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Planning Concepts by C.A. Doxiadis, Islamabad City Planning

Planning Concepts by C.A. Doxiadis, Islamabad City Planning

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Islamabad city planning Islamabad city planning Presentation Transcript

  • C.A. Doxiadis Planning of Islamabad City GROUP MEMBERS:Shilpa S. Singh - 111214045 Sharayu Kokate - 111214018 Rashmi Kulkarni - 111214020
  • CA DOXIADIS is a Greek architect and Town planner. He became known as the lead architect of Islamabad. BORN 1913 Constantinos A. Doxiadis, son of Apostolos and Evanthia (Mezeviri) Doxiadis, comes from a family that played an important role in the settlement of Greek war refugees in between the two World Wars. His father, a paediatrician, was Minister for the Resettlement of Refugees, Social Welfare and Public Health and organized many welfare services especially for children. GRADUATED Architect-Engineer from the Technical University of Athens in 1935, did graduate work at Berlin-Charlottenburg University and received the degree of Dr. Ing. Mit Auszeichnung 1936.
  • Organized many welfare services, especially for children. He graduated as Architect-Engineer from the Athens Technical University in 1935 and obtained his doctorate at Charlottenburg University, Berlin, one year later. In 1937 he was appointed Chief Town Planning Officer for the Greater Athens Area and during the war (1940-1945) held the post of Head of the Department of Regional and Town Planning in the Ministry of Public Works while also serving as a corporal in the Greek Army. During the Occupation he was Chief of the National Resistance Group, Hephaestus, and published a magazine called "Regional Planning, Town Planning and Ekistics," the only underground technical publication anywhere in occupied territories.
  • From 1945 to 1951 Doxiadis was one of the prime leaders in Greece Director-General of the Ministry of Housing and Reconstruction (194548), and subsequently as Minister-Coordinator of the Greek Recovery Program and Undersecretary of the Ministry of Coordination (1948-51). During these years he was also head of the Greek Delegation at the UN International Conference on Housing, Planning and Reconstruction (1947) and head of the Greek Delegation at the Greco-Italian War Reparations Conference (1949-50). In 1951 he founded Doxiadis Associates, a private firm of consulting engineers, with a small group of architects and planners, many of whom had worked with him on the Greek Recovery Program. In 1959 Doxiadis founded the Athens Technological Organization and in 1963 the Athens Center of Ekistics. From 1958 to 1971 he taught ekistics at the Athens Technological Organization and lectured at universities all over the United States as well as at Oxford and Dublin.
  • Doxiadis graduated in Architectural engineering from the Technecial University of Athens in 1935, obtaining a doctorate from Charlottenburg University (today Technical University of Berlin) a year later. In 1937 he was appointed Chief Town Planning Officer for the Greater Athens Area. During World War II he held the post of Head of the Department of Regional and Town Planning in the Ministry of Public Works. He took part in the Greek resistance and was decorated by the Greek and British governments.
  • He distinguished himself as Minister of Reconstruction at the end of the war and it was this experience that allowed him in the 1950s to gain large housing contracts in dozens of countries. In 1951 he founded Doxiadis Associates, a private firm of consulting engineers, which grew rapidly until it had offices on five continents and projects in 40 countries. In 1963 the company changed its name to DA International Co. Ltd. Consultants on Development and Ekistics. Other proposals in already existing cities, where shifting political and economic forces did not allow full implementation of his plans. The plan for Islamabad, separates cars and people, allows easy and affordable access to public transport and utilities and permits low cost gradual expansion and growth without losing the human scale of his "communities". Doxiadis was honored in 1965 by Industrial Designers Society of America (IDSA) with a Special Award for notable results, creative and innovative concepts and long-term benefits to the industrial design profession, its educational functions and society at large.
  • In order to create the cities of the future, we need to systematically develop a science of human settlements. This science, termed Ekistics ,will take into consideration the principles man takes into account when building his settlements, as well as the evolution of human settlements through history in terms of size and quality. The target is to build the city of optimum size, that is, a city which respects human dimensions. Since there is no point in resisting development, we should try to accommodate technological evolution and the needs of man within the same settlement.
  • The whole range of human settlements, is a very complex system of five elements - nature, man , society, shells (that is, buildings), and networks. It is a system of natural, social, and man-made elements which can be seen in many ways - economic, social, political,technological, and cultural.
