than in the previous year (195,046), mainly due to 11,399 fewer grants based on marriage (-24%) and 6,606 fewer grants to children related to British citizens (-14%) (ibid). Asylum applicationswere up 11% in 2011 (19,804) compared to 2010 (17,916), with each quarter in 2011 being higherthan the one 12 months earlier. This may be attributed to an increase in applications from nationalsof Pakistan, Libya and Iran. However, asylum applications continue to be significantly lower thanlevels seen in the early 2000s (Great Britain Home Office, 2011). Thus the overall trend demonstratedby these figures is that migration is falling in the UK. There are many social variables that mayinfluence the development of this sort of trend and political change is considered as one of theselater in this report.B. ANTHROPOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGEThe definition of culture determines the condition of intercultural theory: the existence of differentcultures is a fact as well as the presence of different social groups.The concept of culture then changes from culture able to understand the others, not anymoreelite, not enemy of pollòi, not individualistic, in the aristocratic meaning, not grounded on thecontrast between otium and negotium in an economy supported by the work of slaves.The fundamental reason for the crisis of the concept of culture as an exclusive legal term is given, infact, by its instrumental inability to communicate with the other on an equal footing. Theintercultural society requires a different type of culture, a culture that knows how to re-express thecriteria of excellence and the terms of a critical self-evaluation in a mass society and in a worldcharacterized not by the historical diachronic, synchronic process but by the presence of allhumans beings on a planetary scale (Ferrarotti F., 2003).In studies dealing with migration they generically refer to the set of rules, customs, language andreligion specific of a certain population. Further analysis shows that in reality, within what are known
  • as elements of the culture of a social group, it is possible to distinguish between: regulatory andcontent elements and symbolic-formal elements.Regarding the first one, you can say that culture, as a regulatory content system, provides theindividual with that set of standards and reference models under which outlines mental patterns, 24coordinate operations, representations and ways of interpreting reality . The culture as a symbolicformal system provides, instead, those elements that underlie the processes of individualidentification with respect to group membership (Blasutug G., 1991-1992, pp. 93-95).In light of these considerations it is perhaps possible to better understand the ways in which themigrant is part of the hosting society. Firstly, he/she may remain completely alien to the socialsystem and you have the first of the two extreme solutions which had been previously discussed.The only contacts with this system relate to the inclusion in the productive structure and,consequently, in the cultural patterns referred to that are those acquired in the exodus area, whichare stored on a normative content and symbolic-formal level.Particularly interesting are, however, the intermediate solutions related to the way in which themigrant is part of the hosting country. These are characterized by a partial takeover of the cultureof the target society by foreigners, both in terms of content elements and symbolic aspects. Inthese cases, the inclusion takes place only within the structure of production but also in other socialareas.The migrant learns the basic values of the target society, the contents of this culture and,simultaneously, maintains his/her distinct origin and enhances the symbolic elements.Another situation that is verifiable is the complete assimilation and the total adherence to theculture of the hosting society. In this case the migrant takes possession of the regulatory system andthe symbolic system of the social hosting group, thereby erasing its historical memory.An important role to choose the possible solutions plays both the motivations that led to thedecision to emigrate and the attitude of the destination society. In the latter case it is useful to referto the distinction between formal and symbolic elements and regulatory and content elements.With regard to the first, one can say that when the social group reaches a certain degree ofintegration and cohesion, it develops a symbolic system on which are based processes for theidentification of individuals belonging to the group itself. This process involves deep levels ofpersonality, affecting in particular the emotional and affective sphere of the individual. Whenmigrants, people with different cultural characteristics, are starting to be an integral part of thesocial structure of the hosting country, the fear of contamination of their peculiar traits comes outand, ultimately, the loss of their identity. This fear is especially caused by ethnocentrism of Westernsociety, convinced of the leading edge of the civilizing process, thus creating the potential formisunderstandings and prejudices against the other.With regard to culture as content-regulatory system, however, it is possible to say that the societiesby their nature tend to avoid conflict and, therefore, to maintain the rules of conduct, guarantors
  • of social order. Precisely for this reason they set in motion mechanisms that are opposed to radicalchanges in the regulatory system (Ibidem, p. 96).As known, the phenomenon of inward migration and transnationalization 9 create new culturallinks, neighborhood and cohabitation that are inedited compared to the past. The presence of 25people that have different cultural models changes our daily habitat irreversibly. We find on theone hand, the idea of the approval of a general standardization and complete of the differentidentities to what actually manages to play a dominant role, perhaps because they are able todirect instruments for the formation of thought, consensus and behaviour, such as schools ormedia, while, on the other side, we find a kind of tribalism, or absolute exaltation of identityconceived as a closed form in itself and impervious to any other relationship with external reality.Between these two extremes, as opposed for intercultural relationship, but the same for absoluteprinciple, different modes of relationship stretch, which can range from an assimilation of differentcultures, multicultural integration, which cannot resolve the differences by placing them in relation,to the multicultural mix that makes the difference in the new identity, ending with the autonomy ofdifferent cultural identities, which does not imply exclusion relations.You have examples of multicultural mix in terms of various relational dynamics, inter-individual(inter-marriages), regional (multi-cultural cities), economic (TNCs), artistic (creative intuition) or evenas a simple search of personal experience (Bauman Z., 1999, p. 27).It seems evident that the phenomenon of migration cannot be addressed in the local condition ofthe single state but must be attempted to be resolved in light of the issues that we face today,particularly since the question can be undertaken if we construct a political form that, through aseries of horizontal connections, is capable of organizing transnational forms able to establish theeffective implementation of fundamental rights, that means building a mode of politicalunification, which allows a real pluralism, according to what seems to hold together oppositepositions that seems to be the peculiar context of a "new politics", which carries at all levels, fromthe inter subjective to those transnational, being together of self and other, identity and otherness.The identity of the individual presupposes the capacity to become object to itself. Having anidentity means asking the question "who am I?" and this is possible when the subject learns to lookat himself through the eyes of others, taking on the role and adopting significant symbols.Only recognizing ourselves through the others, the individual recognizes himself/herself 10.In social sciences, the issue of identity as growth of the subjectivity and continuity of personality, ina process of change is found in Erikson (EH, 1964-1972), which analyzes the concept in these terms:The key problem is that identity (as the name implies), the ego is able to maintain its unity andcontinuity in front of an ever-changing destiny. But fate often leads to changes in internalconditions, results from the layer of actual existence, and changes in its centre, that means in the9 To deepen this topic Beck U., 1999.10 Cfr. Sciolla L., 1983.
  • historical situation. The identity defines the elastic capacity necessary to maintain constant certainessential models in the processes of change.A sufficiently good identity is then to Erikson characterized by ego strength, its ability to dominatethe environment and the changing nature of the experience. The identity coincides with "the 26subjective sense of a refreshing consistency and continuity" (Erikson EH, 1964-1972, p. 17), with thefeeling of autonomy, with the capacity for initiative, in short with the ability of the ego to developnew and different experiences, while maintaining its centrality and integrity. The strength of identityin emotional-affective and cultural terms is therefore grounded on continuity and ability to acceptchange, to integrate past and present experiences. The identity of every man is defined by its ownhistory and its future, it is the deep emotional response to the emotional and cultural needs thatunderlie it and seek to define themselves.Subsequently, the fields of analysis directed towards the reflection on identity are many. A first basicdistinction can be made between the analysis of identity as predicate of an individual subject andof the analysis of identity as predicate of groups of individuals (L. Sciolla, 1983, p. 13).It is necessary to distinguish among individual identity and collective or group identity11, this lastdefined as the product of the interaction between an autonomous system of symbols and(symbolic and territorial) borders and the expectations, scopes, needs, values of each individual.As Melucci said: The contemporary reflection on identity leads us increasingly not to regard as a"thing", as the monolithic unity of a subject, but as a system of relations and representations. Fromthis point of view, the distinction between individual and collective identity, does not concern theanalytical framework that can be described in the same way, what changes is the system ofrelations which the main person refers to and respect which is its recognition (Melucci A., 1982, p.68). ITALYThe phenomenon of migration in Italy has differences compared to the previous migrationphenomenon in Northern Europe: greater variety of origins of migrants, more various socialcomposition that means more women, more qualified workers, more students, more migrants with aurban background. These last ones are the ones that more than others, not considering the onesarriving with the so called “carrette del mare” (old and unsafe boats used to carry illegal migrants),can afford to migrate both economically and in terms of “idea” of migration. Besides they havealready tested social and cultural changes in their society of origin, under the sign of modernizationor westernization, this meant crisis of traditions, for instance as concerns the relationship betweengenders and family structures and processes of socialization that are “in advance”, and reactions11 Recognizing themselves in a collective identity, often imaginary, the individual subject thinks to guarantee the personalidentity, to protect himself and protect his fellow man by attacks and persecution, real or feared, from rival groups orlabeled as such and, therefore, designed as embodying the absolute otherness.
  • and claims of menaced identities. In practice, thanks to the diffusion of media, the migrant evenbefore leaving is introduced in the life and values of the welcoming society: globalization madepossible to apply this concept to international migrations.The educational project of our society was based on ideals of equality with the purpose to offer to 27all citizens of our country the same tools of knowledge. Equality was born as desire of the individualto be considered, with his/her diversity equal to the others. Equality, paradoxally, must grantdiversity and protect the unique character of every experience. Giving value to the difference,despite all are convinced of that in theory, it’s a very difficult topic in everyday life.The anthropological researches, the present text included, show that most of main values arecommon to different cultures so, considering this point, we have more consonances than conflicts.As concerns the conflict part, that of course exists, it’s fundamental to use methods that are reallycharacteristic of democratic debate and discussion, involving schools, families, associations, mediaand training centres. Interculture is an interdisciplinary field of discussion, involving the whole field ofhuman sciences, proposing a general reading from new observation points, it is therefore asubstantial change in the method and processes of socialization and training.The cultural dynamic is interesting and very fast and complex in recent decades, the phenomenaof diffusion and contact are among those responsible of total or sector upheavals that the traditionof a given culture may face. The tradition as the set of elements forming a specific culture that istransmitted from one generation to another, is not without more or less unaware changes (the so-called "cultural drift"), which is why the tradition is never perfectly equal to itself.To the process of tradition corresponds, for the receiver, the process of in-culturation for whichevery individual assimilates, in a continuum from birth to death, but more intensively in childhoodand adolescence, direct and indirect teachings by the society and culture where he/she isimmersed.Thus, a process begins by which it tends to become, for the acquired line of thought, feeling andknowledge, the part in some way aware of that particular society.The acculturation is the process that leads to the assumption, in whole or in part, of the culturalhabits of another group. Nothing new can penetrate and then settle in the connective structure ofa different culture if the bearers of this do not allow it. The agreement goes through an examinationto which the new person is submitted by those groups, that are the selectors, whose sphere ofinterest he/she falls or through the knowledge he/she has.If the selected element is positive, a process of adaptation begins that has importantconsequences both on his/her constitution, and on other factors which apparently seem different.Any entry does not mean a simple element added to the group that makes a certain culture, but itmeans substitutions, modifications, and a series of reflections even in areas far removed from that inwhich the integrated element is placed.
  • Of course, when you multiply the channels of contact and speed of entry of outside elements as inreal life today increases, it is difficult to trace the mechanisms of integration.Syncretism is then an aspect of the process of positive selection and thus integration in which theforeign element is accepted for its formal analogy with an element forming part of its tradition and 28has thus misled on its meaning, with the result that synthesis is a new thing compared to what theitem was and meant in both of tradition. SPAINAs a result of the immigration phenomenon Spain has experienced in the last decades, the Spanishsociety has become more diverse culturally and ethnically. The fact that 12% of Spanish populationhas diverse origins means that society is more complex, which offers great social, cultural,economic potential as well as some challenges. An advantage that Spain has in comparison toother European countries is that it can learn from good practices as well as mistakes undertaken byother European countries with more experience managing diversity. Regarding language diversity,Spanish is the official language. Besides Spanish, six out of the seventeen autonomous communitieshave other official languages: Catalan, Basque, Galician, and Aranese. However, other mainlanguages spoken in Spain are Arabic, Romanian, Wu (spoken by the majority of the Chinesecommunity in Spain), English, Tamazight, Quechua, and Portuguese.According to the Spanish constitution, Spain is a non-confessional state that guarantees freedom ofreligion and worship. However, the majority of the Spanish population identify themselves asCatholic (73%), although only 14% of them practice it. Other religions practiced in Spain areProtestantism (2,5%), Islam (2,3%), Buddhism (1%), Judaism (0,1%). Around 17% of the populationidentify themselves as non-religious12.Related to religious beliefs and practices, Amnesty International (AI) warns about the increasingIslamophobia and discriminations against Muslim citizens in Spain and Europe in general13.According to the AI’s report, requests to build mosques are being refused and the reasons given forthat are incompatibility with Spanish traditions and culture, which goes against freedom of faithand worship recognized by the Spanish Constitution. The report also highlights cases ofdiscrimination against Muslims in employment and education, especially of individuals wearingforms of dress or symbols associated with Islam. There is a rise of opinion in Spain that Islam andMuslims are not a problem as long as they are not too visible. It’s important to emphasize the greatdiversity and heterogeneity of the Muslim population in Spain, as well as of the immigrantpopulation in general.12 Data extracted from the Observatory of Religious Pluralism, http://www.observatorioreligion.es13Amnesty International (2012). Choice and prejudice: discrimination against Muslims in Europe,
  • Integration policies in Spain vary from region to region. In general immigration policies tend to bedirected towards assimilation of foreign population, more than to promoting social interaction andincorporation of newcomers with equal rights, duties, and opportunities. At the local level, there aresome exceptions such as the city of Barcelona. The city council of Barcelona is developing since 292010 an intercultural program for the city, with the aim of promoting a positive interaction betweenthe citizens of Barcelona: newcomers and natives. This local strategy is based on the idea thatdiversity is a source of dynamism, innovation and growth14. ROMANIARomanias official language is Romanian which belongs to a group of Eastern Romance languagesand is related to Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and, further, with most Europeanlanguages. Romanian is the language with the largest number of native speakers representing 91%of total population, followed by the languages of the two main ethnic minorities, Hungarians andRoma. Thus, Hungarian is spoken by a rate of 6.7% and the Gypsy (Roma) of 1.1% of the totalpopulation. By the 90s, in Romania there was a large community of speakers German, representedmostly by Saxons. Although most members of this community emigrated to Germany, haveremained present in a significant number of 45,000 native speakers of German in Romania. Inlocalities where a particular ethnic minority is more than 20% of the population, that minoritylanguage can be used in public administration and the judiciary. English and French are the mainforeign languages taught schools in Romania. English is spoken by a total of 5 million FrenchRomanian while about 4.5 million, and the German, Italian and Spanish 1-2 million each. In the past,French was the language known in Romania, but recently, English tends to gain ground. Typically,aficionados of English are particularly young. However, Romania is a full member of theFrancophone and in 2006 hosted a major summit in Bucharest of the organization. The Germanlanguage was taught mainly in Transylvania, due to traditions that have survived in this regionduring the Austro-Hungarian rule.Religious life in Romania is governed by the principle of freedom of religious belief, a principleenshrined in Article 29 of the Constitution, with freedom of thought and opinions. [24] Although notexplicitly define the secular state, Romania has no national religion, respecting secular principle:public authorities are obliged to neutrality of associations and churches.Romanian Orthodox Church is the main religious institution in Romania. It is an autocephalouschurch that is in communion with other churches belonging to the Orthodox Church. Most of theRomanian population, 86.7% respectively, was declared as the Orthodox Christian religion,according to 2002 census. Also, major religious communities belonging to other branches ofChristianity than orthodoxy, are represented by: Roman Catholicism (4.7%), Protestantism (3.7%),14 Barcelona Intercultural Plan, Barcelona City Council:
  • Pentecostalism (1.5%) and Greek-Catholicism (0.9%). The Christian population in Romania is 99.3%of the total population. In Dobrogea there is an Islamic minority composed mostly of Turks andTatars. [29] Also, the census of 2002, in Romania there were 6179 people of faith, 23,105 of 11,734atheists and people who have not said religion. 30By the Union of 1918, most of the population of Transylvania was made up of believers of theRomanian Church United with Rome, [30] following the passage of much of the Romanians, bythen Orthodox, the Church of Rome, at the turn of seventeenth century. Catholicism andProtestantism are present mainly in Transilvania and Crisana. For example, in Arad and Bihor highestdensity of faithful Baptist denomination in Romania, they meet in April % (18,407) 3.7% (22,294) ofthe total population of those counties. Also, in Romania there are other religions, such as old-styleOrthodox, Armenian and other similar cult. PORTUGALAccording to the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, 2012), Portugal has a homogenousMediterranean stock, with citizens of black African descent, Brazilians and East Europeanscomprising the main immigrant communities, each containing no more than 100.000 inhabitants.In effect Portuguese multiculturality manifested itself solely on the last quarter of the last century.The return of Portuguese former colonists from Africa and Africans themselves, determined both bydecolonization and a new and growing need for workforce, was a result of a sudden increase inquality of life in Portugal. A massive inclusion of numerous Africans, but also Brazilians, with distinctways of life made evident lifestyles that were never seen before. Up to this point, Portugal was amonochromatic country, where despite the presence of some foreigners, only the cheer scale ofmigration was now able to expose the idiosyncrasies of incoming population and a need to payattention to their specific necessities (Lages & Matos, 2008).In 1990, new forms of migration followed as a high number of individuals from Eastern Europe andBrazil, but also from other parts of the world besides Africa came to Portugal.In 35 years since 1975, foreign migration has not ceased to increase15. Considering foreign-born, itsabsolute number increased from near 108 000 individuals in 1990 to 437 000 in 2006. Its overallweight was in 2006 about 4,1% of total population, a staggering increase from 1,1% in 1991 (Peixoto,2008).The composition of this migrant population is diversified. In 2006, considering a Portuguesepopulation of 10 599 095 hab. major contingents originated from former African colonies (namedPALOP for Portuguese African Speaking Countries) comprising 32,9% of the total, Eastern Europeancountries 19,5%, and South Americans (esp. Brazil) 18,5%1615 This analysis was made in 2008. The recent economic crisis will probably overturn this trend.16 Numbers taken from Immigration Observatory.
  • On average, the immigrant population is young (under 40 years old) and male (54,8%). In fact, thepercentage of senior citizens is extremely low (4,7%) by comparison to general population (17,3%).However, this varies greatly among immigrant groups. Eastern European migration is generally men-based. And Brazilian migration is mostly comprised of women (53%). There are also a number of 31English and Spanish migrants, who have an above than average number of older citizens.Table 2. Total population and foreign born population with residence permit, by nationality, gender and age, 2006. Total H M 0-14 15-39 40-64 65+ G % % % % % % Total Population 10.599.095 48,4 51,6 15,5 34,9 32,4 17,3 Foreign 332.137 54,8 45,2 16,0 54,3 25,0 4,7 Population EU 25 79.951 52,5 44,9 13,9 45,5 33,4 7,2 Eastern Europe 44.950 59,8 40,2 15,0 53,3 31,1 0,6 Former African Colonies 121.423 56,6 43,4 18,3 58,1 20,5 3,1 (PALOP) Brazil 42.319 47,0 53,0 13,0 67,7 17,3 2,0 China 8081 56,3 43,7 21,7 59,0 17,7 1,6 Source: National Statistics Institute, 2007.Immigration growth has had a clear impact in Portuguese population composition. This is especiallyapparent in the number of children born in Portugal to a foreign mother or father. In 1995 thisnumber was merely 2,4%. In 2006, 9,1% of children born had a foreign mother. This translates to10.000 of foreign origin out of a total of 100.000 births (Peixoto, 2008). Moreover these births mainlyhave a PALOP (former African colonies) origin.Families with at least one foreign member are also an indication of the extent of multiculturality inPortugal. The number of marriages between partners of different nationalities has seen a 10%increase. This is especially true for Brazilian women, who have a higher than average number ofmixed marriages.Considering most frequent immigrant groups (Brazilian, Chinese East Europeans and PALOP) profiledifferentiation generally occurs in relation to educational qualifications and professional status(Miranda, 2009). Up to 2006, most African immigrants had low qualifications and worked on low-skilled activities. Asian population had a propensity to hold jobs in the commerce sector, especiallythe Chinese. Brazilians were mostly white-collar workers until 1990. However this year marked a newwave of Brazilian workers who occupied lower paying jobs in hotels, restaurants and commerce.
