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The 12th Five Year Plan - Volume 3
 

The 12th Five Year Plan - Volume 3

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Volume 3 of Draft 12th Plan approved by the National Development Council on 27th December, 2012

Volume 3 of Draft 12th Plan approved by the National Development Council on 27th December, 2012

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    The 12th Five Year Plan - Volume 3 The 12th Five Year Plan - Volume 3 Document Transcript

    • Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–2017) Social Sectors Volume III
    • Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–2017) Social Sectors Volume III Planning Commission Government of India
    • copyright
    • Contents20. Health 121. Education 4722. Employment and Skill Development 12423 Women’s Agency and Child Rights 16424. Social Inclusion 221
    • 20Health20.1. Health should be viewed as not merely the Auxiliary Nurse and Midwifes (ANMs) avail-absence of disease but as a state of complete physical, able was only 75 per lakh population whereas themental and social well-being. The determinants of desirable number is 225. The overall shortage isgood health are: access to various types of health ser- exacerbated by a wide geographical variation invices and an individual’s lifestyle choices, personal, availability across the country. Rural areas arefamily and social relationships. The latter are outside especially poorly served.the scope of this Chapter. The focus in this Chapter 2. Quality of healthcare services varies consider-is on the strategy to deliver preventive, curative and ably in both the public and private sector. Manypublic health services. Other sectors that impact on practitioners in the private sector are actually notgood health, such as clean drinking water and sanita- qualified doctors. Regulatory standards for publiction are dealt with in other Chapters of the Plan. and private hospitals are not adequately defined and, in any case, are ineffectively enforced.AN OVERVIEW 3. Affordability of health care is a serious problem20.2. At present, India’s health care system consists for the vast majority of the population, especiallyof a mix of public and private sector providers of in tertiary care. The lack of extensive and ade-health services. Networks of health care facilities at quately funded public health services pushes largethe primary, secondary and tertiary level, run mainly numbers of people to incur heavy out of pocketby State Governments, provide free or very low cost expenditures on services purchased from the pri-medical services. There is also an extensive private vate sector. Out of pocket expenditures arise evenhealth care sector, covering the entire spectrum from in public sector hospitals, since lack of medi-individual doctors and their clinics, to general hospi- cines means that patients have to buy them. Thistals and super speciality hospitals. results in a very high financial burden on families in case of severe illness. A large fraction of the out20.3. The system suffers from the following of pocket expenditure arises from outpatient careweaknesses: and purchase of medicines, which are mostly not covered even by the existing insurance schemes.1. Availability of health care services from the pub- In any case, the percentage of population covered lic and private sectors taken together is quantita- by health insurance is small. tively inadequate. This is starkly evident from the 4. The problems outlined above are likely to worsen data on doctors or nurses per lakh of the popula- in future. Health care costs are expected to rise tion. At the start of the Eleventh Plan, the num- because, with rising life expectancy, a larger pro- ber of doctors per lakh of population was only portion of our population will become vulner- 45, whereas, the desirable number is 85 per lakh able to chronic Non Communicable Diseases population. Similarly, the number of Nurses and (NCDs), which typically require expensive
    • 2 Twelfth Five Year Plan treatment. The public awareness of treatment health challenge, both in terms of mortality and possibilities is also increasing and which, in turn, disability (Figures 20.1 and 20.2). increases the demand for medical care. In the 5. The total expenditure on health care in India, years ahead, India will have to cope with health taking both public, private and household out- problems reflecting the dual burden of disease, of-pocket (OOP) expenditure was about 4.1 per that is, dealing with the rising cost of managing cent of GDP in 2008–09 (National Health NCDs and injuries while still battling commu- Accounts [NHA] 2009), which is broadly com- nicable diseases that still remain a major public parable to other developing countries, at similar 0.08 0.10 3% 2.53 0.21 7% 10.50 0.7% 19.28 22% 0.9% 0.54 1.4% 2% 0.89 2% 0.95 1.88 1.49 5% 2.78 2.85 11.62 3.677% 6% 6.30 7% 7.11 11% 0.6% 3.23 9.49 0.5% 2.69 11.79 Dark Maroon: Communicable Diseases (43.94%) 24% Black: Non Communicable Diseases (43.02%) Infectious and parasitic diseases Light Maroon: Injuries (13.04%) Communicable Diseases (37%) Respiratory infections Infectious and parasitic Genitourinary diseases Perinatal conditions (h) diseases Skin diseases Non Communicable Maternal conditions Nutritional deficiencies Unintentional injuries Diseases (53%) Nutritional deficiencies Cardiovascular diseases Cardiovascular diseases Respiratory infections Injuries (10%) Respiratory diseases Digestive diseases Neuropsychiatric Malignant Cancer Musculoskeletal diseases conditions Digestive diseases Oral conditions Respiratory diseases Genitourinary diseases Diabetes mellitus Other neoplasms Congenital anomalies Neuropsychiatric conditions Perinatal conditions (h) Diabetes mellitus Others Maternal conditions Endocrine disorders Congenital anomalies Sense organ diseases Intentional injuries Unintentional injuries Intentional injuries Malignant neoplasmsSource: Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Source: Global Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO MemberMember States in 2008. States 2009. FIGURE 20.1: Disease Burden of India, 2008 FIGURE 20.2: Disability Adjusted Life Years in India, 2009 (Estimated number of deaths by cause) (Estimated percentage of DALY by cause)