  • FIRST PRINCIPLE: Maximization of human's potential :Contacts with the elements of nature (such as water and trees), with other people, and with the works of man (such as buildings and roads). This, after all, amounts to an operational definition of personal human freedom. It is in accordance with this principle that man abandoned the Garden of Eden and is today attempting to conquer the cosmos. It is because of this principle that man considers himself imprisoned, even if given the best type of environment, if he is surrounded by a wall without doors. In this, man differs from animals; we do not know of any species of animals that try to increase their potential contacts with the environment once they have reached the optimum number of
  • SECOND PRINCIPLE : Minimization of the effort required for the achievement of man's actual and potential contacts. He always gives his structures the shape, or selects the route, that requires the minimum effort, no matter whether he is dealing with the floor of a room, which he tends to make horizontal, or with the creation of a highway.
  • THIRD PRINCIPLE : Optimization of man's protective space, which means the selection of such a distance from other persons, animals, objects that he can keep his contacts with them (first principle) without any kind of sensory or psychological discomfort. This has to be true at every moment and in every locality, whether it is temporary or permanent and whether man is alone or part of a group. This has been demonstrated very well, lately, for the single individual, by anthropologists such as E. T.Hall and psychiatrists such as Augustus F. Kinzel, and by the clothes man designs for himself, and it may be explained not only as a psychological but also as a physiological problem if we think of the layers of air that surround us or the energy that we represent . The walls of houses or fortification walls around cities are other expressions of this third principle.
  • FOURTH PRINCIPLE : Optimization of the quality of man's relationship with his environment, which consists of nature, society, shells (buildings and houses of all sorts), and networks (ranging from roads to telecommunications). This is the principle that leads to order, physiological and aesthetic, and that influences architecture and, in many respects, art’s.
  • FIFTH PRINCIPAL: Man organizes his settlements in an attempt to achieve an optimum synthesis of the other four principles, and this optimization is dependent on time and Space, on actual conditions, and on man's ability to create a synthesis. When he has achieved this by creating a system of floors, walls, roofs, doors, and windows which allows him to maximize his potential contacts (first principle) while minimizing the energy expended (second principle) and at the same time makes possible his separation from others (third principle) and the desirable relationship with his environment (fourth principle), we speak of "successful human settlements". What we mean is settlements that have achieved a balance between man and his man-made environment, by complying with all five principles.
  • The idea that the small, romantic city of earlier times is appropriate to the era of contemporary man who developed science and technology is therefore a mistaken one. New, dynamic types of settlements interconnecting more and more smaller settlements are the types appropriate to this era. To stop this change from city (polis) to dynapolis, we would have to reverse the road created by science and technology for man's movement in terrestrial space.
  • MAJOR WORKS The major projects of C.A. Doxiadis were follows: Islamabad Akara Khartum Brazil Cyprus Ethiopia France Greece Jordan Iraq Libya Mexico Pakistan Saudi Arabia Sudan USA Washington DC
  • 1. SUSTAINABLE CITY • Islamabad represents Pakistan’s first New town project as the capital of the newly independent state, and one of the major new town developments in the sub-continent comparable to Chandigarh in India or Brasilia in Brazil. • Doxiadis´s provision of generous public spaces in graduated amounts for each class of community was paralleled by a careful ecological analysis of the four main categories of natural landscape: the mountains, the hillocks, the plain and the ravines. • The notion of design to integrate nature and the city is achieved by a scalar arrangement of “Landscape” in the form of Productive Landscape (agro-grid, urban agro-farm), ecological Landscape (ecogrid, natural plant, green, ravine and wildlife), and Urban Structuring Landscape (public, private and hybrid)types. • The plan of Islamabad shows connectivity on all levels; within the city, natural landscape is integrated with other systems of open spaces and other types of landscape, and also creates an urban system that is connected to the natural areas surrounding the city.
  • • 2. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION in the • The road networks The advantages of the clear hierarchy of residential communities, of the related functions and of the transport system are apparent in the segregation of the various categories of movements (i.e. high/low speed Road Traffic, Public • Transport, Bicycles, Pedestrians, etc.) and in the reduction of trip lengths. • With proper management of traffic and demand, the road network will not be subject to the capacity and related serious environmental problems observed in almost all large cities of the world present road network and traffic situation two cities differ substantially. Islamabad is a planned city with an extensive road network laid out in a grid structure. In Rawalpindi, the road network is the result of an organic development and represents a spider net structure. Both the road standard and the general traffic environment is inferior to Islamabad, and here, congestion is common and increasing.
  • SALIENT FEATURES Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. The greater Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area is the third largest conurbation in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million inhabitants. It is located in the Pothohar Plateau in the north of the country, within the Islamabad Capital Territory. The city was built during the 1960’s to replace Karachi as Pakistan's capital. Islamabad is a well-organized and most developed city divided into different sectors and zones. It was ranked as Gamma World City in 2008. The city is home to Faisal Mosque, the largest mosque in South Asia and the sixth largest mosque in the world. Islamabad has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan and is home to some of the topranked universities in Pakistan. Allama Iqbal Open University in Islamabad is one of the world's largest universities. Islamabad's architecture is a combination of modernity and old Islamic and regional traditions. The Saudi-Pak Tower is an example of the integration of modern architecture with traditional styles. The beige-coloured edifice is trimmed with blue tile works in Islamic tradition, and is one of Islamabad's tallest buildings.