  • Eastern Europeans had superior qualifications comparative to the average immigrant but alsooccupied low-skilled and low-paying jobs.On the next pages the characterization of the most important social/ethnic groups is furtherdeveloped. 32Brazilian Community and IdentityBrazilians chose Portugal for the motherland reference, historical bonds, common language, acertain perceived familiarity to Portuguese culture and more importantly the fact that an entry visais not required.As a social group there has been a change in immigrant profile. The earlier wave was essentiallymade up of qualified people, predominantly dentists, computer technicians and publicists(Miranda, 2009). The new wave of Brazilians primarily found jobs in construction work, restaurantsand commerce and cleaning chores.Since the colonization process, Brazil and Portugal relationship has been highly complex, and assuch, so have the processes of reciprocal image construction. Both countries are deeplyconnected, but tensions and differences exist. This complexity of common history has affectedrepresentation of the other country as well of themselves (Malheiros, 2007). Both countries areviewed in a friendly and unfriendly light at the same time.In effect, Brazilian immigrants are a clearly distinct group as opposed to other groups, showingclose relations to the Portuguese culture. Even though there are clear distinctions between them,some parallels are expressed through social representations.The way immigrant communities raise their children is not very different from the Portuguese way.However the Brazilian community does arise as the one with more similarities with the Portuguese.First of all, the way they educate children is “little or no different” (Malheiros, 2007, p. 164). As far ashabits and traditions are concerned, Brazilians appear the closest to the native society, especially ifone considers that the majority do not find any difference whatsoever between Brazilian andPortuguese customs. Regarding cultural habits and social values, Brazilians disagree that it isimportant to dress and behave like the Portuguese and that culture valorisation is important toimmigrant integration (Malheiros, 2007, p. 163). This may communicate the strength of Brazilianculture and influence in Portugal, but also the inexistence of compulsion to subordination to thedominant culture.In spite these similarities there are prevailing prejudices and stereotyping, that continue to exist andchallenge intercultural contact.The following table summarizes main assumptions of Brazilians made by the Portuguese. The sourceis still Malheiros. Table 3. Portuguese stereotyping regarding Brazilians (Machado I. J., 2007) (Silva & Schiltz, 2007) Yes No
  • Joyful and good mood 74,7 25,3 Nice and easy going 63,2 36,8 Well-mannered 47,2 52,8 Good professionals 31,3 68,7 33 Competent 30,0 70,0 Serious and hard-working 25,7 74,3 Violence prone 23,7 76,3 Have contributed to drug 33,8 66,2 trafficking Have contributed to 69,6 30,4 prostitution Have contributed to 22,9 77,1 organized crime Source: Lages, M (2006) in Malheiros, 2006.Some authors suggest some “beneficial” stereotyping has been favoured by Brazilians as amechanism of survival and distinction, especially in labour markets (Machado I. J., 2007, p. 173).Such is the case of waiters: the perceived joy, friendliness and affability of Brazilians grant thiscommunity an advantage in the eyes of employers, as they believe those characteristics to be trueto every member. Machado also refers a propensity of this group to live “exotic” lives in the eyes ofthe Portuguese, making the stereotype realize itself. This is especially true in the workplace. Brazilianswork as cultural animators, musicians, dancers and public relations jobs in general – the so called“joy market” (Machado I. J., 2007, p. 173). It is therefore possible to find examples of “Brazilianness”(Brasilidade), which is a collection of stereotyped images: samba, football, sexuality andmiscegenation that ends up governing the conduct of the people involved.So Brazilians are more aware and sensitive about their body, are extroverts, less constrained andmore creative. “The body is an object of cultural materialization, through gestures, dancing,expression of emotions and sexualities” (Machado I. J., 2007, p. 177). And so have a “natural”propensity towards football and sex related occupations, but also activities that involve scam,deceit and untruthful behaviour. Portuguese are “sad”, Brazilians are “joyful”.Women are particularly affected by stereotyping. There is a sort of national imagery that associateswomen to “exuberant”, “sensual”, “easy”. Obviously, these features have negative effects: aspecial quality to break up marriages, a prevalence of sexual harassment, and especially,connections to the leisure and sex industries, particularly evident in Portuguese media’samplification of some prostitution and sexual exploitation cases involving Brazilian women.
  • Despite these stereotyping, most Brazilians claim not to have suffered any source of discrimination.Notwithstanding, workplaces and public and shopping spaces are referred to as places wherediscriminatory behaviour is more experienced.As far as neighbourhood relationships are concerned, Brazilians are viewed as friendly and 34Portuguese normally place no reservations when asked if they would accept a Brazilian as aneighbour.In conclusion, although there are differences between communities and stereotyping, Portugueseand Brazilian maintain close relations, making use of a clear historical, cultural and linguisticcommon ground to share experiences, interact and build reciprocal images. The representations ofthe social and community stereotyping between these two communities place no impediments totheir interaction.Rather, the similarities have been an approaching factor, leading to several processes where thedeconstruction of certain images and stereotypes occur.Thus, Brazilians have a privileged position in relation to other immigrants. Africans, for example, orethnic minorities such as Gypsies, are more clearly subjected to processes of discrimination andxenophobia in society.
  • Gipsy community and identityThe gipsy community (“Ciganos”) is a singular case in Portuguese society. Frequently nomad, 35although being Portuguese born, is very much set apart from the rest of society via their traditionsand community self-closure, particularly brought upon by strict endogamy (Rocha-Trindade, 2001).As an ethnic group it is the most numerous group in Portugal, albeit indecisiveness remainsregarding their actual number. According to different sources, their number ranges somewherebetween 30.000 and 92.000 individuals (Mendes, 1997). In Portugal, ethnic groups identified asGypsies date back to the XV century, representing the ethnic group with longer direct experienceof living together. Nevertheless, it is possible to attest a much higher than normal vulnerability topoverty, marginalization, ghettoization and structural detachment to the labour market.The gypsy ethnic group has a high contrast to Portuguese society (Machado, 2001). This isespecially evident in life and working conditions. As a whole, their members find themselvesstructurally detached in the labour market and frequently pushed to its margins.They generally live outside conventional housing and dedicate themselves to itinerant trade. Therehas been forced sedentarization, induced by the offering of subsidized housing, which has broughta new range of problems, related to new intercultural associations.Adult population is mainly illiterate. There has been an effort to increase school attendance rates,which has insofar reflected solely on the number of 1st grade students, although these children donot remain in school for long.As a result members of this ethnic group have a highly problematic relation to their environmentand society, largely amplified through conventional media. However this group has a clearlydistinct cultural identity and ways of life, commonly misrepresented and looked at with severesuspicion by dominant society.Their identity is mainly based in ethnic filiation, structured around a framework of common values.Older member are revered, marriages are defined according to tradition, respect and love aregiven to children and there is acceptance and even profound respect to “gipsy laws”, defined asof higher value than national law (Mendes, 1997).On one hand, given general lack of studies, the task of profiling this community is harder relativelyto other communities. On the other hand, gipsies constitute a clear “ethnic group”. This is to say,contrasts to other groups are clearly well-defined in three main dimensions: social, cultural andpolitical.According to Mendes, 1997 and Miguel, 2008, it is possible to find the following features ofPortuguese Gipsy’s culture/society: - Portuguese gipsies have a tendency to sedentarization, unlike other groups in Europe. Families aspire owning a house and taking part in a community.
  • - Gipsy families have the domain of a given area, where they generally control trade. - Family business is mainly restricted to self-employment in trade. The wife frequently works together with the husband. Other professions do not allow women. - The seasonal nature of work is a factor to the development of several survival and 36 innovation skills, namely some knowledge of the “underground”. There is tendency to the latter if subsistence (and honour) is in peril. - Spoken language is basically Portuguese, with some added Romani elements (“caló”). - Main social relations are organized inside the family. The extent of isolation towards society as a whole is only equal to the intense bonding inside each family, where cohesion, continuity and solidarity are deeply rooted. - Teenagers and young adults maintain a high level of dependency to the family, even after marriage. - Marriage can be arranged since birth. Endogamy is prevalent. Feminine virginity greatly valued. - Work is viewed as a means of subsistence. However free time is treasured, as an occasion to deal with group issues and further social relations. This is one of the reasons given to regular rejection of dependent work. - Values or skills like responsibility, autonomy, adaptability, negotiation and persuasion are valued and passed on from father to son. Formal education is frequently rejected. - Social mobility is non-existent, particularly among women.Racism, social discrimination or “hard treatment” from dominant groups have been experiencedby most gipsies (Mendes, 1997, p. 34). According to Mendes, sociability spaces like cafés, discos orrestaurants present a higher than normal predisposition to the manifestation of racism. Albeit at alesser level, the workplace, housing and shopping are also mentioned.In such an environment, according to Machado Pais, this group has clear signs of ethnic “closing”where discriminatory behaviours over subordinate groups have the effect of amplifying stereotypesin those groups who use them as tools for retaliation/protection (Pais, 2008).Portuguese Speaking African Countries (PALOP) – Cape Verde community and identityCurrent estimates of Cape Verde (CV) immigrants in Portugal range between 50 and 80 thousand,depending on the source. According to official sources, that number was 55 590 in 2004, withresidence permit.Although generally described as a “community” there is no such thing as there is a wide dispersionthroughout the country. It is however possible to ascertain certain traits that confer some reasoningto the existence of a “Cape Verde immigrant identity” (Batalha, 2008).
  • CV immigrants came to Portugal as early as 1960, mostly comprising middle class educated elites.In 1990, due to a surge in Portuguese economy, a new wave comprised low educated ruralworkers from the islands that had to adapt to a new social and urban environment.First CV immigrants proceeded to construction jobs, where a large work supply was at hand (early 3790s). This wave was comprised mostly of men. Later in the last decade of the XX century, womenfollowed, focusing mostly on unskilled labour, like house and office cleaning. In recent years, suchlabour positions have faced increasing eastern European competition. This is also true as far asconstruction work is concerned.Although CV parents still feel attached to the values and social representations of rural CV society,their children seem to suffer from a sort of identity and social limbo, where the parent’s world isdistant, but at the same time there is no satisfactory space and identity in modern Portuguesesociety (Batalha, 2008).This detachment is enhanced by the fact that most CV immigrants, and their descendants, still livein “social quarters” (bairros sociais) – a collection of under-serviced, state built housing outsidemajor cities. This is partly due to very narrow chances of social mobility brought upon by very lowqualifications, continuously reproduced by high levels of school drop-out rates. Although this is ageneral characteristic of Portuguese modern society, its prevalence in CV individuals is substantial.(Batalha, 2008)The ghettoization of 2nd generation CV immigrants is compelling and evident. Stigmatization andstrong barriers to better paying jobs have even led to a downgrade of CV positioning in Portuguesesociety. This view is often shared by Portuguese mainstream media that view and communicateolder CV immigrants as “poor but hard-working”, “good workers” and “exploited workers” and theirdescendants as “victims of school failure” and “juvenile delinquents”.As Gipsies, there is evidence that CV youths use such stereotyping to build their own vision of self-identity, as opposed to main white Portuguese society. The latter group is viewed as explorers andculprits of an unjust distribution of education and job opportunities. The relation to Africa, oftenused, is nonetheless demonstrably feeble, as linkages to their father’s homeland are very weak anddistant.National integration is thus very difficult if non-existent. Also, social identity is built around theneighbourhood. Some locations are also qualified as a “territory” of these communities – especiallya number of social quarters around Lisbon. Such territories are viewed almost outside nationalboundaries, where inhabitants have a different culture, generally construed as an opposition toperceived Portuguese middle class values. This is the land of “blacks” where rap and hip hop musicis pervasive and outside access is made difficult. There is also the stereotype, reinforced by media,that crime and criminality is rampant.
  • CV communities have however some factors of identification. According to Grassi the Language(crioulo) is the strongest common denominator of CV identity. Other factors are music, food anddancing (Grassi, 2008). 38Eastern European countries – Ukraine community and identityEastern countries migration to Portugal is a recent event. The surge took place during late 90s. Thistimeline is congruent with the fall of communist states in the late 80s and the rapid transition tomarket economy that took place in the 90s, with a subsequent impact on unemployment andwage contrast in western economies.Most eastern European immigration comprises Ukrainian population (80%)17, followed by Russianand Moldavian. Consequently, the following analysis is limited to Ukrainians in Portugal. It is alsobased in a number of inquiries made in Portugal in 2004, destined to understand a “new kind ofeducated immigrants”.Ukrainian immigration is clearly male – a ratio of 4-1, and can be divided between three agegroups (Marques & Góis, 2010): - Young people (up to 39 years). These are dynamic, independent, plan oriented and practical. There is some desire to live the rest of their lives in Portugal, if successful. - Middle-aged (40-49), married with children. Family sustenance and education seem to be the primary reason for emigration. They have a two-edged desire, divided by the will to succeed and live in Portugal and the will to return to their cultural homeland. - Elderly (50+). This group prime objective is to work for five days so as to achieve a minimum level of state reform that grants them a regular life in Ukraine.According to Marques and Góis, they are middle to high qualified population, mostly with 12 yearsof formal education, but presence of individuals with higher education diplomas can reach 40% oftotal population (2002). Hence, compared to Portuguese population, these immigrants have muchhigher levels of education, unlike traditional immigration. However, in general, it is only possible tofind occupations in low-skilled, precarious jobs.This population was (is) very quick to learn the local language, as a necessary step to find work, butalso as a means of integration in local society. Even in cases of short stays, a majority learns how tospeak the language. This is mainly due to own enterprise, but also as an attention to support (freecourses) provided by the immigration authority, such as the “Portugal Acolhe” (“Portugalprovides”) initiative.All the above has had a clear effect on intercultural relations. For instance, there have been manysolid examples of integration, namely bank loan requests with the aim of purchasing a house,which illustrates a clear determination to stay in Portugal and place roots.17 Eastern European immigrants are even referred to as “Ukrainians”.
  • The opinions and perceptions to discriminatory behaviour are varied, according to self-experience,but are definitely related to the extent and nature of relations established with the majority’sculture. Those who mean on staying tend to express deeper evaluations and are generally morefavourable towards dominant culture. 39According to a study by Mendes (Representações e estereótipos face à maioria, 2010), most havea positive or favourable opinion towards Portuguese society. Also, they refer to being viewed in apositive light by society as a whole. “Hard and fine workers and quick learners”, “available”, “donot live on social security” and “have a solid education” are some instances of expressions used todescribe them.However there are perceived negative images to Ukrainians. “Eastern immigrants” are occasionallyassociated to violent and organized crime, labour trafficking, prostitution and extortion; an imagethat has pervaded media content. Contrary to public opinion, this population view themselves asscapegoats for indiscriminate organized crime in Portugal.In fact, there is evidence that immigrants themselves are victims of organized “mediation services”,whose dealings are highly violent and dangerous. They live entangled in complex webs of relationsand dependencies that have arisen as a product of the vast wave of immigrants that came toPortugal in the early 2000s.Another stigmatized information, which is part of the stereotype of “being a Ukrainian immigrant” isthe dependence on alcohol and disorderly conduct.As far as discriminatory experiences are concerned, they are mostly felt in work environments. Thefollowing table presents the perceived discrimination in a few social spaces, and is taken from aninquiry made in 2004 to Ukrainian immigrants in Coimbra, centre of Portugal. Table 4. Discriminatory experiences in Coimbra, by social space. Space % Workplace 41,4% Shops, cafés, public transportation 20,2% Street 17,4% Source: Centro de Estudos Sociais, 2004.Although a high level of similarities is apparent, there is also a certain degree of relational distancebetween Portuguese and Ukrainian immigrants, which seem unrelated to differences between the“Latin culture” and the “Slav culture”. For example, some degree of suspicion still remains that isnoticeable in stereotyped perceptions in the Portuguese and Ukrainian mind-set (Mendes, 2010).Since 2008, as the number of unemployed rose considerably (and immigrants as a whole havesuffered considerably subsequently), there has been a rise in negative perceptions towardsimmigration. Undoubtedly, according to Mendes, there seems to be a growing unease andsuspicion towards immigration and even between immigration groups.
  • The association of the presence of foreigners to an increase in levels of conflict and internalinsecurity seems to be mounting. This is true in particular regarding the problematic relationshipbetween Ukrainians and PALOP, but also the chronic and largely unresolved relations to theGypsies. Also, although no official figures can determine this yet, a number of Brazilians have since 40left the country. Portuguese population in general seems to forget that the presence of immigrantsin the national context has helped the country, namely the contemporary issue of balance ofsocial security accounts (Mendes, 2010). UKCultural insights in relation to uses, habits, beliefs, attitudes, values, ideals in the UKA crucial concept that must underpin any work on cultural insights is the idea of cultural pluralism.This was a term coined by Locke in the early 20th century and was influenced by the work of Boasthat presented culture as a dynamic and ongoing process rather than a defined object (Glassmanand Kang, 2011). Locke also went as far as to claim that race and culture itself does not existbecause human beings have always been mobile and gene pools have always mixed through themovement of peoples (ibid). This mixing of race through natural migration means that cultures areinherently fluid and plural and thus the habits, beliefs, attitudes, values and ideals of nationalgroups are also plural and slippery to define. These are individual, diverse and often linked to otheraspects of identity or social and cultural factors such as how cultures change from generation togeneration (Glassman and Kang, 2011). Having said this, despite Locke’s claim that there is no suchthing as race or culture, groups and communities continue to associate themselves with particularnational characteristics. Cottle (2003) notes that associating oneself with cultural identities enablesindividuals to maintain their sense of self, particularly when they are encountering difference inother people. As people encounter difference they tend to adhere to their own cultural identitiesas ‘emotional and cognitive anchors’ (Glassman and Kang, 2011: 379) and this simply strengthensin-group identity and gravitates against interculturality.The idea of ‘Britishness’ is one that can illustrate discussions above regarding the fluidity ofdefinitions of ethnicity and the idea of culture as a changing and dynamic process. ‘Britishness’ isoften seen as interchangeable with ‘Englishness’ and this excludes other national groups within thatcategory such as Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish. Further strong cultural, regional identities withinthe category of ‘British’ or ‘English’ exist and these include Cornish, Geordie, Brummy, Cockney andScouse. Much research on individual and collective British identities suggests that identities aresocially constructed and that individuals often hold multiple and mixed ethnic and nationalidentities and this is alongside their social identities such as those based around religion, gender,sexuality, social class and disability (Maylor et al, 2007: 6). An important concept which hasdeveloped alongside the idea of ‘British’ culture in the UK is the idea of ‘citizenship’. The nextsection on Education will consider how this concept of citizenship is taught in schools and how it
  • might allow us to understand how culture and identity are construed, taught and learned in the UK.Citizenship has in some cases become a synonym for cultural identity or national identity in the UKand has associations with ‘learning to become British’. In November 2005, the British governmentstated that in order for migrants to naturalise to British citizenship they would have to take an online 41‘citizenship test’, ‘Life in the UK’, which asks them multiple choice questions about particularaspects of national and popular culture. Despite the fact that the citizenship test is required forsettlement to the UK for migrants, there is debate surrounding its validity as a nationwide IPSOSMORI poll (commissioned by Channel 4 the UK news corporation) demonstrated that the majorityof ‘non-migrant’ Britons failed the test. ‘Make Bradford British’, a documentary investigating‘Britishness’, asked a selection of ‘the British public’ three questions from the official test but only30% answered two or more questions correctly (just 4% got all three right) and around a quarter(23%) failed to answer any questions correctly. This underlines the complexity of ‘measuring’ what itmeans to be ‘British’. The same Ipsos MORI survey generated some interesting views on ‘barriers tobeing British’ which demonstrated that language factors were significant in people’s perception ofBritishness but also that language generated confusion over which words to use when talking aboutrace. 54% of people asked noted that they experienced confusion over which words areacceptable to use when describing people from ethnic minorities (See ‘Make Bradford British’, nodate). This is an issue that will be revisited later in this report when the data from focus groups ispresented.
  • C. EDUCATIONAL KNOWLEDGE 42 ITALYThis other is invisible here, as it is when he/she is at home, because in the encounter of culturesthere will always be winners and losers - a centre and a periphery, using two categories proposedby Wallerstein (I., 1978) - it is the law of the necessity status, both for those leaving and arriving, andfor those who must welcome them.Undoubtedly, the Italian society is now considered as multicultural, so the recognition of citizenshipfor migrants is joined to an identity problem, which cannot be underestimated, if you want topromote interactions with respect for culture, rights and duties of the other in a democraticcontext. Acquisition of identity means preserving their "being" and is the result of an activity and aprocess that aims for stability and continuity and assumes the layers of socialization experiences ofdifferent ages. Identity, then, means having a clearly defined personality, a lifestyle that is notmarked by individualism, but based on the knowledge that you are part of a community in whichrespect for yourself cannot be separated from respect for the others .The problem of identity is connected with the one of otherness, as western culture has tended toidentify different ethnic, cultural and social groups arrived and considered as others and inferiorcompared to the dominant cultural model. There is no doubt that this assumed superiority hasreason to exist because of an economic supremacy which constitutes the main source ofattraction for migratory people and has its roots in the colonial period.The basic problem remains to establish what are the cultural differences that can and should belegally recognized by a political society, in other words, the question is whether or not there is aconflict between respect for individual rights and the protection of cultural cohesion social. Theidentity of an individual is part of a two-way recognition between subject / society and culturerefers to the rules of conduct, the values, customs and language to unify or diversify men. Culturalidentity - in a dynamic and relational meaning previously defined - is surely a basic human right,along with the goods of liberty and equality because it is fundamentally linked to human existence,hence the need to define a political dimension of identity that allows the promotion of thedifferences, that means the political recognition of different cultures (Maserati A., 2002, p. 74).Also the changes that migration brings to the identity of migrants are different: cognitive andmicro-cultural shocks, social and cultural networks which migrants create in the hosting country,changes in lifestyles and self-perception, so that the phenomenon of migrations demonstrates thenot exhaustive character of a preconceived notion of cultural identity (A. Dal Lago, 1999, p. 163).
  • However, migrants are often attributed definitions which do not relate to characteristicsindependent of their being, but to what they represent in relation to the usual categories ofreference. Hence the consideration of migrants as “non-people”, individuals that are intuitivelypeople - as living human beings with a social and cultural person - which, however, are withdrawn - 43in fact or in law, implicitly or explicitly in everyday life, with a public language - the status of aperson and their specific tasks (Ibidem, p. 213).The "policy of difference" itself, implicitly invoking ethnocentric criteria as parameters of judgementfor civilizations and cultures, could make everyone equal in the sense of leading to thestandardization. It is thus emphasized the supposed difference of the migrant and confirmed theimpossibility of integration, civil and social equalization to the local people. The essential aspect ofthe universal rights of migrants is also evaded, not only because the cultural particularism isincompatible with the legal and political universalism, but also because it ignores the reality of theactual relations of migrants with political, social and legal institutions.It seems then necessary to switch from multicultural to intercultural as form of recognition andappreciation of differences, able to return to the term "culture" the essentially dynamic and fluidmeaning of relationship (Maserati A., 2002, p. 71).The term multicultural identifies different forms of cultural pluralism. We can identify two models ofcultural diversity18.In the first case, cultural diversity originates from the absorption into a wider state of territoriallybounded cultures that enjoyed, earlier, the autonomy of government. These cultures are definedas "national minorities", which appear as separate societies next to the majority ones and oftenclaiming forms of autonomy and self-government.In the second model, cultural diversity is caused by migration of individuals and groups.When we talk about inter-culture we recall the relational value of individualism and theabstractness of the concept of culture."The ones who say intercultural, necessarily says, giving full meaning to the prefix inter, interaction,openness, reciprocity. They also say, giving full meaning to the term culture, recognition of thevalues, ways of life and diversity” (Nanni A., 1998, p. 49). Intercultural education is not given withoutan "intentional plan", inter-culture does not belong to natural phenomena, but must be "deliberate,caused" and planned. "It is an interference in our psychosocial and anthropological niches"(Demetrio D., 1994, pp.81-82). The role of institutions, educational agencies is crucial, not creating acultural metropolis, if there isn’t an intercultural project in the city. You can create, at best, an“ethnic salad bowl” (melting pot) metropolis but no interaction.Therefore, migration can be defined as an epochal phenomenon that affects not only thedisplacement of millions of people, but that raises huge interest and involve whole continents,requiring policy interventions designed to encourage the overcoming of prejudice and the18 Cfr. Kymlicka W., 1999, p. 167 sgg.
