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Bean plataspid (Hemiptera: Plataspididae: Megacopta cribraria)

John Tooker
Penn State University
Wayne A. Gardner, Professor
Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
Griffin Campus
Griffin, Georgia

University of ...
Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
Bean plataspid (Hemiptera: Plataspididae: Megacopta cribraria)
Plataspididae: Old World family (mostly tropical/subtropica...
Identification:
• Scutellum: broader along bottom than it is along top, and much wider than it is long.
• Tarsi are 2-segm...
Scutelleridae
Shield-backed bugs

Symphylus sp.

Diolcus sp.
Kudzu bug (Plataspididae)

Diolcus species
(Scutelleridae)

Diolcus: head's lateral lobes of are separated ; Diolcus 2nd a...
Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea)
Bean plataspid = kudzu bug
• A type of “stink bug” or “shield bug”
• Defen...
Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea)

Lifecycle:
• 2-2.5 gens in GA
• Adults overwinter (under bark or in leaf ...
Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea)

Jeremy Greene, Clemson University

Eggs masses on kudzu
plant stipules
Ph...
Development of Megacopta cribraria
First Instars

Third instar

Fourth instar

• 15 eggs per mass (females: 26-274 eggs)
•...
Development of Megacopta cribraria
Symbiotic capsules
Symbiotic capsules
Initial Discovery, October 2009

•
•
•

•
•

Samples sent to UGA Diagnostics Lab
28 Oct 2009: Jackson Co, 1000s of adult k...
Range Expansion
2009 - 2013
Confirmed in 12 states:
• Alabama
• Delaware
• Florida
• Georgia
• Louisiana
• Maryland
• Miss...
Closest populations to PA

2011 Confirmed
2012 Confirmed
2013 Confirmed
Origin of Kudzu bug
Native Range:
Southeast
Asia, China, Japan, Indi
a, northern
Australian, Malaysia, et
c..
Genetic comp...
Reported Host Plants in Expanded Range

Images courtesy of Center for Invasive
Species and Ecosystem Health, UGA
www.insec...
Host Preference Testing
Choice and No-Choice
Preference Testing in 2012
conducted by UGA

No adult or nymph feeding:
Peanu...
Distribution of kudzu
Kudzu bug as a Biocontrol agent for kudzu?
Reduced kudzu biomass by:
• 33% in 1 year
• 50% over 2 years

Other plants appe...
Impact of kudzu bug on soybean
Yield loss: ~20% (0%-60%)
• Untreated beans in 25 tests in GA
Indirect injury causes reduct...
Impact of kudzu bug on soybean
Location of bugs on soybeans:
• Eggs laid on leaves (or pods)
• Nymphs and adults feed most...
Kudzu bug Management in Soybean
Risk & planting Date:
• April > May > June > July

Threshold: One nymph per sweep (single
...
Impact of Adult Feeding on Non-reproductive Hosts
Large numbers of adults found on
American Wisteria before leaf out.
• Ad...
Other impacts of kudzu bug
Nuisance Pest
•

•
•
•

Urban areas, abundance and activity
of adults, staining, odor
Smell of ...
Kudzu bug as a nuisance pest
Homeowner often call pest control operators

Alpine: Excellent knockdown and residual control...
Kudzu bug in international trade
Honduras

February 2012
• 7 dead kudzu bugs adults in the container of
poultry meat produ...
Kudzu bug in international trade
Airline Travel:
• Live adults found in passenger compartments of jets leaving Atlanta
• D...
Potential for Biological Control
Some generalist predators attack upon
nymphs and adults, but impact is mimimal.
Entomogen...
Potential Range Expansion
Will kudzu bug expand its range to match soybean and/or kudzu?

Soybean Yield per Harvest Acre b...
Potential Range Expansion
Using correlative niche
modeling, high potential for
invasion in these shaded areas
of U.S. and ...
http://www.kudzubug.org
•

University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health
Bean Plataspid
Bean Plataspid
Bean Plataspid
Bean Plataspid
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Bean Plataspid