  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Islamabad is 14kms northeast from of Rawalpindi on the north eastern Potohar plateau of the province of Punjab. The city of Islamabad is preceded by thousands of years of history. It is regarded as the site of one of the earliest human settlements in Asia, and is at one end of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. This area was the first settlements of the Aryans from Central Asia and is on the route through which passed all those who invaded India from the North and Northwest. This region has witnessed the passage of ancient Caravans from Central Asia as well as of the ferocious armies of Alexander and Tamurlane. The banks of the river Soan in Islamabad were host to stone-age man over 7000 years ago and human skulls dating back to 5000 B.C. have been fund in and around Islamabad.
  • THE BIRTH AND LOCATION OF THE CAPITAL A new capital for Pakistan was necessary following the independence of India in 1947 and the inevitable partition into India and Pakistan. Various solutions were proposed for the location of the new capital from 1947 to 1959 when the final decision was reached. The two most important were related to the creation of the new capital, either in Karachi or at a distance of about 15-20 miles from this city. In February 1959, a commission and nine sub-committees were formed . C.A. Doxiadis started advising on the location and planning of the new capital in 1955 when he submitted his first report. In March 1959, the problem of the location of the new capital was solved and a site was approved which was located at the foot of the Margala Hills in northern Pakistan between the historical cities of Lahore and Peshawar, west of the Idaspis (now Jhelum) river where Alexander the Great defeated King Poros.
  • THE HIERARCHICAL CONCEPT IN COMMUNITIES, LAND USES AND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Islamabad is planned according to a hierarchical system of communities of various classes, each class comprising the functions corresponding to its size. These communities are properly served by a major transportation system developed within wide corridors of a grid-iron configuration, surrounding and defining the higher class communities. Local and collector low speed roads, wide sidewalks, pedestrian roads and bicycles lanes within the lower class ‘Human Communities’ provide access to the major transportation system. The above hierarchical system of communities and transportation facilities, contributes to the reduction of travel distances and time, accidents, and to the promotion of ‘Green Transport’ (walking, cycling, public transport). The figure gives a schematic representation of four Class V Communities. Each Class V Community has a population of 20.000 to 40.000 inhabitants and is divided into four Class IV communities, each composed in turn of four Class III communities. Class V communities are spatially defined and accessed by major arteries at 2km intervals. These arteries may be gradually upgraded to freeways, depending on increasing traffic flows. They are developed within 180m wide transportation corridors where high speed public transport may also be accommodated. Short length minor arteries (90m R.O.W.) are spaced at about 1km distances, defining Class IV communities within which pedestrians can safely walk along a system of local roads, wide sidewalks and pedestrian roads, leading to the local centres and functions. By the extensive use of cul-de-sacs and loops, cars can move inside these ‘Human Communities’ without interfering with pedestrians.
  • Schematic representation of the hierarchical pattern of communities and transportation Local roads are connected to collect-or roads only and designed mainly as cul-de-sacs or loops.
  • THE MASTER PLAN AND THE DYNAMETROPLIS CONCEPT The Islamabad Metropolitan Area is composed of Islamabad, the old city of Rawalpindi and the National Park. The latter is a hilly area, containing two large lakes, the National Sports Centre, the National University and the National Research Centre. Four major inter-urban roads delineate the above three major components of the Metropolitan Area. The overall plan is based on the “Dynametropolis” concept, giving the possibility of continuous expansion with the least possible adverse effects in traffic and generally, in the functioning of the Metropolis. Both Islamabad and Rawalpindi, central cores and residential areas, may expand dynamically.
  • Islamabad Metropolitan Area. The concept of the Dynametropolis.
  • The Master Plan of the Islamabad Metropolitan Area.
  • THE CONCEPTION OF THE MASTER PLAN 1. THE LANDSCAPE PATTERN AND THE 2. FORMATION OF THE HIGHWAYS METROPOLITAN AREA The backbone of the Islamabad Metropolitan Area Master Plan is formed by two highways, Islamabad Highway and Murree Highway. The chief characteristic of the landscape is that it runs from NE-SW along valleys formed by a series of hills running in the same direction. 2 more highways, by-passing the existing town of Rawalpindi, have been proposed. On the basis of the above ideas, a system of 4 highways becomes the basic step for the metropolitan area. These axes form a big square, which will define all future transportation systems and all major functions within the metropolitan area. The principal system of axes in the metropolitan area of Islamabad defines three distinctive areas: a. the area of Islamabad b. the area of Rawalpindi c. the National Park area The areas of Islamabad proper and Rawalpindi are both open for expansion towards the southwest, while the National Park area is rather districted from the surrounding hills and Soan river to the south-east.
