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Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests
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Kudzu and Palmer Amaranth Weed Pests

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  • 1. Kudzu Vine & Palmer Amaranth: Past, Present, and Future Jessica Lenker PA Department of Agriculture
  • 2. Kudzu • The vine that ate the South…..and the North! • 1876 - Pennsylvania introduces kudzu at the Centennial Exposition • 1920s - Florida nursery promotes it as a forage plant and sells it mail order • 1930s - Soil Conservation Service offered incentives for planting kudzu for erosion • 1950s - government stopped promotion • 1970s - it was declared a weed • 1989 - Pa Noxious Weed • 1997 - Federally Noxious Weed
  • 3. Kudzu Eradication Program • Grant funded 2005-2008 • 89 spatially distinct populations (137 individual properties) – 47 sites treated by PDA – 11 sites treated by owner under PDA advisement – 31 sites untreated/not monitored • By the end of the program about 50% were eradicated or almost eradicated.
  • 4. Current Status Delaware – 12 Philadelphia – 10 Alleghany & Chester – 6 ea York & Lancaster – 5 ea Montgomery – 3 Franklin & Westmoreland – 2 ea Berks, Cambria, Lebanon, & Northampton – 1 ea
  • 5. Close up of Delaware and Philadelphia counties
  • 6. Kudzu Locations – Roadside forest – Abandoned lots – Riparian areas
  • 7. Small Populations
  • 8. Large Populations
  • 9. Managing Kudzu • Starts with correct identification! – Grape Vine – Bur Cucumber • PDA monitoring – Yearly site visits to assess progress – Aid in management strategies – Educate landowners • Kudzu managers include homeowners, DCNR, municipal workers, & universities • Notify PDA if you think you have a new site
  • 10. Managing Kudzu • Eradication is possible, but the work is tedious… • Each site is different – What’s under the kudzu? – Terrain workable? – How old is the population?
  • 11. Managing Kudzu • • • • Foliar Spray Cut Stump Method Stump Drilling Mechanical
  • 12. Palmer Amaranth – Amaranthus palmeri
  • 13. • What? Palmer Amaranth – Pigweed species like no other – First PA discovery Sept 2013 • 5 Lancaster, 2 Franklin, 1 Berks & 1 Bedford – Produces 500,000+ small seeds from one plant • Spread over an acre, 10 seeds per square foot – Resistant to some herbicides including glyphosate – Moved up from the southern states initially • Manure – hay, feed • Equipment
  • 14. Palmer Amaranth • What? – Thrives in hot, dry conditions – Summer annual – germinates late spring/early summer – Seeds need light to germinate • Deep tillage for first year – Diocious – separate male and female plants – Genetically diverse plant - hybrids – Pollen from male plant is what carries the glyphosate resistant gene • Pollen can travel ½-1 mile
  • 15. Palmer Amaranth • How to Identify? – Unusually tall – 6-10 feet – Long seed heads – 10-12 inches – Prickly seed heads – female – Petiole is as long if not longer than the leaf – droopy appearance – Stems/leaves hairless, smooth – Did it survive herbicide applications?
  • 16. Grew 4 inches in 52 hours Images: University of Georgia
  • 17. Managing Palmer Amaranth • Each site will be managed differently • BMPs – Containment! – Pull out plants out destroy (burn/bury) on site – Mow down the weed – Thoroughly clean equipment and anyone in the contaminated field
  • 18. Palmer Amaranth • Why do we care? – Decreased crop yields – 30-50% – Economics of eradicating – Quarantine of ag products between states – Decreased property values • What to do? – Education, education, education! – Scout early and often – Pay attention to field inputs and where they are coming from – If palmer is suspected anywhere in PA in any quantity notify PSU (Curran or Lingenfelter) or PDA (Jessica Lenker).
  • 19. Questions? Jessica Lenker PA Department of Agriculture Botany & Weed Specialist 717-787-7204 jeslenker@pa.gov

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