    • Health 3 levels of per capita income. However, the public on child-sex ratio, the goals have not been fully expenditure on health was only about 27 per cent met. Despite Central efforts through the flagship of of the total in 2008–09 (NHA, 2009), which is NRHM, wide disparity in attainments across states very low by any standard. Public expenditure on outlines the need for contextual strategies. Core Health (both plan and non-plan and taking the Centre and States together) was about 0.93 1. Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) which mea- per cent of GDP in 2007–08. It has increased to sures number of women of reproductive age about 1.04 per cent during 2011–12. It needs to (15–49 years) dying due to maternal causes per increase much more over the next decade. 100000 live births, is a sensitive indicator of the quality of the health care system. The decline in20.4. The enormity of the challenge in health was MMR during the 2004–06 to 2007–09 of 5.8 perrealised when the Eleventh Plan was formulated and cent per year (that is, 254 to 212) has been com-an effort was made to increase Central Plan expendi- parable to that in the preceding period (a fall oftures on health. The increase in Central expenditures 5.5 per cent per year, over 2001–03 to 2004–06).has not been fully matched by a comparable increase MMR of 212 from 301 (2007–09) is well shortin State Government expenditures (Table 1.3). The of the Eleventh Plan goal of 100. Besides KeralaTwelfth Plan proposes to take corrective action by (81), two more States namely Tamil Nadu (97)incentivising States. and Maharashtra (104) have realised MDG tar- get of 109 in 2007–09, while Andhra Pradesh20.5. As an input into formulating the Twelfth (134), West Bengal (145), Gujarat (148) andPlan strategy, it has relied on the High Level Expert Haryana (153) are in closer proximity. A majorGroup (HLEG) set up by the Planning Commission burden of MMR is in EAG states, where the aver-to define a comprehensive strategy for health for the age MMR was 308 in 2007–09 (SRS), and con-Twelfth Five Year Plan. The Group’s report is acces- tinues to remain high as per the recent Annualsible on the web site of the Planning Commission. Health Survey (2010–11). These are AssamIn addition, wide consultations have been held with (381), Bihar (305), Jharkhand (278), MP (310),stakeholders and through Working Groups and Chhattisgarh (275), Odisha (277), RajasthanSteering Groups. Based on the HLEG report and (331), Uttar Pradesh (345) and Uttarakhandafter extensive consultations within and outside the (188). Suboptimal performance in EAG statesGovernment, as well as a close review of the actual points to gaps in Ante-Natal Care, skilled birthperformance of the sector during the Eleventh Plan attendance and Emergency Obstetrical care andperiod, a new strategy for health is being spelt out to draw lessons from maternal death reviews.in the Twelfth Plan towards rolling out Universal 2. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), death of childrenHealth Coverage—a process that will span several before age one per 1000 live births, is a sensitiveyears. The consensus among stakeholders is that indicator of the health and nutritional status ofthe magnitude of the challenge is such that a viable population. IMR fell by 5 per cent per year overand longer term architecture for health can be put the 2006–11 period, an improvement over thein place only over two or even three Plan periods. 3 per cent decline per year in the preceding fiveHowever, a start must be made towards achieving years, but short of the target of 28. The decline inthe long term goal immediately. IMR has accelerated, but is short of the required pace. While seven states have achieved the tar-REVIEW OF ELEVENTH PLAN get, IMR is still high in MP, Odisha, UP, Assam,PERFORMANCE and Rajasthan.20.6. A review of the health outcome of the Eleventh 3. Total Fertility Rate (TFR), which measures thePlan and of NRHM is constrained by lack of end-line number of children born to a woman during herdata on most indicators. Analysis of available data entire reproductive period, fell by 2.8 per centreveals that though there has been progress, except per annum over the 2006–10 period from 2.8 to
    • 4 Twelfth Five Year Plan 2.5, which is faster than the decline of 2 per cent of States to 2.14 times that in Tenth Plan, to add up per year in the preceding five years, but short to 1.04 per cent of GDP in 2011–12. When broader of the Eleventh Plan goal of 2.1. Replacement determinants of health (drinking water ICDS and level TFR, namely 2.1, has been attained by nine Mid-Day Meal) are added, the total public spending states. High fertility remains a problem in seven on health in Eleventh Plan comes to 1.97 per cent of States, namely Bihar (CBR 2011 27.7; TFR 2010 GDP (Tables 20.2 and 20.3). 3.7), Uttar Pradesh (27.8; 3.5), Madhya Pradesh (26.9; 3.2), Rajasthan (26.2; 3.1), Jharkhand (25.0; 20.8. An analysis of performance reveals achieve- 3.0), Chhattisgarh (24.9; 2.8) and Assam (22.8; ments and gaps. These follow. 2.5). Reasons are early marriage, close spacing of births, high unmet need and lack of skilled INFRASTRUCTURE contraceptive services. Low couple protec- 20.9. There has been an increase in number of pub- tion rate (40.4 per cent) and a high unmet need lic health facilities over the 2007–11 period—Sub- for contraception (20.5 per cent) in 2007–08 Centres by 2 per cent, PHC by 6 per cent, CHC by point to gaps in service delivery. 