  • interaction of different cultures in a society that is now oriented towards inter-culture (L. Perrone,1998).Two metaphors explain what should be the role of an educational strategy that follows thisdirection: the metaphor of two hedgehogs and the one of the crow. 44“The two hedgehogs are in the nest and they are cold. To try to warm they decide to approach,initially they get too close and so they sting each other. Only after several attempts they manageto distribute the space well and they warm each other without getting hurt. The educationalenvironment is like the nest, where planning the conditions for living together is not always easy butit can be enjoyable and fruitful. A perspective that needs courage, cultural investment andinnovation.The other metaphor says that the crow once walked normally instead of hopping in that weird way.One day the crow saw a bird hopping and decided to imitate him. It tried several times, failed,then tried to resume its pace, but it had forgotten that, too. The risk for "the other than itself" is tobecome like the crow, that forgets his origins, or fails to enter into a new reality, stranger to thefamily and foreigner outside the society. You should realize the metaphor of hedgehogs, namelythe establishment of symmetrical relationships that allow people to negotiate the spaces and theinterests at stake "(A. Jabbar, 2001).On these basis it’s appropriate to build a methodology of intercultural work, that imperativelyimplies itself a policy of empowerment, that supports and reinforces the weak people, in this casemigrants, in every place. SPAINAs a result of the arrival of people from diverse origins to Spain in the last 20 years, Spanish schoolshave also experienced an increase in diversity. The percentage of foreign students has risen from0,7% to 8,4% in the last ten years (according to the Spanish Ministry of Education):42% from Latin American origin, 28% from other European countries, 19% from Africa, and almost 5%from Asia. The majority of immigrants’ children attend public schools.School is a decisive place that lays the foundation for interculturality. However, Spain isexperiencing some difficulties implementing inclusive and intercultural education. According toexperts, there is a lack of knowledge in schools about how to deal with diversity, teachers are badlyprepared for intercultural education, and this poses some difficulties in the diversity managementin schools.Among Spanish population exists the misconception that foreign students lower the educationallevel of schools. As a consequence, those schools are stigmatized and in certain urban areas withmore concentration of immigrant population, native families look for alternative schools for theirchildren (such as private, semi-private), provoking more concentration in public schools of studentsfrom immigrant families.
  • Over the past few years, the Síndic de Greuges (Catalan Ombudsman) has alerted on the risinglevels of school segregation in Catalonia (which could be extended to the rest of the state). A 2008report19 about the topic shows how school segregation is a reflection of urban segregation andalso a result of concentration on some schools of students belonging to groups in risk of 45marginalization, in urban areas where native families don’t use stigmatized public schools,provoking more concentration of students from immigrant descent.Spanish schools used different strategies to manage diversity. One of the most common are“newcomers programs” or special classrooms for foreign students. Those are separated classroomsfor special linguistic learning. There is a debate among experts in Spain about the validity andsuccess of this strategy.Although the popular perception, based on stereotypes and prejudices, that newcomers havelower educational levels than Spaniards, the reality is that some of the immigrant groups present inSpain have a higher level of education than the Spanish average. This is the case of LatinAmericans and Eastern Europeans, whose level of education exceeds the Spanishaverage.6 A study published in 20087 highlights the underemployment of immigrant population inCatalonia, which means the loss of opportunities in human capital and added value fromimmigrants’ competencies. ROMANIAAccording to Article 32 of the Romanian Constitution right to education is ensured for all socialcategories. Multicultural aspect is emphasized also by the possibility of national minorities to haveeducation in native language and religious groups to organize their religious education. Theseaspects multicultural are strengthened by the Law of National Education No 1/2011 which providesfundamental human rights of dignity and of tolerance, the free exchange of views. Also the lawreconfirms that the affiliation to a social group should not influence in any access to all levels ofeducation regardless of nationality, race, gender or religious affiliation policy. And Section 12reinforces the status non-discriminatory and based on lack of xenophobia, racism or chauvinism. Ifaccess to education would be influenced only legislative regulations should not appeardifferentiation in terms of educational level look various social groups (be they structured in terms ofreligious affiliation or that of ethnic group). Any differentiation can be influenced by theparticularities of the type highlighted in witticism "believe and not question" - as used to wallprovides religious element in years when religion was considered to be "opium for the people"The article Ethnic and Religious Groups in Romania – Educational (Co)Incidences20, published in2005, show that there are big differences between the ethnic and / or religious groups’ educational19 Catalan Ombudsman, “School segregation in Catalonia”, Extraordinary report, May 2008, Winter 2 0 05,
  • level. Also in terms of education does not matter just a certificate of an absolute higher. Forexample, the fact that any woman of religion Mosaic from age group 15-19 years not born childrenas opposed to women in the same group age belonging to any other religious denomination,reveals a different facets of educational differentiation of various religious groups. It would be 46interesting to analyze other concept called functional literacy. Criteria splits population, in thisregard would be besides classical writing skills, reading characteristics that can ensure reliableoperation of individual in todays complex society. These additional skills might relate to: -knowledge of a language of movement international - license - skills in use of modern financial(cards bank). Unfortunately there is no statistical information official on the basis of which we cananalyze the level of functional literacy of the population. PORTUGALPortuguese schools have witnessed a growing cultural diversification. In this context schools face alarger task of promoting equal opportunities to all children, irrespective of different backgroundsand cultures, and to instill practices of social justice, solidarity and respect. In Portugal, there hasbeen a growing debate regarding the question of how to deal with the “difference” and theproblem of communication between “differences”.According to Araújo, 2008, formal education plays a decisive role in the process of constructingpersonal identities and responsible and willing citizens. As such, demographic changes derivedfrom migratory fluctuations, need to be realized and reflected by the school in order to be able tolook at society from a minority point of view.Education of immigrant children implies taking into account complex and inseparable socio-economic, cultural, social, psychological factors, which implies the need to adopt appropriateeducation strategies and policies (Araújo, 2008).In Portugal, clear guidelines towards a multicultural approach to education can only be witnessedas early as 1990. At the time public discourse was directed to the right to diversity in schoolenvironments. In 2000, the Ministry of Education had the following guidelines, regarding multiculturalperspectives21: - To better welcome to students of foreign origin or nationals of different sociocultural experience; - To provide teaching of Portuguese, assuming it as a living language, open to interference; - To activate processes that act directly on self-esteem, self-confidence of the “different”, namely activities destined to culture of origin appreciation. - To share knowledge, values, aesthetics and techniques from different cultures, by encouraging reflection on diversity and communality but also prejudices;21 “Orientações do Departamento de Educação Básica (ano de 2000)”.
  • - To approach educational content as a way to convey diversity in multicultural heritage, helping young people to grow on interdependence, solidarity, mediation and active tolerance.Intercultural education in Portugal presents itself as an integrated project with the following 47guidelines: letting children know and live with the dissimilar, enhancing specific capabilities anddiverse talents, preparing for multiple performances, managing the resolution of problems andconflicts, stressing consensus values of the different cultures and promoting mutual knowledge,esteem, and responsible and civic friendliness are the main objectives of intercultural education.For such an ambitious project, specific methodologies need to be prepared in class context,together with appropriate curricula management. Teacher training is also important, and a lot ofschools include intercultural education as a need.Regarding curricula, there is the expression of respect for other people and cultures and therejection of any sort of discrimination, as well as the multidimensional knowledge of culture(customs, language, music, food) of the main ethnic groups in the student’s community. Even incases where cultural uniformity is prevalent, this objective is to be considered.The role of the teacher is central. Reflection over cultural diversity and culture “de-centralization”are qualities that need to be present in order to organize and structure school activities andpromote equal opportunities. This also presents a challenge to getting to know and appreciateminority’s culture and being able to overcome preconceived ideas about students (community oforigin, family, etc.).Conversely, according to Araújo, school practice has not managed to accompany current policyand curricula discourse. Concretely there seems to remain a tension towards uniformization andtradition as opposed to diversification and intercultural pedagogy. Also, most teachers revealslender knowledge of aforementioned Ministry’s guidelines. - As a consequence a series of difficulties normally arise (Araújo, 2008): - Help towards the learning of Portuguese is seldom applied or is insufficient. - There is lack of knowledge of the culture of origin, mainly as a result of a lack of lateral support to the teacher. - There is difficulty in oral communication between the teacher and students of eastern European origin. Written communication is also made difficult in the case of Brazilian students, who “write as they speak”. - There is no consideration or valorisation of cultural differences in school activities.The learning of languages is seen as especially important, but other activities are useful, namelyschool activities involving origin culture valorisation. On the other hand, language can be seen as akey barrier to school integration, together with prejudiced ideas from colleagues.School is thus seen as a major contributor to immigrant families’ integration. But other organizationsneed to be involved in an integrated effort to promote intercultural competences in children.
  • UKHow to face interculturality in the different countries 48Promoting and developing interculturality cannot be achieved by presenting a series ofstraightforward strategies. The issue is complex and is played out against a backdrop of social andcultural contexts, inequalities, global politics and ideologies. Holliday (2011) critiques the notion thatintercultural communication can be easily ‘solved’ by a close investigation of differentpsychological underpinnings, values and forms of communication followed up by ‘training andeducation’ for the interactants (2011: ix). According to Holliday the alternative is to discover morecreative approaches to facing interculturality, approaches which ‘dig beneath the surface’ andget at complex understandings of less recognised identities (i.e. beyond the stereotypes) throughcreative methodologies such as personal narratives, diaries, popular culture and media (Holliday,2011: xi). As discussed in previous sections, like notions of ethnicity and culture, interculturality is amoveable and fluid concept which ‘continues to be a shifting, moving, interacting, multi-layeredcomplexity’ (Trahar, 2011: 38). Although concepts relating to national structures and notions ofnational identity are important and exert an influence on our lives they cannot encapsulate ordefine many aspects of our cultural behaviour (Holliday, 2011). This report suggests from a UKperspective that approaches to interculturality would need to be based on complex rather thanstraightforward representations of cultures and this could be achieved through use of ‘real’ orreconstructed narratives which enable nuanced explorations of ethnographic realities (ibid).Intercultural educationAs mentioned in the previous section, the idea of citizenship has emerged in the UK as a vehicle forintercultural education. This is a phenomenon which is played out in different ways in bothsecondary and tertiary education. Since 2002 citizenship has been a compulsory taught elementfor 11-16 year olds in secondary schools and is part of the English National Curriculum. It is based oncertain key (Western) concepts that are listed as democracy, justice, rights and responsibilities,identities and diversity (see the National Curriculum in England, 2002). The National Curriculumguidelines point to ways that core subjects such as Maths, English, Geography and Modern ForeignLanguages can develop understandings of diversity amongst children. Despite this, a researchreview carried out in 2007 (Maylor et al, 2007) concluded that schools tend to focus on thediscourses of British culture (e.g. social and White British diversity) and religion to the exclusion ofother aspects (Maylor et al, 2007: 5). A number of reports relating to the way the NationalCurriculum on citizenship was being delivered noted that, at best, it adopted a Eurocentric
  • approach. The research also pinpointed teachers’ lack of knowledge of diversity in its full sense(ibid). It was noted that the schools that had developed a more diverse curriculum were more likelyto focus on the ‘global’ rather than ‘British’. They also found that many pupils had a strong localidentity (e.g. ‘being Geordie’) which they perceived as having more significance than wider 49national identities (Maylor et al, 2007).In Higher Education the concept of ‘global citizenship’ has begun to find its way into UK universities’policy documents, into Student Experience Strategies (SESE, Oxford Brookes University) or intoInternationalisation and/or Teaching and Learning Strategies and in these contexts the idea of‘global citizenship’ to some extent encapsulates concepts of interculturality. Clifford and Haigh(2011) discovered that statements made by UK universities regarding aspirations for their graduates(often encapsulated in ‘graduate attributes’) demonstrated a strong commitment to preparingstudents for the workforce and for professional participation in local, national and globalcommunities. However, in the UK universities there was less emphasis on enabling their learners to‘self-develop the ethical and empathetic qualities that will help them become well-rounded,educated, global citizens’ (2011: 113). Clifford and Haigh emphasise the importance of learners’personal development and sense of personal responsibility for others as an integral part of learningin HE (ibid).D. LAW KNOWLEDGE ITALYThe process of politicization of migration policiesThe Italian situation regarding the migration policy changed in the first half of the 80s, not onlybecause of the growth of the foreign population. The main factor is an institutional fact: in 1975 Italysigned the Convention n. 143 of ILO.This is an international convention that Italy had strongly supported, being concerned to protecttheir workers abroad, many of whom were irregular or were subject to discrimination. The Italian lawwill come into force in 1986, more than a decade after the signing of the Convention. This delay ismainly due to two reasons. First, migration was marginal at that time, it did not attract too muchattention: when the law was finally approved, the news was covered by Italian newspapers only ina few sidebars. The second reason is the competition between bureaucracies during the legislativeprocess: at each parliament stage, the measure is continuously changed, reflecting changes in thebalance of powers between the ministerial bureaucracies involved. This long wait is not without
  • consequences for foreigners: in 1982 the Ministry of Labour, in order to push for rapid approval ofthe law, suspended the notwithstanding regularization, then leading to the multiplication of tens ofthousands of irregular positions and thus making it necessary, in 1986, launching the first massindemnity (14). 50The approval of the legislative measure is certainly a significant step in the development of Italianimmigration policies. The law, in fact, reaffirms the principle of equal treatment of foreign workersand for measures to reduce their exclusion from access to social services. The law also introducesprocedures for family reunification, and provides the opportunity to input at the request of aregistered Italian employer. These awards, however, is accompanied by even more protectionistapproach of the new admissions, and totally unrealistic vision of the Italian labour market. All themechanisms for entry are placed on the shoulders of employers the burden of providing evidenceof proof of actual needs of the foreign worker. Although it was already clear that the demand forforeign labour began, however, as even today, primarily by families, small and medium enterprisesand the service sector, the planning procedures and inputs are modelled on a suitable model to afew big companies that wantto hire thousands of workers at a time. At the same time, however, remain largely open bordersItalian - because foreigners can come in a relativelyeasy with tourist visas or arriving from countries for which the visa is not required - and the penaltiesfor employers who employ foreigners in irregular conditions are gradually depotenziate, almostalways in practice and often even in theory. The result is a substantial failure of the policies ofadmission, and a new proliferation of irregular conditions.The approval of the legislative measure is certainly a significant step in the development of Italianmigration policies. The law, in fact, reaffirms the principle of equal treatment of foreign workers andintroduces measures to reduce their exclusion from the access to social services. The law alsointroduces procedures for family re-union and provides the opportunity to entry at the request of aregistered Italian employer. These recognitions, however, are accompanied by an even moreprotectionist approach of the new admissions, and totally unrealistic vision of the Italian labourmarket. All the mechanisms of entry placed on the shoulders of employers the burden of providingevidence of proof of actual needs of the foreign worker. Despite it was already clear that thedemand for foreign labour had its origin, as still today, primarily by families, small and mediumenterprises and the service sector, the planning procedures and inputs were modelled on a modelthat was only suitable for few big companies that wanted to hire thousands of workers at a time. Atthe same time, however, Italian borders remain largely open - because foreigners can come in arelatively easy way with tourist visas or arriving from countries for which the visa is not required - andthe penalties for employers who employ foreigners in irregular conditions are gradually decreased,almost always in practice and often even in theory. The result is a substantial failure of the policiesof admission, and a new proliferation of irregular conditions.
  • However, the problems are not only for foreigners that entered the country after the approval ofthe law. Reflecting the contrast between the administrative structures, the law 943/86 does notreform at all public safety laws, or acts on the circuit of procedures managed by the InteriorMinistry. Foreigners that are regularly present, in other words, remain at the mercy of constant 51administrative changes, relying only on short-term stay permits, which often do not allow them toenjoy the same rights under the law. These two elements - the failure of policies of admissions andthe lack of devices aiming to stabilize and integrate the foreign resident population - are thestructural features of Italian migration policies and are still the main problems of Italian migrationregulations.The proliferation of irregular migrants thereafter engages a new legislative cycle, which in 1990 willlead to the approval of Law 39/90, better known as the Martelli law. This legislative cycle is againactivated primarily by contrasts within the internal political system. In 1989, the Minister of Labourissued a circular authorizing the branch office to resume the practice of individual regularization offoreigners illegally present, along the lines of what had happened until 1982. The Ministeracknowledged in this way the existence of a structural demand for foreign labour, especially in theindustrial North, and the failure of the admission policies pursued. Such decision, however, started arather heated political competition. The Socialist component of the government of that time, infact, decided to remove the issue of migration from the hands of the Minister of Labour,transforming it into a great "national question" that involved the entire government. To this end, thegovernment drew attention mainly on some definitely "progressive" aspects of the measure, such asa new broad amnesty of illegal immigrants and the withdrawal of the geographical reservation forthe reception of asylum applications. The answer to this attempt was a strong and rapidpoliticization of the migration issue. Only four years earlier, Law 943 was approved almostunanimously and without that public opinion devoted special attention to this fact. The law 39/90saw rather strong parliamentary debates, the active opposition of the majority party (the PRI), theobstruction of the MSI (extreme right party) and the social opposition of the parties that werecoming to life in that period (Northern Ligue).The approval of the law came under the spotlight of the media and in the presence of stronglypolarized positions of public opinion. Although the Martelli law is remembered almost exclusively forthe amnesty that followed it, remember that the main framework of the measure was representedby a restrictive reform of entry conditions in the country, in order to meet also the requests comingfrom other European countries concerned by foreigners that, through Italy, arrived illegally on theirterritory. The law 39/90, in fact, introduced visa requirements for almost all the countries from whichoriginated migration flows, re-shaped border controls and attributed considerable importance tothe expulsions, seen as a tool not only to enforce the behaviour of single foreigners, as had beensince that moment, but also as a tool against illegal migration. The effectiveness of these measuresis paradoxically precisely confirmed by the changes that occurred in the processes of illegal
  • migration since the early 90s: illegal migrants began in these years, in fact, to be registered withproper inputs, that until then had been a rarity, and they begin to build an offer of professionalservices to support the irregular passage of the borders. Nor should it be forgotten that less thanone year after the approval of the law, the rules allowed to send back within a few hours 52thousands of Albanian refugees, a repressive operation that is unmatched in the history of post-warmigration policies in Europe. The law 39/90 has certainly shifted the focus of migration policy fromthe Ministry of Labour to the Interior one.This shift, however, did not coincide with a reform of the admission policies or a strategy ofintegration of foreigners present in our country. It is true that the law provides for an annual decreethat establishes a quota of labour inputs required by Italian employers. But these quotas are set atdramatically low levels - one year the quota was even said to be zero - and the ordinances comevery late, sometimes at the end of the year that would have to adjust. Similarly, regularizedforeigners as already regular ones at the time of approval of the legislation, are required to obtainshort term stay permits, affected only a very limited extent from the period already spent in thecountry. Managing such a huge amount of files, which grows significantly amnesty after amnestyends up also to reduce many foreign offices to pseudo-registers, subtracting valuable time to theenforcement of illegal migration, while their management increasingly requires massive doses ofadministrative discretion and the production of an increasing number of Byzantine circular"interpretation".After a short period, the migration Italian system ends up to settle again on the double way ofirregular entries on one side (that means illegal migrants) and the lack of a real process ofstabilization of the already present foreigners on the other side.Reforming the reforms: changes in laws in the 90sThe collapse of the regimes of Eastern Europe - in the Italian case symbolized by the arrival of shipsfrom Albania - nevertheless involved a significant change in the perception of migration processesfrom the Italian political system and Italian public opinion. Until the late 80s, albeit with a lot ofambiguity, migration was primarily seen as a problem of foreign workers. Since the Law 39/90,foreigners are increasingly seen as a reality - migrants or more often non-EU migrants - relativelyundifferentiated, characterized more by the need to "escape" from their country not by thedemand for unskilled labour in the Italian economy. In the alternative, also reflecting the changesin setting migration policies of other European countries, also in Italy migration is seen increasinglyas a problem of public order and defence of borders. Migration, in other words, becomes a majornational issue that makes the journalist use a river of ink. Think about that, for a short time, Italy is theonly European country to adopt a real minister for migration, as without portfolio and ratherindefinite powers. But these streams of ink do not match real effort to consider migration as a
  • structural phenomenon and act accordingly. A specific committee is charged for identifyinglegislative changes needed to arrive at an organic Italian migration policy. The committeesproposals, however, despite apparently enjoy a broad consensus, are doomed to remain a deadletter for many years. 53You might think that the absence of effective efforts to develop an integration policy in the early90s is a result of Italian inexperience in the field of migration, or the need to ensure first a propermanagement of the control system. Such explanations, however, are not particularly convincing.As seen, the Italian migration policies at that time already had a long history, even if expressedmore in ministerial circulars than pieces of legislation. Moreover, the difficulty in recognizing thestructural presence of foreigners in the Italian society is expressed not only in acts of omission, butalso in clear legislative choices made in the mid 90s. We can think about the reform of the ItalianLaw on Citizenship adopted in 1992, so when migration had already become a "great nationalproblem." Prior to 1992, as for almost all the countries of outward migration, the Italian citizenshiplaw was addressed primarily to enable migrants to maintain for as long as possible citizenship of thecountry of origin and descendants of these migrants to be able to acquire it with a relative ease.The previous law, approved in 1912, however, recognized the opportunity to foreigners to acquireItalian citizenship when they were born and grown up in Italy, where they married an Italian citizenor where they spent five years of legal residence in the country.There is no doubt that the law of 1912 required reform measures, because of the strong genderdiscrimination embedded in its standards and the gradual demographic change of the Italiancommunities abroad. The law discussed and approved in 1992, however, is not limited to reformsuch aspects, but introduces a true principle of ethnic preference in the determination of thenational community. First, even the most remote descendants of Italian migrants are consideredpotential "Italians" who enjoy simplified procedures for "acquire again" the Italian citizenship.Secondly, EU citizens can enjoy a greatly facilitated process of naturalization after only four years ofresidence. In this liberality towards the descendants of Italians and citizens of European countries,however, is accompanied by a strongly restrictive approach with regard to foreign residentswithout "Italian" or "European" blood. The latter, in fact, are required ten, compared to the previousfive years of continuous residence, a longer period than the one required by the citizenship laws ofall other Western European countries. Nor is this closure given to the fate: the legislature has in factstressed that reform must be applied also to foreigners who, upon entry into force of the newlegislation, already spent five years in Italy and even to those who had already submitted theapplication for naturalization under prior law. Finally, the legislation provides for applications fornaturalization, a highly discretionary bureaucratic path, where the criteria to accept or reject theapplication for naturalization are formulated in such general terms as to have a very uncertainoutcome of this application.