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  • 2 to 2.5 overlapping generations observed in Georgia.Overwintering adults emerge in spring when they become a nuisance pest and eventually move into kudzu (March-May). First generation adults are produced in kudzu (and early-planted soybeans). These adults move to later-planted soybean while also re-infesting kudzu (June-July).As soybeans and kudzu senesce in the fall, the 2nd-generation adults become nuisance pest.Overwinter as adults in groups usually under debris or under bark.
  • 2 to 2.5 overlapping generations observed in Georgia.Overwintering adults emerge in spring when they become a nuisance pest and eventually move into kudzu (March-May). First generation adults are produced in kudzu (and early-planted soybeans). These adults move to later-planted soybean while also re-infesting kudzu (June-July).As soybeans and kudzu senesce in the fall, the 2nd-generation adults become nuisance pest.Overwinter as adults in groups usually under debris or under bark.
  • 2 to 2.5 overlapping generations observed in Georgia.Overwintering adults emerge in spring when they become a nuisance pest and eventually move into kudzu (March-May). First generation adults are produced in kudzu (and early-planted soybeans). These adults move to later-planted soybean while also re-infesting kudzu (June-July).As soybeans and kudzu senesce in the fall, the 2nd-generation adults become nuisance pest.Overwinter as adults in groups usually under debris or under bark.
  • Cykick = cyfluthrin
  • Transcript of "Bean Plataspid"

