Leadership forum2011


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Leadership forum2011

  1. 1. Communication Management and the Leadership ChallengeThe Plank Center Studies <br />University of Leipzig, Leadership Forum 2011 (May 6, 2011)<br />
  2. 2. The agenda…<br />Importance of leadership<br />Theories of leadership<br />The Plank Center research <br />--Model of excellent leadership<br /> --Overview of 20 leadership studies<br />4. Landscape of leader development <br />5. Future research and collaborations<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Leadership is important<br />Because leaders…<br />Make important decisions<br />Shape organizational culture<br />Affect communication climate<br />Contribute to image and future<br />Influence employee attitudes, perceptions<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Employee perceptions and leadership<br />Jim <br />4<br />Jim Shaffer, 2004<br />
  5. 5. What is leadership?<br />Traits and characteristics (1920s)<br />Skills: technical, human, conceptual (1940s)<br />Styles and behaviors (1950s)<br />Work team leadership (1960s)<br />Contingent and situational (1960s)<br />Ethical (servant) in nature (1970s)<br />Transformational, charismatic (1980s)<br />Authentic in nature (1990s)<br /> P. G. Northouse (2007), Leadership: Theory and Practice<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Leadership is complex<br />Leadership has been defined as …<br />personalitya power relation<br /> inducing compliancea set of behaviors <br />use of influence focus of group processes <br />form of persuasion initiation of structure<br />instrument to achieve goals <br />type of role effect of interaction<br />…and many combinations of these definitions. <br />B. M. Bass (1990)<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Personal leadership theories<br />We know what leadership is<br />All hold implicit theories or <br /> personal “mental models”<br /> (Senge) for leaders<br />Mental models guide our<br /> beliefs, decisions, actions<br />7<br />
  8. 8. U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart<br />“I can’t define pornography, but <br />I know it when I see it.“ (1964)<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Research about leadership in communication management<br />Increase knowledge<br />Produce better leaders <br />Help organizations achieve goals and <br /> increase legitimacy <br />Improve the profession’s image and future<br />Strengthen education & training<br />9<br />
  10. 10. The Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations(www.plankcenter.ua.edu)<br />Created in 2005 by UA Trustees <br />Named for Betsy Plank, 1924-2010<br /> --UA graduate (1944)<br /> --First lady of PR in U.S.<br />Guided by national board of 22 executives & educators<br />Mission: help develop and recognize excellent PR leaders and role models<br />10<br />
  11. 11. The Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations(www.plankcenter.ua.edu)<br />Mission carried out through:<br />--Awards programs <br />(PRSSA ethics competition, mentorship dinner) <br /> --Legacies from Legends book<br /> --Video interviews (18 leaders)<br /> --Webinars for educators, students<br /> --Platform online magazine<br /> --Educator fellowships<br /> --Research grants for leadership studies<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Plank Center research<br />Supported 20 leadership studies in 5 years<br />+4,000 practitioners, educators and students <br />9 qualities of excellentleaders<br />A model of excellent leadership in PR (J. Meng, 2010)<br />Review this research today:<br />The model process and results<br />Overview of the nine qualities<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Research Part I:Leadership model (Meng & Berger)<br />1. Explored theoretical frameworks:<br /> Trait approach—personality <br /> Skills approach—capabilities<br /> Style approach—behaviors<br /> Contingencyapproach—situation, environment <br />Transformational theory—charismatic and Dr.Juan Meng <br />and affective elements<br /> Psychodynamic approach—personalities of leaders, followers<br />Public relations approaches—four perspectives<br />Studies in psychology, sociology, organization studies, management, military <br />research and public relations.<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Trait approach<br />Leaders have innate qualities <br /> --Intelligence, self confidence, determination, integrity, sociability<br />“Great person” theories: <br /> born with traits for greatness<br />Reborn in 1980s in transformational <br /> and psychodynamic approaches<br /> --People associate personality traits <br /> with leaders<br /> R. M. Stogdill (1948, 1976)<br />14<br /> Abraham Lincoln<br />