  • During the following years, the migration policies come into a real shadow. This is not surprising,given the crisis of the political system in those years. Despite the negative economic downturn,however, the Italian economic system continues to express a strong demand for foreign labor, inthe absence of opportunities for legal entry, ends up creating a new layer of illegal foreigners 54present. In 1995, the "technical government" headed by Dini issues a decree that contains bothmore restrictive measures on border control and deportations and a new regularization offoreigners working illegally in the country. Again, this decision seems to reflect more an internalneed of the political system - in this case the difficult coexistence in the majority of the NorthernLeague, Catholic parties and the left – than the trend of migration in the country. From the point ofview of regularization, we can say that the decree Dini was a success, providing further evidenceof the existence of a structural demand for foreign labour: despite the economic downturn and thesignificantly more restrictive provision of conditions for access to the amnesty than the law providedfor the 39/90, the number of foreigners who presented application was even greater than it hadhappened in previous amnesty (248,000 against 234,000). The restrictive reforms, are aimed at avery troubled life: not being converted into law within 60 days provided, the decree must bepresented several times, and the legislature is often required to make significant changes in theplanned measures. Some reform proposals are in conflict with the Constitution, some in conflict withthe law in force, almost all have proved difficult to implement. In the end, it is the sameadministration of the Interior Ministry to press for a return to earlier legislation.The Prodi government, elected in 1996, decided to make a comprehensive reform of the Italianmigration legislation. The reasons for this choice are many. First, its necessary to enter as a fullmember in the Schengen Agreement, coordinating the policies of migration control with thoseimplemented by other signing Countries (18). Secondly, it is necessary to reassure the public opinionabout the states ability to make effective interventions to control such a controversial issue, and tocombat illegal and irregular migration.The Law 40/1998, also known as Turco-Napolitano Law, is the most comprehensive and mostambitious attempt to systematically re-structure the Italian migration legislation. In fact, itsimultaneously introduces a reform of integrated control systems, control of flows and integration offoreign residents. In terms of instruments of control, the Law 40/98 deep reformulates the rules aboutborder control and deportation of aliens unlawfully present, making possible both the immediateexpulsion of foreigners seized in the course of an illegal entry (the so called refoulement by policecommissioners), both in special detention centres for foreigners to be expelled. At the same time,the law sets the preliminary requirements for a better guarantee of the rights of foreigners regularlypresent, making it possible after a certain period, the issuance of a long-term stay permit(residence permission) and introducing the tools for an active policy of the entries through a systemof units determined in a more realistic way than in the past. The law also introduces the possibility ofinvolving the countries of origin and transit in the regulation of migration flows and combating
  • illegal immigration, including the possibility of preferential quotas for nationals of countries withwhich agreements have been established.In terms of deterrent measures, the law 40/98 produced a strong increase in effectiveness withregard to measures to combat illegal immigration: both expulsions of foreigners trying to enter 55illegally in the country and the expulsion of irregular foreigners greatly increased in number, asuccessful cooperation with many countries of origin and transit such as Albania and Tunisia hasbeen established and the contrast against irregular migration has become a priority for police. Italybecame an operational member of the Schengen system, overcoming some fairly full-bodiedresistance of some signatory countries. The implementation of the rules has taken place very slowlydue to numerous legal battles, but especially to the presence of sharply critical positions of someaspects considered as "repressive" in the parliamentary majority.Considering the policy of the entries, there is no doubt that the law actually announced a breakwith the previous Italian tradition, recognizing the need for new inputs and providing realisticprocedures for determining the annual quota of inputs for both seasonal and long-term employees.Through the establishment of the sponsor - a citizen or foreign resident sponsor for the entry of aforeigner without a work contract - the law also recognized the existence of profiles - such asdomestic workers or workers in small and medium-sized enterprises – that only with difficulty anemployer is willing to take "as they are", without the slightest personal knowledge of them (20).These innovations have been pursued, however, in a very shy way. Annual quotas were set at levelsmuch lower than the requirements, and the sponsor mechanism itself was used with aneyedropper. The actual procedures to govern the inputs have also maintained a highlydiscretionary nature and timing of completion were incompatible with the needs of employers.Despite a new amnesty in 1998, a new wide segment of undocumented immigrants was quicklyrebuilt.The main failure in the implementation of the law 40/98 regards the objective to stabilize the foreignpopulation. The government was frightened by his own audacity, and ended up disrupting thewhole spirit of the law just approved. The rules for the residence permission, which were going totake to the carousel of continuous renewals a significant proportion of foreign residents for a longtime (and would have allowed the police to devote more investigative and enforcement activity)have been interpreted by ministerial circulars an a restrictive way and not any pressure against thebranch offices in order to proceed with diligence to the release of this new type of documents waspresent.With hundreds of thousands of foreigners regularly present in Italy for more than five yearsrequested, in June of 2002 they released less than 20,000 residence permits. All others, includingforeigners born and grown up in Italy and foreigners residing in Italy for decades, continue to betreated as if they arrived in the Italian national territory the night before. The centre-left
  • governments have also carefully avoided addressing the reform of the Italian law on citizenship,explicitly renouncing to a long-term integration policy in legislative dictates. 56
  • SPAINSpanish Legislation in relation to migration22: 57The Aliens Act is the name of the Organic Law 4 / 2000 of 11 January on the rights and freedom offoreigners in Spain and their Social Integration, as amended by the LO 8 / 2000.The 14/2003 is the policy governing the entry and residence of foreigners outside the Spanishterritory and the rights granted to them. The law includes the rights and freedoms of foreigners,legal status, and discrimination relating to immigration, disciplinary procedures and coordination ofpublic authorities.Evolution of the Spanish legislation relating to aliens Spain is a country which has experienced muchemigration and therefore legislative data has focused more heavily on this area, while thelegislation regarding immigration is less sufficient.The first attempt to remedy this situation was the introduction of the Organic Law 7 / 1985 of 1st Julyon the Rights and Freedoms of Foreigners. Spain, which would soon join the then EuropeanCommunity, were trying to avoid becoming a gateway to the continent, i.e. several socialorganisations complained that it was the toughest standard in Europe. Reforms were finallyintroduced by Organic Law 4/2000, which remains in place today.Rights and freedoms The general rule regarding the rights of foreign states in Article 3 of the Act,declares that one must exercise the rights recognised in the Spanish Constitution under the terms ofthe Aliens Act and international treaties, successfully performed under Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights and other human rights treaties in force. If there is no specific rule, it means thataliens have the same rights as Spanish citizens.Classification of rightsThe doctrine of the Constitutional Court has defined three classes of rights relating to foreigners.o The rights pertaining to foreign and Spanish persons are based on the same terms, becausecompliance is essential to human dignity. This is the case with regards to the right to life, to physicaland moral integrity, to personal and family privacy, freedom of ideology, religion and worship oreffective judicial protection, among others. In this sense, the law recognises the rights of allforeigners regardless of their legal status, including the right to documentation (which is alsomandatory), the right to emergency healthcare, the rights of children and pregnant women duringpregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. The law also recognises foreigners’ rights in terms of accessto compulsory education, basic social services, effective judicial protection and legal aid.The legislator may, in compliance with a minimum guaranteed by the Constitution, imposeadditional conditions to be exercised by foreigners. The right to free movement, assembly and22
  • demonstration, association, labour, social security, and the right to strike are each permitted toaliens who have legal status or residence. The right to education is not compulsory and housing aidfor families is only granted to resident aliens. - Political rights are exclusively reserved for Spanish people. An exception could be active 58 and passive suffrage in municipal elections, which may be granted the right by treaty or by law according to criteria of reciprocity. Because of the subject matter, it is appropriate to categorise the rights recognised by the general scheme of the Aliens Act into four major groups: - Rights in the personal sphere: the right and duty to possess documentation, the right of free movement, education and family reunification. - Political rights: primarily the right to participate in public affairs. - Rights of the economic and social fields: such as freedoms of assembly, demonstration and association or the right to housing assistance and the transfer of funds. - Rights of the workplace: the right to work, to possess social protection and collective labour rights, including the right to organise and go on strike.Individual rightsThere are certain rights that specifically relate to immigrants or which have a particular regulationor relevance in immigration law. Among them include the right and duty to possess legaldocumentation, the right to family reunification and the right to transfer funds.Right and duty to documentationArticle 4 of the Act ensures the overseas duty of preserving documentation and the right not to bedeprived of it. The documentation this Act refers to is that which establishes the persons identity, isused to enter Spain or to prove their legal status. The required documents may vary and refer to apassport or travel document, Visa or Alien Identification Card. In relation to the identification offoreigners, the documentation also needs to refer to the Foreigners Identification Number, apersonal number which is provided for identification purposes. Documentation may also be subjectto police control. The regulation states that foreigners must show documents proving their identityand status in Spain if requested by the authorities. This duty is based on protecting public safety. Thejurisprudence of the Constitutional Court grants complete freedom to the Security Forces toconsider the necessity of the measure.
  • ROMANIA 59As an EU member, Romania has harmonized national legislation to EU and has a National Strategyfor migration. The Romanian Office for Immigration is a public institution that has as one of itsmission to inform the public about the Romanian legislation regarding the condition for traveling,working, establish the residents in Romania and other information regarding the migration subject.Regarding the minorities, Romanian legislation recognize all minorities and assure their equal rights,All minorities are represented in Romanian Parliament and even more the Hungarian minority isrepresented by its own political party. PORTUGALThe immigration issue only became a central theme in the early 90s, when immigration gainedvisibility and was deemed important enough to elicit law changes.Portuguese State stance in relation to immigrant population was mainly influenced by the signing ofseveral treaties and agreements. Within these commitments, the Geneva Convention, the NewYork Protocol (1967), the Dublin Convention (1990) and the Schengen Agreement are worthy ofnote. A common system was designed with respect to visas, police cooperation and personmovement within the European Union. The Schengen agreement is especially important asliberalizing policies regarding immigrants from 3rd world countries are heavily restricted. Anexception to PALOP and Brazil is currently used, on the basis of reciprocal historical bonds, so as toallow positive discrimination regarding nationals from stated countries (Rocha-Trindade, 2001).In this framework, some laws were issued. Most importantly the Nationality Law (1994) was alteredso as to limit Portuguese nationality to born individuals in Portugal, individuals married to Portuguesenationals for at least three years, legal residents for a period of six years (Portuguese speakingcountries) and ten years for other nationals.In 1996 the High Commissioner on Immigration and Ethnic Minorities (later High Commissioner forImmigration and intercultural Dialogue) was created, with the aim of accompanying immigrantintegration, whose presence is viewed as a source of “enrichment” of Portuguese society. Respectfor social and cultural identity, support of human and educational success of immigrant’s childrenand the improvement of living conditions are some of its core commitments. There is also aresponsibility of conceiving, executing and evaluating public policy relevant to immigrant andethnic minorities integration in Portuguese life, namely in the fields of Portuguese language
  • apprehension, access to information and social inclusion, with the aim of guaranteeing equalopportunities for all.Since 1990, main immigration policy referred: - Setting up of institutional channels for immigrant communities’ integration. 60 - Promotion of immigrant associative movement’s visibility. - Extension of citizen rights to immigrants. - Introduction of new measures to promote integration of migrant communities in labour, social, educational and political spheres. - Creation of the High Commissioner for Immigration and Ethnic Minorities (later High Commissioner for Immigration and intercultural Dialogue). - Creation of Advisory Council for Immigration Issues. - Creation of a legal status framework for Immigrant Support Organizations. - Definition of entry restrictions and control to immigration – coordination with Portuguese Economy and labour market needs.Notwithstanding, Portuguese immigration laws are highly opaque. Accordingly, the Serviço deEstrangeiros e Fronteiras (national service for border control) has the task of deciding to allow orreject entry to foreign citizens. (Rocha-Trindade, 2001)Every suspicion of illegal activity is barred, as well as prostitution or hint of participation in criminalactivities or networks. On the other hand, cases like family reunion and a valid working permit arefactors that regularly allow entry.All discrimination based on race, colour, nationality and ethnic origin is strictly forbidden via Law134/99. However, according to Rocha-Trindade, such normative framework is restricted to citizens,whereas illegal individuals find themselves in a legal limbo, and are thus frequently subjected to allkinds of injustices, discrimination and marginalization.Illegal work is a frequent means of insertion of immigrants in Portugal’s labor market. As far asPortuguese law is concerned, this is a grey area. An attempt to regulate such informal relations wasmade with Law no. 20/98, where a contract is mandatory when any relation between employerand foreign worker is concerned. However the law has faced several effectiveness problems andhas been unable to solve illegal work situations as intended.
  • UKSome basic knowledge on comparative National legislation in relation to migration 61New technologies and new political orders have initiated a process of global change wherenational and social borders are undergoing reassessments (Belcher, 1995; Montgomery, 2010) andthis is reflected in developments in the migration legislation of both the UK and Europe itself. In 1987the Single European Act laid down the rights of EU citizens to live, work, and even vote (though onlyat local and European levels) in other EU states. This was the beginning of the intensification of a‘two-tier’ immigration system where special rights and privileges were granted to EU citizens, but alack of rights and privileges for ‘third country nationals’ (coming from a third country outside theEU). This includes denial of the right of free travel, which was a stated goal of the EU’s new ‘zone offreedom, security and justice’ put into EU law by the Schengen Agreement in 1997 (Luedtke, 2009).This intensification of the borders around Europe has had an impact on the composition ofmulticultural Europe and the UK and is popularly known in the UK as ‘fortress Europe’. UK legislationon migration is, as in many countries, a contested area and could be seen as a ‘political football’.It changes in tandem with successive governments and is complex and often difficult to negotiate.Migrants to the UK fall into five broad categories: those coming for long-term work, students,temporary workers and visitors, refugees and asylum seekers and people arriving for family reasons.The UK’s new coalition government are aiming to reduce net immigration (the difference betweenthose leaving and those arriving) from hundreds of thousands to tens of thousands over the life oftheir parliament. In 2011 they introduced the first immigration cap (which was an election pledgeof the Conservative element of the coalition but opposed by the coalition partners the LiberalDemocrats).Each of the many different immigration groups has varying statuses and different legislation applies.The UK legislation is also influenced by international as well as EU directives, for example, on asylum,the UK has international obligations to provide refuge to people who have fled persecution. Themost complicated part of the system is the broad criteria around economic migration. In the UK,the Home Office oversees immigration through the recently established ‘UK Border Agency’.Immigration Law in the UK is governed by immigration rules and legislation and there are categoriesand rules for a very wide range of social and professional groups including nurses, doctors,teachers, students, domestic servants and au pairs (and the list goes on). Recent immigration ruleshave made particular exceptions for highly skilled migrants and migrants with specific skills aretargeted and encouraged where there is a perceived shortage of skills (UK Border Agency).Shortages of trained and skilled nurses are a notable example and UK immigration rules have in thepast been developed to allow special categories of immigration for this group, resulting in an
  • increase in nurses of other nationalities employed by the UK National Health Service. Otherinteresting categories of special immigration rules include the ‘Fresh talent: working in Scotland’initiative which aims to encourage highly skilled workers to settle in Scotland.The distinction between highly skilled and educated migrants and economic migrants is an 62important, if complex, one. A migrant has to apply under one a number of categories, now knownas ‘tiers’ that make up a Points Based System (PBS). The PBS has five ‘tiers’. Tiers one and two coverhighly skilled and skilled migrants, two different categories. Tier three was developed for unskilledworkers but has never been implemented. Tier four refers to students and the fifth tier relates to awide range of temporary workers and a plethora of special categories. The system gives points tomigrants in response to their skills, qualifications and experience. In this way a migrant with adoctorate and proof of high earnings will earn more points than someone who is less skilled andconsequently will find it easier to come to the UK (Q&A: UK immigration cap). This has obviousimplications for the composition of migrant populations and many maintain that this elitist systemwill accentuate social and cultural inequalities leading to fortresses of rich and educated nationstates pitted against poorer and disadvantaged countries.E. GEOPOLITICAL KNOWLEDGE ITALYThe era of globalization is certainly the era of migratory flows that have undergone a markedacceleration process that covers most of Western countries by people from the poorest areas ofthe world.This is how globalization and the migration flows that accompany it are commonly linked and areperceived in Italy - but also in most European countries - as a representation of a world out ofcontrol, that literally hits us at home. Considering this largely unexpected condition and decisive"effervescence", the traditional theories stated by diverse thinkers at the turn of the nineteenth andtwentieth centuries (Marx, Durkheim, Simmel, Sombart, Weber, Park, Elias) aimed at explaining andunderstanding the phenomena of human mobility in space have known in a few decades a rapidobsolescence accompanied, naturally, by continuous review and proposals for innovation (Polliniand Scida, 2002; Perrone, 2005).Globalization is a phenomenon of a global dimension that needs to be managed by theinstruments of democracy and human rights. The process of globalization lies in the possibilities
  • offered by new technologies, a fundamental condition for its massive development 23. The creationof new technologies has resulted in recent years, in a significant growth of interactive relationshipsin all spheres of individual and social life so far as to result in the birth of a new segment of theglobal economy (the new economy), but above all to bring to, according to A. Giddens, a sort of 63media coverage of the experience, the principal element of which would be characterized by thede-contextualization of identities and relationships, that means the lack of the space-timecoordinates as elements characterizing the conceptual nature of things, activities and subjects24.Globalization embraces then, both the globalization of the economy and the increased speed ofmovement of information.In the "global village" information plays a central role, invasive element of conscience (L. Perrone,1998, p. 32) and contributes to the dynamics of mobility and orientation of planetary migrationflows. With its informative role, guidance and training of social consensus, in a multi-speed world(economic, social, etc.), synchronously provides the opportunity to observe what is happening inevery corner of the world (Ferrarotti F., 1987). In subjective terms this means to see live thedifference between your own living and others living conditions, so the relative misery does notexist anymore and it is replaced by the objective one (L. Perrone, 2007).The choice to migrate of an individual and the positive (inclusion in a new social context) ornegative consequences (poverty, marginalization and deviance) cannot aside from theunderstanding of the reasons for this choice. At the basis there are certainly economic and social23 A complete view of the debate on this topic should be so articulated and wide to require a specific study, as simplequote it’s enough to indicate the division of thinkers according to three main streams of thought.The first comes from the liberal democratic theories, among the others cfr Rawls J., 1982; Ackermann B., 1984.The second is inspired by the social-democratic theories, among the others, N. Luhmann N., 1992; Habermas J., 1994.The third is oriented towards the new-communitarian theories, among the others Taylor C., 1994; Sandel M., 1994.24 Globalization is a phenomenon which, according to Zamagni has some peculiarities, whose characters are: thedeconstruction, this phenomenon has two aspects: the first concerns the disintegration of traditional ways of organizingproductive activity. In the era of globalization, has failed to-one correspondence between the place where decisions aremade productive and place in which business is expressed and manifested. This tendency is known as the outsourcing ofproduction, which determines the transition from multinational corporations to the transnational corporations. The secondaspect concerns the disintegration of the relationship between politics and economics. Who knows the economic historyknows that the industrial revolution until 1975 (Convention for a start of the process of globalization) has always happenedthat it was the political power to set priorities in economic activity, to establish the rules of the game and Economicsenforces them. The new element consists in the sale of shares of sovereignty, national governments, to other subjects as wellas companies from emerging economy, with the result that business decisions tend to be comfortable with the decisions ofa political nature. Today, no national government can afford to confine itself to fix the exchange rate policy, interest ratepolicy or fiscal policy, this means that we have entered a phase where we need to rethink the tools of intervention policytowards the economy.The second item is the increase of wealth, the reduction of absolute poverty, the increase in relative poverty. Globalization isa process that increases the wealth and thus constitutes a positive-sum game. But this increase in wealth tends to bedistributed unevenly. Poverty is in a relative sense, the inequalities between different social groups, and differences in socio-economic parameters in the various groups that make up society. The relevant fact is that this increase in differences notonly refers to the South, as was commonly thought until recent years, but also to the countries of the north. To this end, it isnecessary to work to find ways to correct the inequalities that increase in the evolution of this process tends to bedetermined.The third aspect addressed by Zamagni: is the cultural standardization. Today people travelling abroad find the same typeof products, the same chain of services anywhere in the world (Mc Donalds, Coca cola ...). The point to emphasize is this:the ones that consume a product do not want to just buy a good and satisfy a need, but want to stop shopping, and havea particular lifestyle, that is a cultural message. This phenomenon, which brings in itself positive aspects, brings an aspect ofnegativity, that is, the flattening, the approval of cultural models. We must ensure that the increased freedom and theaccelerated speed of movement of goods, services and people do not give rise to a phenomenon of cultural leveling,because this would be without doubt a negative effect. See S. Zamagni, 2003, Soros G., 2002,. Stiglit J. E., 2003.