16 per cent and District Hospitals by 45 per cent.4. On the goal of raising child sex ratio, there Yet shortfalls remain, 20 per cent for Sub-Centres, has been a reversal. All States and UTs except 24 per cent for PHCs and 37 per cent for CHCs, partic- Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, ularly in Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Tamil Nadu, Mizoram, Family Welfare Statistics Pradesh. Though most CHCs and 34 per cent Primary in India (2011). Andaman and Nicobar Islands Health Centres (PHCs) have been upgraded and and Chandigarh have witnessed a decrease in the operationalised as 24 × 7 facilities and First Referral child sex ratio (0–6 years) in the 2001–11 decade. Units (FRU) have doubled, yet the commitment of5. Progress on goals on reducing malnutrition and Eleventh Plan to make all public facilities meet IPHS anaemia cannot be assessed for want of updated norms, and to provide Emergency Obstetric Care at data, but localised surveys indicated that the sta- all CHCs have not been achieved. Access to safe abor- tus has not improved. tion services is not available in all CHCs, a gap which is contributing to maternal mortality. Though MobileFINANCING FOR HEALTH Medical Units (MMUs) have been deployed in 44920.7. During the Eleventh Plan funding for health by districts of the country, their outreach medical ser-Central Government has increased to 2.5 times and vices are not adequate for the need. TABLE 20.1 Eleventh Plan Monitorable Goals and AchievementsS. No. Eleventh Plan Monitorable Target Baseline Level Recent Status1 Reducing Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 100 per 254 212 100000 live births. (SRS, 2004–06) (SRS, 2007–09)2 Reducing Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 28 per 1000 57 44 live births. (SRS, 2006) (SRS, 2011)3 Reducing Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to 2.1. 2.8 2.5 (SRS, 2006) (SRS, 2010)4 Reducing malnutrition among children of age group 40.4 No recent data available 0–3 to half its level. (NFHS, 2005–06)5 Reducing anaemia among women and girls by 50%. 55.3 No recent data available (NFHS, 2005–06)6 Raising the sex ratio for age group 0–6 to 935 927 914 (Census, 2001) (census, 2011)
    • Health 5 TABLE 20.2 Allocation and Spending by Ministry of Health in Eleventh Plan Department Eleventh Plan Allocation Eleventh Plan release Eleventh Plan Expenditure % Expenditure to Release HFW 125923 87460 83407 95.4% Of which under 89478 68064 66127 97.2% NRHM AYUSH 3988 3083 2994 97.1% DHR 4496 1938 1870 96.5% AIDS Control 5728 1500 1305 87.0% Total 140135 93981 89576 95.3%Note: Outlay the new departments of DHR and AIDS Control was transferred from HFW. TABLE 20.3 Funding for Health in Eleventh Plan: Core and Broad Health Components Year Centre Core States Core % GDP Core Health % GDP (Total Health) Health Health Centre States Total Centre States Total X Plan 47077 107046 0.29% 0.65% 0.94% 0.56% 1.18% 1.74% 2007–08 16055 30536 0.32% 0.61% 0.93% 0.71% 1.17% 1.89% 2008–09 19604 36346 0.35% 0.65% 0.99% 0.75% 1.22% 1.98% 2009–10 25652 44748 0.40% 0.69% 1.09% 0.78% 1.24% 2.02% 2010–11 27466 55955 0.36% 0.73% 1.09% 0.75% 1.27% 2.02% 2011–12 30587 62343 0.34% 0.70% 1.04% 0.74% 1.19% 1.94% XI Plan 119364 229928 0.35% 0.68% 1.04% 0.75% 1.22% 1.97%Note: Core health includes health care expenditure of central ministries (as Labour on RSBY) on health; Broad health includes DrinkingWater and Sanitation, Mid-Day Meal and ICDS (Plan and non-Plan).HEALTH PERSONNEL sound HR management policies results in irrational20.10. ASHAs positioned under NRHM have been distribution of available human resource and sub-successful in promoting awareness of obstetric and optimal motivation.child care services in the community. Better train-ing for ASHA and timely payment of incentive have TRAINING CAPACITYcome out as gaps in evaluations. Despite considerable 20.11. Setting up of 6 AIIMS like institutes and up-improvement in health personnel in position (ANM gradation of 13 medical colleges has been taken up27 per cent, nurses 119 per cent, doctors 16 per cent, under Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojanaspecialists 36 per cent, pharmacists 38 per cent), gap (PMSSY). Seventy-two State Government medi-between staff in position and staff required at the end cal colleges have been taken up for strengthening toof the Plan was 52 per cent for ANM and nurses, 76 enhance their capacity for PG training. Huge gaps,per cent for doctors, 88 per cent for specialists and however, remain in training capacity for all category58 per cent for pharmacists. These shortages are of health personnel.attributed to delays in recruitment and to postingsnot being based on work-load or sanctions. Public COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENThealth cadre as envisioned in the Eleventh Plan to 20.12. Though Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) are inmanage NRHM is not yet in place. Similarly, lack of position in most public facilities, monthly Village
    • 6 Twelfth Five Year PlanHealth and Nutrition Days are held in most villages, utilisation of public facilities for chronic diseaseJan Sunwais (public hearings) and Common Review remains low in UP (45 per cent), MP (63 perMissions have been held yet, their potential in terms cent) and Jharkhand (70 per cent) as comparedof empowering communities, improving account- to Tamil Nadu (94 per cent) reflecting poorability and responsiveness of public health facilities quality of service.is yet to be fully realised. 4. To reduce fertility, increasing age of marriage, spacing of births, access to a basket of contracep-SERVICE DELIVERY tive services are some of the possible innovations1. To reduce maternal and infant mortality, insti- that need to be tried. tutional deliveries are being promoted by pro- 5. The Eleventh Plan commitment of providing viding cash assistance to pregnant women under access to essential drugs at public facilities has Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY). Though institu- not been realised. This reflects in continued high tional deliveries have increased in rural (39.7 to out-of-pocket expenditure on health care, as 68 per cent) and urban areas (79 per cent to 85 per suggested by some local surveys. cent) over the 2005–09 period, low levels of full Ante-Natal care (22.8 in rural, and 26.1 in urban GOVERNANCE OF PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM in 2009, CES) and quality of care areas of concern. 