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MSc LL Katja Leszczynska 2010

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A dissertation submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Light and Lighting 2010. …

A dissertation submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Light and Lighting 2010.

The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies
University College London

New technologies in aircraft cabin lighting:
What is the impact of mood lighting passengers’ satisfaction on board an aircraft?

Published in Technology , Business
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  • 1. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING:WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF MOOD LIGHTING PASSENGERS’ SATISFACTION ONBOARD AN AIRCRAFT ?A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of Science in Light and LightingThe Bartlett School of Graduate Studies Author: Katarzyna LeszczynskaUniversity College London Supervisor: Peter RaynhamSeptember 2010 Course Director: Dr. Kevin MansfieldMSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■THE BARTLETT FACULTY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ■ LONDON ■ SEPTEMBER 2010 ■
  • 2. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING:WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF MOOD LIGHTING PASSENGERS’ SATISFACTION ONBOARD AN AIRCRAFT ?LIST OF FIGURES vLIST OF TABLES viiLIST OF IMAGES viiiLIST OF FILES ON ATTACHED CD: viiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ixABSTRACT 101 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND RESEARCH 11 1.1 AIRCRAFT LIGHTING 11 1.2 CURRENT RESEARCH 12 1.3 CABIN LIGHTING DESIGN 13 1.3.1 MOOD LIGHTING 15 1.3.2 AIRLINES CORPORATE IDENTITY 19 1.3.3 COLOUR PSYCHOLOGY 212 THE PILOT STUDY 24 2.1 SURVEY AMONG LIGHTING DESIGNERS 24 2.2 INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS 25 2.2.1 PARTICIPANTS 25 2.2.2 RESPONDENTS GENERAL OPINIONS ABOUT MOOD LIGHTING IN AIRPLANES 27 2.2.3 MAIN ACTIVITIES 31 2.3 GENERAL COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS 383 RESEARCH PROBLEM 404 METHODOLOGY - THE EXPERIMENT 41■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ii
  • 3. 4.1 ROOM AND EQUIPMENT 41 4.2 TEST SUBJECTS 44 4.3 EXPERIMENTAL SET UP 44 4.4 THE QUESTIONNAIRE 49 4.5 EXPERIMENTAL TASKS 51 4.6 EXPERIMENTAL PROCESS 54 4.7 EXPERIMENTAL LIMITATIONS 565 PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS 58 5.1 TEST SUBJECTS 58 5.2 TESTED LIGHTING SCENES 59 5.2.1 WHITE SCENES 61 5.2.3 DYNAMIC SCENES 64 5.3 LIGHTING SCENES EVALUATION 67 5.3.1 GENERAL SCENE EVALUATION 67 5.3.2 MAIN ACTIVITIES 71 5.3.3 DYNAMIC SCENES EVALUATION 75 5.3.4 SUMMARY 75 5.4 COMMENTS ABOUT THE EXPERIMENT 786 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS 80 6.1 GROUPS A AND B 80 6.2 GENDER 83 6.3 AGE GROUPS 84 6.4 AISLE / WINDOW 85 6.5 WHITE SCENES 87 6.6 MAIN ACTIVITIES 89 6.7 DYNAMIC SCENES 92■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA iii
  • 4. 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION FOR THE FUTURE RESEARCH 949 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9610 APPENDIX 99 APPENDIX 1 – PILOT STUDY: SURVEY AMONG LIGHTING DESIGNER a APPENDIX 2 – PILOT STUDY: SURVEY RESULTS d APPENDIX 3 – EXPERIMENTAL AGENDA (DIEHL AEROSPACE) j APPENDIX 4 – DESCRIPTION OF TESTED LIGHTING SCENES k APPENDIX 5 – SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF TESTED LIGHTING CONDITIONS x APPENDIX 6 – EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – GERMAN z APPENDIX 7 – EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH – SUMMARY nn APPENDIX 8 – READING TASK DURING THE EXPERIMENT IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – GERMAN uu APPENDIX 9 – DRAWING TASK DURING THE EXPERIMENT – DRAWING BY NUMBERS ww APPENDIX 10 – DUTY FREE BROCHURE IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – ENGLISH yy APPENDIX 11 – SUMMARY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS aaa■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA iv
  • 5. LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1: Aircraft Lighting ......................................................................................................... 12Figure 2: Influential factors of the design the cabin lighting system ...................................... 14Figure 3: Advantages of new cabin lighting systems ............................................................... 16Figure 4: Pilot Study: participants split into gender................................................................. 25Figure 5: Pilot Study: Split into the years of experience within lighting design ...................... 26Figure 6: Pilot Study: Split into different sectors of lighting design......................................... 26Figure 7: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes ............................................. 28Figure 8: Gender split: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes ....................... 28Figure 9: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting onplanes ....................................................................................................................................... 29Figure 10: Mood lighting in airplane cabin .............................................................................. 29Figure 11: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting for the RELAX during a flight ............. 32Figure 12: Gender split: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting for the RELAX during aflight ......................................................................................................................................... 32Figure 13: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during the DUTY FREE SHOP during a flight.................................................................................................................................................. 33Figure 14: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ opinions about specific lightingduring the DUTY FREE SHOP .................................................................................................... 34Figure 15: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ opinions about colour changinglighting during the DUTY FREE SHOP ....................................................................................... 34Figure 16: Respondents’ opinions about different lighting scenes for ENTRY and EXIT ......... 35Figure 17: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for ENTRY and EXIT.......... 36Figure 18: Gender split: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for ENTRY andEXIT ........................................................................................................................................... 36Figure 19: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for all activities ................ 37Figure 20: Gender split: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for allactivities ................................................................................................................................... 37Figure 21: Colour transition in LS07 ......................................................................................... 47Figure 22: Example of the semantic differential scale used in the questionnaire................... 50Figure 23: Experimental procedure illustrating lighting scenes with related activities .......... 52■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA v
  • 6. Figure 24: Duration of each lighting scene LS01 - LS11 ........................................................... 52Figure 25: Duration of the breaks B01 and B02 ....................................................................... 52Figure 26: Images of tested lighting scenes in the chronological order .................................. 53Figure 27: Experiment participants divided by gender ............................................................ 58Figure 28: Experiment participants divided by age.................................................................. 58Figure 29: The presentation of calculated CRI and CCT for tested lighting conditions ........... 60Figure 30: Spectral distribution of LS 03, LS 06 and LS 09 ....................................................... 61Figure 31: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 02, LS 03 and LS 04. ........................ 63Figure 32: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 05, LS 06 and LS 07. ........................ 63Figure 33: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 08, LS 09 and LS 10. ........................ 64Figure 34: Spectral distribution and chromacity coordinates plotted on the CIE 1931 x,yspace for LS07........................................................................................................................... 65Figure 35: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 11a, b and c. ................................... 66Figure 36: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 1 for each lighting scene . 68Figure 37: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 3 for each lighting scene . 68Figure 38: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 2 (a,b,c,d,e,f) for eachlighting scene............................................................................................................................ 71Figure 39: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during MEAL scenes ................................... 72Figure 40: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during RELAX/WORK scenes ...................... 73Figure 41: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during DUTY FREE scenes........................... 74Figure 42: Question 8 (LS 07) and 6 ( LS 11)............................................................................. 75Figure 43: The most preferable lighting scenes ....................................................................... 76Figure 44: The less preferable lighting scenes ......................................................................... 77Figure 45: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How do youfeel?” ........................................................................................................................................ 80Figure 46: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How do you feelunder this lighting condition?” very good (2) – very bad (-2) .................................................. 81Figure 47: Comparison of the results from Group A and B about difficulties in performingtasks (Question 3) very easy (2) – very difficult (-2) ................................................................ 82Figure 48: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How natural waslooking the skin under this lighting condition?” very natural (2) – not at all (-2).................... 83Figure 49: Age split: Respondents’ general opinions about lighting scenes LS04, LS08 .......... 84■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA vi
  • 7. Figure 50: Age split: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during reading task and readingthe duty free brochure. too dark (2) – too much light (-2) ...................................................... 85Figure 51: General results to the Question about Colour Rendering and the calculated CRI . 86Figure 52: Comparison of the results from Window and Aisle seats to the Question: “Hownatural was looking the skin under this lighting condition?” very natural (2) – not at all (-2) 86Figure 53: Comparison of the results from Window and Aisle seats - general appraisal of theLS02 .......................................................................................................................................... 87Figure 54: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the whitescenes ....................................................................................................................................... 88Figure 55: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the whitescenes: Pleasant (2) – Unpleasant (-2) .................................................................................... 88Figure 56: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the whitescenes: Dramatic (2) – Unobtrusive (-2).................................................................................. 89Figure 57: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the whitescenes: Stimulating (2) – Irritating (-2).................................................................................... 89Figure 58: Respondents’ opinions about lighting scene LS07: Questions 8 and 9 .................. 92Figure 59: Respondents’ opinions about lighting scene LS07: Questions 6 and 7 .................. 92LIST OF TABLESTable 1: The initial summary of the lighting scenes ................................................................. 46Table 2: The summary of the illumiance and luminance levels for each lighting scenes ........ 49Table 3: Summary of activities and performed tasks ............................................................... 51Table 4: Summary of two runs of the experiment ................................................................... 54Table 5: The summary of the colour properties for each lighting scenes ............................... 60Table 6: The summary of the main criteria for choosing the lighting scenes .......................... 62■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA vii
  • 8. LIST OF IMAGESImage 1: Innovative mood lighting applied throughout the cabin of the new Airbus 380 ..... 15Image 2: Control panel for Virgin Atlantic ............................................................................... 17Image 3: Training Mock up for Virgin Atlantic Upper Class Suite ............................................ 18Image 4: Example of corporate colours (Air France) projected onto cabin lighting ................ 20Image 5: Lighting design for Virgin Atlantic Upper Class Suite launched in 2004 ................... 21Image 6: Mood lighting in Business Class on board of Emirates Airlines ............................... 23Image 7: Experimental room with allocation of the chairs ...................................................... 42Image 8: Sketch of the Experimental Mock up with the indicated position of the light ......... 43Image 9: Initial sketches of proposed lighting scenes.............................................................. 45Image 10: Experimental room with indicated illuminance and luminance measuring points 48Image 11: Snacks used in tested scenes LS02, LS03 and LS04 ................................................. 55Image 12: Brochure and packs of sweets used during Duty Free Shopping scenes ................ 56Image 13: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for MEAL: LS02, LS03, LS04 ........... 90Image 14: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for RELAX/WORK: LS05, LS06, LS07.................................................................................................................................................. 91Image 15: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for DUTY FREE SHOP: LS08, LS09,LS10 .......................................................................................................................................... 91Image 16: Photos of different conditions during the dynamic lighting scene LS11 ................ 93LIST OF FILES ON ATTACHED CD:File 01: Excel File – Pilot Study ResultsFile 02: Excel File – Calculation of CCT and CRI for tested lighting scenesFile 03: Excel File – Experimental ResultsFolder: Photographs – Main Experiment■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA viii
  • 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMany thanks to:Peter Raynham for great support and guidance throughout the whole dissertation, forreminding me about the essential elements of the report, for being always available forproductive meetings.Kevin Mansfield for encouraging me to choose not the easiest but the most interestingsubject to research.Melih Demir (Airbus) for the passion to fly, for first sparking my interest in the researchproblem and inspiring the course of the dissertation’s work.Dirk– Achim Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) and Peter Younes (Diehl Aerospace) for theirengagement and great support throughout the theoretical and practical part of the thesisDiehl Aerospace for the unique opportunity of conducting the experiment in their researchfacilities.Prof. Poisel (OHM University) for motivating 18 enthusiastic students to participate in theexperiment.Students of OHM University and Prof. Poisel for being the test subjects and for theirsignificant input into the research results.Lighting Designers for taking part in the pilot study and providing me with their thoughts andcriticisms about the research topic.Katja Winkelman (Licht 01), Daniel Heydron (Airbus), Des O’Donnavan (dha design), DavidGadd (Virgin Atlantic) for their time and suggestions that helped me to gain a practicalunderstanding of the research problem.My employer (tpbennett) for their understanding and for giving me flexible time off duringthe research.My family and friends for their patience and support throughout the intense time.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ix
  • 10. ABSTRACTThis research investigates the impact of mood lighting in the aircraft on the passengers’satisfaction on board.Due to insufficient publications related to the subject, the background research for this studywas mostly based on the statements of aircraft lighting manufactures. Additional interviewswith experienced lighting designers were conducted and have led to designing the pilotstudy questionnaire. 50 lighting designers took part in the survey and shared their ideas andpreferences about cabin lighting design. The summary of the results is presented in thisstudy and the analysis of the results influenced the design of the main experiment.The experiment was undertaken in an aircraft cabin mock up and was conducted on 19participants who were exposed to 11 lighting scenes. The variation between the scenes wasachieved by means of separately addressable LED ceiling and side wall lights. Differentcolour and intensity light conditions were tested and the participants were asked to performpredefined tasks. The participants evaluated each of the tested lighting scenes by means ofa semantic differential scale. All of the results were collected and a summary is presented inthe report. The analysis of the results showed that the white scenes were the most preferredlighting conditions for performing tasks. In terms of creating visual interest and a relaxingatmosphere light saturated colours were preferred. The lowest rated scenes consisted ofhigh saturated light colours as well as quick colour changes.Word count: 14 120 (Main Text) 2 700 (Additional Text)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 10
  • 11. 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND RESEARCHNowadays lighting is becoming very dominant in people’s daily lives. People are paying moreattention to how their homes, work places and leisure facilities are lit. Besides the lightingfor the visual comfort and visual performance, current research is focused on the influenceof light on the human body. The illumination of the interior places where people spend mostof the time is very important to their health, mood and wellbeing.The rising necessity and desire to travel obligates researchers to investigate how lighting inthe transport sector can be improved. With the increasing tempo of life for many peopletraveling is becoming an integral part of their lives. Travellers trying to use time effectivelyare working, reading or relaxing while being on a train or an airplane.In the last 15 years the number of passengers on domestic and international flights hasdoubled1 and the forecast for the next 20 years predicts that airline traffic worldwide willmore than double and some 25,000 new aircraft will be needed by 2028.2This report explores different lighting scenarios for general cabin lighting in passengeraircrafts and their impact on passengers’ satisfaction onboard a plane.1.1 AIRCRAFT LIGHTINGAircraft lighting generally can be divided into exterior and interior lighting.The external lights on aircraft (navigation lights, beacons, take off and landing lights) arelocated along the exterior of the aircraft. Planes are equipped with a variety of lights that areused for navigation, safety, and to improve visibility during flights or when taxiing on therunway.31 International Civil Aviation Organization: 1,304 mln in 1995 – 2,271 mln in 2008 (ICAO 2008)2 http://www.airbus.com/en/corporate/gmf2009 “Airbus Global Market Forecast 2009-2028” (AIRBUS S.A.S. 2009)3 http://www.aerospaceweb.org (Yoon 2006)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 11