  • 4. ISLAMABAD-The sketch indicates growth of functions in the direction of the city's future expansion 3. DYNAMETROPOLIS- The central functions of Islamabad and Rawalpindi 5. RAWALPINDI 6. THE NATIONAL PARK 7. MASTER PLAN OF THE METROPOLITIAN AREA
  • THE MAKING OF THE PLAN The area chosen for the new capital is 1200 km (approx.) north of Karachi, at the beginning the Murree Hills (2000 – 2500 m altitude) near the Pothwar plateau (avg. 500-600m altitude). It forms a gutted landscape by ravines carrying the rain and run off of the surrounding hills of lower Himalayan series and erosion of top soil adds to the fragility of the overall landscape. The series of ravines culminates to form the river ‘Soan’ which falls into River Indus after travelling a 100kms approximate distance in South –westerly direction. The site itself has an average altitude of 500 – 600 m with the immediate Margalla Hills having a 1500 – 1800 m altitude. The city acts as a centre for trade, commerce and culture for the dispersed villages and small towns, generally dependent on rain-fed agricultural activity, all over the Pothwar Plateau. The new city of Islamabad had to carve out an identity of its own, lying in between - the hills and the plains, the historic city and the colonial cantonment, amidst the political currents ranging from ‘Theocracy’, ‘Democracy’, ‘Authoritarianism’ and ‘Totalitarianism’, along with ‘Tradition’ and ‘Modernity’.
  • THE ADMINISTRATIVE SECTOR OF ISLAMABAD 1. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SECTOR WITHIN ISLAMABAD The drawing shows the location of the administrative centre within the overall plan of Islamabad. The main axis runs through the core of Islamabad. This will be called Capital Avenue and looks towards the presidential palace located in a commanding position on the top of a hill. Due to the fixed road, and the location of the administrative centre on a higher level, this section of the capital which is its brain centre and pulsating heart - will dominate the city even after it has expanded and fully grown along the patterns provided for. The administrative sector within Islamabad
  • 2. INTERRELATION OF FUNCTIONS IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE CENTRE The main reason for the creation of new capital of Pakistan was that a proper environment should be provided for the country's administrative functions. The hills lying NW of Rawal Lake formed an ideal setting for the administrative sector. Thus, on the basis of the theory and principles of the ‘City of the Future’ the administrative as well as the central sector of the city both began at the core of Islamabad. The Capitol Complex lied at the heart of the synthesis. It was from here that the administrative sector had to be developed towards and following the direction of the Margala Hills, in order to spread along them in the future. The sketch shows a zoning map of the administrative centre of Islamabad. Interrelation of functions in the administrative centre
  • ISLAMABAD MASTER PLAN- ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY DESIGN The planners envisaged Islamabad eventfully absorbing Rawalpindi entirely and stretching well to the west of Grand Trunk Road. Islamabad was designed to provide a healthy climate, pollution-free atmosphere, plenty of water and lush green area. It is a modern and carefully designed city with wide tree lined streets, large houses, elegant public buildings and well organised bazaars/ markets/ shopping centres. The city is divided into 8 basic zones administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, educational sectors, industrial sectors, commercial areas, rural and green areas. Each sector has its own shopping area and public park. Each sector was kept separated through green belts which also act as ‘Oxygen Generators’.
  • ISLAMABAD TODAY Islamabad today is not what it was designed for. It is no more isolated from the business and commercial activities. Population in Islamabad has risen from 0.340 million to 1.124 million within 25 years showing an overall increase of 230% with an average annual growth of 6%. The increasing economic activities have given birth to high rise building, residential apartments, housing schemes, educational institutions, industrial units and new markets. These pressures forced Capital Development Authority (CDA) to alter the Master Plan of Islamabad and upgrade the physical infrastructure. Islamabad is a “UNIQUE” example of a large new city “PLANNED FOR THE FUTURE AND BUILT FOR THE PRESENT”, fully respecting the long-term planning.
  • AWARDS • Sir Patrick Abercrombie Prize of the International Union of Architects (1963). • Cali de 0ro (The Mexican Gold Medal) Award of the Society of Mexican Architects (1963). • Award of Excellence, Industrial Designers Society of America (1965). • Aspen Award for the Humanities (1966).