20.13. The Eleventh Plan had suggested Governance2. Full immunisation in children has improved reforms in public health system, such as perfor- from 54.5 per cent in 2005 (CES) to 61 per mance linked incentives, devolution of powers and cent in 2009 (CES) during the Eleventh Plan. functions to local health care institutions and mak- Additions to the Universal Immunization Pro- ing them responsible for the health of the people liv- gram include Hepatitis B, Japanese Encephalitis ing in a defined geographical area. NRHM’s strategy (JE) vaccine in endemic districts, and Pentaval- of decentralisation, PRI involvement, integration ent vaccine, which is a combination vaccine of vertical programmes, inter-sectoral convergence against Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Hepatitis and Health Systems Strengthening have been par- B and Haemophilus influenza B. There has been tially achieved. Despite efforts, lack of capacity and no reported case of polio during 2011. Immun- adequate flexibility in programmes forestall effective isation cover is far from universal as envisioned local level planning and execution based on local dis- in Eleventh Plan, and remains particularly low ease priorities. Professional procurement agencies in UP (41 per cent), MP (43 per cent), Bihar on the lines of Tamil Nadu are still not in place at (49 per cent), Rajasthan (54 per cent), Gujarat the Centre and most States making the process frag- (57 per cent) and Chhattisgarh (57 per cent), mented, with little forecasting or use of the power of Assam (59 per cent) and Jharkhand (60 per monopsony. Wide variation in the performance of cent). In contrast, some States like Goa (88 per health facilities across states have been reported with cent), Sikkim (85 per cent), Punjab (84 per cent) Tamil Nadu topping and UP and MP at the bottom, and Kerala (82 per cent) have achieved high pointing to the need for learning from best practices level of immunisation coverage. Home Based within the country through state level initiatives. Neonatal Care (HBNC) through ASHAs has been promoted to improve new born care prac- DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMMES tices in the community and to enable early detec- 1. National Vector Borne Disease Control Pro- tion and referral. Continued high rates of child gramme encourages states to take measures, as mortality suggest that the public health system disease management, integrated vector manage- has not been very effective in promoting healthy ment and supportive interventions like behav- practices as breastfeeding, use of ORS and pre- iour change communication, for the prevention ventive and care seeking behaviours. and control of diseases like Malaria, Dengue,3. Despite improvements in infrastructure, and Chikungunya, Japanese Encephalitis (JE), personnel deployed, evaluation has reported that Lymphatic Filariasis and Kala-azar. India bears
    • Health 7 a high proportion of the global burden of TB Establishments. The Government of India has noti- (21 per cent), leprosy (56 per cent) and lym- fied important amendments in rules under the Pre- phatic filariasis (40 per cent). Though there has Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques been progress in the Eleventh Plan in reducing (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994, including rate of new infections, case load and death from amendment to Rule 11 (2) of the PC and PNDT these diseases, a robust surveillance system at Rules, 1996 to provide for confiscation of unregis- the community level is lacking and considerable tered machines and regulating the use of portable hidden and residual disease burden remains. ultrasound equipment and services offered by mobile Multi-drug resistance to TB is being increas- clinics. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act, ingly recognised. Gaps in infectious disease con- 1994 has been amended to make the process of organ trol programmes relate to testing services in all donation and reception more streamlined and mal- PHCs, active engagement with private providers, practice free. Quality and reach of regulation are prescribing standard treatment, restricting over- major issues. the-counter sale of anti TB drugs, and timely referral through a continuum of care. HMIS2. Among the NCDs, Cardiovascular Diseases 20.15. During the Eleventh Plan, a web based (CVD) account for 24 per cent of mortality fol- Health Management Information System (HMIS) lowed by Respiratory Disease, and malignant application software has been developed and made cancers. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan operational for online data capture at district and National Programme for the Prevention and sub-district levels on RCH service delivery indica- Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular tors. The data captured is scanty, restricted to public Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) was initiated facilities and is not always used for programme plan- in 100 selected districts in 21 states. So far, 87 ning or monitoring. lakh people have been screened for diabetes and hypertension, out of which 6.5 per cent are AIDS CONTROL suspected to be diabetic and 7.7 per cent are 20.16. Against a target to halt and reverse the HIV/ suspected to be suffering from hypertension. AIDS epidemic in India, there has been a reduc- Despite enhanced allocations for the National tion of new HIV infections in the country by 56 Mental Health Programme, it has lagged behind per cent. Still, an estimated 24 lakh People were due to non-availability of qualified mental health living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2009. The pro- professionals at district and sub-district levels. gramme includes Targeted Interventions focused Training of non-physician mental health profes- on High Risk Groups and Bridge populations, sionals and implementation of community based mental health programmes are needed to reduce Link Workers Scheme, Integrated Counselling and the rising burden of mental health disorders. Testing Services, Community Care, Support and NCD programmes need to be integrated within Treatment Centres, Information, Education, and NRHM to provide preventive, testing care and Communication (IEC) and condom promotion. referral services. Gaps in the programme include low rate of coverage of Anti-Retroviral Therapy among infected adultsREGULATION and children, low levels of opioid substitution ther-20.14. The Food Safety and Standards Act (FSSA), apy among injection drug users (3 per cent), testing2006 came into force from 5.8.2011 and replaced of pregnant women for HIV and Syphilis (23 permultiple food laws, standard setting bodies and cent) and low Anti-Retroviral coverage for prevent-enforcement agencies with one integrated food law. ing mother to child transmission. There is scope forThe Government of India has enacted the Clinical greater integration with NRHM to avoid duplicationEstablishments (Registration and Regulation) Act, of efforts, as in reaching non-high risk groups and2010 for Registration and Regulation of Clinical distribution of condoms.