  • 12. Interior lighting is to differentiate between cockpit lighting and cabin lighting. Cockpitlighting is divided into smaller categories, like cockpit ambient lighting, instrument panellights, pilot reading lights, console lighting and maintenance lights.4Cabin lighting can be distinguished between general lighting, task lighting and emergencylighting. General lighting consists of side wall and ceiling lighting, task lighting - spots andreading lights; and emergency lighting includes signage, exit, and emergency lighting.5The research stated in this report takes only general lighting in the cabin underconsideration (Figure 1). Aircraft Lighting Exterior Interior navigation lights take off and cockpit lighting cabin lighting or beacons landing lights general task emergency lighting lighting lightingFigure 1: Aircraft Lighting1.2 CURRENT RESEARCHDue to the constant competition between aircraft manufacturers, very few studies aboutpassengers’ perception of cabin lighting have been published and many findings remainconfidential. Therefore, the first part of the background research is mostly based on thecurrent information available from aircraft manufacturers and cabin lighting suppliers.The Lighting Research Center (LRC)6 in cooperation with Boeing (since 2005) is working ondeveloping innovative and efficient lighting solutions for use on commercial flights. The LRCis evaluating present cabin lighting designs and comparing them with new products which4 http://www.pageaerospace.co.uk (Page Aerospace Limited 2010)5 http://www.diehl-aerospace.com/index.php?id=3597 (Diehl Aerospace GmbH 2010)6 Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 12
  • 13. are available on the market7. Current SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers)8 guidelines arebased on the “old” technology and do not have the level of specification needed for LEDimplementation. The research undertaken by LRC (Narendran 2005) comparing halogen andLED reading lights has led to the incorporation of some of the LRC recommendations into theSAE specifications.9 Modifying the SAE standards to include colour, glare, long timeperformance and energy consumption would reform cabin lighting design and improve thequality of passengers experience and satisfaction on board a plane.Currently studies undertaken by the Lighting Research Center as well as the FraunhoferInstitute10 concentrate on passengers’ perception of coloured lighting as well as thepossibility of reducing the jet lag effect through applying mood lighting on board. Bothinstitutes are working very closely with airplane or lighting manufacturers and none of theirfindings have been published to date.1.3 CABIN LIGHTING DESIGNCabin lighting is a basic cabin function as well as an integral part of cabin design. In order toachieve the desired lighting effect lighting designers work very closely with interiordesigners. The created atmosphere depends very much on the seats and floor finishes, wallsand ceiling colours and reflection values. Therefore, aircraft designers should be thinkingabout lighting during the design stage rather than as a single fitting product.“The cabin is an integrated system, and while everyone interprets colour differently (...) alighting system is as much of a design as any other product. A lot of lighting is done at theend of the design and then it is too late to take an overall cabin approach." 117 http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/newsroom/pr_story.asp?id=52 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 2005)8 http://www.sae.org/technical/standards9 Document Number: ARP5873 “LED Passenger Reading Light Assembly” A-20AC Crew Station and Interior Lighting Committee (2007)10 Fraunhofer-Institut für Bauphysik (IBP), Holzkirchen, Germany. European research project: ICE – Ideal Cabin Environment was undertaken in the Flight Test Facility at the Frauenhofer Aviation Research Centre11 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (Rosenberg 2009)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 13
  • 14. The specific requirements of the aircraft industry make cabin illumination a specialchallenge. The primary goal is the security and comfort of the passenger, but also technicalparameters, like performance, energy consumption, and weight, have to also be considered(Figure 2). Cabin Lighting System Interfaces with Cabin Maintainability Quality of Programming Performance Lining and and Cost of Customisation Light and Control Cabin Ownership Furnishing 12Figure 2: Influential factors of the design the cabin lighting systemLED lighting has been introduced into aircraft design gradually over last few years. Newgeneration super size planes, both the Airbus 380 and Boeing 787, are featuring “bulb less”illumination systems. LEDs are applied in the cabin, cockpit, cargo and other areas. Standardcabin lighting is equipped in LED in three colours instead of fluorescent tubes allowing theaircraft to create a wide range of colour combinations.13Kato14 from Korry Electronics15 says: "LED technology now has made sufficient progress toutilize RGB colours and a true white LED with sufficient brightness."16 According to O ‘Neil(2002), solid-sate technology promises a significant change and remarkable improvements incabin lighting systems. It provides more reliable and robust lighting, higher flexibility ininstallation and a wider range of lighting effects and combinations of lighting scenes. Allthose factors positively influence the safety, cabin ambience as well as wellbeing of thepassengers and the crew. From an economical point of view, very important aspects of LED12 Diehl Aerospace presentation: “Take off towards new horizons” Release: March 200913 http://www.diehl-aerospace.de/index.php?id=3638 (Diehl Aerospace GmbH 2007)14 Dean Kato, product manager in the Optical Products and Services division of Korry Electronics.15 Korry Electronics Co. manufactures electro-optical cockpit control and display solutions for the aerospace and defence industry in the United States16 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/21571.html (Rosenberg 2009)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 14
  • 15. lighting systems are the ease of installation, maintenance, and operating cost (O’Neil 2002).The economical advantages of using the latest technologies in cabin lighting is confirmed byKato (Korry Electronics): “Lifecycle cost is key so if you can buy something that is equivalentto the cost of today’s technology but with increased reliability then you will decrease lifecyclecosts."17Another important improvement in cabin design is the increased size of the windows appliedin the Boeing 787 and planned in the Airbus 350 (Wallace 2007). Instead of mechanicalwindow shades, an electrochromic dimmable window system has been designed to controlthe level of exterior light in the cabin.18 The Incorporation of daylight within the intelligentinterior lighting system has great potential in changing passenger experience aboardtogether with the perception of the space.1.3.1 MOOD LIGHTINGThe mood lighting effect is created by means of LED elements. The advanced technologycalled MELODY (Modular Enhanced Low Dimming) allows the cabin light to be dimmed downto 0.1 per cent and gradually increased again, creating very subtle transitions.19 The LEDlights are available in single colour or a range of multi-coloured configurations. Byintroducing an advanced light control system the colour, tone and brightness can bemanipulated and an unlimited variety of lighting scenes can be generated (O’Neil 2002). 20Image 1: Innovative mood lighting applied throughout the cabin of the new Airbus 38017 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/21571.html (Rosenberg 2009)18 Boeing 787 Dreamliner Series. “Online Insights” (Boeing 2008)19 http://www.thalesgroup.com/Case_Studies/Countries/Spain/091123La_tecnología_de_Thales_a_bordo_del_A380 (Thales Groupe 2009)20 http://www.diehl-aerospace.de/index.php?id=3638 (Diehl Aerospace GmbH 2007)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 15
  • 16. Advantages of New Cabin Lighting Systems flexible zone individual zone incorporated free scenario easy crew configuration control special features definition operation 21Figure 3: Advantages of new cabin lighting systemsIn O’ Neil (2002) opinion by using LED elements it is easier to apply colour wash to surfacesin order to create an interesting ambient atmosphere and indirect lighting effects. A numberof the biggest airlines have already installed such LED-driven mood lighting in their cabins.22Most airlines apply mood lighting only in the Business or Upper class areas but for example,Emirates and Thai Airways welcome their passengers with coloured lighting even in economyclass.23Scover24 from B/E Aerospace25 confirmed that the first colour concepts for mood lightingwere designed to augment the cabin colours (Malaysia Airlines). The recent trend changedto where not everyone wanted colour in the cabin, but instead wanted to have a tone whitelight and a bright, cooler light for welcoming and departure and a more amber light duringmealtimes. 26Katja Winkelmann,27 an experienced lighting designer agreed with this observation. Forcabin lighting Winkelman suggested mostly the use of white lighting with higher lightinglevels and colder light for activating phases like at the beginning and end of a flight, and awarm white lighting for relaxation thus creating an evening atmosphere, simulating candlelight.21 Diehl Aerospace presentation: “Take off towards new horizons” Release: March 200922 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (Rosenberg 2009)23 The conversation with Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) took place on 14.04.2010 in Nuremberg, Germany24 Stephen Scover, vice president and general manager of the lighting division of B/E Aerospace25 B/E Aerospace is US based provider of interior products for the commercial, business jet and military markets26 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (Rosenberg 2009)27 founder of Licht 01– Lighting Design Studio in Hamburg, Germany http://www.licht01.de■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 16
  • 17. Scover (B/E Aerospace) explained that the mood lighting themes are pre-programmed andcan be controlled by the cabin crew during the flight through a variety of touch paneldisplays.28 Desmond O’Donovan,29 project designer responsible for the lighting concept forVirgin Atlantic, sees a weak point in this procedure. The carefully designed and chosenlighting scenarios are subject to the crews. In O’Donovan’s opinion the user-unfriendlydesigned control interface results in applying simpler solutions and not fully utilising pre –setlighting scenes (Image 2). 30Image 2: Control panel for Virgin AtlanticDavid Gadd31 from Virgin Atlantic explains that continuous crew training is essential in orderto achieve a constantly adequately lit space throughout the flight. In the crew training cabinmock-up (Image 3) Virgin Atlantic instructs the crew on how to create a pleasantatmosphere with pre defined lighting scenario.28 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (Rosenberg 2009)29 Lighting designer for dha design, London30 Source: Virgin Atlantic31 Customer Experience Designer for Virgin Atlantic, London■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 17
  • 18. 32Image 3: Training Mock up for Virgin Atlantic Upper Class SuiteCabin lighting manufacturers are convinced about the superiority of mood lighting. Theyshare the opinion that mood lighting could contribute to minimising the jet lag effect. ABoeing engineer Price explains: "Because LED lights can do a very slow fade down into thenight time environment and a very slow fade back to the daytime environment, passengerscan fall asleep much more naturally and wake up much more naturally, which helps set theirsleep cycles".33 Dirk-Achim Schevardo34 from Diehl Aerospace35 confirmed that by adaptingthe complete course of a day to the new time zone at the flight destination, the passengercan be pre-set to the new time zone artificially, which might contribute to reducing thenegative effects of jet-lag.36Winkelmann argues: “People do not want to be influenced by light too strongly. The light inthe cabin should have a positive impact on visual performance and mood, but not on the32 Source: Virgin Atlantic33 http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2007/0204-fly_jet_lag_free.htm (Science Daily 2007)34 Manager New Programs and Productline Strategy, Business Line Cabin Customisation Interior for Diehl Aerospace35 Diehl Aerospace is a Joint venture between Diehl BGT Defence and Thales Group operating in the field of Avionics Diehl Aerospace is a Germany based manufacturer of components for aerospace ranging from cockpit to cabin systems.36 The conversation with Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) took place on 14.04.2010 in Nuremberg, Germany■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 18
  • 19. biological rhythm. The Biological effect of the mood light imposed by the airline could be toostrong for some of the passengers.”37The current state of research indicates a need of further investigation. Many studies wereundertaken in the field of jet lag reduction and different paths were investigated. Nicholson(2006) comparing jet lag research to date, states that there is no universal solution to theproblem. The exposure to artificial light and avoidance of ambient light at certain times ofthe day could prove to be of help. In contrast to the strategies that focus on shiftingcircadian rhythms post flight, Burgess et al (2003) and Boivin et al (2002) are proposingschemes that shift circadian rhythms prefight. According to Burgess et al (2003) three ormore days of pre-flight adjustment to eastward travel could be potentially used to eliminatethe jet lag effect. The latest study undertaken by Evans et al (2009) showed that thepresence of low-level light at night accelerates the recovery rate in both east- and west-travelling hamsters of all ages by 50%. The crucial advantage of the dim night-timeillumination is that it accelerated recovery in both eastward and westward directions. Apartfrom pre- and post-flight adjustment to the new time zone, more research is needed inreducing the jet lag effect during the flight itself.1.3.2 AIRLINES CORPORATE IDENTITYAdvanced lighting systems allow an airline to project its brand look and feel throughout thecabin. Coloured lighting can be a powerful reinforcer of the airlines brand in the minds oftheir customers.Diehl Aerospace which is developing lighting scenarios for various airlines explains thedesign process. At the beginning the airline decides what the key point for their lightinginstallation is and which aspect is the most important for them. Some airliners decide onemphasizing their corporate identity colours, others aim at achieving an unforgettable “woweffect” and some prefer to concentrate on good lighting without putting it into theforeground.3837 The telephone conversation took place on 27.05.2010.38 The conversation with Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) took place on 14.04.2010 in Nuremberg, Germany.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 19
  • 20. 39Image 4: Example of corporate colours (Air France) projected onto cabin lightingAccording to Ziwckel40 from Schott Aviation41 the power of lighting should be exercised withcare. Zwickel says “Much depends on what the brand itself represents – lifestyle and fun, likeVirgin, or something much more conservative. If it’s the latter, splashing the brand in firstclass could be counter – productive.”42Gadd (Virgin Atlantic) confirms that the launch of the Upper Class Suite with incorporatedmood lighting positively influenced the sales of business class seats.4339 The photo was taken in the Diehl’s Aerospace Facilities in Nuremberg, Germany40 Sales Manager at Schott Aviation41 Schott Aviation – Germany based manufacturer of glass and fibre optic and their application in cabin design42 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)43 Virgin Atlantic press release: “Virgin Atlantic sees 26% rise in business class travel” 28.05.2005■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 20
  • 21. 44Image 5: Lighting design for Virgin Atlantic Upper Class Suite launched in 20041.3.3 COLOUR PSYCHOLOGY“Colour affects brain activity and biorhythms, influencing our mood and feelings. Although itis unclear at the moment as to exactly how it occurs, we know that the pituitary and pinealglands interact with the electromagnetic energy of colour, and it appears certain thatnonvisual cells near the retina may activate photobiological sensations that supplementhormone activity in the body.” 45 (Michelin 1995)Many lighting professionals emphasise the cultural differences in the perception of colour. Ithas been suggested that people from a temperate climate prefer warm lighting while theresidents of countries with a warmer climate, favour cold white lighting.46 Scover (B/EAerospace) believes that the lighting preferences depend more on the cultural thangeographical differences. Both Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) and Scover observed thatEuropeans and North Americans tend to prefer the warm approach, stimulating candle andfirelight; but in regions like Asia-Pacific the preference lays in sharp illumination andclarity.47 Zwickel (Schott) agrees that lighting designers and airliners should be aware of thedifferent perception of colour depending on the passengers’ demography. He perceives it as44 Source: Virgin Atlantic45 L. Michelin: Light: The Shape of Space: Designing with Space and Light, Canada 1995, p. 8946 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)47 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 21
  • 22. a challenge in designing cabin lighting for aircraft that will carry passengers with verydifferent cultural backgrounds.One of the most popular lighting effects currently applied across airplanes is the simulationof “blue sky”. The effect is achieved by means of a gradual fade of blue LEDs sometimes evenwith a combination of fibre optic, which is ideal for the creation of the “starry nights” effecton the cabin ceiling. The main advantage of applying blue ceiling lighting is the createdfeeling of spaciousness.48 Schevardo agrees that the blue colour generates depth anddistance thereby the cabin appears to be bigger.49It is well known that colours created by light induces mood sensations, stimulates feelingsand influences behaviour. Highly saturated colours mixed without white, black or greycreate powerful aggressive impressions and give strong moods, where a variation of colourand intensity can lead to distress.50 Schevardo emphasised that the lighting designer andmanufacturer should ensure that a particular lighting effect would not evoke undesirableoutcomes.51Mattiello (2004) in a paper about light and colour in architecture expressed the desire formore research investigating colour and light together. She argues that in the field of lighting,research mostly aimed to solve aspects of visibility and comfort, while in the field of colourattempts were made to solve the needs of design, style and fashion (Mattiello 2004). Thecombination of those two factors in one research could lead to a better understanding of theimpact of different coloured lighting conditions on people.48 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)49 The conversation with Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) took place on 14.04.2010 in Nuremberg, Germany50 http://www.lighting.philips.com51 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 22