    1. 1. Bean plataspid (Hemiptera: Plataspididae: Megacopta cribraria) John Tooker Penn State University
    2. 2. Wayne A. Gardner, Professor Department of Entomology University of Georgia Griffin Campus Griffin, Georgia University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Megacopta Working Group University of Georgia Georgia Dept of Agriculture Emory University USDA Forest Service USDA-ARS USDA-APHIS-PPQ Clemson University NC State University NC Dept of Agriculture Wingate University Virginia Tech Auburn University Dow AgroScience University of Florida Florida Dept of Agriculture Mississippi State University Mississoppi Dept of Agriculture Tennessee Dept of Agriculture University of Tennessee
    3. 3. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
    4. 4. Bean plataspid (Hemiptera: Plataspididae: Megacopta cribraria) Plataspididae: Old World family (mostly tropical/subtropical) • Megacopta cribraria is only family member in N. America
    5. 5. Identification: • Scutellum: broader along bottom than it is along top, and much wider than it is long. • Tarsi are 2-segmented • Round shape, not rather than triangular to semi-elliptical body shape of other stink bugs • Distinctive head shape. • Size: ⅙ to ¼” (3.5 - 6 mm long)
    6. 6. Scutelleridae Shield-backed bugs Symphylus sp. Diolcus sp.
    7. 7. Kudzu bug (Plataspididae) Diolcus species (Scutelleridae) Diolcus: head's lateral lobes of are separated ; Diolcus 2nd antennal segment is longer Megacopta: lobes are contiguous, touch at the nose end.
    8. 8. Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea) Bean plataspid = kudzu bug • A type of “stink bug” or “shield bug” • Defensive chemical emission • Strong smell • Noticeable to some • Smells like natural gas, cucumbers • Can cause an occasional skin rash
    9. 9. Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea) Lifecycle: • 2-2.5 gens in GA • Adults overwinter (under bark or in leaf litter) • Fly to kudzu or early planted soybeans (can fly to homes) • When soybeans senesce, 2nd generation can be nuisance pests
    10. 10. Family Plataspididae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea) Jeremy Greene, Clemson University Eggs masses on kudzu plant stipules Phillip Roberts, University of Georgia John Ruberson, University of Georgia
    11. 11. Development of Megacopta cribraria First Instars Third instar Fourth instar • 15 eggs per mass (females: 26-274 eggs) • First instar consume symbiont capsules • Five nymphal instars Fifth instar
    12. 12. Development of Megacopta cribraria Symbiotic capsules
    13. 13. Symbiotic capsules
    14. 14. Initial Discovery, October 2009 • • • • • Samples sent to UGA Diagnostics Lab 28 Oct 2009: Jackson Co, 1000s of adult kudzu bugs on homes Kudzu with adults, late-instar nymphs) Adults seeking overwintering Confirmed in 9 counties covering 7050 km2 Images by and courtesy of Daniel R. Suiter & Lisa Ames (University of Georgia) & Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, UGA (www.insectimages.org)
    15. 15. Range Expansion 2009 - 2013 Confirmed in 12 states: • Alabama • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Louisiana • Maryland • Mississippi • North Carolina • Kentucky • South Carolina • Tennessee • Virginia Area Infested by Year: 2010: 13x increase 2011: 27x 2012: 29x
    16. 16. Closest populations to PA 2011 Confirmed 2012 Confirmed 2013 Confirmed
    17. 17. Origin of Kudzu bug Native Range: Southeast Asia, China, Japan, Indi a, northern Australian, Malaysia, et c.. Genetic comparisons: Japan is source Mode of introduction Is unclear
    18. 18. Reported Host Plants in Expanded Range Images courtesy of Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, UGA www.insectimages.org Legumes Kudzu Soybean Pigeon Pea American Wisteria Chinese Wisteria Japanese Wisteria Lima Bean Pole/String/Green Bean Lablab Bean American Yellowwood Lespedeza Peanut Crimson Clover Clover Alfalfa Sicklepod Black Locust Non-Legumes Alligatorweed Black Willow Banana Cocklebur Cotton Fig Loquat Muscadine Grape Pecan Pine Trees Potato Satsuma Mandarin Tangerine Wax Myrtle Wheat Wild Blackberry
    19. 19. Host Preference Testing Choice and No-Choice Preference Testing in 2012 conducted by UGA No adult or nymph feeding: Peanut, Snap bean, Pinto bean, Winter pea Some adult feeding: Lima bean, Black bean, Black-eyed pea, Azuki bean, Lablab, Mung bean Reproductive Hosts Soybean, Kudzu (maybe Wisteria)
    20. 20. Distribution of kudzu
    21. 21. Kudzu bug as a Biocontrol agent for kudzu? Reduced kudzu biomass by: • 33% in 1 year • 50% over 2 years Other plants appear in kudzu patches after 2-3 yr • Reduced competition
    22. 22. Impact of kudzu bug on soybean Yield loss: ~20% (0%-60%) • Untreated beans in 25 tests in GA Indirect injury causes reduction in seeds per pod and seed weight. Infestations are higher in field edges.
    23. 23. Impact of kudzu bug on soybean Location of bugs on soybeans: • Eggs laid on leaves (or pods) • Nymphs and adults feed mostly on stems • Occasionally on petioles and undersides of leaves • Rarely seen feeding on pods Also decreases yield of edible beans but no details available
    24. 24. Kudzu bug Management in Soybean Risk & planting Date: • April > May > June > July Threshold: One nymph per sweep (single application may be sufficient to eliminate yield loss) Easily killed with insecticides, but reinfestation occurs quickly • Endigo (λ cyhalothrin, thiamethoxam) and Brigade (bifenthrin) perform best
    25. 25. Impact of Adult Feeding on Non-reproductive Hosts Large numbers of adults found on American Wisteria before leaf out. • Adult feeding clearly affects the vine when leafed out. • No egg-laying found (some reports of nymphs) Green beans: Adults can be found on plants • Like in soybeans, they do not feed on pods • Thus far, no evidence of yield loss • Contamination in fresh produce?
    26. 26. Other impacts of kudzu bug Nuisance Pest • • • • Urban areas, abundance and activity of adults, staining, odor Smell of natural gas (do not call 911) Adults attracted to light-colored surfaces but NOT to lights They do not overwinter in homes Localized Skin Reactions • Some individuals are sensitive • • Usually folks that deal with big pops. Chemical does not burn through screens
    27. 27. Kudzu bug as a nuisance pest Homeowner often call pest control operators Alpine: Excellent knockdown and residual control of adults up to 48 hours on treated surfaces • a.i. = dinotefuran • Neonic labeled for indoor use, tree fruit, leafy vegetables, etc.
    28. 28. Kudzu bug in international trade Honduras February 2012 • 7 dead kudzu bugs adults in the container of poultry meat products from Georgia. • 2 dead adults in a container of live eggs Honduran Servicio de Proteccion Agropecuaria • • Agricultural protection service Halted all ag. imports from GA, AL, SC & NC March 2012: Eased restrictions to begin inspecting and unloading individual containers • Continue to inspect 10% of arriving containers at ports in Central America.
    29. 29. Kudzu bug in international trade Airline Travel: • Live adults found in passenger compartments of jets leaving Atlanta • Dead adults have been intercepted in luggage compartments • Delta try hard to keep them out of planes
    30. 30. Potential for Biological Control Some generalist predators attack upon nymphs and adults, but impact is mimimal. Entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana found naturally infecting adults. No known nymphal or adult parasitoids Best candidate for importation: Egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis • Wide distribution in native range (Japan) • High host specificity • Currently in quarantine in Stoneville • Release permit was in development • Has since been found across the south Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)
    31. 31. Potential Range Expansion Will kudzu bug expand its range to match soybean and/or kudzu? Soybean Yield per Harvest Acre by County Kudzu Distribution by County
    32. 32. Potential Range Expansion Using correlative niche modeling, high potential for invasion in these shaded areas of U.S. and World. • • • • • • Annual mean temperature annual temperature range Temperature seasonality Precipitation seasonality Solar radiation levels, Topographic elevation Did not account of presence of reproductive host plants. (Zhu et al. 2012)
    33. 33. http://www.kudzubug.org • University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health
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