  • reasons, derived either from demand of labour by the most of the advanced countries and thedesire of the poor countries to acquire higher sources of income. The Western lifestyle,characterized with high availability of consumption goods and certain patterns of behaviour, thatthe means of mass communication have the power to convey throughout the world, is certainly a 64strong attraction for the economically poor populations. SPAINSpain25, officially the Kingdom of Spain is a sovereign state and a member of the European Unionlocated in south-western Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Its mainland is bordered to the south andeast by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with the British Overseas Territoryof Gibraltar; to the north by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the northwest and westby the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal.Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in theAtlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla,that border Morocco. Furthermore, the town of Llívia is a Spanish exclave situated inside Frenchterritory. With an area of 504,030 square kilometres, it is the second largest country in WesternEurope and the European Union after France, and the fourth largest country in Europe after Russia,Ukraine and France.Spain is composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varyingdegrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisibleunity of the Spanish nation. The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and thatall are free to practice and believe as they wish. All Autonomous Communities have their ownelected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources.Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a parliamentary government under a constitutionalmonarchy. It is a developed country with the twelfth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP,and high living standards, including the tenth-highest quality of life index rating in the world, as of2005. It is a member of the United Nations, European Union, NATO, OECD, and WTO.The Iberian peninsula enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basquesand Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of Rome.During the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, it was conquered by Moorishinvaders from North Africa. In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in thenorth gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same yearColumbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongestkingdom in Europe and the leading world power for a century and a half and the largest overseas25 Extracted from
  • empire for three centuries. Due to its colonial time Spain has maintained its special identificationwith Latin America.Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasionsof Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and 65left the country politically unstable. Prior to the Second World War, Spain suffered a devastatingcivil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, whose rule oversaw a period ofstagnation but that finished with a powerful economic surge. Eventually democracy waspeacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. In 1986, Spain joinedthe European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth.However, the Spanish “property bubble” that begun building from 1997, fed by historically lowinterest rates imploded in 2008, leading to a rapidly weakening economy and soaringunemployment.Before the current crisis, the Spanish economy was credited for having avoided the virtual zerogrowth rate of some of its largest partners in the EU. In fact, the countrys economy created morethan half of all the new jobs in the European Union over the five years ending 2005, a process that israpidly being reversed. The 2008/2009 credit crunch and world recession manifested itself in Spainthrough a massive downturn in the property sector. In 2012, unemployment had already risen to anastonishing 24.4%26. ROMANIACulture is a product of human thought and feeling and not a given like land. This product hasdeveloped over time and according to the intrinsic logic which explains the identification. Thenation is thus a community characterized by certain spiritual relationships between its individuals,relations including common tradition, language, cultural trends, interests, possibly religion. A suchcommunity - occurred outside the idea of state so free of statehood - as cultural characteristics hasstabilized and become conscious of itself, began to want a state protection and, therefore, to seeka State. Such was the German nation, but also Romanian.French nation was completed by the transformation of unitary and centralized feudal French statein a French national state. Romanian nation was accomplished by adding all Romaniancommunities sharing the same culture in a single state (national) which is a unitary state. Organicconcept of nation has evolved to that of, cultural nation". Cultural nation lives in several countriesand within a given country live parts of several cultural nations that together form a civic nation.The challenge facing Europe today is to answer the question of how synthesis can be madebetween civic and cultural nation, while the nation-states are not pure in terms of ethnic.26 Data from INE ( Spanish National Institute of Statistcs)
  • UKColonial and postcolonial events, globalization of the markets and the economies, of the resourcesand information 66The most influential factor on geopolitics in a postcolonial world has undoubtedly been theincreasing role that rapid developments in technology have had on the interrelationships betweennations. The multiplicity of communications channels and media and the ‘increasing salience ofcultural and linguistic diversity’ (The New London Group, 1996, p. 60) means that people areinvolved in many more divergent communities in contemporary life and these may be local andphysically co-located or dispersed, virtual and global (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000). It is more commonin a technologically enhanced world that individuals may belong to multiple life worlds that existacross borders and are made accessible to them by electronic communication and the internet.The increase in the variety and range of these groups means a much more active interface withother social, linguistic and cultural groups. It has been suggested that this increased immediacy ofdiversity and interconnectedness with global neighbours is leading us towards a borderless world(Cope & Kalantzis, 2009).However, globalisation is not uniform in its history and complexities and tensions characterise itsdevelopment. As well as the dissolving of borders as a result of technologies, in contrast, bordersare also intensifying in the globalised era. Armstrong and Anderson (2007) note that the idea of aborderless world is not an accurate representation of contemporary geopolitical developmentsand despite the impact of technology, borders are in some ways becoming stronger. Thispostcolonial phenomenon is also known as ‘glocalisation’. Glocalisation encompasses what manybelieve to be the current state of transnational processes where the global and the local intertwineand conflict, resulting in unique outcomes of globalisation in different geographic areas (Ritzer,2003). This idea rejects the assumption that impacts of globalisation from the West and the USA areresulting in cultural homogeneity. Ritzer also coins the term ‘grobalisation’ which denotes theimperialistic ambitions of nations, corporations and other entities to impose themselves on variousgeographic areas in order to see their power, influence and profits grow (Ritzer, 2003: 194). So it canbe seen that there are complex and conflicting tensions in the postcolonial globalising world. Thereis little of the local left that has not been touched by globalisation but there also may beuniqueness and individuality developing as a result (ibid).The perspective from the UK appears to support the theory. Whilst the UK has been part of theprocesses of the erasing of borders within the EU, it has also in many ways resisted the process ofbecoming an integral part of European Union by retaining its currency and opting out of particularstatutes and laws. The UK uses its veto within the EU to withdraw from economic agreements (suchas the veto on ‘transaction tax’ in 2011) when it perceives there to be financial risk to orimplications for the UK economy. These economic and financial issues across nations are no longer
  • solely financial but are inextricably related to the real social lives of the populations. The recentfinancial crisis has demonstrated how the political decisions made in other countries (not just inEurope but the USA and China and the rest of the world) have an impact on the social and culturallives of people in the UK. 67Finally, within the UK the strengthening of the local can be seen on a smaller scale with thecountries within the ‘United’ Kingdom demonstrating a strong wish to become independent ofLondon. Wales and Scotland are both at various stages in developing devolution from England. Inthe past 5 years Scotland’s moves to be independent of England have intensified and the Englishgovernment are currently in talks with the Scottish parliament (first established in 1999) regarding adate for a referendum on independence for Scotland. The Scottish government hope that this willhappen in the autumn of 2014 (BBC News, May 2012). As Scotland’s independence from Englandhas grown, differences in governance have developed with the example of variation in studenttuition fees between Scotland and England being a case in point.F. PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE ITALYThe experience of migration forced the human beings to address the problem of identity in depthand sometimes it is a painful process as well as with any great change that involves the humanexistence. Having to face the connection between identity-migration, we analyse the prospect ofthe discomfort that this experience involves, knowing that the experiences of migration can, if wellelaborated, in particular socio-cultural factors, be elements of growth of the inner world of themigrant subjects. We say that migrate in psychological terms means addressing an experience ofseparation. The migrant leaves his/her birthplace, the birth family, friends, work and feels he/she hasto face a painful experience, to “elaborate the mourning" for the loss of his country and the closestpeople. This evident or hidden pain, conscious or unconscious, is not just the loss of external objects,"things" that are out of him, but parts of him/herself, inner parts of the world that were projectedtowards these objects. The possible crisis of the sense of identity has its roots here, feelingthreatened in their internal objects so that the departure is like a mysterious silent abandon of partsof self that are lost. The migrant must face the fear of losing a condition of safety, security, mustexperience a change and a new loneliness, an initial confusion of the powers of the ego. At thismoment the good internal objects come into play, ancient identifications that support him/her, thelanguage and images that protect him/her from the inside and allow the grieving process. At thispoint the role of supporting groups strongly emerges, people who perform a function in the hostingcountry of stable container and mediator of this separation, and the migrant has a strong need of
  • them. We say that those who migrate can experience a crisis of that feeling of security related tothe stability-continuity of the world inside-outside - where he/she lived from birth. I would add thatthe crisis of internal security which has the migrant can be made stronger by the change in statusthat migration often entails having to live the experiences of socially undervalued work. 68If migration is an experience of separation / displacement that can be lived as a threat to itsinternal objects and images and as an devaluing attack to the images of the self, we must wonderwhat defences they use to protect themselves from the experience of separation, loss anddevaluation. How the migrant who is in a situation of psychological distress, tries to answer orresponds to the crisis of identity that invests him/her.The first defence is a denial of the separation, a denial that covers the inner experience of thesubject and takes the form of division. In front of, in other words, the threat of confusion, the mind ofthe migrant protects itself by splitting and isolating the migrant experience. The division may thentake the form of a tendency to retreat into their own roots, in their own memories and traditions, inthe strong idealization of the lost country and the total rejection of the new one. Another defencemay instead be attempting the opposite, to idealize the new country with its culture, disregardingtheir past or trying to forget it and then denying their roots. These are, in fact, two ways to deny thepain associated with separation.In the first case the attempt is to pass through a foreign country almost without looking at it, thinkingabout a return, putting between him/herself and the others the barrier of their isolation: it is evidentthat in this case there is no separation, there is no acceptance of distance. But there is noseparation even in the second case. The cancellation of the roots, the total choice of the hostingcountry, the imitative identification with the new culture, all this means once again: I did notseparate from that, this is my true identity, the past does not exist, separation is not necessary. Tworesponses of denial and refusal to elaborate the mourning, to prevent the pain of change, are thedefences that the ego puts in place to dominate the confusion and the devaluation. They reflect acrisis of identity in which you do not want to be aware, contrasting it with rigid identities, frozen intime and space. S P A I N 27The Psychiatrist Dr. Joseba Achotegui (University of Barcelona) describes an emerging healthproblem in our globalised societies, making itself manifest in the current context where the livingconditions of a large majority of immigrants have deteriorated dramatically. It is the typicalImmigrant Syndrome with Chronic and Multiple Stress; called by Dr Achotegui the Ulysses Syndrome(in reference to the Greek hero who suffered countless adversities and dangers in lands far from hisloved ones).27 Extracted from
  • This syndrome is characterized by the fact that the individual suffers certain stressors or afflictionsand that he/she presents a series of symptoms from several areas of psychopathology.Most important stressors are: 1. Loneliness and the enforced separation from loved ones, in particular when an immigrant 69 leaves behind spouse &/or children. 2. Sense of despair and failure that is felt when the immigrant, despite having invested enormously in the emigration (economically, emotionally, etc.), does not even manage to muster together the very minimum conditions to make a go of it. 3. Having to fight for survival: to feed himself, to find a roof to sleep under. 4. Fear, the afflictions caused by the physical dangers of the journey undertaken; physical fear has a much greater de-structuring effect at the psychopathological level than psychological fear, because there are fewer ways of escaping it. It is also known that chronic stress increases the conditioning power of this fear, sensorial as well as conceptual. In the case of illegal immigrants, they experience constant fear of detention and deportation.This combination of loneliness, the failure to achieve ones objectives, the experiencing of extremehardships and terror forms the psychological and psychosocial basis of Immigrant Syndrome withChronic and Multiple Stress (the Ulysses Syndrome).The risk of mental health disorders increases with the greater number of challenges and adversitiesthat immigrants have to face, for month and years, so is chronic; plus the feeling that whatever theindividual does he will not be able to change his situation (learnt defence lessons), the lack ofsocial network and the gravity of the symptoms themselves create barrier for the immigrants in theirattempt to survive. This situation is also aggravated by the expected “shock” each immigrant hasto face: adapting to a new culture, land, language, codes, environment, society, etc.Symptoms: 1. Depressive level (sadness and crying, but do not include other basic symptoms such as apathy, low self-esteem, guilt, thoughts of death, so it is not standard depressive disorder). 2. Anxiety level (tension, insomnia, recurrent and intrusive thoughts, irritability). 3. Somatic level (migraines, fatigue, osteoarticular complaints, etc.). 4. Symptoms of confusion (tempo-spatial disorientation, depersonalisation, derealisation, etc). 5. Subjective interpretation made from the perspective of the own immigrant’s culture. ROMANIAAn analysis of speech with reference to relations majority - minority practiced in Romania after 1989reveals the existence of three distinct types: a major speech, a speech conformist minority and a
  • speech protesting minority. Conformist minorities are those who care to systematically integratetheir speech that they are loyal citizens of Romania, they feeling at home in Romania, also stressingthat they have good relations both with the Romanian state institutions and with fellow theirmajority. Much of the relations between majority and minority protest is structured on the idea that 70minority demand, claim, as much as possible, while the majority gives, but careful to give as little aspossible.A leitmotif of minority discourse is entitled to its own internal life of the community, publicrecognition. Terms used in this context varied: separation, autonomy, community deprivation, orrefer to the idea of protection, maintenance, preservation of cultural identity / own nationalidentity, threatened with assimilation by mainstream society. The essence of the protesting minoritydiscourse would be so: "we are different and we want to be different and to be recognized assuch".In the majority discourse with reference to minorities, but the dominant leitmotif of communication,openness to networking with other, generously provided the required majority and minority,considered a danger to society as a whole, is defined in terms of isolation and segregation minoritygroups. The essence of such a discourse would be so "live in the same country, therefore we needto communicate, any tendency to isolation as a threat to the stability of society".Beyond that states explicitly or implicitly the two types of discourse, both were in the alternativefundamental idea: intercultural communication undermines the assertion of favouring assimilationand assertion of intercultural communication without undermining the cohesion and stability ofsociety. A choice is therefore necessary in this respect: favouring either the identity orcommunication. We can thus speak of a continuum with two ends to the two identities, namelycommunication. UKCultural shock and social and psychological vulnerabilityThe notion of ‘culture shock’ has been adopted as a popular idea rather than a concept that isgrounded in consistent findings of recent research. The idea of culture shock relates to theexperience or psychological reaction to mobility and sojourn in a social and cultural context otherthan your own. The popular concept of culture shock tends to associate this with travel abroad(Ward, Bochner and Furnham, 2001). The definitions of culture shock suggest stages of adjustmentoccur when an individual moves to an unfamiliar cultural context and early models suggest aperfect U-shaped curve of adjustment that includes a ‘honeymoon period’ followed by a crisis orshock phase that is characterised by negative or aggressive reactions towards the ‘new’ culturalcontext (Oberg, 1960; Hou, 2012). The uniformity of these reactions to ‘the foreign other’ havebeen challenged by many more recent researchers and indeed the existence of such a
  • phenomenon as ‘culture shock’ has been challenged. The word ‘shock’ in the idea of cultureshock can be unhelpful in that it implies that psychological difficulties are the norm in interculturalcontact (Berry, 2006). The discussions in section a) of this report relating to the complexities indefining ethnicity also point to the fact that psychological response to encountering difference 71cannot be reduced to one simple model. Indeed the concept of culture itself is both ‘slippery’ and‘chaotic’ (Smith, 2000: 4) and culture is entwined with context and settings that would make anyresponse part of a complex ‘situated cognition’ (Lave and Wenger, 1991). This view of culturemaintains that culture and knowledge are indivisible and these are part of a cognitive model usedto perceive and interpret the world around us (Duranti, 1997; Montgomery, 2010). It is likely thatglobalisation and resulting rapid movement of information, ideas and images around the worldwould reduce the impact or even occurrence of ‘culture shock’.Having said all this, it is safe to say that encounters with social and cultural difference are unsettlingand this is particularly true during phases of transition. The case of entry into higher education is aninteresting case in point and could be said to represent a ‘new cultural context’ to both those whocome from other national contexts to study but also to those who have not come from abroad andare simply encountering new sets of values, customs and practices in the university setting. Jackson(2003) notes that this new social, cultural and educational context can entail significant lifechanges and ‘such changes and discontinuity can pose threats to their sense of who they [newstudents] are’ (Jackson, 2003: 342). When individuals are in exposed to social and psychologicalvulnerability then it is more of a challenge to be open to understanding and empathising with theother. Erikson notes: ‘It is difficult to be tolerant if you are not sure who you are, who you want tobe’ (Erikson, 1959: 93). However, in the case of interaction in university settings research has shownthat it is not simply national cultures that are a source of vulnerability or conflict in interaction butthat social and more significantly disciplinary differences are also the cause of misunderstandings.Montgomery (2011) notes that students from the academic discipline of Design interacting ingroups encountered difficulties in communication as a result of variation in professionalbackgrounds and also they noted that many communication issues resulted between people ofthe same nationality, with Indian students encountering intercultural difference as a result of beingfrom Bombay and Delhi and UK students struggling to understand their fellow UK student’s sense ofhumour. It is also important to note that the encounters with difference in that study weretroublesome but transformative, with students underlining how their views of themselves and othersbecame changed through the struggles they had with each other (Montgomery, 2011). Croucher(2011) notes the crucial role that technology can play in mediating the difficulties that bothimmigrants and students may encounter when moving to a new cultural and social context. Hepoints out that research has shown that immigrants have used technology to maintain social linkswith their home context but less research has been done into the potential benefits of social
  • networking, blogs and multi-media technologies in developing frequency of interaction with thenew culture and positive engagement with others (Croucher, 2011). 72
  • G. HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE 73 SPAINOne of the characteristic features of the early history of Spain is the successive waves of differentpeoples who spread all over the Peninsula. The first to appear were the Iberians, a Libyan people,who came from the south. Later came the Celts, a typically Aryan people, and from the mergingof the two there arose a new race, the Celtiberians, who, divided into several tribes (Cantabrians,Asturians, Lusitanians) gave their name to their respective homelands. The next to arrive, attractedby mining wealth, were the Phoenicians, who founded a number of trading posts along the coast,the most important being that of Cadiz.After this came Greek settlers, who founded several towns, including Rosas, Ampurias and Sagunto.The Phoenicians, in their struggle against the Greeks, called on the Carthaginians, who, under theorders of Hamilcar Barca, took possession of most of Spain. It was at this time that Rome raised aborder dispute in defence of the areas of Greek influence, and thus began in the Peninsula theSecond Punic War, which decided the fate of the world at that time.After the Roman victory, Publius Cornelius Scipio, Africanus, began the conquest of Spain, whichwas to be under Roman rule for six centuries.Rome left in Spain four powerful social elements: the Latin language, Roman law, the municipalityand the Christian religion. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Suevi, Vandals and Alans enteredSpain, but they were defeated by the Visigoths who, by the end of the 6 th century, has occupiedvirtually the whole of the Peninsula.At the beginning of the 8th century the Arabs entered from the south. The period of Muslim sway isdivided into three periods: the Emirate (711 to 756), the Caliphate (756-1031) and the Reinos deTaifas (small independent kingdoms) (1031 to 1492).In 1469, the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon,prepared the way for the union of the two kingdoms and marked the opening of a period ofgrowing success for Spain, since during their reign, Granada, the last stronghold of the Arabs inSpain, was conquered and, at the same time, in the same historic year of 1492, the caravels sentby the Crown of Castile under the command of Christopher Columbus discovered America.The Canary Islands became part of Spanish territory (1495), the hegemony of Spain in theMediterranean, to the detriment of France, was affirmed with the conquest of the Kingdom ofNaples, and Navarre was incorporated into the Kingdom.
  • The next two centuries, the 16th and the 17th, witnessed the construction and apogee of theSpanish Empire as a result of which the country, under the aegis of the Austrias, became the worldsforemost power, and European politics hinged upon it.The War of Succession to the Spanish Crown (1701-1714) marked the end of the dynasty of the 74Habsburgs and the coming of the Bourbons. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formalized the Britishoccupation of the Rock of Gibraltar, giving rise to an anachronistic colonial situation which stillpersists today and constitutes the only dispute between Spain and the United Kingdom.In 1808 Joseph Bonaparte was installed on the Spanish throne, following the Napoleonic invasion,although the fierce resistance of the Spanish people culminated in the restoration of the Bourbonsin the person of Fernando VII. In 1873, the brief reign of Amadeo of Savoy ended with hisabdication, and the First Republic was proclaimed. However, a military pronunciamiento in 1875,restored the monarchy and Alfonso XII was proclaimed King of Spain. He was succeeded in 1886by his son Alfonso XIII.Prior to this, a brief war with the United States resulted in the loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico and thePhilippines, in 1898, thus completing the dissolution of the Spanish overseas empire.In the municipal elections of April 12th, 1931, it became clear that in all the large towns of Spain thecandidates who supported the Monarchy had been heavily defeated. The size of the Republicansvote in cities such as Madrid and Barcelona was enormous. In the country districts the Monarchygained enough seats to secure for them a majority in the nation as a whole. But it was well knownthat in the country the caciques were still powerful enough to prevent a fair vote. By the eveningof the day following the elections, great crowds were gathering in the streets of Madrid. Alfonso XIIIleft Spain and the Second Republic was established in April 14th. During its five-year lifetime, it wasridden with all kind of political, economic and social conflicts, which inexorably split opinions intotwo irreconcilable sides. The climate of growing violence culminated on July 18th 1936 in a militaryrising which turned into a tragic civil war which did not end until three years later.On October 1st, 1936, General Franco took over as Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of theArmed Forces. The Spanish State embarked on a period of forty years dictatorship, during whichthe political life of the country was characterized by the illegality of all the political parties with theexception of the National Movement. Franco died in 1975, bringing to an end a period of Spanishhistory and opening the way to the restoration of the monarchy with the rise to the Throne of thepresent King of Spain, Juan Carlos I de Borbon y Borbon.The young monarch soon established himself as a resolute motor for change to a western-styledemocracy by means of a cautious process of political reform which took as its starting point theFrancoist legal structure. Adolfo Suarez, the prime minister of the second Monarchy Government(July 1976) carried out with determination and skill though helped, certainly, by a broad socialconsensus the so-called transition to democracy which, after going through several stages(recognition of basic liberties, political parties, including the communist party, the trade unions, an
  • amnesty for political offences, etc.), culminated in the first democratic parliamentary elections in41 years, on June 15th, 1977. The Cortes formed as a result decided to start a constituent processwhich concluded with the adoption of a new Constitution, ratified by universal suffrage, onDecember 6th, 1978. 75 ROMANIARomanian historical regions are ten provinces Banat, Crisana, Maramures, Transilvania, Bucovina,Moldavia, Besarabia, Oltenia, Muntenia and Dobrogea, some of which exceed the borders ofpresent-day Romania, belonging in part to neighbouring countries. Romania has no territorial claimon historical parts of regions belonging to neighbouring states.Romania is located in Southeastern Europe, bordering by Hungary, Ukraine, Moldavia, Bulgariaand, Serbia. The country is also bordering by Beack Sea and Danube and has Carpatian Montainsin the centre.History of the Romanian merges largely with the history of which we live. Throughout history, onthese territories, several people were settled, have created a home and have contributed, each inits own essential way, to the Romanian cultural profile. Being in a continuous balance betweenmemory of starting/origin place, spiritual and political relations with it and the practical needs ofeveryday life, national minorities have created a distinct identity, in equal measures to preserveinternal cohesion (because it creates a community ) and to ensure their role as dialogue partnerwith the majority.National minorities in Romania is no single historical experience, rather, they are stories that areoften regional identities related to special life that conducts in regions with very diverse population.There are also ethnic communities that by their history and size transcend regional dimension, socialor political status, leading to an urban or rural distribution of their members. Also, over the time theinteraction models are not the same. Antiquity had a different perception on the concept ofnation – more cultural rather than political. In the Middle Ages, the term "nation" translated politicalrealities rather than ethnic and social. That explains why some communities in the Romanian space,although presented by long time on these territories, became aware players of the political andcultural sphere just relatively late, along with the beginnings of Romanian modernity. We must notforget that the arrival of these groups was achieved several ways. Being at the intersectionbetween the West and the Orient, in the way of migratory flows, Romania was transited by allmigratory peoples who arrived in West. There were official colonization, with military or economicreasons, shifting autonomous communities trying to find a better life place or a place where theycan follow their religious belief.Contribution of different cultures to the Romanian spiritual life must understood in the politicaldevelopments frame of the last two or three centuries of history.
