101 Planning Theory I

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101 Planning Theory I

  1. 1. Planning Theory I Defining Planning Theory..
  2. 2. • Planning as a response to social Development.. Understanding/Knowledge (Action <-> Reaction) -> Analysis Development -> Controlled or Haphazard Progress -> Controlled and positive Understand Change -> parameters • Theories defining planning approaches..
  3. 3. Agglomeration…Formation of Cities • Social structure • Dependency • Income generation
  4. 4. Before Industrial Revolution.. • Income -> Land • Cities -> Sparsely populated • Limited resources -> less trade • Transport -> undeveloped • Occupation -> Agro based
  5. 5. After Industrial Revolution.. • Urbanisation • Densely populated nodes.. • Trade developed • Transportation • Occupation transformation • Migration • Exploitation for wages • Lower standards of living.
  6. 6. Motor Age.. • Trade increased • Mechanized Locomotion • Distances were not an issue. • Migration to suburbs • Need for a certain standard of living. • Development of star shaped cities.
  7. 7. Satellite cities.. • Need for Open, landscaped areas.. • Proper Physical Conglomeration of streets and houses • Garden City concept • Higher means of transport • Industrial estate separated • Decentralisation • Need for Planning
  8. 8. Garden City Concept. • Ebenezer Howard • Mono-centric City • Restricted population limit – 35k • No industries within city limits • Proper planning Models..
  9. 9. Linear City, Ribbon Development • City development based on need for transportation Models.. Linear City model - Soria Mata.
  10. 10. Concentric Zone Model Models.. E.W. Burgess
  11. 11. Sector Zone Model.. Models.. Homer Hoyt
  12. 12. Multiple Nuclei Model.. Harris and Ullman Models..
  13. 13. Settlement Theories.. Behavioral Settlement theory – Attempts to explain the existing pattern of settlement in a region. How they are organised Theories – Zipf’s Rank Size Rule Primate City concept Normative settlement theory – Attempts to define an ideal system of settlement. How they ought to be organised Theories - Centre Place Theory. Theories.
  14. 14. Rank Size and Primacy.. Rank Size: Pr = Pi / r where, Pr = population of r th rank size Pi = population of largest city r = Rank of the city Theories. The second ranking city of a country has one half of the population of the largest city. The third largest is one third of the largest. Primacy is the product of small size of the country, short history, urbanization, simple economic and political organization, economy and export orientation of the economy. Factory affecting primacy are • Size of the country • Colonial history • Export orientation of the economy • Simple economic and political organization • Dual economy
  15. 15. Settlements.. The primate city is commonly at least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant. Mark Jefferson
  16. 16. Central Place Theory.. • functional importance of places • Range & Threshold • Sphere of influence • functional hierarchies Theories. The areas within the black dots shows the sphere of influence (trading area) of the largest settlements Walter Christaller
  17. 17. Other Models and Theories.. • Mile High Concept (FLW) • Broad Acre Development • City Patterns: Grid Iron, Radial, Indian Models of cities, etc. • Neighborhood concept (Clearance Perry) Cultural Variance
  18. 18. What is Theory.. • A set of assumptions, propositions, or accepted facts that attempt to prove a plausible or rational explanation of cause and effect relationships among a group of observed phenomenon. • Theory is thus a mental model of perceived reality.
  19. 19. Planning & Science_StagesofDevelopment.. Thomas Kuhn and the structure of Scientific revolution points out that scientific enquiry is a process. 1. Pre-paradigmatic 2. Normal Science 3. Anomalies emerge 4. Paradigm Shift 5. Return to normal Science
  20. 20. Key Issues in Urban Planning. • Is Planning a normal Science or pre-paradigmatic scientific discipline? • What is the difference between Theory of Planning and Planning Theory? • Should Planning Emphasize a positive (cause-effect) or normative (value Judgment) analysis? • What is the subject/object of analysis of urban Planning?
  21. 21. • Thank you for listening..

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