    • 8 Twelfth Five Year PlanINDIAN SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE AND that each individual would have assured access to aHOMOEOPATHY (AYUSH) defined essential range of medicines and treatment20.17. Against the Eleventh Plan objective of ‘main- at an affordable price, which should be entirely freestreaming AYUSH systems to actively supplement for a large percentage of the population. Inevitably,the efforts of the allopathic system’, 40 per cent the list of assured services will have to be limited byPHCs, 65 per cent CHCs and 69 per cent District budgetary constraints. But the objective should be tohospitals have co-located AYUSH facilities. Though expand coverage steadily over time.considerable progress has been made in documentingidentity and quality standards of herbal medicines, 20.20. Based on the recommendations of the HLEGscientific validation of AYUSH principles, remedies and other stakeholder consultations, it is possi-and therapies has not progressed. Similarly, though ble to outline the key elements of the strategy thatthe National Medicinal Plants Board has supported should be followed in the Twelfth Plan. These ele-many projects for conservation, cultivation and stor- ments should be seen as a part of a longer term planage of medicinal plants, only 20 per cent of the 178 to move towards UHC, which is a process that willmajor medicinal plant species traded as raw drugs unfold over two or three Plan periods.are largely sourced from cultivation. Nine AYUSH 1. There must be substantial expansion andindustry clusters through Special Purpose Vehicle strengthening of the public sector health carehaving common facility centres for manufacture and system if we are to meet the health needs of ruraltesting of AYUSH medicines are being set up in eight and even urban areas. The bulk of the popula-States. While AYUSH sector has considerable infra- tion today relies upon private sector healthstructure, it remains under-utilised. providers, paying amounts which they cannot afford, because of the inadequate reach of theHEALTH RESEARCH public sector. While the private sector can con-20.18. The newly established department of Health tinue to operate for those who can afford it, anResearch, and Indian Council of Medical Research expansion of good quality affordable public sec-(ICMR) have piloted several innovations, including tor care is essential. As supply in the public sec-an on-line Clinical Trials Registry, Uniform Multi- tor increases, it will cause a shift towards publicdrug Therapy Regimen (UMDT) for Leprosy, and sector providers freeing the vulnerable popula-lymphatic filariasis, kits for improved diagnosis tion from dependence on high cost and oftenof malaria, dengue fever, TB (including drug resis- unreachable private sector health care.tant), cholera, Chlamydia infection. Leptospirosis; 2. Health sector expenditure by the Centre andand development of indigenous H1N1 vaccine. Yet, States, both Plan and Non Plan, will have to behealth research in India has yet to make a major substantially increased by the end of the Twelfthimpact on the health challenges facing the country. Plan. It has already increased from 0.94 perThe reasons are that ICMR has focused on biomedi- cent of GDP in the Tenth Plan to 1.04 per centcal research, especially in communicable diseases, in the Eleventh Plan (Table 1.3). The provisionwhile gaps in health attainments are largely due to of clean drinking water and sanitation as one ofbehavioural factors, inadequate attention to preven- the principal factors in the control of diseasestion and fragile health systems. is well established from the history of industri- alised countries and it should have high prior-TWELFTH PLAN STRATEGY ity in health related resource allocation. The20.19. The Twelfth Plan seeks to strengthen ini- percentage for this broader definition of healthtiatives taken in the Eleventh Plan to expand the sector related resources needs to be increased toreach of health care and work towards the long 2.5 per cent by the end of the Twelfth Plan. Sinceterm objective of establishing a system of Universal expenditure on health by the State GovernmentsHealth Coverage (UHC) in the country. This means is about twice the expenditures by the Centre,
    • Health 9 the overall targets for public sector health expen- devoted to health will not deliver results if health diture can only be achieved if, along with the personnel are not available. A large expansion Centre, State Governments expand their health of medical schools, nursing colleges, and so on, budgets appropriately. A suitable mechanism is therefore necessary and public sector medical should therefore be designed to incentivise an schools must play a major role in the process. increase in State Government spending. Since the present distribution of such colleges is3. Financial and managerial systems will be re- geographically very uneven, a special effort will designed to ensure more efficient utilisation of be made to expand medical education in States available resources, and to achieve better health which are at present under-served. In addition, outcomes. Coordinated delivery of services a massive effort will be made to recruit and within and across sectors, delegation matched train paramedical and community level health with accountability, fostering a spirit of inno- workers. vation are some of the measures proposed to 7. An important lesson from the Eleventh Plan is ensure that ‘more can be done from less for that the multiplicity of Central Sector and Cen- more’ for better health outcomes. trally Sponsored Schemes addressing individual4. Efforts would be made to find a workable way diseases, or funding activities or institutions, of encouraging cooperation between the public prevents a holistic health-systems-approach, and private sector in achieving health goals. This leads to duplication and redundancies, and would include contracting in of services for gap makes coordinated delivery difficult. This mul- filling, and also various forms of effectively regu- tiplicity also constrains the flexibility of States to lated and managed PPP, while also ensuring that make need based plans or deploy their resources there is no compromise in terms of standards of in the most efficient manner. As a result, new delivery and that the incentive structure does not programmes cannot take off and old ones do not undermine health care objectives. reach their maximum potential. The way for-5. The present Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana ward is to focus on strengthening the pillars of (RSBY) which provides ‘cash less’ in-patient the health system, so that it can prevent, detect treatment for eligible beneficiaries through an and manage each of the unique challenges that insurance based system will need to be reformed different parts of the country face. to enable access to a continuum of comprehen- 8. A series of prescription drugs reforms, promo- sive primary, secondary and tertiary care. The tion of essential, generic medicines, and mak- coverage of RSBY was initially limited to the BPL ing these universally available free of cost to population but, was subsequently expanded to all patients in public facilities as a part of the cover other categories. It should be the objective Essential Health Package will be a priority. of the Twelfth Plan to use the platform and exist- 9. Effective regulation in medical practice, public ing mechanisms of RSBY to cover to the entire health, food and drugs is essential to safeguard population below the poverty line. In planning people against risks, and unethical practices. health care structures for the future, it is desir- This is especially so given the information gaps able to move away from a ‘fee-for-service’ mech- in the health sector which make is difficult for anism for the reasons outlined by the HLEG, to individuals to make reasoned choices. address the issue of fragmentation of services 10. The health system in the Twelfth Plan will con- that works to the detriment of preventive and tinue to have a mix of public and private service primary care and also to reduce the scope for providers. The public sector health services need fraud and induced demand. to be strengthened to deliver both public health6. Availability of skilled human resources remains related and clinical services. The public and pri- a key constraint in expanding health service vate sectors also need to coordinate for deliv- delivery. A mere expansion of financial resources ery of a continuum of care. A strong regulatory