  • 23. 52Image 6: Mood lighting in Business Class on board of Emirates Airlines52 Images taken by Matt Handy, May 2010: http://www.flyertalk.com/forum/trip-reports/1083593-singapore-seoul-emirates-a380-777-300er-asiana-a330-business.html (Handy 2010)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 23
  • 24. 2 THE PILOT STUDYIn order to gain more information about people’s preferences in coloured lighting a twostage pilot study was undertaken. In the first part experienced designers were consultedabout preferences in lighting design, concerning lighting levels, visual performance andapplied coloured light. Their thoughts and comments were very valuable and wereimbedded into the introduction chapter together with manufacturers’ statements.The introduction chapter as well as the survey benefited from conversations with: - Katja Winkelmann53 founder and owner of Licht 0154 – Lighting Design Studio in Hamburg, Germany - Desmond O’Donovan55 lighting designer for dha design56 - Lighting Design Studio in London - David Gadd57 – designer, Customer Experience, Virgin Atlantic,58 LondonThe second part of the pilot study was designed as a survey. The ideas and thoughtsconcerning mood lighting in airplane cabins collected during those conversations hadinfluenced the design of the pilot study questionnaire. The goal of the survey was todetermine the feelings, emotions and atmosphere created through using colour in lightingdesign.2.1 SURVEY AMONG LIGHTING DESIGNERSThe survey was carried out among 50 Lighting Designers. Chosen Lighting Designers wereapproached directly via e-mail or through Linked In59 discussion groups panels (Linked Ingroups like: Light Passion, Lighting Design, PLDA, SLL). The test subjects were asked toaccomplish the online survey.6053 The telephone conversation took place on 27.05.2010.54 http://www.licht01.de55 The conversation took place on 11.06.2010 in London.56 http://www.dhadesigns.com57 The conversation took place on 08.07.2010 in Gatwick.58 http://www.virgin-atlantic.com59 http://www.linkedin.com60 http://www.surveymonkey.com embedded into http://playlight.pl/mood-lighting-pilot-study■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 24
  • 25. The online questionnaire (Appendix 1) could be divided into two sections. The first sectioncovered general information about the person like gender, educational background, years ofexperience and sector of specialization in lighting design.The second part of the survey contained 15 questions of 3 types: descriptive, multiple-choicewith four predetermined answers and a numeric rating scale with 5pts (ex. Strongly Agree –Strongly Disagree).At the end of the survey tested subjects had an opportunity to write their comments oradditional information as well as provide their contact details.THE Collected data was downloaded from the online survey host and analysed by means ofExcel application. The numerical results of the survey are presented by means of charts andtables in Appendix 2 and all descriptive answers are summarized in File 01 on the attached CD.2.2 INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS2.2.1 PARTICIPANTSThe survey was conducted over period of one month.61 During that time 50 lightingdesigners completed the questionnaire and shared their general thoughts about theresearch subject. Gender Male 68.0% Female 32.0%Figure 4: Pilot Study: participants split into gender61 The survey was available online between 01.06.10 - 30.06.10■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 25
  • 26. Almost one – third of the respondents were female (32%) and two- thirds (68%) were male(Figure 4). The split in professional experience in lighting design was very balanced. Thebiggest groups were 1-5 years and over 20 years (both achieving 26%), 5-10 and 10-15 - bothcounting 18% and 15-20 with 12% (Figure 5). A total of 41 participants replied to thequestion related to their sector of specialisation: Domestic Lighting -26,8%, Leisure -22%,Event Lighting - 19,5%, Retail - 17,1%, Exterior Lighting - 14,6% (Figure 6). Years of Experience within Lighting Design 20-XX 26.0% 15-20 12.0% 10-15 18.0% 5-10 18.0% 1-5 26.0%Figure 5: Pilot Study: Split into the years of experience within lighting design Which sector of lighting design are you specialised in? Exterior Lighting 14.6% Event Lighting 19.5% Leisure 22.0% Retail 17.1% Domestic Lighting 26.8%Figure 6: Pilot Study: Split into different sectors of lighting designThe educational background of the respondents ranged from Master of ArchitecturalLighting Design through Mechatronics to Master of Business Administration. The biggestgroup with the same academic background was the Master of Science in Light and Lighting■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 26
  • 27. with 22%, followed by an Architectural Degree (8%) and Master of Arts in ArchitecturalLighting Design (8%) to Bachelor of Arts in Theatre Lighting Design (6%) and Bachelor of Artsin Lighting Design (6%).2.2.2 RESPONDENTS GENERAL OPINIONS ABOUT MOOD LIGHTING IN AIRPLANESOpinions about the different perceptions of lighting in planes and on the ground wereequally divided. 34% of the respondents agreed with this statement, but equally a further20% strongly agreed, were neutral or disagreed. 38% of the most experienced lightingdesigners strongly agreed with the statement. Only 6% of all respondents strongly disagreedthat lighting in a plane is perceived differently to lighting on the ground (Figure 7, Figure 8,Figure 9).Almost half of the respondents (49%) were of the opinion that lighting plays a veryimportant role in the passengers’ satisfaction; although the most experienced lightingdesigners (62%) perceived it as important. When divided into gender 75% of femalerespondents described it as very important and 45% of male respondent as important. Noneof the participants shared the opinion that cabin lighting did not influence passengers’satisfaction on board (Figure 7, Figure 8,Figure 9).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 27
  • 28. Passengers perceive lighting in a plane How important role does lighting play in differently to lighting on the ground. passengers’ satisfaction on board? 34.0% 49.0% 36.7% 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% 6.0% 10.2% 4.1% 0.0% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 strongly agree (5) – strongly disagree (1) very important (5)– not at all (1)Figure 7: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes Passengers perceive lighting in a plane How important role does lighting play in differently to lighting on the ground. passengers’ satisfaction on board? Male Female Male Female 75% 38% 48% 25% 25% 25% 21% 36% 18% 19% 18% 6% 6% 13% 12% 6% 6% 3% 0% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1)Figure 8: Gender split: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 28
  • 29. Passengers perceive lighting in the plane differently to the lighting on the ground? 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 20-XX 38% 23% 8% 23% 8% 15-20 17% 50% 17% 17% 0% 10-15 0% 44% 33% 22% 0% 5-10 22% 33% 22% 11% 11% 1-5 15% 31% 23% 23% 8% How important role plays lighting in passengers’ satisfaction on board? 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 20-XX 15% 62% 23% 0% 0% 15-20 67% 33% 0% 0% 0% 10-15 63% 25% 13% 0% 0% 5-10 78% 22% 0% 0% 0% 1-5 46% 31% 8% 15% 0%Figure 9: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes Would you welcome introducing mood lighting in the airplane cabin? 4% 0% 26% YES ONLY ON LONG FLIGHTS ONLY ON SHORT FLIGHTS NOT AT ALL 70%Figure 10: Mood lighting in airplane cabin■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 29
  • 30. 70% of the respondents would welcome introducing mood lighting in an airplane cabin. 26%would do so only on long haul flights and only 4% on short flights (Figure 10).All of the 50 lighting designers shared their ideas and thoughts about the colour range whichcould be used for mood lighting in airplane cabins. The answers varied from very precise like:2,700K62, 3,000K63, 4,100K64 to more descriptive, giving the colour range and informationabout the application. 22% of the surveyed lighting designers would use only white lightduring flights, they described it as the following: 2,700K-3,200K65, 2,700K-4,100K66, 2,700K-6,000K67, warm white 2,500K or below68, white - warm to cool69, neutral white to very warmlight70. 50% of experienced lighting designers chose would recommend white lights. Apartfrom white, blue was also mentioned by 22% of the survey’s participants, varying from lightblue for sunrise and waking people up to deep blue for night time flights. 10% of the survey’sparticipants mentioned red and another 8% would use pastel and turquoise colours. Otherrelevant factors affecting the choice of the applied mood lighting are presented as follows:  “a mix of warm to cool light depending on the length of the flight and the time of the day”71  “depends on the time of the year and day, warmer colours in the winter and slightly cooler in the summer”72  “depends on the brand and the duration and time of the flight”7362 1 responder: male with 1-5 years of professional experience63 2 responders: both male with over 20 years of professional experience64 1 responder: male with over 20 years of professional experience65 1 responder: male with 5-10 years of professional experience66 1 responder: male with 5-10 years of professional experience67 1 responder: female with over 20 years of professional experience68 1 responder: male with over 20 years of professional experience69 1 responder: male with over 20 years of professional experience70 1 responder: male with 15- 20 years of professional experience71 1 responder: male with 1-5 years of professional experience72 1 responder: female with 15-20 years of professional experience73 1 responder: male with 10- 15 years of professional experience■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 30
  • 31. 2.2.3 MAIN ACTIVITIESMEALA total of 68% of respondents chose white lighting for the Meal. 40% of the surveyed lightingdesigners would use only warm white lighting, 10% would apply cold white lighting andsome of them would vary “from cool white (4,500K) in the morning for breakfast, through towarm white (2,700K) in the evening for dinner”.74 The colour range of red, orange, andamber were chosen by 12% of the lighting designers and described by some of them ascolours that stimulate hunger. A very important criteria mentioned by 14% of respondentswas very good colour rendering (CRI above 85).RELAXMost of the respondents strongly agreed (46,9%) or agreed (40,8%) that colour lightingcould help people to relax during a flight. The split in terms of gender also confirms thisstatementIn general, the surveyed lighting designers shared the opinion that passengers wouldwelcome colour-change lighting for relaxation. 36,7% of respondents strongly agreed and24,5% agreed with this statement. Analysing the gender split among the respondents, it canbe noticed that the female lighting designers were more convinced of the ascertainmentthan the male respondents were. 44% of the female designers strongly agreed and agreedbut only 33% and 15% of the male designers strongly agreed and agreed with the statementThe most commonly listed colours for creating a relaxing atmosphere were:Blue (40%) – was described as cool and calming and associated with the sky. The colour wasmentioned in different variations from light blue to deep blueWarm White (22%) - all respondents described it as a warm white between 2500-3000K.Red, orange, magenta, purple – were mentioned by a number of lighting designers as beingalways associated with creating a warm and cosy atmosphere.74 1 responder: male with 1-5 years of professional experience■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 31
  • 32. Respondents often suggested that if coloured lighting is used it should be very soft orapplied only as accent lighting. According to the respondents, general lighting should createa pleasant, comfortable atmosphere for relaxing and cold white individually controlled tasklighting should be used for reading or working. Colour lighting can help people to RELAX Passengers would welcome colour changing during a flight. for the RELAX during a flight. 46.9% 36.7% 40.8% 24.5% 18.4% 10.2% 10.2% 10.2% 2.0% 0.0% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) Strongly Agree (5)– Strongly Disagree (1)Figure 11: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting for the RELAX during a flight Colour lighting can help people to RELAX Passengers would welcome colour changing during a flight. for the RELAX during a flight. Male Female Male Female 50% 45% 44% 44% 42% 38% 33% 27% 15% 15% 12% 13% 9% 6% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree (5)– Strongly Disagree (1) Strongly Agree (5)– Strongly Disagree (1)Figure 12: Gender split: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting for the RELAX during a flight■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 32
  • 33. DUTY FREEThe majority of respondents confirmed that specific lighting could improve sales in the DutyFree Shop on board an airplane (Figure 13). 46 % of the most experienced designers agreedwith this statement and half of the respondents with 15 to 20 years of experience within thelighting profession strongly agreed that specific lighting would increase duty free sales(Figure 14).The opposite proportion can be noticed by the statement that colour changing lightingwould improve the sales of the duty free items (Figure 13). 35 % of all respondents could notsee a relationship between colour changing and an increase in duty free sales. Half of theprofessionals with 15 to 20 years of experience disagreed with this viewpoint and 33% of themost experienced designers strongly disagreed with it (Figure 15). Specific lighting could improve sales Colour changing lighting would improve sales in the DUTY FREE SHOP. in the DUTY FREE SHOP. 31.3% 35.4% 27.1% 25.0% 22.9% 22.9% 12.5% 14.6% 4.2% 4.2% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree ( 1) Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1)Figure 13: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during the DUTY FREE SHOP during a flight■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 33
  • 34. Specific lighting could improve sale in the DUTY FREE SHOP 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 20-XX 23% 46% 15% 0% 15% 15-20 50% 17% 33% 0% 0% 10-15 11% 22% 44% 11% 11% 5-10 38% 25% 13% 13% 13% 1-5 17% 33% 33% 0% 17%Figure 14: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ opinions about specific lighting during the DUTYFREE SHOP Colour changing lighting would improve sale in the DUTY FREE SHOP 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 20-XX 8% 8% 25% 25% 33% 15-20 0% 0% 33% 50% 17% 10-15 11% 11% 56% 11% 11% 5-10 0% 22% 33% 11% 33% 1-5 0% 25% 33% 25% 17%Figure 15: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting during theDUTY FREE SHOPCold white light (4,000K-6,500K) was chosen by 20% of respondents as the most preferredscenario for duty free shopping. 10% of the lighting designers also mentioned good colourrendering as an important criteria in creating good lighting for sale purposes.8% of the lighting designers would apply yellow, amber or orange colours to create a moreinteresting atmosphere. One respondent even mentioned purple lighting to “add some■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 34
  • 35. mystery”75 to the sales of duty free items. Only 4% of the respondents would consider“dynamic retail lighting”76 or gentle colour changes.14% of the survey’s participants would not emphasize the selling of duty free items with adifferent colour. Selling duty free items was described as “disturbing”77, an “intrusion”78 or“not an event that the many passengers participate in”79 and therefore no particular lightingconditions were desired.ENTRY AND EXITIn the comparison of Entry and Exit scenes, 43% of respondents would use a moreinteresting lighting scene at the beginning of the flight, only 8,3% of the designers would usemore interesting lighting conditions for the Exit. 35,4% of respondents would differentiatelighting conditions for the Entry and Exit, and 27,1% of the surveyed designers would usethe same lighting scene (Figure 16). Would you use the same lighting scene for ENTRY and EXIT? MORE INTERESTING FOR EXIT 8.3% MORE INTERESTING FOR ENTRY 43.8% NO 35.4% YES 27.1%Figure 16: Respondents’ opinions about different lighting scenes for ENTRY and EXITCOLOUR CHANGINGThe half of the surveyed participants would not recommend a colour changing scene duringthe flight in general. 29,2% of the lighting designers would introduce a colour changing scene75 1 responder: female with 1-5 years of professional experience, specialized in Lighting for Leisure76 1 responder: male with 10-15 years of professional experience, specialized in Lighting for Leisure77 1 responder: female with 1-5 years of professional experience, specialized in Domestic Lighting78 1 responder: male with more than 20 years of professional experience79 1 responder: male with 10-15 years of professional experience, specialized in Retail Lighting■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 35
  • 36. for both entry and exit activities and 22,9% would use colour changing only at the beginningof a flight (Figure 17). In general, more female designers would apply colour changinglighting throughout the flight (41% for both of the scenes), but more than half of the malerespondents (56%) would not welcome colour changing scenes at all (Figure 18). Only 4,2%would recommend colour change lighting as an Exit scenario. This option was chosen onlyby the most experienced lighting designers.80 Would you recommend to have a colour changing lighting for: NOT AT ALL 50.0% BOTH 29.2% EXIT 4.2% ENTRY 22.9%Figure 17: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for ENTRY and EXIT Would you recommend to have a colour changing lighting for: Female Male 29% NOT AT ALL 56% 41% BOTH 21% 6% EXIT 3% 24% ENTRY 21%Figure 18: Gender split: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for ENTRY and EXIT80 Detailed analysis of the results can be found in File 01 on the attached CD■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 36
  • 37. More than half of the surveyed lighting designers (56%) were of the opinion that colourchanging lighting would be the most suitable for relaxation on board (Figure 19). This viewwas shared by 71% of female and 43% of male respondents. The rest of the female lightingdesigners (29%) would welcome colour changing lighting during the purchasing of duty freeitems (Figure 20). Only 6,3% of all respondents would apply a colour changing lighting sceneduring mealtimes, among them are only male designers with 1 to 15 years experience.81Still 31% of the male respondents would not introduce mood lighting in the cabin at all. In your opinion colour changing lighting would be the most suitable for: NOT AT ALL 22.9% DUTY FREE 22.9% RELAX 56.3% MEAL 6.3%Figure 19: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for all activities In your opinion colour changing lighting would be the most suitable for: Female Male 0% NOT AT ALL 31% 29% DUTY FREE 17% 71% RELAX 43% 0% MEAL 9%Figure 20: Gender split: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for all activities81 Detailed analysis of the results can be found in File 01 on the attached CD■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 37