  15. 15. Skills approach<br />Leaders need skills and abilities in 3 areas:<br />Technical = knowledge in a work area<br />Human = ability to work with people<br />Conceptual = ability to work with ideas, concepts<br />Skills can be learned and developed<br />Military studies/programs use this approach<br />R. Katz (1955)<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Style approach<br />Leaders have styles—behavior patterns<br />1. Task (production) behaviors <br /> 2. Relationship (people) behaviors <br />Many styles: team, authoritarian, <br /> bureaucratic, transactional, servant, <br /> transformational, laissez faire <br /> Blake & Mouton (1964, 1978, 1985); University studies at Michigan, Ohio State<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Situation/Contingency approach<br />Leaders are influenced by situation and environment <br />Adapt style to situation—environment<br />Change degree of directive vs. supportive style, based on situation (development continuum)<br />Used heavily in training programs in Fortune 500 <br /> K. H. Blanchard (1985, 1993); F. E. Fiedler (1967, 1993)<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Transformational approach <br />Leaders are charismatic : <br />Inspire and transform followers<br />Valorize vision, emotions, values, <br /> employee needs <br />3. Engage, motivate, model the way in <br /> fast-changing world <br />Central leadership model in U.S. today? <br /> Max Weber<br /> M. Weber (1947); J. M. Burns (1978); Kouzes & Posner (2002)<br />18<br />
  19. 19. 4 public relations approaches<br />Excellence, role theories (Grunig , Dozier & others)<br />--Managerial view, company culture, dominant coalition<br />2. Contingency theory (Cameron & others)<br />--Environmental influences, flexibility<br />3. Power relations theory (Berger & Reber)<br />--Dominant coalition, vision, political will and intelligence<br />4. Gender theory (Aldoory & Toth)<br />--Transformational style, gendered perceptions<br />19<br />
  20. 20. From theories to a model<br />20<br />
  21. 21. RQs<br />Research Questions<br />21<br />3. Developed 6 research questions:<br />RQ1: Key dimensions of PR leadership?<br /> RQ2: Most important qualities of leaders?<br /> RQ3: Sources for leader development?<br /> RQ4: PR qualities different from other fields?<br /> RQ5: If so, how different?<br /> RQ6: Different by gender, other demographics?<br />
  22. 22. What is excellent leadership in communication management?<br />4. Developed this definition and construct: <br />“Excellent leadership in public relations is a dynamic process that encompasses a complex mix of individual traits, skills, personal values and behaviors that consistently produces ethical and effective practice. Such practice fuels and guides successful communication teams and helps organizations achieve their goals and increase their legitimacy in society.”<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Our research process<br />5. Prepared, refined a list of leader dimensions <br /> and item measures (BIG step):<br />Drew from literature review<br />Conducted 2 pretests of item measures, dimensions<br /> --Reduced dimensions from 8 to 6<br /> --Reduced item measures from 89 to 45<br /> --Used 5-8 item measures per dimension<br />Netemeyer et al. (2003); Spector (1992)<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Meng’s model of excellent leadership<br />6. Developed and tested this conceptual model:<br />24<br />Organizational structure and culture<br />
  25. 25. The model’s 6 dimensions<br />25<br />
  26. 26. 6 dimensions continued<br />26<br />
  27. 27. The survey form<br />7. We prepared and tested <br /> the questionnaire (71 Qs):<br />55 Qs—six dimensions + culture<br /> 2 Qs—ranking top 3 dimensions and sources <br /> of development of leadership <br /> 2 Qs—PR leadership different from others<br /> 2 Qs—open-ended: outstanding leader and <br /> significant personal experience<br />10 Qs—demographics <br />27<br />
  28. 28. Survey and interview research<br />8. Surveyed four groups <br />--High-level U.S. communication executives (222)<br /> --Entry to mid-level U.S. professionals (162)<br /> --U.S. PR students (172)<br /> --Int’l professionals (100)<br /> --A few interviews (20)<br />28<br />