    • 10 Twelfth Five Year Plan system would supervise the quality of services 20.25. Representation in community fora: Wherever delivered. Standard treatment guidelines should community-level fora exist or are being planned form the basis of clinical care across public and for, such as Rogi Kalyan Samitis, VHSNC, repre- private sectors, with adequate monitoring by the sentation of the marginalised should be mandatory. regulatory bodies to improve the quality of care Also, every Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition and control the cost of care. Committee would strive to have 50 per cent repre- sentation of women.INCLUSIVE AGENDA FOR HEALTH20.21. In order to ensure that all the services in the 20.26. Training of health and rehabilitation profes-Twelfth Plan are provided with special attention to sionals should incorporate knowledge of disabilitythe needs of marginalised sections of the population rights, as also the skills to deal with differences inthe following will be emphasised in the Twelfth Plan. perspectives and expectations between members of disadvantaged segments and the general population20.22. Access to services: Barriers to access would that may arise out of different experiences. All healthbe recognised and overcome especially for the dis- related training institutes must have a comprehen-advantaged and people located far from facilities. sive policy to make their educational programmesMedical and public health facilities would be acces- friendly for the differently-abled. This should alsosible to the differently-abled. They would be gender include sensitisation of faculty, staff and trainees.sensitive and child friendly. Information on healthwould be accessible to the visually impaired and to all TOWARDS UNIVERSAL HEALTHcaregivers; especially to those who look after autistic COVERAGEand mentally challenged persons. Hospitals would 20.27. The Twelfth Plan strategy outlined is a firsthave facilities for the hearing impaired. Among mar- step in moving toward Universal Health Care (UHC).ginalised groups, the SC and ST populations, and All over the world, the provision of some form ofminorities, the doubly disadvantaged such as the universal health coverage is regarded as a basic com-Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), the ponent of social security. There are different ways ofDe-notified and Nomadic Tribes, the Musahars and achieving this objective and country experiences vary.the internally displaced must be given special atten- We need to ensure much broader coverage of healthtion while making provisions for, setting up and ren- services to provide essential health care and we needovating Sub-Centres and Anganwadis. to do it through a system which is appropriate to our needs and within our financial capability.20.23. Special services: Special services should bemade available for the vulnerable and disadvantaged HLEG’S RECOMMENDATIONSgroups. For example, counselling of victims of mental 20.28. The High Level Expert Group has definedtrauma in areas of conflict, or the supply and fitting UHC as follows: ‘Ensuring equitable access for allof aids for the differently-abled are some examples Indian citizens in any part of the country, regardlessof special services for certain categories of users. As of income level, social status, gender, caste or religion,there are other segments of the population which are to affordable, accountable and appropriate, assuredalso vulnerable, the list should be open-ended. quality health services (promotive, preventive, cura- tive and rehabilitative) as well as services addressing20.24. Monitoring and evaluation systems: Routine wider determinants of health delivered to individu-monitoring and concurrent impact evaluations als and populations, with the Government being theshould collect disaggregated information on dis- guarantor and enabler, although not necessarily theadvantaged segments of the population. This is to only provider of health and related services.’assess the ease with which they access services andtheir impact, as also to understand how they com- 20.29. This definition affirms that the system must bepare to the general population. available for all who want it, though some, typically
    • Health 11the upper income groups, may opt out. For opera- UHC MODELS AROUND THE WORLDtional purposes, it is necessary to define with greater 20.32. While many countries subscribe to the objec-precision, the coverage of assured services, especially tive of UHC there is a great deal of variety in howin terms of entitlement for in-patient treatment and this objective is achieved. Many countries haveto define the specific mechanism through which the adopted a tax-financed model, while others haveservice will be delivered. The extent of the coverage adopted an insurance based model. Some countriesoffered in terms of the range of treatments covered deliver care through salaried public providers; otherswill obviously be constrained by finances available, have adopted capitation as the preferred model forthough it can be expected to expand over time. The payment for out-patient care, and fee-for-service forHLEG has recommended the prioritisation of pri- in-patient care. A summary of the UHC models inmary health care, while ensuring that the Essential some countries follows.Health Package (EHP) includes essential services atall levels of care. Canada 20.33. Medicare is a regionally administered univer-20.30. The HLEG has examined different ways in sal public insurance programme, publicly financedwhich UHC could be delivered without any cash through Federal and Provincial tax revenue. Out-payment by the beneficiaries. At one end, we can patient services are provided through private pro-have a purely public delivery of services from public viders. All Secondary and Tertiary care servicessector service providers using private sector only to are provided by private and non-profit providers.supplement critical gaps, and whose costs are cov- Primary care payment is mostly ‘Fee for Service’ered by budgetary funds. At the other end, we can with some alternatives (for example, capitation).have a system where defined services are delivered by In-patient service payment is through global budgetservice providers charging a fee for service, with pay- (case-based payment in some provinces) which doesment to the providers being made by State funded not include physician’s cost.medical insurance, with no payment to be made bythe patient. The HLEG has also recommended: ‘State New Zealand 20.34. National Health Service is publicly financedgovernments should consider experimenting with through general tax revenue. Outpatient services arearrangements where the state and district purchase provided through private providers. Secondary andcare from an integrated network of combined pri- Tertiary care services are mostly provided by public,mary, secondary and tertiary care providers. These some private providers. Primary care payment is aprovider networks should be regulated by the gov- mix of ‘Capitation’ and ‘Fee for Service’. In-patienternment so that they meet the rules and require- service payment is through global budget and case-ments for delivering cost effective, accountable and based payment, which includes physician’s cost.quality health care. Such an integrated providerentity should receive funds to achieve negotiated Germanypredetermined health outcomes for the population 20.35. Statutory Health Insurance is funded by 180being covered. This entity would bear financial risks ‘sickness funds’. Outpatient services are providedand rewards and be required to deliver on health through private providers. Secondary and Tertiarycare and wellness objectives. Ideally, the strength- care services are provided by public (50 per cent),ened District Hospital should be the leader of this private non-profit (33 per cent) and private for-provider network’ (Recommendation 3.1.10). profit (17 per cent) providers. Primary care pay- ment is ‘Fee for Service’. In-patient service payment20.31. The main recommendations of the HLEG are is through global budget and case-based payment,outlined in Box 20.1. which includes physician’s cost.