  • 38. 2.3 GENERAL COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONSGenerally the participants of the survey have a positive attitude towards the researchsubject, although some individuals were very critical about applying mood lighting on anairplane. “I personally cant see any relevance for colour changing on board a plane. I thinkairlines would be better spending their time and money improving the comfort of theirstandard class seats!”82Many respondents were aware of the opportunities that mood lighting could give inreducing the jet lag effect on long flights across time zones. The experienced lightingdesigners would recommend changing only the light intensity and colour temperature of thewhite light. Other respondents emphasized that if coloured lighting is applied the coloursshould be faded and not too saturated. The transition between the scenes should be veryslow and smooth, so that it is hardly noticed by the passengers.Some of the lighting designers remarked that the lighting concept should be linked to theconcept of space rather than to a function. “The air cabins have specific space characteristicsthat make them interesting but not the tasks which can happen in any environment.”83 Inaddition, the time of the flight was pointed out as an important factor. The lighting conceptshould differentiate between day-time and night-time flights and the colour of the lightshould relate to the amount of daylight available in the airplane cabin.Only one respondent84 emphasized that the lighting design should be seen as a part of theairlines brand message. The other respondent comparing the lighting concepts in VirginAtlantic and Emirates expressed the desire for more variations in the design: “the design isexactly the same in almost all aircraft it would be more interesting if lighting effects variedbetween different aeroplanes, you would feel more interested if some planes had patternedor broken light on the ceiling instead of uniform flat light”.8582 1 responder: male with 1-5 years of professional experience, specialised in Domestic Lighting83 1 responder: female with 5-10 years of professional experience84 1 responder: male with 10-15 years of professional experience, specialised in Retail85 1 responder: male with more than 20 years of professional experience, specialised in Lighting for Leisure■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 38
  • 39. Some of the young designers would welcome more individual control over the lighting inorder to create a personal atmosphere. Other designer mentioned linking lighting and musicas an interesting option supporting relaxation.86The results of the survey were analysed and used as a basis to determine the tested lightingscenes. The main experiment benefited from the comments as well as criticisms about theresearch topic.86 1 responder: female with 1-5 years of professional experience, specialised in Domestic Lighting■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 39
  • 40. 3 RESEARCH PROBLEMThe specific conditions of the aircraft industry make the illumination of a cabin a specialchallenge. The primary goal is the security and comfort of passengers. Apart from that, moretechnical parameters like: performance, energy consumption and weight have to beconsidered constantly.Being aware of the technical advantages of applying the very latest technology for cabinlighting systems the question arises, how much is the comfort and well- being of passengersgoing to profit from it? Is introducing mood lighting a good option and how much wouldpassengers appreciate it?The current trend in aircraft cabin lighting is focused on creating a unique and unforgettableatmosphere on board by means of the latest LED technologies. The advantages of LEDs areused by airlines to create corporate identity coloured lighting throughout the cabin. Lightingdesigners are getting involved in developing lighting concepts for this specific environment.Not many publications are available to date regarding passenger responses to colouredlighting on aboard a plane. More research in the field should help lighting designers choosethe right colours and lighting levels and be aware of the possible effects on passengers.The main aim of the work presented in this report was to gain a better understanding of theeffects of coloured lighting on people on board a passenger plane.RESEARCH QUESTION:What is the impact of mood lighting on passengers satisfaction on board an aircraft?■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 40
  • 41. 4 METHODOLOGY - THE EXPERIMENTThe research experiment was undertaken in cooperation with Diehl Aerospace researchcentre in Nuremberg, Germany. Diehl’s facilities allowed the field research to be carried outin very similar conditions to that of a real aircraft cabin. The process of the flight wassimulated by preset activities, like a meal, relax, work, and duty free sales.The goal of the experiment was to analyse the effect of predefined mood lighting conditionson the visual comfort, task performance and mood of passengers. All possible variables thatmay affect the measurements, except colour and light intensity, were kept constant duringthe experiment. This was necessary to ensure that the changes recorded where due to theeffect of colour and lighting conditions only.The main experiment was carried out after the results and conclusions from the pilot studywere collected and analysed.4.1 ROOM AND EQUIPMENTThe experiment was conducted in the Diehl‘s Airplane Cabin Mock Up. The room wasneutrally coloured and furnished with a size of approximately 2.8 m wide by 5m in lengthand 2.5m in height in the centre and 1.5m in height on the sidewalls. The full scale MockUp’s lining was typical for an Airbus aircraft cabin of light grey colour. No daylight wasaccessible or simulated in the Mock up, so any influence from daylight was not consideredduring the experiment.For the purpose of the experiment the room was equipped with 10 standard officechairs.The chairs were allocated in five rows of two seats; the split between the window (A)and aisle (C) places was equal. The legroom between the chairs was 350mm. The roomlayout is presented in Image 7(page 42). The test subjects entered the room from the backand were seated facing a partition door to another room.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 41
  • 42. Image 7: Experimental room with allocation of the chairsThe Cabin Mock Up was equipped with general lighting and no reading lights were available.The general lighting consisted of two ceiling lights (Ceiling In and Ceiling Out) and Side Walllights. Except for the tested mood lighting, no additional lights were used in the room duringthe experiment. The lighting was mounted in the Mock Up as indicated in Image 2.The Mock Up was built and equipped with LED lighting in 2005. In 2008 ceiling lights werechanged and the new LEDs from the same bin were used. It was noticeable that there was adifference in the light distribution and lighting colour between the side wall lights (2005) andceiling lights (2008).The LED lighting consisted of RGB W lights with a 2.5-inch resolution (2 R + 2G + 2B + 2W).The software used for the lighting control in the Mock up was designed by Diehl Aerospace –Lightdaemon V 1.5.0 and was able to address each module (12.5-inch). The lighting sceneswere preset the day before the experiment. The software was operated by a Diehl employeewho coded the lighting parameters for each scene.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 42
  • 43. Image 8: Sketch of the Experimental Mock up with the indicated position of the lightDuring the presetting of the lighting scenes the light intensity and the colour parameters(x,y) were measured and an illuminance meter was placed on the floor in the middle of theaisle.The measurements of the proposed lighting scenes were performed by using the followingequipment:  Illuminance meter: Konica Minolta T-10 87  luminance meter: Minolta LS-10088  colour measurement by spectrometer - AvaSpec- 1288987 http://www.konicaminolta.com88 http://www.konicaminolta.com89 http://www.avantes.com■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 43
  • 44. 4.2 TEST SUBJECTSThe experiment participants consisted of a range of 19 people comprised of 2 females and17 males. The participants ware mostly in the age group 15-40 with only one participantabove 40 years old.The participants were recruited with the help of the local university90 and wereundergraduate students (Course: Precision Engineering/Mechatronics). The day of theexperiment was organised as a study excursion to the Diehl Aerospace facilities. Thestudents were accompanied by their professor. Due to the limited space in the Mock up, theparticipants were divided into two groups. Each group attended a Diehl companypresentation and took part in the experiment. The agenda of the day is presented inAppendix 3. The subjects were paid for their participation in the experiment.It was preferred to invite a test person with good colour vision which was tested91 beforethe experiment by means of one plate of the Ishihara Colour Test92 (Ishihara 1917).4.3 EXPERIMENTAL SET UPThe lighting scenes were chosen by the author of the report based on the results of the pilotstudy and the personal preferences. Tested lighting colours were chosen for the daytimeflight. The main criteria for the selected lighting conditions were the type of activity whichwas related to each scene. The entrance scene was designed to be comparable with day-light. Warm colours were chosen for the meal scenes and ambient lighting for a relaxing /working environment. Duty free shopping scenes were designed to be bright and mostlywhite only with light colour accents. A more colorful and dynamic scene was used for theexit. Before the lighting conditions in the mock up were chosen, schematic sketches( Image 9, page 45) were designed to visualize the desired lighting scenes.90 Georg Simon Ohm University of Applied Sciences (OHM) Nuremberg, Germany, Contact Person: Prof. Hans Poisel91 Question 5, Page1, Initial Questionnaire. See Appendix 692 The Ishihara Colour Test is a test for red-green colour deficiencies.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 44
  • 45. Image 9: Initial sketches of proposed lighting scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 45
  • 46. Table 1: The initial summary of the lighting scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 46
  • 47. The day before the experiment, the lighting scenes were set up and coded using theLightdaemon V 1.5.0 software. The colours were created through additive colour mixing ofprimary colours (Red, Green, Blue) and White and were described on the scale 0-100% foreach of those four colours. The initial summary of the set up lighting scenes is presented inTable 1, page46.Special care was taken to assure that the previous coloured scene did not affect theperception of the following coloured scene. In order to achieve this balance, white scenesand breaks were introduced. The Lighting Scenes LS03, LS06 and LS09 as well as the BreaksB01 and B02 were identical – white93 (ca 4,000K) side walls and ceiling lights.Two lighting scenes (LS07, LS11) with dynamic colour change were proposed.LS07 can be described as a simulation of blue sky with clouds. The side wall light was whiteand the ceiling light was mostly blue with a subtle effect of “white cloud” slowly passing by.The scene consisted of 22 waypoints and the properties were measured only in onewaypoint (0 out of 22).“white cloud” – 5 units (12,5 inch each) were addressed and the slow and gradual transitionfrom blue to 30% white colour was achieved (Figure 21)blue (1) 10% white (2) 20% white (3) 30% white (4) 20% white (5) 10% white blueFigure 21: Colour transition in LS07LS11 was designed as a colourful “rain bow“ effect. The scene consisted of 100 waypointsand 5 main colours were introduced (turquoise, orange, pink, purple and violet). In order todesaturate the colours 30% white was added. The colour changing rate was much higherthan in LS07. The properties of this lighting scene were measured for three differentwaypoints (25, 50, 75 out of 100) and are described as LS11a (25/100), b (50/100) and c(75/100).93 The numerical colour describtions can be found in Chapter 5.2 and Appendix 4■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 47
  • 48. Image 10: Experimental room with indicated illuminance and luminance measuring pointsIn order to numerically describe the scenes, illuminance and luminance was tested for eachlighting condition. Two points on the table were chosen to establish the illuminance 94 levelsas well as two points on the front wall were chosen to perform the luminance95measurements. The measuring points are indicated on Image 10. The luminancemeasurements were taken from the eye level of the sitting person situated on the chairbehind the table. The luminance and illuminance values of the chosen exposure points arepresented in Table 2 (page 49).The spectral distribution for each lighting scene was measured by means of a fiber opticspectrometer 96 and the results are presented in Chapter 5.2 and Appendix 5.94 Illuminance meter: Konica Minolta T-1095 luminance meter: Minolta LS-10096 colour measurement by spectrometer AvaSpec-128■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 48
  • 49. Lighting Scene Illuminance (lx) Luminance (cd/m2) Point 1 Point 2 Point 1 Point 2 1 Scene 01 284 596 54 62 2 Scene 02 187 108 44 28 3 Scene 03 223 506 43 52 4 Scene 04 170 655 31 56 5 Break 01 222 498 43 51 6 Scene 05 217 547 40 54 7 Scene 06 221 505 43 50 8 Scene 07 - waypoint 0 of 22 154 444 28 31 9 Break 02 221 498 43 52 10 Scene 08 293 308 57 47 11 Scene 09 225 491 42 51 12 Scene 10 187 290 37 36 13 Scene 11a - waypoint 25 of 100 140 312 27 31 14 Scene 11b - waypoint 50 of 100 203 491 41 49 15 Scene 11c - waypoint 75 of 100 166 376 33 39Table 2: The summary of the illumiance and luminance levels for each lighting scenes4.4 THE QUESTIONNAIREThe original questionnaire used during the experiment was written in German (Appendix 6)and was translated into English for this paper (Appendix 7).The experimental questionnaire was divided into 3 parts: Initial Questionnaire (Page 1), MainQuestionnaire (Page 2-13) and Final Questionnaire (Page 14) (Appendix 6, 7).By means of the Initial Questionnaire the general data about participants was collected, like:age, gender, mood, colour preferences and a simplified colour deficiency test. Theparticipants were asked to fill in this section before entering the experimental room.The Main Questionnaire was filled in after each lighting scene. A Questionnaire for eachlighting scene was limited to one page with a maximum of 7 questions. Semantic differential■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 49
  • 50. scales (Hewstone 2007) were used to assess participants’ perception of the lighting scenesand difficulty in performing a specific task. A numerical rating scale with 5pts (Figure 22)enabled the subjects to make a rapid assessment of a current lighting condition.Adjectives chosen for describing the lighting scene were complementary antonyms(Al-Hindawe 1996): pleasant-unpleasant, distracting-not distracting, very easy- very difficult;as well as gradable antonyms (Al-Hindawe 1996) like: interesting-boring, dramatic -unobtrusive, stimulating-irritating, relaxing-activating. very good 2 1 0 -1 -2 very badFigure 22: Example of the semantic differential scale used in the questionnaireThe Final Questionnaire was optional and the tested subjects were asked about their generalfeelings and preferences regarding the tested lighting conditions. This section was filled inafter leaving the experiment room. Participants were given the option to write their opinionabout the experiment as well as their contact details.Data collected by means of the experimental questionnaire was analyzed in Excel applicationand the results are presented in Chapter 5 and Appendix 11.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 50
  • 51. 4.5 EXPERIMENTAL TASKSIn order to evaluate and compare different lighting conditions the participants were asked toperform simple tasks under each tested scene (Table 3).ACTIVITIES were defined as follows: entry; having a meal; time for relaxation and work; dutyfree shopping; exit.PERFORMED TASKS were related to the activities and were undertaken under all of thelighting scenes assigned to the particular activity.  Meal – fruit, snacks and drinks were served  Reading Task – The content of the reading task taken from the German monthly satirical magazine “Titanic”97 (Appendix 8)  Drawing Task – Drawing by numbers, images downloaded from the illustrator blog98 (Appendix 9)  Duty Free Brochure – the shopping brochure was created using the images and descriptions of the products taken from British Airways High Life Shop Online99 (Appendix 10)ACTIVITIES PERFORMED TASKSA. Entry walking in finding a seat sitting downB. Meal fruit, biscuits and drinks were served participants were asked to eat the snacks and pay attention to colour appearanceC. Relax / Work Reading – subjects were given simple small stories to read Drawing – subjects were asked to connect numbered dots - drawing by numbersD. Duty Free Reading the duty free brochureShop Choosing sweets from two coloured packsE. Exit collecting belongings and finding the way outTable 3: Summary of activities and performed tasks97 www.titanic-magazin.de (last accessed 20.06.2010)98 www.fonflatter.de (last accessed 20.06.2010)99 www.highlifeshop.com (last accessed 20.06.2010)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 51
  • 52. LIGHTING SCENES were related to certain activities. The main activities were defined (B,C,D)and assigned with three lighting scenes (two coloured and one white); the general activities(A,E) were tested only under one lighting scene. The transition time between the mainactivities was filled in with white light (Break), so that the previous colour did not affect theperception of the forthcoming lighting scene.Experimental process showing the lighting scene and related activities is illustrated below: 1 2 3 4 B 5 6 7 B 8 9 10 11 R R E E A A ENTRY MEAL K RELAX/WORK K 0 DUTY FREE SHOP 1 EXITFigure 23: Experimental procedure illustrating lighting scenes with related activitiesThe duration of the whole experiment was approximately sixty minutes. In total elevenlighting scenes were tested. The participants were exposed to each lighting conditions forfive minutes (Figure 24). Tested subjects were given four minutes to adapt to the lightingscene and perform simple tasks and in the last minute they were asked to fill in thequestionnaire. A two-minute break (Figure 25) was introduced between the main activitiesand the participants were allowed to move and talk with each other, etc. LIGHTING SCENE (01-11) duration 5 min PERFORMING TASKS QUESTIONNAIRE duration 4 min duration 1 minFigure 24: Duration of each lighting scene LS01 - LS11 1m BREAK (01-02) duration 2 minFigure 25: Duration of the breaks B01 and B02The tested lighting scenes are presented in chronological order in Figure 26. A detaileddescription of all of the lighting scenes can be found in Appendix 4. The scenes werepresented one after another without any transition time.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 52
  • 53. Figure 26: Images of tested lighting scenes in the chronological order■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 53
  • 54. 4.6 EXPERIMENTAL PROCESSThe experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. The attempt was made to keepall variables, like air temperature, humidity and furniture layout constant. The experimentwas conducted in the quiet Mock up with tested persons and two additional people in theroom - the author of the research and the Diehl employee controlling the lighting settings.The experiment was conducted in two runs on the same day. The participants had theopportunity to choose the group. The experimental procedure for two groups was the same.The summary of two runs of the experiment is presented in Table 4. Before starting theexperiment the participants were briefed about the procedure and were informed that theycould stop the experiment and leave the room at any time if they wish so.Run A Run BTime: 9:30 – 10:30 Time: 11:00 – 12:00Subjects: 10 Subjects: 9Duration: 58 min Duration: 58 minTable 4: Summary of two runs of the experimentOutside the Mock Up test persons were given the experimental questionnaire (Pages 1-14)and were asked to fill in the Initial Questionnaire – Page 1.Lighting scene 01 was set up while the participants were entering the experiment room. Onthe first page of the Questionnaire in the right upper corner the seat numbers (1A, 1C –5A, 5C) were assigned to each person. The participants had 4 minutes to find and take theirseat. After this time, subjects were advised to fill in the Questionnaire for Lighting Scene 01.After 5 minutes, the Lighting Scene (LS) 02 was switched on. Each participant was given asmall snack (Image 11) of nectarine, Knoppers100 and orange juice and was asked to keepthem for the next three scenes (LS 02, LS03, LS04).100 Knoppers are crispy wafers with milk and melted nougat cream filling.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 54