  29. 29. Survey Samples: PR Execs (n=222) and SPRF (n=162)<br />PR ExecsSPRF<br /> Participants 222 162<br /> Female 133 (60%) 127 (78%)<br /> Male 89 (40%) 35 (22%)<br /> Minority 16 ( 7%) 13 ( 8%)<br /><ul><li> 40 years old 177 (80%) 68 (48%)
  30. 30. 15 years exp. 171 (77%) 57 (35%)</li></ul> Corp or agency 162 (73%) 49 (30%)<br />PR Execs: 222 high-level PR executives in the U.S. <br /> SPRF: 162 Southern Public Relations Federation members<br />29<br />
  31. 31. RQ 1: The PR leadership model<br />Organizational structure and culture<br />1. Data from two groups (n=384) yielded strong support for the 6 dimensions. . <br />
  32. 32. RQ 1: The PR leadership model<br />31<br />Organization structure and culture<br />Internal consistency reliabilities: Cronbach’s alpha ranged from <br /> .78--.86 for the PR Execs and .79--.88 for SPRF group.<br />
  33. 33. RQ 1: The PR leadership model<br />32<br />Organization structure and culture<br />Model fit showed significant indices and values: first and second order measurement models = 90% CI.<br />
  34. 34. RQ 1: The PR leadership model<br />33<br />Organization structure and culture<br />PR leadership is a composite of 6 dimensions. Each contributes to excellent leadership; culture /structure are important influences. <br />
  35. 35. RQ 2: Most important dimensions, qualities<br />34<br />
  36. 36. RQ 3: Sources of leader development<br />35<br />
  37. 37. RQ 3: Influence on leadership values and beliefs<br />36<br />
  38. 38. RQ 4-5: Is PR leadership different? How so?<br />50% of PR Execs and 36% of SPRF said “yes.”<br />37<br />
  39. 39. RQ 6: Demographic differences<br /> PR Execs sample:<br /> --Females Vision(p<.05)<br /> --Large PR units Vision(p<.05)<br /> SPRF sample:<br /> --Females Ethical Orientation (p<.05)<br /> --Large companies Team Collaboration <br />and Internal Relationship-Building (p<.05)<br />38<br />
  40. 40. RQ 6: Culture—Ideal vs. Real<br /> PR Execs SPRF<br />CultureIdeal RealIdealReal<br /> Access to leaders 6.54 – 5.23* 6.51 – 4.98*<br /> Leader champion 6.55 – 6.15* 6.56 – 5.93*<br /> Open comms 6.26 – 5.33* 6.41 – 5.57*<br /> Reporting structure 5.69 – 4.77* 5.95 – 5.45*<br /> Report to CEO/Pres 5.98 – 5.51* 6.10 – 5.79**<br /> Values diversity 5.48 – 5.08* 5.90 – 5.36*<br /> * Significant level at .01; ** significant level at .05<br />39<br />
  41. 41. Research Part II:Analysis of the 20 Plank Center studies<br />Researched styles, ethics, education, culture, <br /> power relations, behaviors<br />Surveyed/interviewed +4,000 practitioners, <br /> educators and students <br />Analyzed studies for patterns<br />Identified 9 qualities <br /> of excellent leaders<br />40<br />
  42. 42. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#1 Role Models <br />Lead by example through two-way communication and behaviors. <br />Role models and mentors exert great<br /> influence on our beliefs about leadership qualities and values. <br />41<br />
  43. 43. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#2 Strategic Counselor<br />Participate fully in strategic decision making, the most crucial quality of leaders, say senior executives. The ultimate PR leader is a strategic counselor in important <br /> decision-making moments.<br />42<br />
  44. 44. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#3 Ethical Orientation<br />Exemplify a strong set of ethics and values—doing the right thing and practicing professional standards. This is crucial to personal reputation, company success and professional image. <br />43<br />
  45. 45. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#4 Expert Communicator<br />Possess complex communication and rhetorical skills that work at four levels of practice—technical and tactical, strategic, relational and political.<br />44<br />
  46. 46. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#5 Self-Awareness<br /> Possess deep self knowledge that guides decisions, productive relationships and self development. Knowing one’s strengths and limitations may be the most important individual trait. <br />45<br />
  47. 47. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#6 Desire to Lead<br />Possess a strong desire to lead. Desire or individual initiative is a rich source of energy, power, learning and determination. It’s fundamental to excellent leadership over the long term. <br />46<br />