    • 12 Twelfth Five Year Plan Box 20.1 Recommendations of High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Coverage 1. Health Financing and Financial Protection: Government should increase public expenditure on health from the current level of 1.2 per cent of GDP to at least 2.5 per cent by the end of the Twelfth Plan, and to at least 3 per cent of GDP by 2022. General taxation should be used as the principal source of healthcare financing, not levying sector specific taxes. Specific purpose transfers should be introduced to equalise the levels of per capita public spending on health across different states. Expenditures on primary healthcare should account for at least 70 per cent of all healthcare expenditure. The technical and other capacities developed by the Ministry of Labour for the RSBY should be leveraged as the core of UHC operations—and transferred to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2. Access to Medicines, Vaccines and Technology: Price controls and price regulation, especially on essential drugs, should be enforced. The Essential Drugs List should be revised and expanded, and rational use of drugs ensured. Public sector should be strengthened to protect the capacity of domestic drug and vaccines industry to meet national needs. Safeguards provided by Indian patents law and the TRIPS Agreement against the country’s ability to produce essential drugs should be protected. MoHFW should be empowered to strengthen the drug regulatory system. 3. Human Resources for Health: Institutes of Family Welfare should be strengthened and Regional Faculty Development Centres should be selectively developed to enhance the availability of adequately trained faculty and faculty-sharing across institutions. District Health Knowledge Institutes, a dedicated training system for Community Health Workers, State Health Science Universities and a National Council for Human Resources in Health (NCHRH) should be established. 4. Health Service Norms: A National Health Package should be developed that offers, as part of the entitlement of every citizen, essential health services at different levels of the healthcare delivery system. There should be equitable access to health facilities in urban areas by rationalising services and focusing particularly on the health needs of the urban poor. 5. Management and Institutional Reforms: All India and State level Public Health Service Cadres and a specialised State level Health Systems Management Cadre should be introduced in order to give greater attention to Public Health and also to strengthen the management of the UHC system. The establishment of a National Health Regulatory and Development Authority (NHRDA) a, National Drug Regulatory and Development Authority (NDRDA) and a, National Health Promotion and Protection Trust (NHPPT) is also recommended. 6. Community Participation and Citizen Engagement: Existing Village Health Committees should be transformed into participatory Health Councils. 7. Gender and Health: There is a need to improve access to health services for women, girls and other vulnerable genders (going beyond maternal and child health).England private providers. Secondary and Tertiary care ser-20.36. National Health Service is publicly financed vices are provided by public and private providers.through general tax revenue. Outpatient services are Primary care payment is by risk-adjusted capitation.provided through both public and private provid- In-patient service payment is through Diagnosticers. Secondary and Tertiary care services are mostly Related Group (DRG) based capped global budget,provided by public, some private providers. Primary and fixed rate fees for some services.care payment is mostly a mix of capitation and payfor performance for private providers, and salaries Sri Lankafor public providers. In-patient service payment 20.38. Universal Health Coverage Scheme is tax-is through global budget and case-based payment, financed and Government operated. Outpatientwhich includes physician’s cost. services are provided through public providers.Thailand Secondary and Tertiary care services are provided20.37. Universal Health Coverage Scheme is financed by both public and private providers. Primary carethrough general tax revenues paid to local contract- payment is by Fee for Service. In-patient service pay-ing units on the basis of population size. Outpatient ment is through Fee for Service for Public Hospitalservices are provided through both public and and Capitation for Private Hospitals.