  • 55. Image 11: Snacks used in tested scenes LS02, LS03 and LS04The task in Lighting Scenes 02, 03 and 04 was the same. Participants were asked to payattention to the colours of the given products as well as the skin colour of their hands orneighbour’s face. During those scenes, the test subjects were allowed to consume thesnacks. After four minutes of each sequence, the participants were reminded about filling inthe questionnaires for each lighting scene.A two-minute break - B01 was introduced after scene LS04. Spare time was used forcollecting the rest of the snacks and the participants were able to relax.Lighting Scene 05 was switched on and the participants were handed reading (Appendix 8)and drawing tasks (Appendix 9). The tasks for the LS05, 06 and 07 were the same. Theparticipants were then asked to read the pieces of paper that were handed to them andconnect numbers during the drawing task. After four minutes of each scene, the subjectswere asked to fill in the questionnaire.A second break – B02 was introduced, the participants had two minutes to relax and giveback the reading texts and drawings.Lighting scene 08 was switched on. The tasks for LS08, 09 and 10 were the same. Theparticipants were given the Duty Free Brochure (Appendix 10) and were asked to read it. Inthe third minute subjects were offered sweets and they were able to choose from two packs(Image 12). After four minutes of each scene, the participants were reminded about filling inthe questionnaire.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 55
  • 56. Image 12: Brochure and packs of sweets used during Duty Free Shopping scenesLighting scene 11 was switched on. The Duty Free Brochures were collected and theparticipants were asked to collect their belongings and find their way out. Outside theexperimental room, the participants filled in the questionnaire for LS11.After finishing the Final Questionnaire, the test subjects were paid for their participation andthanked for their help.The complete experimental procedure took approximately sixty minutes.4.7 EXPERIMENTAL LIMITATIONSAlthough the interior of the Mock Up cabin was very authentic, the atmosphere during a realflight would be more complex and different to the tested conditions.The test subjects were generally under 40 and only two females participated in theexperiment. The tested participants do not fully reflect the main target group of commercialflights.All of the participants were informed about the goal of the research and despite thepredefined tasks; they were mostly focused on the tested lighting conditions. They were■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 56
  • 57. reminded to observe the lighting scene for the first four minutes and not to answer thequestionnaire too quickly.Group B was given a Diehl presentation prior to the experiment, which explained themeaning and the importance of colour rendering properties. Group A attended thispresentation after undertaking the experiment.Due to time constraints, it was only possible to investigate a limited number of lightingscenes.The experiment was limited to one hour and only five minutes were allowed for testing thelighting conditions for each scene.No transition time was planned between the tested scenes that resulted in harsh changesfrom one colour to another. In a real situation, there is usually a thirty-second transitiontime allowing a slow fade into the following lighting scene.Although special care was taken to create white scenes and breaks between most of thecoloured scenes, due to time constraints, a direct switch was introduced between LS01 toLS02 and LS10 to LS11. This might have affected the perception of the following colour ormay have created a very harsh change.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 57
  • 58. 5 PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS5.1 TEST SUBJECTSTotal number of 19 subjects participated in the experiment. The majority of them weremale: 17 (89 %) and only 2 (11%) were female (Figure 27) GENDER 11% Male Female 89%Figure 27: Experiment participants divided by genderThe participants were divided into three age groups. The majority (58%) of the subjects werebetween 15-25 years old. Both of the females were also in this age group. Only 1 (5%)participant was more than 40 years old (Figure 28). AGE 5% 37% 15-25 58% 25-40 40-XXFigure 28: Experiment participants divided by age■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 58
  • 59. Although special care was taken to choose participants without colour vision deficiency - onesubject out of 19 (5%) had not given the right answer for the colour deficiency question(Question 5, Page 1, Initial Questionnaire). Based on the simplified test it is assumed that theparticipant had a red-green colour vision deficiency. “People with normal vision see thenumber 8. Those with red-green color vision defects will read the number 3.” (Ishihara 1917)The participant was attending a second run (Group B) of the experiment and was located inthe last row by the window (Seat 5A).The experiment was conducted in two runs: Run A with 10 participants including bothfemales and Run B with 9 participants including one person over 40 years old and oneperson with a colour deficiency.5.2 TESTED LIGHTING SCENESIn total 11 Lighting Scenes (LS) were tested and are shown in chronological order in Figure 26(page 53). In Appendix 4 each lighting condition is summarized and presented by means ofimages, spectral distribution charts and a description of related tasks and activities.lluminance and luminance levels for each scene were shown in Chapter 4.3 (Table 2, p 49).The spectral distribution for each lighting condition was measured and is presented in theform of a chart in Appendix 5. The collected data was transferred into the Excel applicationwhere Colour Related Temperature (CCT), Colour Rendering Index (CRI) as well as CIEchromacity coordinates (x,y) were calculated. The colour properties for each lighting sceneare summarized in Table 5.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 59
  • 60. Lighting Scene CCT (K) CRI x y 1 Scene 01 9110 70 0.29 0.26 2 Scene 02 1746 30 0.53 0.38 3 Scene 03 4114 64 0.36 0.32 4 Scene 04 1894 30 0.45 0.31 5 Break 01 4114 64 0.36 0.32 6 Scene 05 5041 40 0.33 0.23 7 Scene 06 4114 64 0.36 0.32 8 Scene 07 - waypoint 0 of 22 --- --- 0.23 0.18 9 Break 02 4114 64 0.36 0.32 10 Scene 08 4144 75 0.37 0.37 11 Scene 09 4114 64 0.36 0.32 12 Scene 10 3696 79 0.39 0.37 13 Scene 11a - waypoint 25 of 100 2431 57 0.44 0.34 14 Scene 11b - waypoint 50 of 100 2377 52 0.45 0.36 15 Scene 11c- waypoint 75 of 100 2712 4 0.36 0.23Table 5: The summary of the colour properties for each lighting scenesThe colour temperature throughout the experiment ranged from 1,746K for LS02 to 10,000Kfor LS07. The scene with the best colour rendering properties was LS10 with a CRI of 79%.The lowest colour rendering index was assesed in LS04 – a CRI of 33 % (Figure 29) Calculated CRI Calculated CCT 90 10000 80 70 8000 60 50 6000 40 4000 30 20 2000 10 0 0 Scene 11c Scene 11c Scene 11a Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 10 Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 10 Scene 11a Scene 11b Scene 11b Scene 06 Scene 09 Scene 06 Scene 09Figure 29: The presentation of calculated CRI and CCT for tested lighting conditions■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 60
  • 61. 5.2.1 WHITE SCENESThree (LS03, LS06, LS09) out of eleven lighting conditions were exactly the same with whiteside walls and ceiling lights. The spectral distribution for those three conditions wasmeasured independently and is presented as a chart in Figure 30. 20 15 LS 03 10 LS 06 LS 09 5 0 370 470 570 670 770Figure 30: Spectral distribution of LS 03, LS 06 and LS 09The illuminance measurement for the white scenes was ca. 220lx in Point 1 and ca. 500lx inPoint 2. The perceived brightness for those scenes was ca. 43cd/m2 in Point 1 and ca.51cd/m2 in Point 2 (Table 2, p 49). The calculated CCT was 4114K and with the CRI of 65 %.The chromacity coordinates were estimated to be x = 0.36, y = 0.32 (Table 5, p 60).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 61
  • 62. 5.2.2 SCENES WITH MAIN ACTIVITIESThree lighting scenes were tested for each of the main activities. The main criteria forchoosing the lighting conditions are listed in Table 6 .Activity Main criteria Lighting SceneMEAL  “Warm” colour temperature LS 02  Warm colours LS 03  Good colour rendering LS 04RELAX/WORK  “Neutral” colour temperature LS 05  Coloured scenes LS 06  Good colour rendering LS 07DUTY FREE SHOPING  “cold” colour temperature LS 08  White scenes LS 09  Very good colour rendering LS 10Table 6: The summary of the main criteria for choosing the lighting scenesThe presented results compare each lighting condition and measured properties of eachlighting scene related to the specific activity.MEAL:All lighting scenes chosen for the Meal achieved peak sensitivity in the red range (640nm) ofthe spectrum. A comparison of the spectral distribution (Figure 31) demonstrated that themaximum sensitivity for LS03 is relatively low in comparison to LS02 and LS04. This was dueto the fact that LS03 consisted of only white light in contrast to the saturated red and ambercolours in LS02 and lavender and light amber in LS04. The significant difference between thescenes could be noticed in the colour temperature. The CCT of the “white scene” was above4,100K and therewith twice as high as the colour related temperature of LS02 and LS04(both below 2,000K). The LS03 also featured a much better colour rendering index of 65 incomparison to CRI of 30 for LS02 and LS04 (Table 5, p 60).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 62
  • 63. MEAL 50 40 30 LS 02 LS 03 20 LS 04 10 0 370 470 570 670 770Figure 31: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 02, LS 03 and LS 04.RELAX / WORK:The lighting scenes chosen for the Relaxing and Working scenes featured various lightingcolours and lighting properties. The comparison of the spectral distribution (Figure 32)showed that both LS05 and LS06 achieved peak sensitivity in the red spectrum (640nm),although the lighting scene LS05 also reached a high value in the blue spectrum. The Colourtemperature for the LS05 could be described as cold (5,040K) and was slightly higher thanCCT in LS06 (4,100K). Lighting scene LS06 featured better colour rendering properties (CRI65) than the LS05 (CRI 40) (Table 5, p 60). The LS07 achieved very high values in the bluespectrum (450nm).101 RELAX / WORK 40 30 LS 05 20 LS 06 10 LS 07 0 370 470 570 670 770Figure 32: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 05, LS 06 and LS 07.101 The characteristics of the scene is described in more detail in further Chapter 5.2.3 , p 65■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 63
  • 64. DUTY FREE SHOPPING: DUTY FREE SHOPPING 20 15 LS 08 10 LS 09 5 LS 10 0 370 470 570 670 770Figure 33: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 08, LS 09 and LS 10.The properties of lighting scenes simulated during the Duty Free Shopping were similar. TheColour related temperature for those three lighting scenes ranged from 3,600K to 4,100K(Table 5, p 60). The highest values in the spectral distributions were achieved by the whitescene LS09 with peak sensitivity in the red end of the spectrum (Figure 33). The ColourRendering Index for those scenes ranged from 64 (LS09) to 79 (LS10) (Table 5, p 60).5.2.3 DYNAMIC SCENESAmong the tested lighting conditions, two scenes (LS07, LS11) were designed to featuredynamic colour change. They can be described as follows:LS07:The side wall lights were designed to be static with white light on the side wall and only theceiling lights were designed to be dynamic – changing colour only from blue to white. Theceiling lights consisted of 22 waypoints but because of the monochromatic characteristic ofthe tested conditions the properties were measured only in one waypoint (0 out of 22).The measured illuminance in waypoint 0 (out of 22) ranged from 154lx (Point 1) to 444lx(Point 2). The perceived brightness in the two measured points was very similar: 28 cd/m2 inPoint 1 and 31cd/m2 in Point 2 (Table 2, page49).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 64
  • 65. From the spectral distribution for this scene (Figure 34) it can be noticed that peak sensitivityis achieved in the blue range (450nm) of the spectrum. The light colour is very blue andtherefore the CCT and CRI cannot be measured for this lighting condition. The chromacitycoordinates show that the colour lays beyond the black body locus (x=0.23, y=0.18) (Table 5,p 60). LS 07 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 370 470 570 670 770 102Figure 34: Spectral distribution and chromacity coordinates plotted on the CIE 1931 x,y space for LS07LS11:Both the side wall and ceiling lights were designed to be dynamic with the same colourchanging rhythm. The lighting scene consisted of 100 waypoints. In order to be able todescribe the changing lighting conditions in this scene, three representative waypoints werechosen and their properties were measured.  LS11a – waypoint 25 out of 100  LS11b – waypoint 50 out of 100  LS11c – waypoint 75 out of 100The lowest lighting levels were established for LS11a with an iluminance values between140lx (Point 1) and 312lx (Point2) and the average luminance103 in the range of 29 cd/m2.The illuminance levels for LS11c ranged from 166lx (Point 1) and 376lx (Point2) and theaverage luminance was calculated 36cd/m2. The highest lighting levels were confirmed for102 http://www.search.com/reference/Black_body (last accessed 24.07.2010)103 Average luminance is a value interpolated between luminance measured in two points - Point 1 and Point 2■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 65
  • 66. the LS 11b with an iluminance value between 203lx (Point 1) and 491lx (Point2) and theaverage luminance of 45cd/m2 (Table 2, p 49).From the comparison of spectral distribution (Figure 35, page 65) it can be noticed that thepeak sensitivity for the LS11b and LS11c is the same and is achieved in the red range(640nm) of the spectrum. Additionally the second highest sensitivity for LS11c is found in theblue end (450nm) of the spectrum, where LS11a and LS11b are much lower and thereforesimilar to each other.The calculated Colour Related Temperature varies from 2,377K for LS11b to 2,712K for LS11c. Much bigger differences were noticed in the Colour Rendering Properties as they rangefrom 57% (LS11a) over 52% (LS11b) and drop down to 4% (LS11c). The chromacitycoordinates are very similar for LS 11a (x=0.44, y=0.34) and LS11b (x=0.45, y=0.36) ,but LS11cshows much lower values (x=0.36, y=0.23) (Table 5, p 60). 35 30 25 20 LS 11 a 15 LS 11 b 10 LS 11 c 5 0 370 470 570 670 770Figure 35: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 11a, b and c.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 66
  • 67. 5.3 LIGHTING SCENES EVALUATIONNOTE: The whole experiment was conducted in Nuremberg, Germany and all participantswere residents of that area. Therefore the questionnaire, experimental tasks and procedureas well as the briefing prior to the experiment and comments during the experiment werehold in German language only.1045.3.1 GENERAL SCENE EVALUATIONThe general response to the Question “How do you feel?” before the experiment was good(average: 0.89) as well as for most of the lighting scenes during the experiment. The onlynegative assessed lighting condition was LS11 (-0.21). The tested subjects felt the best underthe lighting scene LS06 (0.95) and LS04 (0.89) (Figure 36).In general, the participants had not experienced any major difficulties in performing thegeneral tasks under the tested lighting scenes. The best conditions were assessed in LS03and LS06, both with an average value of 1.42 out of a maximum of 2.0 for very easy. Thescenes with a slightly negative tendency were LS05 (-0.5) and LS10 (-0.6). The biggestdifficulties in performing the general tasks were experienced by the participants under LS11with an average -0.74 (Figure 37).104 The translation of Questionnaire into English was done only for the documentation of this study and can be found inAppendix 7. The non-numerical answers and comments were translated into English by the author of this thesis.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 67
  • 68. How do you feel? very good (2) - very bad (-2) 1.00 0.50 0.00 -0.50 General Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11Figure 36: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 1 for each lighting scene How difficult was it for you to performed general tasks under this lighting scene? very easy (2) - very difficult (-2) 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 -0.50 -1.00 Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11Figure 37: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 3 for each lighting scene■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 68
  • 69. The experiment participants were asked to assess each scene using a numerical differentialscale from (-2) to (2) and the following criteria: A) BORING - INTERESTING B) UNPLEASANT – PLEASANT C) UNOBSTRUSIVE - DRAMATIC D) IRRITATING – STIMULATING E) ACTIVATING - RELAXING F) NOT DISTRACTING – DISTRACTINGA summary of the average responses are presented in Figure 38.The most “extreme” scene was perceived in the LS11, which in each of the questionedachieved a maximal or minimal value. The dynamic colour changing scene was perceived asthe most interesting (1.11), unpleasant (-0.63), dramatic (0.95), irritating (-0.89), activating (-0.79) and distracting (1.58). Scene LS02 was assessed as one of the most dramatic (0.58),irritating (-0.58) and distracting (0.71) among the tested lighting conditions. The entrancescene LS01 together with LS09 was evaluated as the most boring (-0.42), the mostunobtrusive (-1.16) and not distracting (-1). The most stimulating lighting conditions wereassessed under the LS06 (0.32). The scene with white lighting was also perceived as the mostpleasant (0.79) and not distracting (-0.68) or unobtrusive (-0.79). The most relaxingconditions were assessed under the lighting effect of “blue sky with clouds” in the LS07(0.53). As very relaxing (0.53) and very pleasant (0.68) was also evaluated in the lightingscene LS08 (Figure 38).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 69
  • 70. How would you describe the lighting scene? 1.50 Scene 01 Scene 02 1.00BOERING (-2) - INTERESTING (2) Scene 03 Scene 04 0.50 Scene 05 Scene 06 0.00 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 -0.50 Scene 10 Scene 11 -1.00 1.50 Scene 01 Scene 02UNPLEASANT (-2) – PLEASANT (2) 1.00 Scene 03 Scene 04 0.50 Scene 05 Scene 06 0.00 Scene 07 Scene 08 -0.50 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 -1.00 1.00 Scene 01 Scene 02DRAMATIC (-2) – UNOBSTRUSIVE (2) 0.50 Scene 03 Scene 04 0.00 Scene 05 Scene 06 -0.50 Scene 07 Scene 08 -1.00 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 -1.50■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 70
  • 71. How would you describe the lighting scene? 1.00 Scene 01 Scene 02IRRITATING (-2) – STIMULATING (2) 0.50 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 0.00 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 -0.50 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 -1.00 1.00 Scene 01 Scene 02ACTIVATING (-2) – RELAXING (2) 0.50 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 0.00 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 -0.50 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 -1.00 2.00 Scene 01NOT DISTRACTING (-2) – DISTRACTING (2) Scene 02 1.50 Scene 03 1.00 Scene 04 Scene 05 0.50 Scene 06 Scene 07 0.00 Scene 08 Scene 09 -0.50 Scene 10 Scene 11 -1.00Figure 38: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 2 (a,b,c,d,e,f) for each lighting scene.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 71