  • Just as in the case of individual arrivals, often based on knowledge of the mediated situation fromhere, there were several waves of your immigration frequently. After a first wave, sometimes veryearly, others followed. The case of Greek community marked by at least three waves or theGerman show us that beyond political or spiritual meanings that we attribute today to such 76phenomena, there is a reality of daily life that we would look at it in perspective of coexistencebetween the majority and minorities. Cultural profile Romanian - which is more than the sum ofdifferent specialized cultures - was achieved with the contribution of all those who lived and livingin Romania. The fact that among the most importance advocates of the Romanian Academy arenumerous Hebrew and Armenian that Romanian artistic vanguard had countless minorityrepresentatives in especially Hebrew, underline the extent to which these minorities have wasinterested to be part of a large spiritual communities.Also, these communities have contributed to the opening Romanian space to universal culture.Contacts that these minorities have kept with the place of origin, the contribution that they havebrought to the spiritual heritage of their own culture and a connection allowed Romanian cultureand your European cultural heritage. UKNew emerging world powers, problems of the planet and of peaceful coexistence among peoplesNations and their borders have always been fluid and subject to geographical and politicalchange. Alterations in local and global power relationships that occur as a result of geopoliticaltrends have been with us since early history. This can be viewed as a facet of globalisation whichcontrary to popular belief is also a force that has characterised development of groups andnations as far back as prehistory. Hopper (2007) notes that there have been three eras ofglobalisation, which he categorises as pre-modern (before 1500), modern (1500 to 1945) andcontemporary (1945 onwards). Pre-modern phases of globalisation encompass early humanmigration and the emergence of world religions; modern phases of globalisation are identified asthe development of European imperialism, international migration, the rise of the nation state,industrialisation and the associated emergence of international economies; finally thecontemporary epoch is characterised, according to Hopper, by a greater intensity in cultural flows,in the movement of people and ideas, symbols and images. The speed at which this informationcan travel as a result of technology is markedly different in the contemporary phase ofglobalisation (Hopper, 2007: 21). There are many ways of conceptualising the historicaldevelopment of social and global changes and Hopper’s model is only one of these and it is alsoimportant to point out that these overviews of social, cultural and global flows are not uniform but‘multi-centred’ and ‘uneven’ (Hopper, 2007: 30).
  • In the case of the UK, ‘the British’ have enjoyed a waxing and waning of their sphere of politicalinfluence and power. From being colonised by the Romans and the Normans through to Britishcolonisation of states during the ‘British Empire’, India being an important case in point, the UK hashad a multi-layered and multicultural history. Britain traces its multicultural and democratic 77traditions back to the middle ages and has experienced significant levels of economic and socialimmigration since the 19th century and has increasingly legislated regarding discrimination (Panayi,2004). Currently, however, there is an interesting dichotomy in the political, social and culturalinfluence the UK has globally. Like many other nations, the UK is increasingly dominatedeconomically and politically by the emergence of the giant economic super-powers of China,India (and perhaps to a lesser extent here in the UK, Brazil). These countries have emerged asimportant global powers, creating economic and political waves throughout Europe and the restof the world (Harris, 2005). Increased familiarity with, in particular, Chinese products and economy isexerting an influence on the social and cultural perceptions of this nation and its peoples. Theimpact of the recent financial crisis in the UK, Europe and the USA has marked a change in theperception of China in the EU. In contrast to discourses circulating during the Chinese Olympics in2008 (Montgomery, 2009; Ross, 2012), during the Chinese Vice-President Xi Jinping’s recent visit toIreland, a country which has suffered considerably during the financial crisis, every major party andnewspaper in Ireland spoke of the importance of closer links with China. Even one of the UK’stabloid newspapers, the Daily Mirror, carried a story underlining the positive role of UK traderelations with China (Ross, 2012). Ironies in the ebbs and flows of global power and politicalinfluences are also highlighted in the case of the UK and India, with Britain’s dominance andcolonisation of India during the era known as ‘the Raj’ having the potential to be turned on itshead in coming decades. India’s entry into the realms of becoming a powerful global economicnation stems from its advances in pharmaceuticals and information technologies (Harris, 2005). Inaddition to this, their world-class education system in information technology and business isthreatening to jeopardise flows of international students to the UK. Outsourcing of business from theUK to India, for example through call centres, has had a strong cultural influence on how business iscarried out in the UK. It is important to note, however, that globalisation is not purely an economicprocess and has ‘deep social, cultural and environmental consequences’ (Ross, 2012: 1) and theseare often played out through the medium of language and social attitudes.
  • 5. REPORT ON SURVEY CONDUCTED FOCUS GROUP 785.1 OBJECTIVES OF SURVEY CONDUCTED FOCUS GROUPThe focus group is one of the tools for research and experimentation used in the activities of theproject “Planning for interculturality”. The main aim of the focus is to understand to what degreethe methodology based on social game is efficient in a multicultural environment and the mostinteresting skills. With the focus group is easier for the researcher to understand the distancebetween what people say and their behaviours, identifying for instance the importance of “socialappeal” in forging their opinions. The different knowledge and meanings communicated enablesto elaborate several explications to behaviours and habits, encouraging the creation of articulatedmaps that prove the complexity of the discussion.The opportunity to be involved in a process of collaboration within the research can activate anefficient mechanism of “empowerment”. The idea to use the Focus Group as a tool forresearch/action was born to identify the essential lines of the training model based on the socialgame, to follow some operational suggestions to use game within strategies of change.That is the reason to realize research/action aimed at skills analysis and using tools to disseminatecultural concepts in the field of analysis too.The technique of the focus group does not allow to have systemic measures like other techniquesbut to face in a deeper way relevant issues for the research, deepening the contents, unveilingcognitive processes and testing the reactions and perceptions of participants.The strength of this technique lies on the careful analysis of the natural skill of people to talk abouttheir own experiences, structuring a field of dialogue where researchers can adequately developobservation and listening. The group experience is essential, above all if it is lived in a favourablecontext that allows the free expression of participants, using valid tools to encourage their opening,their listening skills and the expressions of the different points of views of participants.Some elements affect the efficiency of focus group: the selection of appropriate people, gatheredin the most accessible and comfortable place, guided by a moderator ready to encourage theflow of discussion. The logistic and training aspects of the group do not have to be underestimatedbecause the intervention of a good moderator with the best motivating force, does not give asufficient certainty to reach the research objectives. The collected data with a focus group areusually very significant and involve the researchers in a long activity of selection and filing of resultswith a constant reference to the theoretical categories developed (Cardano, 2003, 175).Furthermore, considering that the focus groups involve small samples and the analysis of results isinfluenced by the subjectivity of the researchers, using this technique has to be evaluated carefully
  • according to the research that is meant to be carried on and moreover considering how thepotential of this technique is suitable relating to the cognitive demand that was the starting point ofthe researcher and the main issue on that he hopes to collect all the useful elements to have apossible answer. 79Identifying the analysis categories can be implemented according to objectives fixed a priori, or aposteriori, searching them within the text analysed (Amaturo, 1998).In this work we chose a combination of the two methods, using the objectives fixed a priori toidentify the analysis categories and looking for within them topic in a deeper way. In our case, theimplementation of the focus group, completing researches of quality and quantity, has welldefined objectives: underline possible training needs to have intercultural skills: answer these needselaborating training material for trainers and multimedia teaching tools appropriate to the needs.DRAFT INTERVIEW/ Objectives Considering the focus group technique as the most suitable to thekind of research we wanted to do, we selected the participants. Taking into account the needsrelating to indicators, we decided to have a focus group. We invited to joins the group, therepresentatives of migrant communities present in the territory. In each group, we invited directorsof cooperatives belonging to the four sectors that have transversal tasks within their organizations.5.2 SUMMARYSpain and Italy have led a research on focus groups examining a sample of adults, we haveobserved the behaviour and responses to the inputs relative to the popularity of social games and3D pathways in non-formal learning and / or informal. The Greek partner instead led a focus withthe same methods, but on a group of trainers. The UK partner led a study focusing on a group of 10adults from different ethnic groups.Interesting behaviours have emerged and shown in detail in the report below. A special liking fornew technologies emerged from everybody, new technologies addressed to 3D environments andsocial games, but an objective difficulty in getting people to interact with different cultures, even ifin virtual environments. In addition there is the linguistic difficulty almost always English, which is noteasy to understand and speak for everyone. While the difficulties can be overcome by theEuropean people who interact with each other, they increase when it comes to using the virtualinstrument to people from North Africa, Indonesia (in the British case) or by any other places wherelanguage differences and particularly religions are significant. You experience interacting withpeople of different ethnic groups some distance between themselves and, often, a group feelsinferior or discriminated in respect to another even if, sometimes this is not true. It means that theinjury can be removed and you can work to eliminate those barriers where they are imaginary.
  • Functional to this aim is the social game that has to be interpreted as a tool and not as a cure. Wemust not make the mistake of confusing reality with the virtual environment. A virtual environmentto be built in order to represent real life, however, an antechamber and the friendships made onthe network can find a continuation in reality. The need for properly trained trainers emerges in this 80context with skills that would enable everyone to remove the barriers due almost to physiologicalinteraction. In this sense, the Greek research highlights the desire by operators to adjust, but at thesame time, there is the lack of infrastructure and / or policies by some countries to follow thechange. It seems that the cultural diffusion and demand for services related to learning aboutsocial games are not traveling together with the provision of training in European countries (at leastsome data that the investigation does not involve all of Europe).5.3 SURVEY ON FOCUS GROUP ITALYThe following report underlines important reflections emerged during the meeting held in CnipaPuglia office that had as main participants 13 adults, some representatives of the most widespreadmigrant communities present in the Province of Lecce and other Italians. We tried, as far aspossible, to ponder over in the Focus group the social tissue of local community.The issues discussed concerned the distinctive features of the training system related to interculturalskills that have to be developed through a social game.Every representative of the community was given a folder containing a presentation file of theproject and a test to evaluate the knowledge of some subjects (history, geography, etc.), thesatisfaction and the use of IT tools for a game and for learning (attached). All the participantsdelivered the filled in form. As concerns the working methodology, the participants, the moderatorand the observer were sitting in circle and before the beginning of the meeting we fixed the timeand the modality of working.
  • The focus: - Mr. Giuseppe Montanaro, coordinator of the project, introduces the meeting works shortly presenting the project and underlining the reasons of the meeting and the importance of 81 the results and information to collect for planning the social game. - the moderator Professor Antonio Marsella encouraged a welcoming climate keeping an informal approach and encouraging the intervention of every participant, discussing the aims and objectives of the focus group itself. - the representatives of the community expressed their opinions about the topics discussed.Afterwards we make the group interact through the use of social games in order to test thereactions and interest: a. we had a first connection to the on-line game THE MILLIONAIRE, a multiple choice game about general knowledge with increasing difficult levels and a system of prizes and feedbacks aimed at improving the knowledge of the participant. b. the second social game was CITYVILLE. Social game where all the participants meet online and interact to create their own city.The main comments emerged and summarized here below, are structured on the following topics: - level of knowledge and satisfaction of the didactic subjects - level of interaction among the different ethnic groups in everyday life in formal and informal environments; - level of use of information tools for games and learning.The results are summarized here below.The impressions received are the following: - everybody knows the IT tools and use them for social purposes; - game acquires more and more a secondary importance; - they consider information and learning with more interest compared to the past.After the multimedia game the group was kept for informational comments aimed at betterunderstand the attitudes held during the game, the perception of usefulness that everybody hasand the expectations that come from the use of a social game.It set a dialogic discussion on issues relating to the use of computer tools for learning.The first question to introduce themselves is about their community (who are you? What do youdo?) involved all the participants. This introduction itself enabled the moderator to collectinformation about the use of IT tools stimulating the participants. They covered the topic ofintercultural teaching too. The help of the representatives of migrant communities present in theterritory was really important as they are the main people that deal with the change in Italiansociety and, at the same time, directly actively involved in such a change, so they are one of the
  • best sources of information and data about a reality that is difficult to describe and interpret,above all concerning the learning field related to inter-culture.The participants themselves identified several obstacles for the realization of the strongly hopedprocess of intercultural education that could be realize only through an efficient interaction and 82integration among people and cultures, reaching in this way a complete and effective learning.The assessment of difficulties goes in parallel with the identification of strategies and teaching toolsthat could offer a specific and appropriate answer to the problems linked to multi-culture. Theparticipants themselves see, within the new and peculiar teaching situation where they are askedto confront each other, some possible ways that appeal to a knowledge of topics guiding to theinter-culture and so to the exchange among cultures:An help is needed from people who know very well maths, because it could be an aid to findeasier ways, different ways, in particular if they [foreign adults] did it in a different way…Have different materials at disposal, possibly linked to the culture of a foreign person:Where there is a problem…maybe, knowing the culture they come from, having materials such astools of geometry, abacus and anything useful…it’s easier to check that the learner is following andunderstood what you did.Focusing your attention on the implementation of a learning that can be shaped and is rich inpractical experiences: you have to use the games to know subjects with new contents…Underlining the importance of a confrontation among the culture of origin, the participants seemto understand the anthropological dimension of maths (Barton, 1996), product of a particularculture, and inevitably with different features in different cultures, in opposition to the popular ideaof mathematics as a universal discipline, characterized by a neutral culture.
  • 1 2 3 4 History : time of migrations – past and present civilization: encounters and 5 5 3 2 collisions Social and law studies / citizenship : citizenship – democracy – individual and 5 5 2 3 collective rights Geography : place - places (experienced, planned, represented, symbolized) 3 3 4 5 84 Mother- tongue: loanwords, evolution of the language, regional use. 15 Community language: connections to the culture. 2 13 Non verbal languages: music, dance, images, art, movement and use of the 1 14 body. Maths: the number as a symbol, number and geometrical rules, problem-solving 5 5 3 2 Sciences : relation human being – environment, eco system 5 5 2 3 Information technology 2 2 11 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS Fill in the right box, the overall number of individual answers 1 2 3 4 History : time of migrations – past and present civilization: encounters and 1 4 2 8 collisions Social and law studies / citizenship : citizenship – democracy – individual and 2 2 1 10 collective rights Geography : place - places (experienced, planned, represented, symbolized) 1 2 2 10 Mother- tongue: loanwords, evolution of the language, regional use. 15 Community language: connections to the culture. 5 10 Non verbal languages: music, dance, images, art, movement and use of the 15 body. Maths: the number as a symbol, number and geometrical rules, problem-solving 1 2 2 10 Sciences : relation human being – environment, eco system 1 2 1 11 Information technology 15Comments:The group was quite heterogeneous so it wasn’t possible to have a coherent summary of data,considering an objective classification. Anyway, the data acquired are equally interesting.Underlining that the focus group reflects the local social fabric, we notice a greater presence ofItalian women compared to foreign ones with a general level of education of high school. Theonly foreign woman was Moroccan with a primary school level of education. Most men areAfghan, Nigerian and only three men are Italian. The level of education of Italians is high schoolwhile foreign men have primary school level of education. The knowledge of the topics abovevary according to the level of education but, considering the satisfaction almost everyone ishappy to learn. We registered a greater inclination to keep the knowledge of origin and will to beintegrated in the welcoming country with general knowledge and, above all, the use of IT tools. LEVEL OF USE OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TOOLS AS A GAME Fill in the right box, the overall number of individual answers 1 2 3 4 15
  • LEVEL OF USE OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TOOLS TO LEARN Fill in the right box, the overall number of individual answers 1 2 3 4 2 3 10 85 2. SATISFACTION IN THE RESEARCH METHOD LOW MEDIUM HIGH 0 0 152. Difficulty in the interaction of different ethnic groups in real life We notice a gap among the different ethnic groups. The local context is a crossroads of different populations that often transit to go to other places. The foreign people present in the territory have difficulty to be integrated both with the local population and with the other ethnic groups present and live in environments that are different from the ones of local people. This doesn’t enable integration but only a mutual tolerance, and, or perhaps, respect too. The result is a low knowledge, of one towards the others, that leads to misunderstandings and problems. Furthermore we have to underline that the Chinese community is the most numerous. It’s a closed community and it is difficult to have a dialogue with them. Also within this focus group, it was impossible to involve any Chinese.3. Make the group interact through the use of social games on PC in order to test their satisfaction: In using Internet to interact During the meeting all 15 participants had Internet access and a computer available. Everybody interacted above all during the social game “CITYVILLE”. The satisfaction was very high and they could see how the cultural barriers in a multimedia environment are going to fall very easily. In using Internet to play Above all people with a medium low culture show a greater inclination for games. If they were free to use PC, they looked for new games and weren’t prone to interact with the others, leaving this part to social networks. Younger Italians are the ones who accept to play online with the others in the web. Everybody loves to talk with others in the web. In using Internet to learn The IT tool is a strong platform to learn. In our opinion the development is still modest and the potentiality are great. At the moment we notice an inclination of every participant to use Internet to learn but, they often need a tutor in person or online to be guided. Maybe because such methodology isn’t perceived yet as a “new” one. The complete replacement of traditional methods hasn’t happened yet but, Internet is a support that cannot be avoided today in learning process.4. Judgements in the perception of utility of skills for the Focus Group
  • In the demo-anthropological field Every group doesn’t mean to refuse their knowledge about demo-anthropological field, on the contrary everybody was enthusiastic to deepen and communicate to the others to explain some attitudes and the origin of them. The perception of the usefulness of such skills is really high because it enabled them to characterize their identity as individuals but also as 86 a component of a different population. In the communication field Communication is considered as the main tool for integration. It’s of fundamental importance to learn the tool through which the communication becomes real that is : language. A need that is strongly felt by foreign people to be integrated and learn (language of the local context). A need felt by residents to improve themselves (community language). In the scientific field The scientific skills are perceived as less important compared to the other two, anyway, a tool to complete integration. Skills of this kind are included in the culture of each individual as a piece of a puzzle that cannot be complete without them. Everybody is aware that knowledge of this kind ensure the full integration and a professional growth. 4. EXPECTATIONS FOR THE USE OF A SOCIAL GAME TO LEARN The game becomes on one side the modality to manage the space between us and reality, ourselves and the others, as activity that merges in a symbolic interaction, the identity with the feeling. “To understand the game we have to better know the world and to understand the words as a game we must have an deeper intuition of the world”. The use of relational and communication game, from the easier one-to-one interaction to the more complicated role play, requires the acquisition of specific skills and competences. The situations described above are examples of focus groups in action. The focus group is in fact, mainly a detection technique to get information about a specific topic, with the involvement of the group selected through the intervention of a social researcher. 5. Final report (max 1 page)The need of skills and how it is perceived by the different groups taken in exam increases as far asthe level of education decreases and the foreign people are the ones who prove to have agreater intention to learn to cover the gap they have with local people and be integrated in thenew reality where they live.For an efficient intercultural education it’s necessary to realize a full integration of individuals,giving the basis for an integration that is not only at school but in society, in parallel with aneffective and complete learning of the culture and knowledge tools.The process of integration in society won’t be accomplished if the individual doesn’t acquire thenecessary knowledge tools to be an “informed citizen” and aware with an appropriate culturallevel.Starting from some reflections, all the participants have stressed the importance of promoting a
  • reflection about the revision of curricula and knowledge to be addressed to the creation of aglobal citizenship that supports co-responsibility attitudes in the management of the commonglobal space.Such a reflection requires the full involvement both of School Institutions that have to care of thesocial changes we are experiencing and of ONG that are active in intercultural processes.The moderator, summarizing the works, after having thanked all the participants to the focus 87group for the active and fruitful collaboration and the pertinence of discussion with usefulquestions and answers to evaluate the quality of the use of social games to acquire interculturalskills, stressed again that your role is always determined by elements linked to expectations andcontext.Through the dynamics described, we tried to prove that the own attitudes can be modifiedaccording to the objective we want to achieve, modifying the content and relations, and the“professional” and “formal” connection focused on relationship. At the same time it’s also possibleto change positively someone else’s behaviours. In fact, the theory of games, if adequatelyapplied, enables us to fore-see and “exploit” the actions and interests of “others” to achieve ouraims, having the maximum advantage with the minimum effort, that even if are not based oncollaborative logic, they see collaboration itself as the most advantageous solution for all thepeople involved. From what emerged, it’s possible to conclude that the “role crisis” claimed by“others”, is often determined by the incapacity of others themselves to manage in theappropriate, strategic and collaborative way the relational logics. That’s why the moderator saysgoodbye to the participants with the words “THE KNOWLEDGE, KNOW HOW TO DO SOMETHING ISIMPORTANT BUT WE NEED TO MAKE OTHERS KNOW that means make the others know through thedevelopment of an appropriate process to become responsible”. SPAINOn the 24th of April a group discussion tool place. In order to gather and invite the participants, anumber of organizations and NGOs, working in the field of immigration and interculturality relatedtopics were contacted. As a result, 6 participants have attended and contributed for the groupdiscussion. The group discussion has been structured in the following manner:1. Immigration tendencies in Spain: personal perspectives and experiences;2. Positive and negative encounters and experiences with foreigners, rejection and differences;3. Problems and barriers of intercultural communication;4. Competences needed for efficient intercultural communication;5. Recommendations for the P4I social game; 6. Testing two game samples + evaluation;7. Evaluation questionnaire of the focus group.As follows, we will provide a summary on the discussed issues respectfully.1. Immigration tendencies in Spain: personal and professional experiencesAll the participants shared that on the personal, as well as on the professional level, they could feeland live the increasing tendencies of immigration, although the participants could observe thedifferences in case of bigger cities, where the encounters with foreigners are inevitable andintercultural encounters and experiences turn to be a daily experience:
  • “It depends where you live, is not the same, if we are talking about living in Barcelona, Madrid orBilbao. In Barcelona you can see in the street, while in Bilbao you cannot notice the interculturalcoexistence (p3)”.“It is true that comparing with Barcelona or Madrid, there are less immigrants, but is also because 88Bilbao is smaller. I think in proportion, I wouldn’t dare to say that the difference is that big. I thinkimmigrants here are less visible. Also because we move within certain zones, that are marked or notby the immigrant population. But I do notice the increased presence of people from differentnationalities (p4)”.“I think is not a problem is not being small, rather than an issue of the region. At least on personallevel, I can’t notice that much immigrants comparing to other regions, such as inCatalonia (p2)”.“On personal and professional level, indeed I could live the increase of immigrants andinternational people during the last 3 years: in university, gym, in streets (p4)”.2. Positive and negative encounters and experiences with foreigners, rejection and differencesThe participants were asked about their positive and negatives encounters and communicationwith the foreigners. As a result, the participants stressed the positive encounters.“On personal level, my experiences are positive. I might the same problems as with my neighboursfor example, who is from Basque country (p3)”.No major problems or negative experiences have been shared, although different communicationstyle was identified as causing some particular confusion in communication that turns to a negativeexperience:“Language is not necessarily the problem; there are certain nationalities, from my experience, Ifaced that even talking the same languages we don’t manage to communicate. I don’t knowwhere is the problem, though I would like to know (p4)”.Talking about the observed differences, the participants of the focus group agreed that whentalking about encounters with Europeans, no bigger differences could be identified. Thedifferences increase, when we turn to talk with people coming from outside the Europe:“The cultural differences that we can meet with persons from European countries are not that bigas for example, if we are talking about Asian countries or Africa is different. The communication incase of people coming from Africa, Arab countries is much more difficult (p1)”.“Is not the same if we are talking about Europeans, we don’t have so many cultural differences asfor example, if we meet with a person coming from Morocco, where religion is different and unitedwith politics: many aspects that “shock” us (p3)”.“On personal level, I usually meet and deal with European people that I do believe are not verydifferent from us. The differences that occur are due to the character of different traditions, forexample, Christmas celebration. In case of Arab countries, where the religion is stronger, here we
  • might have some clashes, but from my experiences with Europeans, no big differences exits andtherefore I haven’t faced any major problems (p1)”.Media and stereotypes were identified as the mains factors shaping our communication andopinion with the foreigners: 89“Many aspects have to do with stereotypes. For example, we don’t see the Germans the sameway as Romanian for example. The media and social networks have a huge influence in fosteringthe stereotypes (p4)”.“From the point of view of journalist ethics: is not good to mention nationality that makes thesituation worse. Journalist students knows that, is like ABC of journalism: not to mention thenationality in case of crimes (p5)”.“From my personal experience, I used to have my prejudices, but from my personal experience Icould live, I remember how bad I could live with prejudices and I don’t want to commit this mistakeanymore (p6)”. “The prejudices are something you have unconsciously inside and that could bringto the disappointment. The differences between the regions are still very big, from my point of view,such as differences in mentality are very significant, for example towards social life or private life.The challenge obviously is concerning the integration of people coming from outside Europe,because we are stick to the problem that they have to integrate. As usually, we have an idea thatthey are the ones that have to adapt, but we all have to adapt in fact. Is the way I see, we have tomeet in the middle of way. The media might have a very positive way, but it works in both ways:positive and negative. You identify with persons due to your interests and things you share andhave the same objectives but not due to the cultural background. Also depends on the specificcontexts where you meet and develop the relationship (p2)”.
