• Planning as a response to social
(Action <-> Reaction) -> Analysis
Development -> Controlled or Haphazard
Progress -> Controlled and positive
Understand Change -> parameters
• Theories defining planning approaches..
Agglomeration…Formation of Cities
• Social structure
• Income generation
Before Industrial Revolution..
• Income -> Land
• Cities -> Sparsely populated
• Limited resources -> less trade
• Transport -> undeveloped
• Occupation -> Agro based
After Industrial Revolution..
• Densely populated
• Trade developed
• Exploitation for
• Lower standards of
• Trade increased
• Mechanized Locomotion
• Distances were not an issue.
• Migration to suburbs
• Need for a certain standard of living.
• Development of star shaped cities.
• Need for Open, landscaped areas..
• Proper Physical Conglomeration of streets and houses
• Garden City concept
• Higher means of transport
• Industrial estate separated
• Need for Planning
Garden City Concept.
• Ebenezer Howard
• Mono-centric City
• Restricted population
limit – 35k
• No industries within
• Proper planning
Linear City, Ribbon Development
• City development based on need for transportation
Linear City model - Soria Mata.
Multiple Nuclei Model..
Harris and Ullman
Behavioral Settlement theory –
Attempts to explain the existing pattern of settlement in a
How they are organised
Theories – Zipf’s Rank Size Rule
Primate City concept
Normative settlement theory –
Attempts to define an ideal system of settlement.
How they ought to be organised
Theories - Centre Place Theory.
Rank Size and Primacy..
Rank Size: Pr = Pi / r where,
Pr = population of r th rank size
Pi = population of largest city
r = Rank of the city
The second ranking city of a country has one half of the population of the largest
city. The third largest is one third of the largest.
Primacy is the product of small size of the country, short history, urbanization, simple
economic and political organization, economy and export orientation of the
Factory affecting primacy are
• Size of the country
• Colonial history
• Export orientation of the economy
• Simple economic and political organization
• Dual economy
The primate city is commonly at
least twice as large as the next
largest city and more than twice
Central Place Theory..
• functional importance of places
• Range & Threshold
• Sphere of influence
• functional hierarchies
The areas within the
black dots shows the
sphere of influence
(trading area) of the
Other Models and Theories..
• Mile High Concept (FLW)
• Broad Acre Development
• City Patterns: Grid Iron, Radial, Indian Models of cities, etc.
• Neighborhood concept (Clearance Perry)
What is Theory..
• A set of assumptions,
propositions, or accepted facts
that attempt to prove a plausible
or rational explanation of cause
and effect relationships among a
group of observed
• Theory is thus a mental model of
Planning & Science_StagesofDevelopment..
Thomas Kuhn and the structure of Scientific revolution points
out that scientific enquiry is a process.
2. Normal Science
3. Anomalies emerge
4. Paradigm Shift
5. Return to normal Science
Key Issues in Urban Planning.
• Is Planning a normal Science or pre-paradigmatic scientific
• What is the difference between Theory of Planning and
• Should Planning Emphasize a positive (cause-effect) or
normative (value Judgment) analysis?
• What is the subject/object of analysis of urban Planning?