  • 72. 5.3.2 MAIN ACTIVITIESThe space in LS04 was perceived as adequately lit for having a MEAL. LS02 was evaluated asdark and LS03 with a leaning towards being bright. On average the participants enjoyed thecoloured lighting during having a meal in scene LS02, but they did not enjoy it in scene LS04.Lighting scene LS03 was assessed as well balanced. In general the food under the testedlighting scenes appeared appetizing, the most under LS04. Skin colour was perceived asnatural in LS03, but unnatural under LS02 (Figure 39). MEAL: LS 02 , LS 03, LS 04 Was the space adequately lit for Have you enjoyed the coloured lighting having a MEAL? during having a MEAL? too dark (2) - too much light (-2) very much (2) - not at all (-2) 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 -0.50 -0.50 -1.00 -1.00 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 How appetizingly was your FOOD under How natural was looking the SKIN under this lighting scene? this lighting scene? very much (2) - not at all (-2) very natural (2) - not at all (-2) 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 -0.50 -0.50 -1.00 -1.00 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04Figure 39: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during MEAL scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 72
  • 73. LS07 was perceived as adequately lit for RELAXATION. The space in LS05 and LS06 appearedto be too bright for creating a relaxing atmosphere. In average the participants shared theopinion that the coloured lighting in LS05 was not suitable for relaxing and scene LS07 wasevaluated with leaning towards helpful. The tested scenes appeared for the participants asadequately lit for READING. Scene LS07 was assessed as bright. Skin colour was perceivedas natural in LS06, but under LS05 appeared to have a tendency to be unnatural (Figure 40). RELAX / WORK: LS 05 , LS 06, LS 07 Was the space adequately lit for RELAXING? Do you think this colour helps you to RELAX? too dark (2) - too much light (-2) very helpful (2) - not at all (-2) 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 -0.50 -0.50 -1.00 -1.00 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Was the space adequately lit for READING? How natural was looking the SKIN under this lighting scene? too dark (2) - too much light (-2) very natural (2) - not at all (-2) 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 -0.50 -0.50 -1.00 -1.00 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07Figure 40: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during RELAX/WORK scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 73
  • 74. The tested lighting scenes were assessed as adequately lit for READING the DUTY FREEBROCHURE. LS10 was evaluated with a leaning towards dark and LS09 with a tendency to bebright. The participants shared the opinion that the coloured lighting was not good forREADING the DUTY FREE BROCHURE in LS10 but it was good in LS09. The space appeared tobe adequately lit for SELECTING and BUYING PRODUCTS under LS09. LS10 was perceived asdark. The coloured lighting was assessed as helpful for SELECTING and BUYING PRODUCTS inthe LS09, but it was not helpful in LS10 (Figure 41). DUTY FREE SHOPPING: LS 08 , LS 09, LS 10 Was the space adequately lit for READING Was the coloured lighting helpful for READING the DUTY FREE BROSCHURE? the DUTY FREE BROSCHURE? too dark (2) - too much light (-2) very helpful (2) - not at all (-2) 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 -0.50 -0.50 -1.00 -1.00 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Was the space adequately lit for SELECTING Was the coloured lighting helpful for and BUYING PRODUCTS? SELECTING and BUYING PRODUCTS too dark (2) - too much light (-2) very helpful (2) - not at all (-2) 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 -0.50 -0.50 -1.00 -1.00 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10Figure 41: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during DUTY FREE scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 74
  • 75. 5.3.3 DYNAMIC SCENES EVALUATIONDuring the experiment two scenes with dynamic colour changing were tested. Allparticipants noticed the colour changing in LS11, but only 11% of the subjects were aware ofthe dynamic colour change in LS07 (Figure 42). Have you noticed colour changing in this scene? LS 11 LS 07 NO 89% 100% YES 11%Figure 42: Question 8 (LS 07) and 6 ( LS 11)5.3.4 SUMMARYComparing the general impression of all lighting conditions,105 the most favourite sceneswere LS08 and LS06 both with 84% of all participants responding positively. Other veryhighly evaluated scenes were LS04 with 82% and LS03 with 80% (Figure 43, p 76).The least preferred scenes among the participants were LS11 with 88% of negativeresponses, followed by LS02 with 65%, LS10 with 59% and LS05 with 53% (Figure 44, p 77).105 Question: “Did you like the scene in general?”■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 75
  • 76. LIGHTING SCENE 08 Did you like the scene in general? 16% YES 84% NOLIGHTING SCENE 06 16% YES 84% NOLIGHTING SCENE 04 18% YES 82% NOLIGHTING SCENE 03 20% YES 80% NOFigure 43: The most preferable lighting scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 76
  • 77. Did you like the scene in general? 12%LIGHTING SCENE 11 YES 88% NOLIGHTING SCENE 02 35% YES 65% NOLIGHTING SCENE 10 41% YES 59% NOLIGHTING SCENE 05 47% YES 53% NOFigure 44: The less preferable lighting scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 77
  • 78. 5.4 COMMENTS ABOUT THE EXPERIMENTIn the last section of the Questionnaire, the participants were given an opportunity to writetheir general comments about the experiment, as well as choose their favourite and lessfavoured lighting scenes. Comments and answers to questions are summarized andpresented below:From 10 participants responding to the question106 “What were your favourite scenes?”were:  LS07 with three answers, was described as “very calming”  LS04 with two answers, was described as “very relaxing” and “very agreeable”  LS06, LS08, LS09, LS10 and LS11 were mentioned by one person each and the comments ranged from “very agreeable”, “nice atmosphere” and unobtrusive” to “appeared not too artificial”  additionally one participant without choosing one scene left the following comment: “generally speaking the lighting scenes with the white light were better”13 participants responded to the question107 about their less favourable lighting scene, twoof them gave multiple answers. Among the 16 responses the most disliked lightingconditions were:  S11 with seven answers (44%), the most common argument was “too strong and too fast colour change”  LS02 with six answers including two female (38%), the explanation ranged from “too red” , “too glary” over “the red colour was very distracting” to “the red lights made me aggressive and annoyed me”  LS10 with three answers (19%), the reasons were: “too big contrast in colour”, “the colour was too intense” and a personal preference “I do not like yellow”106 Optional Question: “Please describe which lighting scene was your favourite and why?” Page 14, Final Questionnaire, Appendix 6107 Optional Question: “Please describe which lighting scene you did not like at all and why?” Page 14, Final Questionnaire, Appendix 6■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 78
  • 79.  additionally one participant commented on the transitions between the lighting scenes: “I did not like the transitions between the scenes, after a while the colours were not so annoying”Additional comments about the experiment from the Final Questionnaire108:  “the chair was not as comfortable as in a real airplane”109  “in the aisle seat the lighting conditions don’t change too much”110  “generally all of the lighting scenes were very artificial and the comparison with daylight was missing”111  “it was too warm in the mock up”112  “interesting, agreeable”113108 Optional Question: “Additional comments about the experiment ” Page 14, Final Questionnaire, Appendix 6109 Participant in Group A, seat 1A110 Participant in Group A, seat 5C111 Participant in Group B, seat 1A112 Participant in Group B, seat 1C113 Participant in Group B, seat 3A■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 79
  • 80. 6 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS6.1 GROUPS A AND BBefore entering the experiment room the participants on the average assessed their generalcondition114 as good. Although the two females in Group A115 described themselves as “a bittired” and three males in Group B116 admitted to be “hungry”, there was not a significantdifference between the groups (Figure 45). GENERAL: How do you feel ? very good (2) - very bad (-2) 0.89 1.00 0.78 AVERAGE Group A Group BFigure 45: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How do you feel?”Comparing all of the lighting scenes and the assessment of the general feeling in the twogroups, it can be noticed that Group B rated the tested scenes less positive than the morninggroup. Group A evaluated five lighting conditions (LS01, LS04, LS06, LS07, LS08) as good (onaverage 1.0 or above) while in the late morning group only the LS06 was rated high (0.89).The different tendency can be noticed under lighting conditions LS02 and LS05. Theparticipants in Group A assessed the LS02 negatively (-0.10) and the LS05 positive (0.30) andGroup B felt the contrary, LS02 was rated as positive (0.22) and LS05 as negative (-0.22). Theparticipants in both groups felt the worst under LS11, which was rated the same in bothcases, ca. -0.20 (Figure 46).114 Question 1: “How do you feel?” Page 1, Initial Questionnaire115 The experiment in Group A took place between 9.30-10.30116 The experiment in Group B took place between 11.00-12.00■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 80
  • 81. Group A: "How do you feel under this lighting condition?" Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 1.11 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.50 0.30 -0.10 -0.20 Group B: "How do you feel under this lighting condition?" Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 0.89 0.67 0.67 0.56 0.44 0.33 0.22 0.22 0.11 -0.22 -0.22Figure 46: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How do you feel under this lightingcondition?” very good (2) – very bad (-2)On the average, the rating of the general assessment of the feelings and the ease ofperforming general tasks under the tested lighting conditions were similar (Figure 46,Figure 48).There were major difficulties experienced in performing general tasks by the participants inboth groups under dynamic colour change lighting (LS11). Group B also negatively evaluatedscenes in LS05 (-0.33) but also LS10 (-0.13). On the average, the most positive rated werewhite lighting conditions. In Group A performing tasks were perceived as easy to very easy■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 81
  • 82. under LS06 and LS09 (1.40) as well as LS03 (1.30). In Group B the highest rated scenes wereLS03 (1.56), LS06 (1.44) and LS09 (0.78) (Figure 46, Figure 48). Assesment of the dificulty level in performing tasks: Group A Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 1.40 1.40 1.22 1.30 0.78 0.80 0.70 0.50 0.20 0.00 -0.50 Assesment of the dificulty level in performing tasks: Group B Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 1.56 1.44 0.78 0.78 0.44 0.43 0.44 0.00 -0.13 -0.33 -1.00Figure 47: Comparison of the results from Group A and B about difficulties in performing tasks (Question 3)very easy (2) – very difficult (-2)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 82
  • 83. As mentioned previously117 Group A and B might have had a different state of knowledgeabout the colour rendering properties as the Diehl’s presentation was given to Group B priorto the experiment and to Group A after the experiment. However, it seems like this fact wasnot influential on the participants’ perception of good or bad colour rendering properties.The difference between the groups appears to be insignificant (Figure 48). Colour rendering appraisal: Group A Colour rendering appraisal: Group B 1.10 1.00 0.89 0.67 0.40 0.00 -0.11 -0.30 -0.40 -0.38 -0.70 -1.11 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 06 Scene 07Figure 48: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How natural was looking the skinunder this lighting condition?” very natural (2) – not at all (-2)6.2 GENDERDue to the unequal gender split,118 the comparison between female and male preferenceswas analysed under reservation. By the general assessment of the lighting conditions, thetwo females always shared the same opinion, which was also the majority view of the males.The females assessed119 the scenes LS02, LS10 and LS11 as the not preferred ones. Both ofthe females described LS02 as the scene that they did not like at all120. The explanation oftheir opinions was “everything looks very unnatural”, “the skin tone was too orange”, “tooglary,” and “the red light made me aggressive and annoyed me”.117 Chapter 4.7 Experimental Limitations, Page 56118 2 female and 17 male took part in the experiment119 Question 8: “Did you like the scene in general?”, Main Questionnaire for each Lighting Scene,120 Comments in the Final Questionnaire■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 83
  • 84. 6.3 AGE GROUPSThe majority of the participants in the age groups 15-25 and 25-40 appraised the lightingscenes similarly. The only participant in the age group over 40 assessed the four lightingscenes differently than the majority: LS04, LS07, LS08, LS11. Two among the most preferredlighting scenes (LS08 and LS04) were evaluated negatively by the older participant(Figure 49). SCENE 04 SCENE 08 Did you like the scene in general? Did you like the scene in general? 100% 100% 80% 80% 60% 15-25 60% 15-25 40% 25-40 40% 25-40 40-XX 40-XX 20% 20% 0% 0% YES NO YES NOFigure 49: Age split: Respondents’ general opinions about lighting scenes LS04, LS08The most controversial LS11, perceived by the majority as the worst of the testedconditions121, was chosen as the most favourite lighting scene122. The least preferred lightingcondition was LS02, this opinion was also shared by the majority of the participants and itwas evaluated to be the second most disliked lighting scene123.Although the split in the age does not have a statistical significance, the difficulty inperforming the reading task by the older participant can be noticed across the colouredlighting scenes (LS05, LS07, LS08 and LS10). The white scenes (LG06, LG09) were assessed bythe subject over 40 years old as being well balanced (Figure 50).121 88% of the participants did not like the scene in general,Figure 44,page 57 XX122 Comments in the Final Questionnaire123 65% of the participants did not like the scene in general,Figure 44,page 57 XX■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 84
  • 85. "Was the space adequately lit for "Was the space adequately lit for READING?" SELCTING and BUYING PRODUCTS?" 1.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 15-25 1.00 15-25 0.50 25-40 25-40 0.50 40-XX 40-XX 0.00 0.00 LS 05 LS 06 LS 07 LS 08 LS 09 LS 10 -0.50 -0.50Figure 50: Age split: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during reading task and reading the duty freebrochure. too dark (2) – too much light (-2)6.4 AISLE / WINDOWThe participants were asked to assess how natural the skin colour appeared in six out of theeleven tested scenes - during the Meal and the Relax/Work activities only. In general thecolour rendering properties were assessed very similarly to the calculated CRI 124 (Figure 51).The participants evaluated the skin colour to appear natural under LS06 and LS03. Thosescenes were exactly the same, both consisted of white light and the calculated CRI value was64. The colour of the skin appeared the most unnatural under lighting condition LS02 andLS04, both with a calculated CRI value of 30.124 Summarised results are presented in Chapter 5.2 , Table 5, page 62■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 85
  • 86. Estimated Colour Rendering Properties Calculated CRI very good (2) - very bad (-2) 64 64 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 0.95 40 0.89 30 30 0.21 -0.33 -0.26 Scene Scene Scene Scene Scene Scene 02 03 04 05 06 07 -0.89Figure 51: General results to the Question about Colour Rendering and the calculated CRIThe difference in the Aisle and Window seats appeared to be significant only under LS07.The scene consisted of white sidewall lights and blue light with a slowly moving white“cloud” for the ceiling lights.The lighting condition was assessed as a scene with good colour rendering properties byparticipants occupying the window seats, but for the participants sitting in the aisle seats thecolour of the skin appeared unnatural (Figure 52). It was not possible to calculate the CRI forthis lighting scene, as the chromacity coordinates lay beyond the black body locus 125. Colour rendering appraisal: Window Seats Colour rendering appraisal: Aisle Seats Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 0.90 0.90 1.00 0.89 0.78 -0.22 -0.33 -0.30 -0.30 -0.33 -0.89 -0.90Figure 52: Comparison of the results from Window and Aisle seats to the Question: “How natural was lookingthe skin under this lighting condition?” very natural (2) – not at all (-2)125 The characteristics of the scene is described in more detail in further Chapter 5.2.3 , p 65■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 86
  • 87. The second lowest rated lighting condition was LS02, where 65% of the participantsadmitted to dislike the scene in general. The scene consisted of amber ceiling lighting andintensive red sidewall lighting. Only 25% of the participants occupying the window seatsevaluated this scene positively, while the split in the opinion of the aisle passengers wasalmost equal (Figure 53). SCENE 02 Did you like the scene in general? Aisle (C) Window (A) 75% NO 56% 25% YES 44%Figure 53: Comparison of the results from Window and Aisle seats - general appraisal of the LS026.5 WHITE SCENESThree white lighting scenes (LS03, LS06, LS09) consisted of exactly the same lightingconditions which can be also noticed in the similar assessment of those scenes by theparticipants. Although the participants were asked to perform different tasks under each ofthose scenes, the general opinion can be compared. All three lighting scenes were in the topfive of preferred scenarios. On average 84% of the participants liked the LS06 in comparisonto LS03 which reached 80% and LS09 -79% (Figure 54).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 87
  • 88. "Did you like the scene in general?" 80% 84% 79% Scene 03 Scene 06 Scene 09Figure 54: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the white scenesAmong those three lighting scenes LS06 was assessed as neutral and LS03 (-0.21) andLS09 (-0.42) with a tendency to be boring, whereby the LS09 was assessed as the mostboring scene of all. The LS06 was the most pleasant scene among all of the testedconditions. LS03 (0.53) and LS06 (0.37) were also assessed in a positive range (Figure 55).The white scenes were also in the top four of the unobtrusive (Figure 56) and stimulating(Figure 57) scenes. Pleasant - Unpleasant Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 0.79 0.63 0.68 0.53 0.42 0.37 0.37 -0.26 -0.21 -0.32 -0.63Figure 55: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the white scenes:Pleasant (2) – Unpleasant (-2)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 88
  • 89. Dramatic - Unobtrusive Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 0.95 0.58 0.32 -0.26 -0.21 -0.26 -0.32 -0.53 -0.79 -0.68 -1.16Figure 56: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the white scenes:Dramatic (2) – Unobtrusive (-2) Simulating - Irritating Scene 01 Scene 02 Scene 03 Scene 04 Scene 05 Scene 06 Scene 07 Scene 08 Scene 09 Scene 10 Scene 11 0.26 0.32 0.16 0.16 0.05 -0.28 -0.21 -0.26 -0.47 -0.58 -0.89Figure 57: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the white scenes:Stimulating (2) – Irritating (-2)6.6 MAIN ACTIVITIESThe participants’ evaluations of the lighting scenes according to the pre-defined activities arepresented in Chapter 5.3.1 and 5.3.2.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 89