  • 3. Problems and barriers of intercultural communicationThe participants were invited to reflect and identify the communication barriers we might havewhen talking and meeting the foreigners. It was agreed that language in fact is the least barrier. 90The following ideas have been discussed and shared: Table 1. Intercultural communication barriers Personal space distance (touching, kisses etc.) Prejudices Cultural differences specifics Religion Gender issue in different cultures Nonverbal communication Clothing The way of speaking (for example, speaking loudly) The reason motivation for immigration4. Competences needed for efficient intercultural communicationOnce having identified the major intercultural communication barriers and obstacles, theparticipants were asked about the competences needed for efficient and positive interculturalcommunication experience. A summary of ideas collected are presented in Table 2.Intercultural communication competences and abilities. Table 2. Intercultural communication competences and abilities Empathy Social abilities Flexibility Active listening, listening without prejudices Basic knowledge of history ToleranceFurthermore, the participants have agreed that growing in multicultural environment and/or havinga contact with foreigners, as well as travelling, might positively strengthen the interculturalcommunication skills:“To grow in multicultural environments or having a contact– provides you a possibility to open yourmind and to see that are other cultures that don’t have necessarily to share your culture, religion orpolitics, neither your way of being nor your gestures (p2)”.
  • Last but not the least, the participants acknowledged the importance of intercultural training.As an effective mode of training, the participants indicated the informal training as well as the thepotential of Internet has been stressed. 915. Recommendations for the Playing for Interculturality social gameAs far as the recommendations for the Playing for Interculturality social game are concerned,certain ideas have been proposed.First of all, it was stressed to take care about the language, avoiding generalizations for example ornot clear definitions: “The game of words is very important to take care about (p2)”.Moreover, it was suggested to provide a child’s vision: “Looking through the child’s eyes could bean interesting perspective, as the kids see the world differently, with no prejudices or stereotypes(p4)”.Looking for positive associations was mentioned as an affective learning method.6. Testing two game samples + evaluationThe participants were asked to test and evaluate two particular games: NEELB2 and STORYGENERATOR.The evaluation of the games included 4 subjects: impressions, user friendliness, contents andrecommendations (See Table 3 for evaluation details).
  • Table 3. Evaluation of the games: NEELB 2 and STORY GENERATOR NEELB2 STORY GENERATOR “I liked that I could use my name that make me feel identified”. “Interesting, but the man walks a bit “I didn’t understand well the 92 slow”. objective of the game, that’s why I “Colours are too dark, that makes the didn’t find it attractive. If it’s a game for game a bit sad”. informal or non-formal education, I IMPRESSIONS “Really detailed city, good design”. don’t see very clear” “In general, I liked the game, is “The game is fun, loved it”. simple and works well, although I “I don’t like it….” need to install a special software to “The picture of roses is too make it work”. “sweet”. It gives association with cheap novels, but not original and not with something worth attention”. “It’s easy to understand and follow, but was difficult to find the 12 “Not very attractive visually”. characters”. “The use is very simple and “The environment Is attractive and intuitive, is easy to follow and adequate. The use is simple and user manage. The navigation is simple andUSER FRIENDLINESS friendly”. doesn’t need any addition “I got stuck on the pavement, had to components. It’s oriented to the user ask for help to be able to move and doesn’t need much help forward”. to interact”. “I liked the option to place myself into “100% friendly”. the place of the character”. “The contents are correct, although in many cases too obvious. An “The questions are irrelevant, introduction at the beginning would because we don’t k now the be useful in order to understand objective of the game”. better the definitions (prejudices, “The contents are clear, the stereotypes, discrimination etc.) to be aesthetics is adequate, although not able to answer better the questions. very attractive for me personally”. CONTENTS Other more neutral environment “Very few contents, but at the end would be more attractive, as result to be sufficient”. Northern Ireland is very specific “No sense in it, the contents are not context”. clear”. “Some sentences are not clear”. “The feedback and the results “Without previous definitions is hard to don’t impact you, not interesting”. give answers”. “The colours are too dark”.
  • “I felt the lack of more answer options”. “Questions are very ambiguous, so not always you can say certainly what type of emotion or reaction is 93 expressed”. “In general, the game is quite well developed, very simple, and intuitive and functions well. The contents are correct and are adapted to the game environment. The contents “A certain explanation of the should be improved making them less objectives in order to create a obvious in terms of what is bad and series of histories would be good. A short theoretical introduction recommendable, at the begging or at would be necessary”. the end of the game. I would also “The English can be difficult to change the aesthetics”.RECOMMENDATIONS understand if you are not a native”. “Visuals should be improved”. “A map of city would be useful. A “Could be great if the story had number of people that are left to more than one ending. It is still found out of 10 to add. More very positive and promising, but boring entertainment while walking”. if you play twice or more”. “To make the game more real, for “The design could be improved”. example, to be able to listen to the phrases etc. Another perspective, not the back of the character, could be more attractive”.
  • 7. Evaluation questionnaire of the focus groupRESULT OF THE RESEARCH 941. Focus held on 24th of April with 6 (nr. of people) for (hours) 2 and a half.2. Gender: 6 female3. Age 25-35 36-45 46-55 5 1 - a. ETHNIC GROUPClassify people according to the ethnic group of origin Ukrainian and Spanish Polish Portuguese Belarusian 2 1 2 24.EDUCATION LEVEL PRIMARY SCHOOL SECONDARY SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL - - 65.WEIGHTED EXAM OF THE SUBJECTSLEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS: 1 2 3 4 History : time of migrations – past and present civilization: encounters and 2 1 3 collisions Social and law studies / citizenship : citizenship – democracy – individual and 4 2 collective rights Geography : place - places (experienced, planned, represented, symbolized) 3 1 1 Mother- tongue: loanwords, evolution of the language, regional use. 1 4 Community language: connections to the culture. 3 1 2 Non verbal languages: music, dance, images, art, movement and use of the 2 3 1 body. Maths: the number as a symbol, number and geometrical rules, problem-solving 2 3 1 Sciences : relation human being – environment, eco system 3 1 2 Information technology 2 2 2LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS
  • 1 2 3 4History : time of migrations – past and present civilization: encounters and 1 2 3collisionsSocial and law studies / citizenship : citizenship – democracy – individual and 1 2 3collective rights 95Geography : place - places (experienced, planned, represented, symbolized) 1 3 2Mother- tongue: loanwords, evolution of the language, regional use. 2 1 3Community language: connections to the culture. 2 2 2Non verbal languages: music, dance, images, art, movement and use of the 2 3 1body.Maths: the number as a symbol, number and geometrical rules, problem-solving 1 4 1Sciences : relation human being – environment, eco system 3 1 2Information technology 2 2 2 LEVEL OF USE OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TOOLS AS A GAME Give a score from 1 to 4 (1 = low, 4 = high) 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 LEVEL OF USE OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TOOLS TO LEARN Give a score from 1 to 4 (1 = low, 4 = high) 1 2 3 4 1 1 4 SATISFACTION IN THE RESEARCH METHOD LOW MEDIUM HIGH 4
  • ROMANIAWere identified different contexts and situations in favour of acquisition of intercultural skills such as: 96mixed marriages, neighbourhood relations, educational or professional space, commercialpractices. Holidays are often invoked as favourable opportunities to make another meeting with abeneficial experience, enriching, positive valued. A good example in this field is an online product, of a project financed by the RomanianGovernment - Department for Interethnic Relations and implemented by the Intercultural Institutefrom Timişoara city.A premiere for Romania and the world: Intercultural Calendar, a project based on an idealaunched in Timişoara city- from various ethnicities in the country needs to get to know each otherbetter. Intercultural calendar presents important data of national groups in Romania. It shows in theofficial calendar days following the countrys main ethnic groups recorded on the schedules theyobserved. The Intercultural calendar shows the most important data of all recognized bygovernment and represented in the Romanian parliament nationalities. Intercultural Calendarencyclopaedic concept is dynamic, by adding new data submitted by the users that would bereflected in its contents. GREECEFocus group 19/4 2012The focus group was held in Athens, on Thursday 19/4 and people from the target group whereinvited. The total number of people attending the focus group where 13 people, ranging fromserious/social game designers and developers to adult learning practitioners.Namely the following participated: 1. Mrs. Sofia Tsiortou (project manager) 2. Mrs. Christina Karra (trainer / designer) 3. Mrs. Lia Tsiatsouli (designer / developer) 4. Mrs. Maria Lianou (designer / developer / trainer) 5. Mr. Panagiotis Zaharias (university teacher / e-tutor) 6. Mr. Giorgos Simopoulos (intercultural trainer) 7. Mrs. Eri Giannaka (university teacher / researcher / adult learning trainer) 8. Mrs. Maria Saridaki (university teacher / trainer in serious games) 9. Mrs. Viki Zouka (Greek language trainer)
  • 10. Mrs Maria Psaraki (Trainer) 11. Mrs. Christina Kanellopoulou (designer e-learning and games) 12. Mr Dimitrios Mylonas (researcher) 13. Mr Antonis Friggas (developer of social / serious games) 97Primarily the focus group began with the welcome and presentation of the project P4i as well aspresented the company and the people participating.Following the project presentation by Mrs Tsiortou who explained how the project is structured,what are the aims and the expected results, she concluded by stating that key competencies arevery important to have by all European citizens and that the EU is currently promoting them. The P4iproject will aim to help European adults and practitioners to be able to teach / increase theawareness of intercultural competencies through the creation of a social game. Following this,additional key competences are enhanced such as digital literacy, communicating in your ownlanguage and social awareness.Following this presentation, Mrs Giannaka from AIT made a presentation about serious games andtheir use in education but also social games. She particularly noted the following: a) There is an increasing trend in the use of serious games in education, b) There is a significant change in the use patters among diverse target groups, c) Use in education is increasing due to change in how generations learn, d) There is a focus on Facebook games where more than 80% of its users log on just to play online, e) There are more women playing games than there are men, f) There are certain characteristics g) There needs to be a balance between game and play  design issues are very important, h) Mr Chan from Wired was quoted “give people free iPhones and they will use them in class to learn”, Some numbers that can be used are: a) 83% of Facebook users use it for online games, b) 68% of women play online with people they know c) 55% of men play with people they know d) 97% of young people pay PC and video games e) More women than men play online games (55% vs. 45%) The conclusion was that serious games and social games need to be fun and abide to certain characteristics. There are many examples (she gave links and screenshots) that have been made and that can be used as good practices. Following this presentation, Mr Simopoulos started an experiential game related to intercultural competencies and how we as people have stereotypes. His initial claim was that each of us
  • has stereotypes / prejudices and this is the first thing that each one needs to acknowledge. The game we played was the following: a) All closed their eyes and a tag/post-it note was put on our foreheads. b) Each person had one tag with a description on it. 98 c) No one knew what was written on his/hers forehead. d) Then we went around and talked with people in the same group trying to understand from their description who we were. For example “migrant worker 35 years old living in Athens”, “the wife of an ambassador”. From the reactions and the information we got from the other people we could see the type / kind of stereotype they associate with this description. In the end, the results were written on a note board and discussed. From this presentation a very productive discussion started on: a) how people use technology in their everyday lives, b) What type of preparation / training in intercultural skills / competences an adult trainer / practitioner needs and if this can be set. The discussion led to that trainers need to experiment with topics, have experiential learning activities so that they themselves can discover what issues are specific for them to be trained in. c) how specialised knowledge i.e. in history, geography, travelling can help a trainer in realising / acquiring the necessary knowledge/competence in intercultural abilities  specific examples were given from his experience in training / teaching foreigners in Greece in the Greek language and related this to the above information. d) Culture was mentioned and discussed elaborately relating intercultural competencies with what one as a person, has experienced in life and the influence got from his/her family. e) What we associated with one person / fiction character from the tag (i.e. the wife of an ambassador) may not be true. For example, all in the group described the wife of the ambassador as someone whose hobbies are shopping, travelling and styling. But what if this person is from a poor nation and where women are prohibited to talk to strangers and go out alone. Mr Simopoulos put many aspects on the table for discussion.The next item on the agenda were two additional experiential games: one to allow people tounderstand that first impressions are often characterised by stereotypes and how these can berealised by oneself, and the other a general quiz game to integrate the fun aspect of a gamingexperience. This is a point that usually is forgotten in serious games and the fun part is often by-passed on confused with smart graphics and text notes. The latter game divided the group intotwo smaller groups and was also scored. The group that won received a prize.The first game had the following characteristics: a) All participants sat around a table, b) They wrote something about them on a piece of paper and put it on the table in front of them,
  • c) When this was done, each one picked up a piece of paper and read out the statement i.e. “I am the father of two children”, d) The person who read the statement must identify from the group who he /she thinks the statement relates to. This is how first impressions are formed and described through 99 associations of own experience, own knowledge and thus, finally, associated with a person. For example, the person selected a participant based on his age and got it wrong. This made him realise that he automatically excluded the younger men from this statement, which proved wrong.The two games played, had the following as aims: a) To make people think that we act based on our stereotypes and prejudices which ultimately, are what form our first impression of people. This should be used and realised by adult training practitioners. Also this should be realised in the beginning of working with a group providing training, b) To argument why each of us thought something about a person. When the person who made the selection had answered, the group also responded and gave their arguments why they believed the statement fit one person or not. c) To learn more about each other and build a team. d) To integrate fun with informal learning experiences.Following the presentation of the games, Mrs Tsiortou presented the two games made by the twoP4i partners: 1. the story generator and 2. The 3D game. This to put all the above into a context andfor participants to realise / contextualise how the experiential activities they just did, can betransferred online and realised through serious / social games.The final presentation was done by Mr Friggas where he presented different games done and howfeatures they have can be used in education.Final discussion: a) Personal experiences with games is what matters in the end  if a person has played games, it is easier to relate to social games and embrace the experience, b) How the use of games can a useful tool in education  many stated their interest and curiosity on how the P4i game will be designed and developed, however, it was also noted that the Greek community of trainers are not ready to use them yet. This was heavily argued against. c) How advanced is Greece in developing games  there is a small community which are very good and competitive to other countries, d) About Second Life (SL) and how this type of 3D immersive environments can be used in training. There were many comments about SL and how it can be used. It was very much used in previous years but research depicts that use has been focused in other areas such as marketing, information sharing but not so heavily on education. An interesting point was
  • made that of a moderator be available in SL to enhance the learning experience but also to moderate user activities. There is a growing concern about younger people entering SL and experiencing things they should not. e) Controlled learning environments vs. free learning environments. Which are better suited for 100 our target groups?Comments related to the games:3D game comments: the text captions asking the user to answer were very negatively received i.e.the user lost the game immersion and thus lost interest. The 3D game was also received as a bit oldfashioned in its design and the group wondered how this will be dealt with in the actualdevelopment. However, intercultural skills and competencies can be taught in this manner sincemany different media can be integrated within. This type of games can also be used in a blendedenvironment i.e. controlled.Related to the story generator, they very much liked the idea of integrating their knowledge withina game and thus, share it with their group. Questions arose on how the interaction will be doneamong the users and how the results will be shared. How can the system be monitored?General results: A) Creation of a team, all started to use the first name when talking to each other (it is uncommon to do this in Greece), B) Help and understanding , cooperation in games, C) Fun and in parallel an informal learning process, D) Possible future cooperation between the participants,Results to be used in the game / aspects to consider: a) Use a shocking experience (shock method) to keep user motivated, b) To keep the user immersed within the environment and not lose him on the net, c) How to ask for information / evaluate the game while the user is still active and not lose the game momentum, d) How the interaction will be done between the players i.e. how will the 3D be integrated with the Facebook applications and traditional e-learning, e) Possible test different 3D games to evaluate user experience, f) The P4i social game will need to take the best functions from each type of game i.e. 3D, internet based, social based, e-learning based, platform based etc. g) Use environments the user can identify with i.e. a football field for men, a working environment for women. h) Put emphasis on the gaming experience (fun part) and integrate learning within. An example was given i.e. the strategic game Age of Empires where a user can learn: a. History of other civilisations, b. Architecture
  • c. Way of life – cultural aspects.Issues related to the Greek target group: A) Low ICT experience – this needs to be changed but reality states that this is the reality among Greek adult trainers, 101 B) Intercultural competencies have only been in the train the trainer curricula some years, so far it is very theoretical and thus, the necessary infrastructure does not exist within the classrooms, C) Technology is still lagging behind compared to other EU countries, however, private schools are on the opposite, their ICT infrastructure is very advanced, D) There is a generation gap between young learners and their trainers, E) There is a lacking motivation from the trainers’ community to get involved in ICT training and use it in their training delivery. F) There is a need to break the connotation that only formal learning is acceptable. Non- formal and informal learning should be considered just as important since they usually form practical competences needed in everyday life and working life, but also to link theory (taught at school/universities) with practice. G) There is a need for stronger policy suggestions especially high level related to the use of ICT.