  48. 48. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#7 Motivational Style<br />Use transformational and inclusive leadership styles that are sensitive to context and environment, and to individual needs and differences. These styles help gain trust <br />and resolve problems and conflicts.<br />47<br />
  49. 49. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#8 Passion for Work<br />Demonstrate passion for work and the profession. Exhibiting passion and <br />positive energy brings projects to life,<br /> inspires others and builds esprit de corps. <br />This is the lifeblood of leadership.<br />48<br />
  50. 50. Qualities of excellent PR leaders<br />#9 Change Agent<br /> Serve as agents for change <br />and for creating a culture for communication. They push back on closed communication environments and poor decisions or behaviors.<br />49<br />
  51. 51. Summary of 9 qualities<br />50<br />
  52. 52. Landscape of leader development in U.S.<br />51<br /> 1. Diverse approaches <br />Individual companies (Whirlpool Academy)<br />Specialist providers (Center for Creative Leadership)<br />Personal “coaches”(Marshall Goldsmith)<br />Association programs(PRSA, IPR, Page Society)<br />
  53. 53. Landscape of leader development in U.S.<br /> 2. Issues and limitations<br />Associations don’t represent field<br />--21,000 vs. 350,000<br />Quality of content, instruction vary<br />--Networking and information loading<br />Learning may not be transportable<br />--Understanding vs. doing<br />No long-term measures <br />52<br />
  54. 54. Landscape of leader development in U.S.<br />3. Considerations for the profession…<br />Make leader development a priority<br />Create a forum for national dialogue<br />Catalog, analyze existing <br />leader programs :<br />Content<br />Delivery style<br />Metrics<br />Best practices<br />53<br />
  55. 55. Future research and collaborations<br />54<br />
  56. 56. Future research and collaborations<br /> 2. Global Leadership Study (Fall 2011)<br />Topics<br /> --Key changes in world and how affect leadership<br /> --Implications for education & development programs<br /> --Influences of culture and structure<br /> Methods<br /> Global surveys and interviews <br />Chinese-speaking countries England<br /> South Korea Denmark (?)<br /> Central, South America German-speaking countries (?) <br /> United States Nederland (?)<br /> EUPRERA (?)<br />55<br />
  57. 57. Want to be a better leader?<br />Eliminate one bad habit<br />Stop talking…and start listening<br />Stop saying “no” and “but”… and say <br />“thank you” more often<br />4. Follow up, follow up, follow up<br /> Dr. Marshall Goldsmith<br /> What got you here won’t get you there<br />56<br />
  58. 58. The Plank Center studies in leadership and communication management<br />57<br />
  59. 59. 58<br />
  60. 60. The PR Success Study (2004)<br />MA students partnered with Heyman Associates <br />Interviewed 97 senior PR executives<br />Identified “patterns of success:”<br />Success at many levels Many pathways to success<br /> Power of performance Years & diversity of experience<br /> Complex communication skills Relationships, relationships!<br /> Passionate and proactive Crucial intangibles<br />Produced professional report, journal article<br />http://www.heymanassociates.com/Spotlight/WCH_Univ_Alabama_Research_Report-06_2004.htm<br />http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a788019550<br />59<br />
  61. 61. PRofiles of Success Book (2008)<br />Partnered again with Heyman Associates<br />Interviewed 20 young leaders (20 under 40)<br />Wrote a chapter about each leader<br />Published online book—PRofiles of Success <br />http://www.plankcenter.ua.edu/images/stories/profilebook.pdf<br />Identified key themes and leader characteristics<br />Themes:Lead by example , learn from mentors and stay current with practice<br />Characteristics: creativity, integrity, passion for work, motivational, strong <br /> skills and diverse experiences<br />60<br />
  62. 62. Managers vs. Leaders<br />Manager Leader<br />Produces order & consistency Produces change & movement<br />Plans & budgets Establishes vision, direction<br />Sets timetables Sets strategies<br />Organizes & staffs Aligns people in teams<br />Controls & solves problems Motivates & inspires<br />Takes corrective actions Satisfies unmet needs<br />Adapted from J. P. Kotter (1990)<br />61<br />
  63. 63. Model<br />62<br />