  • 90. MEAL:Among three lighting scenes set up for the Meal the most appealing one was LS04. Theparticipants enjoyed the lavender/ peach coloured lighting during the meal and shared theopinion that the food appeared the most appetizing under this lighting condition. LS04 wasassessed as the most pleasant, stimulating and relaxing scene during the Meal activity. Themost interesting and dramatic but also irritating and distracting was chosen the amber/redlighting scene (LS02). Those results confirm the suggestion that care should be taken inapplying red lighting as it has important influences on peoples’ behavior and mood (Elliot, etal. 2007). The white scene (LS03) was perceived to be unobtrusive and boring but alsoprovided the best lighting conditions for performing tasks.Image 13: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for MEAL: LS02, LS03, LS04RELAX and WORK:The most relaxing and interesting scene during the Relax/Work activity was the lightingscene which simulated blue-sky with a cloud (LS07). The participants shared the opinion thatthe blue colour helped them to relax and the space was adequately lit for this activity. Thisconfirmed the findings that the blue colour is associated with being calming and relaxing(Azemi and Raza 2005). The best conditions for performing tasks featured the white scene(LS06) and the lighting levels were assessed to be the most appropriate for the reading taskby the participants in all of the age groups. The white lighting scene was chosen as the mostpleasant, stimulating and unobtrusive arrangement for the Relax/Work activity. Thepink/lavender (LS05) colours were perceived to be activating, irritating and distracting. Thespace appeared to be too bright for achieving a relaxing atmosphere but not enough lit forperforming the work related tasks. The coloured lighting did not help the participants torelax and the skin appeared to have an unnatural colour.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 90
  • 91. Image 14: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for RELAX/WORK: LS05, LS06, LS07DUTY FREE SHOPING:The lighting conditions chosen for the Duty Free Shopping consisted of white ceiling lightswith different light intensity and a variation of the side wall lights from white through lightpink to yellow. The completely white lighting scene (LS09) provided the best conditions forall age groups for reading the duty free brochure and for selecting and buying products. Theoldest participant assessed other lighting conditions (LS08, LS10) as too dark for reading thebrochure and selecting the products. Measurements confirmed that luminance andilluminance levels were the highest for LS09, although the colour rendering index was thelowest among those three conditions. The scene with white ceiling and pink side wall lighting(LS08) was the most pleasant and relaxing among the shopping scenes. The least preferredlighting condition during the duty free activity was white/yellow lighting (LS10) which wasassessed as unpleasant, dramatic, distracting, but also the most interesting one. The yellowcolour was described as irritating and did not help when reading the brochure or during theselecting and buying of products.Image 15: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for DUTY FREE SHOP: LS08, LS09, LS10■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 91
  • 92. 6.7 DYNAMIC SCENES LS 07 Did you like the scene in general? Have you noticed colour changing in this scene? 28% NO 89% 72% YES 11%Figure 58: Respondents’ opinions about lighting scene LS07: Questions 8 and 9 LS 11 Did you like the scene in general? Have you noticed colour changing in this scene? 88% NO 12% YES 100%Figure 59: Respondents’ opinions about lighting scene LS07: Questions 6 and 7■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 92
  • 93. Slow colour change lighting between the blue and white colour was introduced on theceiling lights for scene LS07. Only two subjects126 (11%) noticed the colour change in thisscene and both of them liked it. The same opinion was expressed by 72% of the participants(Figure 58). In contrast to LS07, the dynamic colour change lighting in the exit scene (LS11)was noticed by all of the participants and only 12% of them liked the scene (Figure 59). Thelighting conditions were the least preferred among the tested scenes and was described asextreme, due to the intense colours and rather quick colour change between them(Image 16).Image 16: Photos of different conditions during the dynamic lighting scene LS11126 2 male between 25-40 years old, Group A■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 93
  • 94. 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION FOR THE FUTURE RESEARCHSummarising the analysis of the results it can be noticed that the participants preferredwhite scenes with a good colour rendering for performing tasks but perceived them as lessinteresting in comparison to the coloured scenes.Visual interest can be created with light saturated colours as well as with very slow andsubtle colour changes. The distribution of the coloured lighting in the cabin should be veryuniform and large colour and intensity differences between ceiling and side wall lightingshould be avoided.The saturated colours are perceived as unpleasant, irritating and difficult when performingtasks. Very saturated scenes usually feature a low colour rendering index so skin and foodappear to be very unnatural.The most positively rated colour scenes were light blue, light pink and lavender lighting. Thesame colours but with stronger intensity (red, saturated orange and violet) were givennegative ratings. From the results of the experiment can be seen that people are verysensitive to colour changes. In order to be able to achieve pleasant atmosphere verysaturated colours as well as quick colour changes should be avoided.The collected data during the experiment is multifaceted and could be analysed in greaterdetail. Only the summary of the results and analysis was presented in this research. In thenext step the experimental results could be analysed looking closer at the lighting conditionschosen for the different types of the activities (Meal, Relax/Work, Duty Free). In the author’sopinion the specific lighting conditions should be related to the activities during the flightand this idea was followed during the designing of the experiment. This approach wascriticised by one of the lighting designers during the pilot study research and so wouldbenefit from further investigation.For the further research, a greater variety in age groups and gender would berecommended. It is known that the female and male responses to colours differ (Knez 2001)and it is advantageous to establish if this applies to the cabin lighting environment. Manyprevious studies have showed the difference in acceptable lighting levels for various age■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 94
  • 95. groups, including elderly people (Knez and Kers 2000). Future research in cabin lighting isrequired in order to establish lighting conditions that would be satisfactory for all agegroups.Furthermore, an appropriate transition time between different scenes should beinvestigated, which may vary depending on the mix of colours. It should also be establishedhow previous lighting colour influences the perception of new lighting conditions and whichcolour combinations should be avoided. Due to the limited time of the experiment, thisaspect of mood lighting was not covered in this study.In addition, mood lighting should be seen in a wider aspect and its combination with daylightshould be investigated. As mentioned in the background study, new types of larger andtinted windows are going to be introduced in modern planes. This should lead to rethinkingcabin lighting design and further research in linking daylight with artificial light.This interdisciplinary research provides a first step to a further investigation on howcoloured lighting affects passengers on a plane. It provides a solid basis for a furtherestablishment of recommendations. Knowledge of the psychological influence of light andcolour on the wellbeing of passengers, is important for cabin designers to be able to createappropriate lighting in this specific environment.The future trend in aircraft cabin lighting will continue to focus on the development of LEDtechnologies and the new opportunities for creating a unique and unforgettable experiencewhile flying. Lighting designer should be based on the publications and previousexperiments that have been undertaken in such an environment. The airline and lightingdesigner should be “careful” in applying various lighting effects and be aware of theirinfluence on the passengers’ mood and wellbeing.Mood lighting can help attract the attention of the passengers as well as reinforce the firstimpression of the airline. More research in this field should help lighting designers to choosethe right colours and lighting levels and be aware of their possible effects on passengers.Creating a unique and comfortable atmosphere during a flight would increase thepassengers on board satisfaction that again would be beneficial for airlines.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 95
  • 96. 9 BIBLIOGRAPHYAIRBUS S.A.S. Global Market Forecast 2009-2028. 2009.http://www.airbus.com/en/corporate/gmf2009/ (accessed August 30, 2010).Aircraft Interiors International Magazine. Aircraft Interiors International Magazine, “Light touch” .November 2009. http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (accessedAugust 15, 2010).—. Aircraft Interiors International Magazine,“Blueyonder”. June 2009.http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (accessed August 15, 2010).Al-Hindawe, Jayne. "Considerations when constructing a semantic differential scale."http://www.latrobe.edu.au. 1996.http://www.latrobe.edu.au/linguistics/LaTrobePapersinLinguistics/Vol%2009/Contents.htm(accessed July 13, 2010).Azemi, S.T.Y., and S. M. Raza. "A critical analysis of chromotherapy and its scientific evolution."Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM): 2(4), 2005: 481-488.Boeing. Boeing 787 Dreamliner Series “Online Insights” . 2008.http://www.boeing.com/commercial/787family/index.html (accessed August 15, 2010).Boivin, D. B., James, F. O. "Phase-Dependent Effect of Room Light Exposure in a 5-h Advance of theSleep-Wake Cycle: Implications for Jet Lag." Journal of Biological Rhythms 17 (3), 2002: 266-276.Boyce, P.R. Human Factors in Lighting. Taylor & Francis, 2003.Burgess, H. J., Crowley,S. J., Gazda,C. J. , Fogg,L. F., Eastman, C. I. "Preflight Adjustment to EastwardTravel: 3 Days of Advancing Sleep with and without Morning Bright Light." Journal of BiologicalRhythms 18 (4), 2003: 318–328.D. B. Boivin, F. O. James. "Phase-Dependent Effect of Room Light Exposure in a 5-h Advance of theSleep-Wake Cycle: Implications for Jet Lag." Journal of Biological Rhythms 17 (3), 2002: 266-276.Diehl Aerospace GmbH. Diehl Aerospace, Cabin Interior, Mood Lighting. May 01, 2007.http://www.diehl-aerospace.de/index.php?id=3638 (accessed August 15, 2010).—. Diehl Aerospace GmbH, Cabin Systems. 2010. http://www.diehl-aerospace.com/index.php?id=3597 (accessed June 30, 2010).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 96
  • 97. Duffy, J.F., and K.P. Wright Jr. "Entrainment of the human circadian system by light." Journal ofBiological Rhythms 20, 2005: 326–338.Elliot, A. J., A. C. Moller, Ron. Friedman, M.A. Maier, and J. Meinhardt. "Color and PsychologicalFunctioning: The Effect of Red on Performance Attainment." Journal of Experimental Psychology:General; , Vol. 136, No. 1, , 2007: 154–168.Evans, A., Elliott, A., Gorman, M.R. "Dim night time illumination accelerates adjustment to time zonetravel in an animal model." Current Biology 19 (4): R156, Feb 2009.Evans, J.A., J.A. Elliott, and M.R. Gorman. "Circadian effects of light no brighter than moonlight."Journal of Biological Rhythms vol.22, 2007: 356–367.Figueiro, M. G., Bierman, A., Plitnick, B., Rea, M. S. "Preliminary evidence that both blue and red lightcan induce alertness at night." BMC Neuroscience, 10, 2009: 105.Figueiro, M. G., Bullough, J. D., Bierman, A. "On light as an alerting stimulus at night." Acta NeurobiolExp 67, 2007: 171-178.Handy, M. Flyer Talk. May 10, 2010. http://www.flyertalk.com/forum/trip-reports/1083593-singapore-seoul-emirates-a380-777-300er-asiana-a330-business.html (accessed August 30, 2010).Hewstone, M.,Stroebe, W., Jonas, K. Introduction to Social Psychology: A European Perspective .Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2007.ICAO. International Civil Aviation Organization. 2008. http://www.icaodata.com/ (accessed August30, 2010).Ishihara, S. Tests for colour-blindness. Tokyo, Hongo Harukicho: Handaya, 1917.Knez, I. "Effect of colour of light on nonvisual psychological process." Journal of EnvironmentalPsychology: vol. 21, 2001: 201-208.Knez, I., and Ch. Kers. "Effects of Indoor Lighting, Gender, and Age on Mood and CognitivePerformance." Environment and Behavior: vol. 32, no.16, 2000: 817-831.Mattiello, Maria L.F. de. "Colour and light in architecture." Interim Meeting of the InternationalColour Association. 2004.McCloughan, C.L.B., P.A. Aspinal, and Webb R.S. "The impact of lighting on mood." Lighting Researchand Technology, vol.31, no.3, 1999: 81-88.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 97
  • 98. Michelin, L. Light: The Shape of Space: Designing with Space and Light. Canada: John Wiley & Sons,1995.Narendran. "LEDs for Aircraft Passenger Reading Lights." http://www.lrc.rpi.edu. 2005.http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/cr_airCraftReading.asp (accessed August 15, 2010).Nicholson, A. N. "Sleep and intercontinental flights." Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (4),2006: 336-339.O’Neil, K. "LED Cabin Lighting Systems." Aircraft Interiors Expo 2002. Hamburg: Advanced AviationTechnology Ltd., 2002.Page Aerospace Limited. Page Aerospace, Cockpit Systems. 2010. http://www.pageaerospace.co.uk/(accessed June 30, 2010).Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, RPI,. Press Releases. March 21, 2005.http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/newsroom/pr_story.asp?id=52 (accessed August 15, 2010).Rosenberg, B. Aviation Today, Product Focus: Lighting. March 1, 2009.http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (accessed August 15, 2010).Science Daily. Science Daily, New Jetliner Technology Emphasizes Human Factors. February 01, 2007.http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2007/0204-fly_jet_lag_free.htm (accessed August 15, 2010).Stone, P.T. "The effects of environmental illumination on melatonin, body rhythms and mood states:a review." Lighting Research and Technology, vol. 31, no.3, 1999: 71-79.Thales Groupe. THALES TECHNOLOGIES ONBOARD THE A380. November 9, 2009.http://www.thalesgroup.com/Case_Studies/Countries/Spain/091123La_tecnolog%C3%ADa_de_Thales_a_bordo_del_A380/ (accessed August 15, 2010).Veitch, J.A., and G.R. Newsham. "Determinants of Lighting Quality 1: State of Science." Journal ofIlluminating Engineering Society. , 1998: 94-95.Wallace, J. "Aerospace Notebook: In Airbus, Boeing duel, jet windows a shut case." Seattle Post-Intelligencer. June 06, 2007. http://www.seattlepi.com/business/318570_air06.html (accessedAugust 15, 2010).Yoon, J. Aerospace Web. February 26, 2006.http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/electronics/q0263.shtml (accessed June 30, 2010).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 98
  • 99. 10 APPENDIX APPENDIX 1 – PILOT STUDY: SURVEY AMONG LIGHTING DESIGNER .................................................. a APPENDIX 2 – PILOT STUDY: SURVEY RESULTS ............................................................................... d APPENDIX 3 – EXPERIMENTAL AGENDA (DIEHL AEROSPACE) ............................................................. j APPENDIX 4 – DESCRIPTION OF TESTED LIGHTING SCENES ............................................................... k APPENDIX 5 – SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF TESTED LIGHTING CONDITIONS ........................................ x APPENDIX 6 – EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – GERMAN ...........................z APPENDIX 7 – EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH – SUMMARY .................. nn APPENDIX 8 – READING TASK DURING THE EXPERIMENT IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – GERMAN ........... uu APPENDIX 9 – DRAWING TASK DURING THE EXPERIMENT – DRAWING BY NUMBERS ...................... ww APPENDIX 10 – DUTY FREE BROCHURE IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – ENGLISH .....................................yy APPENDIX 11 – SUMMARY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ........................................................ aaa■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 99
  • 100. APPENDIX 1 – PILOT STUDY: SURVEY AMONG LIGHTING DESIGNERThe pilot study is part of a master thesis at The Bartlett, University College London to gainthe MSc Light and Lighting. The research is focused on Mood Lighting in Aircraft Cabin.Please answer following questions (15) based on your experience as a lighting designer. Thepurpose of the pilot study is to establish light colours that would be the most appropriatewhen applied in the airplane cabin. The Study is focused on three main activities: Meal /Relaxing / Duty Free Shopping.Results of this pilot study will be used for the further research in the mock up of the cabin inDiehl Aerospace facilities in Nuremberg, Germany.I would be very grateful if you could take part in the Pilot Study for my Thesis or share withme any comments about the subject.Thank you very much for your cooperation!http://playlight.pl/mood-lighting-pilot-study/General Information about the person 1. What is your favourite colour? ___________________________________ 2. Which gender are you? FEMALE MALE 3. Educational Background, Degree 4. Years of Experience within Lighting Design 5. Which sector are you specialised in? DOMESTIC RETAIL LEISURE EVENT EXTERIOR LIGHTING■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA a
  • 101. General Information about Lighting Design 6. Passengers perceive lighting in the plane differently to the lighting on the ground? Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) 7. How important role plays lighting in passengers’ satisfaction on board? Very important (5) – not at all (1) 8. Would you welcome introducing mood lighting in the airplane plane YES ONLY ON LONG FLIGHTS ONLY ON SHORT FLIGHTS NOT AT ALL 9. Which colour range would you choose for the mood lighting in the airplane cabin? ____________________________________________________ 10. Which light colour would you choose for a MEAL and why? ________________________________________________________ 11. Colour light can help people to RELAX during the flight. Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) 12. Which colour would you choose for creating a RELAXING atmosphere - allowing passengers to perform different tasks like sleeping, watching TV and reading, and why? ________________________________________________________ 13. Passengers would welcome colour changing for the RELAX during the flight. Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) 14. Which light colour would you for the DUTY FREE SHOP during the flight and why? ________________________________________________________■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA b
  • 102. 15. Specific lighting could improve sale in the DUTY FREE SHOP Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) 16. Colour changing lighting would improve sale in the DUTY FREE SHOP Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) 17. Would you use the same lighting scene for the ENTRY and EXIT? YES NO MORE INTERESTING FOR ENTRY MORE INTERESTING FOR EXIT 18. Would you recommend to have a colour changing lighting for: ENTRY EXIT BOTH NOT AT ALL 19. In your opinion a colour changing lighting would be most suitable for: MEAL RELAX DUTY FREE NOT AT ALL 20. Additional comments:_________________________________________________Personal Information (Optional)Please provide the following information if you are interested in the results of theexperiment.Name: ________________________________City / Country: ________________________________E-mail Address: Thank you very much for taking part in the survey!■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA c