  • UKThis section reports on the focus groups carried out as part of the primary research element of thisproject. As mentioned in the methodology section two focus groups were carried out and these 102are presented in the appendices to this report in two versions of the results proforma but they arereported on together in a section below which draws together the main findings of the focusgroups and this forms the main part of this section of the report. The detailed reports on the focusgroup are included here as Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. After the summary of the participants ofeach of the two focus groups there is a bullet point section in these appendices which draws outissues from each of the focus group interviews. The one-page report that follows here provides asynthesis of the main issues raised in the two groups. The full transcripts of the focus groups areincluded as appendices 3 and 4 and attached to this report. The appendices to this report shouldalso be read in order to get a full picture for the complexity of ideas expressed through the focusgroups.a. The sample: 10 participants were interviewed. Across both focus groups there were 3 male and 7female participants. 5 fell into the 18-25 age range, 3 were 26-35 years old and 2 were 36-45 yearsold. 8 were White British and 1 was Portuguese and 1 was Indonesian. All participants wereuniversity students so had been well educated.b. The findings:1. Difficulty in interacting with different ethnic groups in real lifeLanguage issues: Language can cause problems. For the Indonesian student who learnt AmericanEnglish, coming to England presented her with problems relating to people’s accents andintonation, and the Portuguese student found that people spoke very fast, especially in their nativelanguage. Language barriers were an issue with people from the Phillipines that the Britishparticipants encounter in the workplace. Feelings of embarrassment, being ignorant and frustrationas felt they should be able to understand them better. People, even in other countries, areexpected to be able to speak English, and many British people do not speak another language.Cultural misunderstandings and stereotypes: According to the Indonesian students there weremisconceptions between the international and local student groups with the local students thinkingthat the international students were “rich, snobbish and arrogant” and the international studentsfeeling that the local students were “not interested in hanging out with us because you don’t likeus!” That was not the case but due to perceptions the students had of each other. Stereotypes ofthe Brazilian people are that they are full of life and very friendly. The Chinese are more introvertedand tend to stay in their groups. The Portuguese student thought that culture affects the overallpersonality of a person. British people sometimes think that Philippino staff are arrogant or ignorantwhen they have conversations between themselves in their own language. Pre-assumptions aboutpeople from different cultures or religion can be a barrier because a service user may or may not
  • be a strict follower of their culture or religion. Friendship communities: some cultures, like Indonesian,Chinese and Asian tend to be friendly with everybody in their group and with other cultures, whilepeople from other cultures mainly stay within smaller groups of friends and do not mix with othercultures as much. 103Sensitive issues and risk of interaction: Participants were afraid of being construed as racist whenthings that are said are taken in the wrong way. This makes people hold back from saying thingsthat might offend others. ‘Colour’ is not an issue any more because there are so many people (inthe UK) from Eastern Europe. Determining the right boundaries for the right culture – would try not tomention topics that may upset people as do not want to offend or cause conflict. They talk abouttopics that other people want to discuss. In Indonesian culture it is common for people to talkopenly about their religion or age but this is not the case with all cultures, and one participant takesguidance from a British relative. The British tend to say ‘Sorry’ more frequently than other cultures.2. Using the internet to interact: It is easier to interact with people when you are behind a computerscreen. You can say things that you might not normally say but as you know if you went too far itcould be traced back to you that does help to moderate what is actually said. People come out oftheir shells behind social games. You can join groups or clans from all over the world and talk topeople in those clans. Your groups or clans can attack other people’s groups or clans. Or you canplay alone. Have played with people from all over the world: America, Brazil, France, everywhere!One student talked about ethnic backgrounds of people and referred to people with blond hair,indicating that if you cannot see somebody you could not be influenced by those things. They didnot have any inhibitions when playing online so communication would be more intense than in reallife.3. Using the internet to play: Escapism. Can reinvent yourself. Releases inhibitions. The femaleIndonesian student did not think that social games were something that females would playalthough she was aware of the games through watching male family members play. You caninvent different personalities for yourself which can be very different to your real-life personality. Youcan play without fear of any consequences, other than that other people may destroy yourcharacter or threaten your survival. In Indonesia social gaming is very popular within high schoolbut less so for working people. Poor internet connections mean that people in Indonesia tend toplay in more public places like stores and malls. Some students stay in malls playing social gamesfrom after school until the morning, not even stopping to eat or drink. You play the games to satisfyfeelings. “They can be like a free drug that doesn’t actually destroy your body”. Social gamingcan consume a lot of time, leaving little time to do other, more important things like studying,resulting in poor marks for students.4. Using the internet to learn: The Portuguese student felt that social gaming had helped him learnto write English because the games were in English, although as he did not speak in the games itdid not help with spoken English. He learned how different people think, to adapt quickly, and
  • team-working skills. By being disassociated from yourself you are able to try out many things thatyou would not normally do in real life, so he thought it was a good way to learn. You could dothings like insult your boss and then come back to work the next day which you would not be ableto do in real life. Risk-taking was possible and there was no fear of being judged or fear of dying. 3D 104gaming can be used to make things more real, like teaching pilots to fly planes. Difficulties includetrying to emulate personalities, such as leaders, as people would have to learn in their own livesrather than through a social game. The limitations of social gaming are different from actualreality.5. Judgements of the utility of social gaming for developing skills: Social gaming is addictive. Youcan have any interaction you want. You can have different personalities, doing things that youmight not do in real life. The games can become a reality which makes you forget everything else.Teenagers who have power struggles with their parents can be in control of a game and have thefreedom to make decisions. It is about feelings. A blurring of social gaming and reality can havedisastrous effects if people cannot differentiate between the two. A more positive use of socialgaming would be to try out different decision scenarios before making an actual decision in reallife, as this may lead to more objectivity. If you could put two people together in a computer theywould be much more open than in conversation because of the lack of perceived risk in theinteraction. Social gaming can be used to ‘meet’ friends online if you are intending to go to aparticular country in the future. By building up links with people online you can arrange to contactthem another time to play games and build up friendships over time. You could learn differentlanguages or how to deal with different personalities. You can get to know yourself in a differentenvironment. You can experience power that you might not have in your real life. Everything youdo is in a safe environment. Games should be used to enhance life not limit it.
  • 6. INTERCULTURAL SKILLS 1056.1 THEORY AND DEFINITION OF INTERCULTURAL SKILLSIntercultural competence has been defined by the anthropologist Milton Bennett, creator of theDMIS (Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensibility), as "the ability to acquire certain sensitivityto the cultural differences and adapt your behaviour according to the cultural context in which it is". The experiential learning becomes a process where knowledge construction goes throughobservation and the transformation of experience. Therefore, it does not go through the passiveacquisition of knowledge, concepts and relationships. The more we are confronted with complexsituations characterized by high cultural differences the more intercultural competence increases,according to the DMIS model.Intercultural Competences- Ability to make increasingly more complex perception distinctions around one’s experience of cultural differences.- As a person’s experience of cultural differences becomes more differentiated, potential competence in intercultural relations increases.- The ability to construe, and therefore experience, cultural differences in more complex ways is the central dynamic of the DMIS theory.- The ability to conceive cultural differences in more complex ways provides the platform for cognitive frame-shifting and behavioural code-shifting to cultural context: deeper, according to the situations and competent adaptation.The "cultural competence" is a key qualification and refers to the concept of "communicativecompetence" by Hymes and Gumperz, known as ethnographers of communication, and definesthe language, social and emotional skills of a person to communicate adequately with individualsor groups belonging to another culture.Intercultural competence is a complex phenomenon, that takes into account the cognitive,motivational and behaviour aspects. While in the seventies and eighties they drew attention to theaspects of behaviour and motivation, in recent years the cognitive aspect assumes a centralposition, especially understanding with that the cross-cultural knowledge, knowledge that isinherent to the interaction with representatives of different cultures.Talking today about multi-cultural skills necessarily consider the role of the person called upon tocommunicate, discuss and form a relationship with communities and contexts more and more
  • heterogeneous, both in formal and informal level. In this context, the new scenarios should betaken into account in the communication and information age, whose nature has disrupted theway we think, find and use knowledge, addressing the interest of learners in a perspective oflifelong learning. So, the way people operate within these systems of knowledge and the use that 106must be done of this knowledge, has developed the critical discussion about skills, to support theempowerment that should allow the citizens to conceive their own life project. This is necessary toput the person in a position to solve problems, participate in projects, negotiate conflicts and takesteps forward, both individually and in a cooperative way, so that he/she can feel to be fully partof the life of different communities and act consciously their citizenship. The individual, therefore,captures and brings into play the skills to work, live and relate in a world characterized bydiscontinuity, dynamism, mobility and where the ways of interaction have exceeded any kind ofdisciplinary or geographical borders, to arrive to spaces, such as network, blog, forum and wikisithat are characterized as de-territorialized.In the words of Gert Jan Hofstede, individuals need - now more than ever - a "new software for themind" that will allow them to live new experiences and new territories of learning. Territories thathave never been fully explored, sometimes rough but often rewarding, where communities areheard, work, compare and relate together to build new spaces for reception, work, exchange andreciprocity that constitute the very basis of intercultural dialogue, the vehicular interculturallanguage par excellence of the new global reality.An area of action, therefore, where the individual intends to respond to new challenges such asglobalization, the reduction of political spaces, the active involvement of people, the need tobecome multilingual and digital citizens.Interculture, in fact, is realized with an inclusive education that is multilanguage, dynamic,interactive and through the dialogue-because, quoting the verses of John Donne, "... every man isa piece of the continent, a part of everything."The role of institutions, training agencies and education is crucial, we cannot create a culturalmetropolis, if there isn’t an intercultural project in the city. You can create, at best, an “ethnic saladbowl" (melting pot) metropolis, but no interaction. To create an intercultural project it is necessaryto start from "intercultural competence" that people must have.Bernd-Dietrich Müller sees in cultural competence the capacity to establish an understanding ofunity (communion): he observes how intercultural skills are reflected in a concrete communicativesituation, for instance at a social and pragmatic level. Starting from a combination ofpsychological and linguistic elements he identifies, referring also to Knapp-Potthoff, the followingcomponents:- Awareness regarding strategies for the identification and analysis of communicationmisunderstandings based on cultural knowledge and their relevance to the communicative actand behaviour;
  • - Awareness that way of thinking, acting and attitude and socio-pragmatic competence areclosely related to the specific cultural and cognitive patterns;- Ability and willingness to assume the perspective of the other culture;- Knowledge of the dimensions that differentiate the different cultures; 107- Ability to explain phenomena related to action and behaviour in the event of communicationcaused by cultural causes;- Awareness of the ordering principles that govern cross-cultural communication, especially themechanisms of reducing insecurity, allocation and growth of stereotypes;The concept of intercultural competence is complex and its first joint may be: - Identity-Otherness - Narration and self-telling - Dialogue and communication (communicative action and dialogue) - Construction of meaning and hermeneutic understanding - Plurality of mind and complexity of knowledge - Responsibilities of ethics and values, with which the dialogue is funded - Ability to shift point of view (cognitive and emotional-affective) - Direction of conventions - Power to unityImportant and rich of contents is the contribution of the Rumanian partner that explains:Behavioural Assessment Scale for Intercultural Competence (BASIC) - belonging to Koester andOlebe (Koester, Lustig, 1993), is based on the following idea: intercultural competence is measuredmore in terms of what the person do at a moment, than according to his inner attitudes or thanwhat he imagines that could do. BASIC includes eight categories of communicative behaviours,making an operationalization of the concept of intercultural competence. These actually are mainresources of intercultural competence: showing reverence, orientation to knowledge, empathy,interaction management, performance of a task behaviour, relationship behaviour, tolerance forambiguity, interaction position. 1. Showing reverence. Need to show respect to others and be treated with respect is generally human, occurs in all cultures. The expectations of how to be shown respect differ from culture to culture. What is considered a sign of respect in a culture, not necessarily look like in another. Respect is manifested by verbal and nonverbal symbols. In the verbal language, is often considered as evidence of respect formality of language, including use of titles, no jargon, increased attention to the rituals of politeness. Non-verbal manifestations include a specific body position, facial expressions and use eye contact in ways prescribed. Tone of voice that shows interest in another person is another way of showing respect. 2. Orientation to knowledge refers to terms used by people to explain themselves and the world around. An effective orientation to knowledge exists when peoples actions show that
  • all experiences and interpretations are individual and personal, rather than shared by others. Words used expresses orientation knowledge that people have. To present their opinions as fact is a state of orientation inefficient, for example: "The custom of arranged marriages is barbaric". A person intercultural skills will expressed as follows: "I would not want my parents 108 to arrange my marriage for me". People cannot always orientation exhibit adequate knowledge of intercultural competence, because with socialization are developed beliefs about what is right, correct, normal, in the way of seeing events, behaviours and people. In fact, it is natural to believe and, therefore, to act as knowledge and experiences personal as universal. Intercultural competence requires an ability to overcome ones own cultural perspective.3. Empathy. People who are able to notice during communication thoughts, feelings, and experiences of speakers are seen as more competent in intercultural interactions. People who are not at all or too least aware of these realities, no matter how obvious it is, is not perceived as competent. Behaviour empathic includes verbal statements identifying others experiences and complementary non-verbal codes provisions and other thoughts. It is necessary to distinguish between empathy and which means "to put yourself in the other’s shoes. ”This is impossible both physically and mentally. Empathy is the ability to behave as if you understand the world as others understand it. Empathy must include response to the emotional context of the experiences of others.4. Management of interaction. Some people have the ability to start and end the interaction between participants to manage and maintain discussion. These management skills are important because through them all participants can contribute to the discussion properly. Conversely, a dominate position in the conversation or not answers to questions are at the expense of competence. Continued involvement of people in conversation long after they began to show signs of disinterest and boredom, or sudden end of the conversation can also pose problems. Interaction management skills require knowing how to direct interaction, both verbal and nonverbal.5. Behaviour of performance of a task. Since intercultural communication often occurs in situations where people have to follow work-related purposes, a properly performing their task behaviour is very important. This behaviour helps in problem solving in groups, where are asked: the new ideas, search more information or facts, clarifying group tasks, evaluation suggestions of others, keeping the group on task. The difficulty is to demonstrate appropriate cultural behaviour. The solution lies in recognizing the strong links cultural patterns and the realization that, from one culture to another, the same task can be solved in different ways. Behaviours of solving the tasks are closely intertwined with the business and cultural expectations difficult to adequately respond to differing expectations of pregnancy than their own. A task defined in a culture that social activity may be considered in another
  • culture that task. While in a cultural context a restaurant meal is perceived as a necessary prelude to negotiating a business therefore is part of the task, in another cultural context, it can be seen as a social activity, different from the task.6. Relational behaviour. Relational behaviours refer to efforts to build and maintain a private 109 relationship with group members. These behaviours may include verbal or nonverbal messages that show support for others and that help secure feelings and participation. Examples of relational behaviours include conflict mediation, harmonizing relations between members, encourage participation of others, expressions of interest and a willingness to compromise for the sake of others.7. Tolerance to ambiguity. Tolerance to ambiguity refers to person’s reactions to the new, the uncertainty and unpredictable intercultural meetings. Some people are more relaxed, others are extremely angry, frustrated or even hostile to new situations and to what they may mean. Those who cannot tolerate ambiguity may respond to new and unpredictable with hostility, anger, screaming, sarcasm, withdrawal or rudeness. Others see new situations as a challenge, they seem to handle any such act, they quickly adapted to the challenges raised by environmental changes. Those who show intercultural competence are able to cope with frustration and anxiety that accompany the new and uncertain situations.8. Position in the interaction refers to the ability to respond to others in a descriptive non evaluative and non-judgmental way. Although verbal and nonverbal messages that express judgments and evaluations may differ from one culture to another but the importance of selecting messages that do not lead to evaluative judgments is the same. Statements based on clear judgments on what is right or wrong indicates a narrow field of attitudes, beliefs and values and are used by an evaluative intercultural interlocutor, but less competent. Non evaluative actions and non-judgmental are characterized by verbal or nonverbal messages based on descriptions rather than interpretations or evaluations.
  • 6.2 INTERCULTURAL SKILLS FOR THE SOCIAL GAME 110See what just stated and from the research on the field we can say that to have a culturalcompetence it is necessary to have the following skills: ANTHROPOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE SOCIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE TEACHING SKILLS KNOWLEDGE OF LAW GEOPOLITICAL KNOWLEDGE PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGEKnowledge. These above: for the realization of the project P4I we thought to capture and report instep 4. Nevertheless, those who want to try a similar path is invited to explore these concepts byconsidering widening the spectrum and considering most European countries and different ethnicgroups here, for technical reasons we could not consider.According to the European Framework of Qualifications (European Parliament and CouncilRecommendations - 2006) the skill: Indicates the proven ability to use knowledge, skills andpersonal, social and / or methodological abilities, in job and study situations and in professional and/ or personal. Skills are described in terms of responsibility and autonomy.- Knowledge: means the outcome of the assimilation of information through learning. Knowledge is the set of facts, principles, theories and practices, related to a field of study or work, knowledge is described as theoretical and / or practical.- Skills: show the ability to apply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems, skills are described as cognitive (use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials and tools).In this sense, the intercultural skills are: -Communication and relationships (to communicate with people of different cultures) -Cultural and symbolic (understanding) -Of values and ethics (live in multi / intercultural).
  • The identified intercultural skills we advise to adopt are:- InteractionThat social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or 111groups) who modify their actions and reactions according to the actions of those they interactwith.- EmpathyIt designates an attitude toward others characterized by a commitment of understanding theothers, ruling out any personal emotional attitudes (sympathy, antipathy) and moral judgment.- DecentralizationOvercoming ethnocentrism, exit from your point of view and putting yourself in the other, reflect ontheir cultural conditioning, of stereotypes and prejudices, resources and limitations of their culture.- Cognitive transitivityAgainst the fossilization of thought. Get in touch with another culture often inspires in us a cognitiveestrangement; we may not recognize his manners, his strategies of thought, reasoning, learning. Toovercome the possible problem of the impossibility of the communication exchange must betaught to learn to make room for a thought diverging from ours, take an epistemic stance: I aminterested in the other culture to change the spectrum of investigation, taking a differentperspective on reality, outside of my cognitive system.- Methodological attentionMake things easy and start from there. Identification of the alike and not alike. Practice of thetheoretical element.- FlexibilityAbility to adapt its actions to changing conditions.- Active listening without prejudiceActive listening is based on empathy and acceptance. It is based on creating a positiverelationship, characterized by a climate in which a person can feel empathically understoodand, anyway, not judged.- ToleranceIndividual and collective ability to live peacefully with those who believe and act differently fromtheir own (and maybe, from this perspective, it might seem least objectionable).
  • 7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMALINTERCULTURAL TRAINING ITINERARIES 112From the surveys, studies, consultations and so on conducted during the first half of 2012 to makethis work emerged a very diverse and very dynamic European reality. Migration and internalmovement of people cause a continuous mixing of peoples of different languages, race, religion,culture, while it facilitates the desired goal of social cohesion since the Lisbon Conference, on theother side it has all those problems inherent to the interaction between different people. Initiativessuch as those advocated by P4I project can only accelerate and facilitate the ongoing processthat seems in any case unstoppable. It certainly will benefit future generations, however, theassumptions must be valid and effective since today. To do this we must put aside traditionalinstruments and ride the wave of change by ensuring that training and information areadministered according to methods that integrate the tools and practices that most people use inEurope. Hence the need to make the learning process become an integral part of the practicesthat each person daily makes almost automatically, since the training needs goes together withother requirements that are work, leisure, health, etc. ., all, however, subject to a single imperative:the good management of time. Several tools are available to do so, but as weve all got to seehere, the social game as useful tool for the development of routes of learning in informal and non-formal environments is very pleasant and functional for this purpose. We also understand anattractive design is not enough, we need effective content, interesting and interactive skills andmechanisms to manage the complexity of the user. Hence the usefulness of this document that it isan integral part of the project Playing for Interculturality and on the other side it is a usefulreference tool for those working in the field of social games and/or would like to take a similar path.A document that showed above a careful study, defined the Intercultural skills that the trainersshould have to design effective learning paths and to interact with trainees during the learning andassessment.A document that after explaining the behaviour of adults facing situations like the ones you wouldlike to play here, grasped the potential of the instrument, the defects, the opportunities and coststhat it entails. And passing the baton to the leader of WP4 recommended to create a product thattakes into account, as finely explained by the Spanish partner, of:Clear definitions, instructions and objectives of the game are necessary to make the user awareand set his own expectations. - Taking care about the design: the design of the game is the first impression due to which the user might reject or continue playing.
  • - Taking care about the language: wording and definitions might have much influence in strengthening or “fighting” the prejudices. - Neutral environment: particular environment might be unfamiliar for the users and not attractive. 113 - Avoiding simple contents: too basic contents might make the game boring and not attractive for the users. Continues challenge is what triggering element that makes the - users to continue playing. - Personal identification with a character: allows the user to immerse into the game and take an active role.The language, as already emphasized by the British partner in the common vehicle ofcommunication is English. A language must be understood as a useful tool to remove barriers tointeraction. The game, however, should give much importance to the other key skills because thespread of culture, mathematics, geography and so become an instrument of unity and socialcohesion. The use of the social game is a good thing because it puts together people whootherwise would communicate with differences of race, religion, language, etc. However, itincludes it in real personal elements that would allow the development of more complex narratives,taking care of himself, however, not to reinforce existing stereotypes.Moreover, in our opinion, the document takes into account the study supported by the British andGreek partners entitled:LEARNING ABOUT INTERCULTURAL SKILLS & COMPETENCIES IN AN INFORMAL LEARNINGENVIRONMENT – INPUT FOR GAME DESIGN GREEK/UK REPORTThe document, after careful experimentation in the field, makes a number of recommendationsthat integrates seamlessly with those already expressed and inviting all the Project Partners P4i, totake them to the realization of the social game.Thus, the proposed design recommendations for the P4i target group are to: a) Include social activities in form of: a. Discussions b. Group competitions c. Group activities (ex. solving) d. Knowledge quizzes (for fun) e. Chatting online f. Sharing information g. Building stories together based on own experiences
  • b) Design the basic game environment proposed that it will be a 3D environment where all instructions for the social game take place. The user will be able to leave and return to this 3D environment to complete tasks c) Include an evaluation in the end as assessment for the P4i group - following game 114 completion. d) During the social game, moderators follow user activities and report on progress – this in term of determining the success of the social game produced. It will not resemble a trainer monitoring a user and evaluating but for the P4i purposes and report writing. e) Very friendly user layout with the ability for the user to select between two avatars in the 3D environment and their own personal information within the web environment, f) Easy, navigable, clear instructions at all points to allow for user control, g) User manual with screenshots, h) Manual for trainers who wish to use this within a classroom setting, i) Clear instructions which will be based on pedagogical and andragogically methods of training delivery. j) No need for additional software i.e. clients to be installed on users computer.The proposition is that the above are “dressed” within a scenario of use.I add that the game should not require special skills to be used, someone who has never playedvideo games can play with it too. Unlike the real videogame, in the social game, the ability tointeract with other users is the key to success. Social games are popular because they allow manypeople to connect easily, and make visible to all their scores, increasing self-esteem. The result is acontinuous incentive to do better than unconsciously leads you to where the game expects: acontinuous learning that is often not even perceived.The social game should be addictive as constantly engaging, more than the classic video game,and the fact that when you switches it off there are other people who keep playing, stimulates theprolonged use that, in this case, is positive.In this sense it is good to take a cue from other successful platforms, but its also good to take intoaccount earlier that you have to design an engaging and funny educational path.
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  • Coordinator: Inveslan Spain Web: Partner 2: EIMD Partner 3: SQLearn Partner 4: CNIPA Spain Greece ItalyWeb: Web: Web: Partner 5: SPI Partner 6: INCSMPS Partner 7: Learnit3D Portugal Romania United KingdomWeb: Web: Web: Third Country partner Twin Learning LLC USA Web: P4I - PLAYING FOR INTERCULTURALITY. Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES- GRUNDTVIG-GMP This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.