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Asian Longhorned Beetle
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Asian Longhorned Beetle


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  • Broad host range with some overlap w/ A. glabripennis. Attacks 100 different tree species, including bonsai and some fruit trees.
  • Cottonwood borer: black antennae with no white bands. White strips around the neck.Banded alder borer: Mistaken in West; large white marking on neck and banded pattern on back.Northeastern sawyer: Brown color and faint white spot at base of elytraEyed elater: click beetle, false eyespots, short black antennae
  • Quickly mention the different discoveries, dates and places
  • So far, monitoring and survey for ALB depends on ground surveyors and tree climbers. Unfortunately, ground survey is only ~20% efficient and although tree climbing is very efficient, it is highly time consuming and expensive. There is an urgent need for a user-friendly, economical, and efficient monitoring technique for ALB.
  • Letters indicate significantly different from control
  • Transcript

    • 1. Asian Longhorned Beetle: Threat to shade trees across North America Kelli Hoover Penn State University University Park, PA
    • 2. How did ALB get here and where did it come from?
    • 3. Beetle Damage Katsura tree Cercidiphyllum japonicum is a new confirmed host for ALB
    • 4. ALB impacts • Estimated loss of 30% of urban trees, 26% of canopy cover, & value loss of $669 billion (Nowak et al. 2010) • Infestations in NY, IL, NJ, OH, MA, Toronto & 9 countries in Europe • Survey, eradication & prophylactic treatment $300-400 million to date • 25 known host species in U.S. (47 worldwide) – Acer, Fraxinus, Ulmus, Populus, Salix • USDA-APHIS management goal: eradication
    • 5. Will the real ALB please stand up? • Large, 0.75-1.25 inches long; hardwoods • Very long black and white antennae • Body glossy black with irregular white spots Male Female
    • 6. Whitespotted sawyer (Monochamus scutellatus) Male Female • Adults 0.75-1.25 inches in length; attack conifers • Males metallic black with 1 white dot at base of wing covers. Females brown with speckles and with white dot at base of wing covers (red arrow) • ALB does not have this white dot, though has many white spots on wing covers
    • 7. Anoplophora chinensis (citrus longhorned beetle)
    • 8. For 5 points, which is ALB?
    • 9. Other species mistaken for ALB Northeastern sawyer Banded alder borer Cottonwood borer Eyed elater
    • 10. 1996: First ALB discovered in New York City, NY 2000  2007: more in NJ, NY, and Staten Island 18,467 trees removed in NY 21,981 trees removed in NJ
    • 11. 1998: ALB discovered in Chicago, IL 2004  2006: Declared Eradicated 1,771 trees removed in IL
    • 12. Quarantine zone after expansion Nov. 2011 = 110 sq mi 23,540 infested trees, almost 4 million surveyed August 15, 2008: ALB first reported in Worcester, MA Infestation dates back before 1998
    • 13. Quarantine zone 56 sq mi and 8,000+ trees infested June 17, 2011: ALB first reported in Bethel, Clermont County, Ohio
    • 14. Most recent ALB infestation discovery late August 2013, Farmingdale, NY
    • 15. Forest Block Before After Core Area Before After
    • 16. ALB Host List
    • 17. Possible Replacement Non-Hosts  Japanese Lilac  Kentucky Coffee Tree  Dawn Redwood  Southern Catalpa  English Oak  Swamp White Oak  White Oak  Bur Oak  Basswood  Tulip Tree  Ironwood  Serviceberry  Gingko  Bald Cypress  Honey Locust  Turkish Filbert  Linden  Apple/ Crabapple  Cherry/ Plum  Hawthorn  Dogwood  Magnolia  Pear  Black Walnut  Buckthorn
    • 18. Survey Used in Program • Ground survey (accuracy ~30%) • Tree climbing (60% accuracy; time consuming & expensive) In Development • Traps • Detector Dogs
    • 19. Identification of male-produced pheromone H O 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal O I H O O 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol II Male produced pheromone is a 1:1 (v/v) blend of dialkylethers (MP) • Compounds identified and confirmed after organic synthesis • Structures unusual and have not been found in other cerambycids to date Zhang et al. 2002
    • 20. Quarantine Facility at PSU
    • 21. Initial studies on pheromone/plant volatile combinations
    • 22. 2012 Number of beetles trapped in 9 Harbin, China 8 a* Females Males Beetles Caught 7 6 a 5 c 4 3 b 2 b b b b 1 0 * Difference between genders Females: p = 0.0041 Males: p = 0.0818
    • 23. Trapping studies Worcester, MA 2009-2013 Pheromone + blend of plant volatiles Intercept Panel traps Core of infestation Trapping sites
    • 24. Traps set up within canopy
    • 25. Some beetles caught in traps where trees had already been surveyed or all infested trees thought to have been removed. Further survey around trap catches revealed undetected, infested trees.
    • 26. New infested trees found: used to calculate potential draw distance 177 m exit holes ~40 m exit holes 84 m oviposition pits only Empty trap Trap caught beetles Tree removed earlier Infested Tree 27 July & 11 August, 2010 1 & 11 August, 2011
    • 27. New Exit Holes and Trap Catches Empty trap Trap caught beetles Infested Tree (exit or oviposition) 9/1/2011 8/23/2011 9/27/201 1 8/23/2011 8/8/201 1 9/26/2011 9/2/2011 8/23 /2011 9/13/2011
    • 28. Ongoing ALB Trap Research • Refine lures to improve trap catch and increase number of males and mated females caught • Evaluate best trap spacing for optimum information on ALB populations in neighborhoods • Trial deployment in high risk areas to detect new infestations
    • 29. Funding Sources USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area
    • 30. USDA -APHIS -Vic Mastro - Christine Markham - Al Sawyer - Ron Mack & Crew -Clint McFarland -Joe Gittleman Thank you PSU: Maya Nehme, Peter Meng, Jim McNeil, David Long, Ezra Schwartzberg USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station - Trotter Crew Sentinel Plant - Keena Crew Network ALB Cooperative Eradication Program -Joan Mahoney -Ken Gooch -Kevin Freeman -Julie Coop (MA DCR) -USDA Climbers -NY Agriculture and markets crew