  • 103. APPENDIX 2 – PILOT STUDY: SURVEY RESULTSDescriptive answers for Questions: 1, 3, 9, 10, 12, 14, 20 can be found on the attached CD.2. Which gender are you? Male 68.0% Female 32.0%4. Years of Experience within Lighting Design. Answer Options Response Response (%) (No) 20-XX 1-5 26% 11 15-20 5-10 18% 7 10-15 10-15 18% 9 15-20 12% 8 5-10 20-XX 26% 6 1-5 answered question 50 skipped question 0 0% 10% 20% 30%5. Which sector of lighting design are you specialised in? Answer Options Response Response Exterior Lighting (%) (No) Domestic L. 26.8% 11 Event Lighting Retail L. 17.1% 7 Leisure Leisure L. 22% 9 Event L. 19.5% 8 Retail Exterior L. 14.6% 6 Domestic Lighting answered question 41 skipped question 9 0% 10% 20% 30%■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA d
  • 104. 6. Passengers perceive lighting in the plane differently to the lighting on the ground. Strongly agree (5) – Strongly disagree (1) Answer Options Response Response 1 (%) (No) 5 20% 10 2 4 34% 17 3 3 20% 10 2 20% 10 4 1 6% 3 5 answered question 50 skipped question 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%7. How important role plays lighting in passengers’ satisfaction on board? Answer Options Response Response 1 (%) (No) 5 49% 24 2 4 36.7% 18 3 3 10.2% 5 2 4.1% 2 4 1 0% 0 5 answered question 49 skipped question 1 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA e
  • 105. 8. Would you welcome introducing mood lighting in the airplane cabin? Answer Options Response Response 70% (%) (No) 60% YES 70% 35 50% ONLY ON LONG 26% 13 40% FLIGHTS 30% ONLY ON SHORT 4% 2 20% FLIGHTS 10% NOT AT ALL 0% 0 0% YES ONLY ON ONLY ON NOT AT answered question 50 LONG SHORT ALL skipped question 0 FLIGHTS FLIGHTS11. Colour light can help people to RELAX during the flight: Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) Answer Options Response Response 1 (%) (No) 5 46.9% 23 2 4 40.8% 20 3 3 10.2% 5 2 2% 1 4 1 0% 0 5 answered question 49 skipped question 1 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA f
  • 106. 13. Passengers would welcome colour changing for the RELAX during the flight: Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) Answer Options Response Response 1 o (%) (N ) 5 36.7% 18 2 4 24.5% 12 3 3 18.4% 9 2 10.2% 5 4 1 10.2% 5 5 answered question 49 skipped question 1 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%15. Specific lighting could improve sale in the DUTY FREE SHOP: Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) Answer Options Response Response 1 o (%) (N ) 5 25% 12 2 4 31.3% 15 3 3 27.1% 13 2 4.2% 2 4 1 12.5% 6 5 answered question 48 skipped question 2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA g
  • 107. 16. Colour changing lighting would improve sale in the DUTY FREE SHOP: Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) Answer Options Response Response (%) (No) 1 5 4.2% 2 2 4 14.6% 7 3 35.4% 17 3 2 22.9% 11 4 1 22.9% 11 5 answered question 48 skipped question 2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%17. Would you use the same lighting scene for the ENTRY and EXIT? Answer Options Response Response 40% (%) (No) YE 27.1% 13 30% NO 35.4% 17 20% MORE INTERESTING 43.8% 21 FOR ENTRY 10% MORE INTERESTING 8.3% 4 FOR EXIT 0% answered question 48 YES NO MORE MORE INTERESTING INTERESTING skipped question 2 FOR ENTRY FOR EXIT■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA h
  • 108. 18. Would you recommend having a colour changing lighting for: Answer Options Response Response 50% (%) (No) 40% ENTRY 22.9% 11 EXIT 4.2% 2 30% BOTH 29.2% 14 20% NOT AT ALL 50.0% 24 10% answered question 48 0% skipped question 2 ENTRY EXIT BOTH NOT AT ALL19. In your opinion colour changing lighting would be the most suitable for: Answer Options Response Response 60% (%) (No) 50% MEAL 6.3% 3 40% RELAX 56.3% 27 30% DUTY FREE 22.9% 11 20% NOT AT ALL 22.9% 11 10% answered question 48 skipped question 2 0% MEAL RELAX DUTY FREE NOT AT ALL■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA i
  • 109. APPENDIX 3 – EXPERIMENTAL AGENDA (DIEHL AEROSPACE)Agenda for the day of the experiment issued by Dirk-Achim Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA j
  • 110. APPENDIX 4 – DESCRIPTION OF TESTED LIGHTING SCENES DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 01 Effect: Daylight Light colour: Ceiling – Lavender, Walls – White Illuminance: Point 01 =284lx Point 02 = 596lx Luminance: Point 01 =54cd/m2 Point 02 = 62 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 01 20 CCT: 9100 K 15 CRI: 70 10 Colour: x= 0.29 y=0.26 5 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Test people entered the room, were allowed to choose their place having choice between aisle or window seat and place themselves in the chair. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 2 : Lighting Scene 01■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA k
  • 111. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 02 Effect: Candle Light Light colour: Ceiling – Peach/Amber Walls – Red Stripe Illuminance: Point 01 =187lx Point 02 = 108lx Luminance: Point 01 = 44 cd/m2 Point 02 = 28 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 02 50 CCT: 1746 K 40 CRI: 30 30 Colour: x= 0.53 y=0.38 20 10 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were offered fruit, biscuits and refreshments. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 3: Lighting Scene 02■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA l
  • 112. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 03 Effect: White Light colour: Ceiling – White Walls – White Illuminance: Point 01 =223lx Point 02 = 506lx Luminance: Point 01 =43 cd/m2 Point 02 = 52 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 03 20 CCT: 4114 K 15 CRI: 65 10 Colour: x= 0.36 y= 0.32 5 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were offered fruit, biscuits and refreshments. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 4: Lighting Scene 03■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA m
  • 113. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 04 Light colour: Ceiling – Lavender, Walls – Peach Illuminance: Point 01 =170lx Point 02 = 655lx Luminance: Point 01 =31 cd/m2 Point 02 = 56 cd/m2 LSpectral Distribution Lighting Scene 04 40 35 CCT: 1894 K 30 CRI:30 25 20 Colour: x= 0.45 y=0.31 15 10 5 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were offered fruit, biscuits and refreshments. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 5 : Lighting Scene 04■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA n
  • 114. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 05 Light colour: Ceiling – Lavender Walls – Pink Illuminance: Point 01 =217 lx Point 02 = 547 lx Luminance: Point 01 = 40 cd/m2 Point 02 = 54 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 05 30 CCT: 5041 K 20 CRI: 41 Colour: x= 0.33 y=0.23 10 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to perform reading task (Appendix 6) and drawing task (Appendix Page 7) for 2 min each. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 6: Lighting Scene 05■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA o
  • 115. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 06 Light colour: Ceiling – White Walls – White Illuminance: Point 01 =221 lx Point 02 = 505 lx Luminance: Point 01 = 43 cd/m2 Point 02 = 50 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 06 20 CCT: 4114 K 15 CRI: 65 10 Colour: x= 0.36 y=0.32 5 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to perform reading task (Appendix 6) and drawing task (Appendix Page 7) for 2 min each. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 7: Lighting Scene 06■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA p
  • 116. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 07 Effect: dynamic blue sky with clouds Light colour: Ceiling – blue/white Walls – white Illuminance: Point 01 =154lx Point 02 = 444lx Luminance: Point 01 = 28cd/m2 Point 02 = 31 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 07 40 35 Colour: x= 0.23 y=0.18 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to perform reading task (Appendix 8) and drawing task (Appendix Page 9) for 2 min each. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 8: Lighting Scene 07■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA q
  • 117. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 08 Light colour: Ceiling – cold white Walls – pink accent lighting Illuminance: Point 01 =293lx Point 02 = 308lx Luminance: Point 01 =57 cd/m2 Point 02 = 47 cd/m2 Spectral distribution Lighting Scene 08 10 CCT: 4144 K CRI: 75 5 Colour: x= 0.37 y=0.37 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to read the Duty Free Brochure (Appendix 10) and drawing task and were offered sweets. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 9: Lighting Scene 08■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA r
  • 118. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 09 Light colour: White Illuminance: Point 01 =225lx Point 02 = 491lx Luminance: Point 01 =42 cd/m2 Point 02 = 51 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 09 20 CCT: 4114 K 15 CRI: 65 10 Colour: x= 0.36 y=0.32 5 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to read the Duty Free Brochure (Appendix 10) and drawing task and were offered sweets. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 10: Lighting Scene 09■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA s
  • 119. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 10 Light colour: Ceiling – cold white Walls – Yellow Stripe Illuminance: Point 01 =187lx Point 02 = 290x Luminance: Point 01 =37 cd/m2 Point 02 = 36 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 10 15 CCT: 3696 K 10 CRI: 79 Colour: x= 0.39 y=0.37 5 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to read the Duty Free Brochure (Appendix 10) and drawing task and were offered sweets. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After 4 min test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 11: Lighting Scene 10■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA t
  • 120. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 11a Effect: dynamic rain bow Light colour: Ceiling and Walls – multiple colour changing Illuminance: Point 01 =140 lx Point 02 = 312 lx Luminance: Point 01 =27 cd/m2 Point 02 = 31 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 11a 30 CCT: 2431K 20 CRI: 57 Colour: x= 0.44 y=0.34 10 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to collect their belongings and leave Mock up. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After leaving the Mock Up test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 12: Lighting Scene 11■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA u
  • 121. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 11b Effect: dynamic rain bow Light colour: Ceiling and Walls – multiple colour changing Illuminance: Point 01 = 203 lx Point 02 = 491 lx Luminance: Point 01 = 41 cd/m2 Point 02 = 59 cd/m2 Spectral distribution Lighting Scene 11b 40 CCT: 2377K 30 CRI: 52 20 Colour: x= 0.45 y=0.36 10 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to collect their belongings and leave Mock up. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After leaving the Mock Up test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 12: Lighting Scene 11■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA v
  • 122. DESCRIPTION:LIGHTING SCENE 11c Effect: dynamic rain bow Light colour: Ceiling and Walls – multiple colour changing Illuminance: Point 01 =166 lx Point 02 = 376 lx Luminance: Point 01 =33 cd/m2 Point 02 = 39 cd/m2 Spectral Distribution Lighting Scene 11c 40 CCT: 2712K 30 CRI: 4 20 Colour: x= 0.36 y=0.23 10 0 370 470 570 670 770 TASK: Participants were asked to collect their belongings and leave Mock up. The lighting condition was kept for 5 min. QUESTIONNAIRE: After leaving the Mock Up test persons were asked to fill in the Questionnaire Page 12: Lighting Scene 11■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA w
  • 123. APPENDIX 5 – SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF TESTED LIGHTING CONDITIONS LS 01 LS 02 20 50 40 15 30 10 20 5 10 0 0 370 470 570 670 770 370 470 570 670 770 LS 03 LS 04 20 40 15 30 10 20 5 10 0 0 370 470 570 670 770 370 470 570 670 770 B 01 LS 05 20 30 15 20 10 10 5 0 0 370 470 570 670 770 370 470 570 670 770 LS 06 LS 07 20 40 15 30 10 20 5 10 0 0 370 470 570 670 770 370 470 570 670 770■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA x
  • 124. B 02 LS 08 20 10 15 10 5 5 0 0 370 470 570 670 770 370 470 570 670 770 LS 09 LS 10 15 20 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 370 470 570 670 770 370 470 570 670 770 LS 11a LS 11b 30 40 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 370 470 570 670 770 370 470 570 670 770 LS 11c 40 30 20 10 0 370 470 570 670 770■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA y
  • 125. APPENDIX 6 – EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – GERMAN■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA z
  • 126. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA aa
  • 127. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA bb
  • 128. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA cc
  • 129. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA dd
  • 130. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ee
  • 131. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ff
  • 132. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA gg
  • 133. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA hh
  • 134. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ii
  • 135. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA jj
  • 136. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA kk
  • 137. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ll
  • 138. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA mm
  • 139. APPENDIX 7 – EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH – SUMMARY■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA nn
  • 140. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA oo
  • 141. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA pp
  • 142. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA qq
  • 143. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA rr
  • 144. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ss
  • 145. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA tt
  • 146. APPENDIX 8 – READING TASK DURING THE EXPERIMENT IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – GERMANThe reading task contained of two black and white pages written in Calibri 10pt font.Unser LösungsansatzUm trotz Persönlichkeitsstörung demokratische Entscheidungen treffen zu können, achte ich darauf, immereine ungerade Anzahl von Identitäten zu besitzen. Michael ZirlewagenUnterschiedeMeines Erachtens wird der Unterschied zwischen Alkoholtrinkern und Cannabiskonsumenten durch nichtsdeutlicher, als wenn einer aus der jeweiligen Gruppe einschläft: Während nämlich die Frage »Ey, der isteingepennt, sollen wir ihn anmalen?« bei Betrunkenen nicht selten in auf die Backe gemalten Genitaliengipfelt, muß bei Bekifften der nächste Stift lediglich so weit weg sein, daß man aufstehen müßte, um ihn zuholen – und schon ist die Sache vom Tisch. Christian MartinAltersfrageDas Paradoxe an Ärzten, die aussehen wie Doogie Howser, ist, daß natürlich gerade sie keine Ahnung mehrhaben, wer Doogie Howser überhaupt war. Patricia WeidingerDie da obenWie mir ein Dachdeckermeister sagte, läuft’s in seiner Branche zur Zeit gar nicht gut. Liegt wahrscheinlichdaran, daß Handwerk goldenen Boden hat. Peter SchummDamals war’sBei all den Frühjahrsfesten und Jahrmärkten, die zur Zeit stattfinden, muß ich an damals zurückdenken, als ichmit meinen Eltern auf dem Rummelplatz war und wir gemeinsam mit der Wildwasserbahn fuhren. Hinterherwar ich klitschnaß, so daß ich mir kurzerhand die Klamotten vom Leib riß und nur in Unterhose und Sockendurch die Menschenmenge marschierte. Meinen Eltern war das freilich hochgradig peinlich, und nachdem siemich ordentlich zusammengestaucht hatten, strichen sie mir obendrein noch die versprochene Zuckerwatte.Ach ja, wie schnell doch die Zeit vergeht – immerhin ist das Ganze nun auch schon wieder zwei Jahre her. Thorsten MausehundBegrenzte FreundlichkeitBeim Discounter: Bepackte Kundin hält alter Dame mit Rollator die Tür auf, Student schlüpft hinter der altenDame durch. Die Türaufhalterin zum Studenten: »Für Sie hab ich die Tür aber nicht aufgehalten!« Student: »Japrima, dann brauch ich mich jetzt auch nicht zu bedanken.« Erich KlepptenbergerBei Pro7»Es liegt wahrscheinlich am Erscheinungsbild«, sagt der Bewerbungscoach zu seinem Klienten, einem dickenArbeitslosen. Schließlich, ergänzt die Stimme aus dem Off, mache es keinen guten Eindruck, wenn man doppeltso schwer sei wie ein normaler Mensch. Wenn der Arbeitslose statt dessen einbeinig gewesen wäre, hätte es■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA uu
  • 147. dann geheißen: Schließlich macht es keinen guten Eindruck, wenn man nur halb so viele Beine hat wie einnormaler Mensch? Bianca StückerGlobale BildungskriseNach dem mißlungenen Attentat auf dem New Yorker Times Square steht eines fest: Auch die Terrorcamps inPakistan haben damit zu kämpfen, daß die Ausbildung immer schlechter wird. Frank SchellerFrühlingsgefühleBevor noch die Bäume ausschlagen, beginnt im Frühjahr ausgerechnet der Friedhof nebenan, sich zu beleben.Da schießt die blaue Blume tausendfach aus schwarzer Krume, da drängt Gewürm aus seiner dunklen Gruft, daeilt das Eichhorn von Baum zu Baum und alte Damen eilen hinterher, Nüsse werfend. Da scheint mir, es könneewig so bleiben, wo doch Sommer (Alois, Privatier) und Winter (Hermine, kgl. Bahninspektorsgattin) dort untereinem Baume traulich nebeneinander ruhen. Einen richtigen Herbst hatten wir auch schon lange nicht mehr. Tibor RácskaiSchmetterlingeGenau in diesem Moment, liebe Leserin, lieber Leser, verspricht sich in Tokio ein Angestellter am Telefon undsorgt so dafür, daß sich Ihr ganzes Leben in Kürze in ein Desaster verwandelt. Fast – denn glücklicherweise wirddas Desaster von einem Kartoffelbauern in Minnesota durch falsches Abbiegen auf dem Weg zum Friseurgerade noch abgewendet. Puh! Thomas TonnScherzartikel selbst gemachtEs macht viel Freude und ist wirklich nicht schwer: Doch nur die wenigsten wissen, daß man Scherzkotze und -scheiße selbst herstellen kann. Wie immer bei Selbstgemachtem ist das Resultat viel persönlicher – und gerätnicht so schnell in Vergessenheit. Andreas SchriewerVerwandtschaftsverhältnisseDie Söhne Mannheims sind im Grunde auch nichts anderes als Böhse Onkelz für höhere Töchter. Thea UnangstWahrscheinlich bald pleiteIm Briefkasten lag eine Postkarte von der Telekom. Es waren vier sogenannte Treuegeschenke daraufabgebildet: ein Grillset, ein Hängesessel, ein Strand- und Saunatuch und eine Rechnungsgutschrift. Genommenhabe ich das Geld. Ich bin gespannt, ob ich es bekomme: »Das Angebot ist gültig, solange der Vorrat reicht.« Gunnar HomannFitnesstipHabe neulich beim Walken festgestellt, daß intensive Nasenatmung bei mir das Gefühl erzeugt, mein Gehirnwürde im Kopf umherschwappen. Das war so cool, daß ich gar nicht aufhören wollte zu walken. Nachahmungdringend empfohlen. Kleine Hilfe: Man presse zugleich die Schädeldecke fest an die Frisur und denke an etwasganz Kleines. Uwe Geishendorf■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA vv
  • 148. APPENDIX 9 – DRAWING TASK DURING THE EXPERIMENT – DRAWING BY NUMBERSThe drawing task contained of two black and white A4 pages printed on normal paper.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ww
  • 149. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA xx
  • 150. APPENDIX 10 – DUTY FREE BROCHURE IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – ENGLISHDuty Free Brochure contained 2 A4 pages printed in colour on semi glossy paper.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA yy
  • 151. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA zz
  • 152. APPENDIX 11 – SUMMARY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA aaa
  • 153. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA bbb
  • 154. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ccc
  • 155. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ddd
  • 156. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA eee
  • 157. ■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA fff