    • Health 13Mexico 1. A mix of public and private services is the real-20.39. Seguro Popular Insurance Scheme is financed ity of most countries. In order to make this mixthrough Federal and State general tax revenues work, a strong regulatory framework is essen-and member’s contributions through premiums tial to ensure that the UHC programme is mostfrom informal sector, and progressive contribu- effective in controlling cost, reducing provider-tion from enrolled families. Outpatient services are induced demand, and ensuring quality.provided through both public and limited contract- 2. Provider payment mechanisms, in themselves,ing in of private providers. Secondary and Tertiary are not magic bullets, and there are limits tocare services are usually provided by private provid- what they can do. Capitation-based networksers. Primary care payment is a mix of ‘Capitation’ can reduce disincentives to continuity of care,and ‘Fee for Service’. In-patient service payment is but by themselves, they will not guarantee it. Forthrough DRG although such payments take place on this, there have to be, in addition, improvementsan ad-hoc, non-systematic basis. in service delivery, improvements in human resources and related regulatory development20.40. The evidence from countries that have and enforcement.attempted to move towards UHC points to the criti- 3. Further, there is a need to build up institutionscal importance of initial conditions in terms of both of citizens’ participation, in order to strengthenwhat is necessary and what is feasible, in attempt- accountability and complement what the regula-ing to meet the objectives of improving coverage, tory architecture seeks to do.expanding access, controlling cost, raising quality,and strengthening accountability. 20.44. It must be noted that even developed coun- tries have taken decades to evolve networks that can20.41. In our system, the initial conditions include a implement alternative models of UHC. Many coun-large but severely underfunded public sector, a grow- tries are opting for ‘coordinated care’ models whereing but high cost private sector, with serious issues of primary, secondary and tertiary care is delivered asinadequate quality and coverage in both, and an in- an integrated framework with the participation ofeffective regulation. both public and private sector. The need is first to strengthen our public health infrastructure at all lev-20.42. In moving forward, there are two key questions: els. It could be supplemented by private service pro- viders as well as Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).1. How to combine public and private providers Our endeavour, in the long run, is to move towards effectively for meeting UHC goals in a manner an organised system of UHC. We should also learn that avoids perverse incentives, reduces provider from the service contracting arrangements initiated induced demand, and that meets the key objec- through RSBY and other State level initiatives. tives specified above?2. How to integrate different types and levels of ser- 20.45. In order to achieve health goals UHC must vices—public health and clinical; preventive and build on universal access to services that are deter- promotive interventions along with primary, minants of health, such as safe drinking water and secondary, and tertiary clinical care—so that sanitation, wholesome nutrition, basic education, continuum of care is assured? Inadequate pre- safe housing and hygienic environment. To aim at vention and inappropriate utilisation of second- achieving UHC without ensuring access to the deter- ary or tertiary care, when primary care should minants of health would be a strategic mistake, and suffice, would result in much higher cost of care. plainly unworkable. Therefore, it may be necessary to realise the goal of UHC in two parallel steps: the20.43. Global evidence from different countries’ first, would be clinical services at different levels,experiences gives us some pointers to answering defined in an Essential Health Package (EHP), whichthese questions: the Government would finance and ensure provision
    • 14 Twelfth Five Year Planthrough the public health system, supplemented by and tertiary care facilities in the network. Privatecontracted-in private providers whenever required sector will be contracted in only for critical gap filling.to fill in critical gaps; second the universal provision In areas where both public and private contractedof high impact, preventive and public health inter- in providers co-exist, patients shall have a choice inventions which the Government would universally selecting their provider. Networks of such integratedprovide within the Twelfth Five Year plan (Box 20.2). facilities at different levels will be encouraged to pro-The UHC would take two plan periods for realisa- vide a continuum of care, universally accessible andtion, but a move in terms of pilots and incremental affordable services with the District Hospital as thecoverage can begin in the Twelfth Plan itself. nodal point. No fee of any kind would be levied on primary health care services with the primary source20.46. Roadmap: The present health care delivery of financing being from general taxation/publicsystem needs reform to ensure better utilisation of exchequer. Details of the roadmap shall be workedresources and health outcomes. The building blocks out by the States through UHC pilots after consider-of the reform in the Twelfth Plan would be as follows. ing global experience and current local structures.Health Services will be delivered with seamless inte-gration between Primary, Secondary and Tertiary 20.47. UHC Models: Various options for financingsectors. The Primary Health Care will be strength- and organisation of delivery of services need to beened to deliver both preventive, public health and carefully explored. Cashless delivery of an Essentialcurative, clinical services. Publicly funded health Health Package (EHP) to all ought to be the basiccare would predominantly be delivered by public deliverable in all models. Since out-patient care andproviders. The primary health care providers within medicines are major elements of household’s out-the network will act as the gateway to secondary of-pocket and catastrophic expenditure on health, Box 20.2 Illustrative List of Preventive and Public Health Interventions Funded and Provided by Government 1. Full Immunisation among children under three years of age, and pregnant women 2. Full antenatal, natal and post natal care 3. Skilled birth attendance with a facility for meeting need for emergency obstetric care 4. Iron and Folic acid supplementation for children, adolescent girls and pregnant women 5. Regular treatment of intestinal worms, especially in children and reproductive age women 6. Universal use of iodine and iron fortified salt 7. Vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 to 59 months 8. Access to a basket of contraceptives, and safe abortion services 9. Preventive and promotive health educational services, including information on hygiene, hand-washing, dental hygiene, use of potable drinking water, avoidance of tobacco, alcohol, high calorie diet and obesity, need for regular physical exercise, use of helmets on two-wheelers and seat belts; advice on initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth and exclusively up to six months of age, and complimentary feeding thereafter, adolescent sexual health, awareness about RTI/STI; need for screening for NCDs and common cancers for those at risk 10. Home based newborn care, and encouragement for exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age 11. Community based care for sick children, with referral of cases requiring higher levels of care 12. HIV testing and counselling during antenatal care 13. Free drugs to pregnant HIV positive mothers to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV 14. Malaria prophylaxis, using Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLIN), diagnosis using Rapid Diagnostic Kits (RDK) and appropriate treatment 15. School check-up of health and wellness, followed by advice, and treatment if necessary 16. Management of diarrhoea, especially in children, using Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) 17. Diagnosis and treatment of Tuberculosis, Leprosy including Drug and Multi-Drug Resistant cases. 18. Vaccines for hepatitis B and C for high risk groups 19. Patient transport systems including emergency response ambulance services of the ‘dial 108’ model
    • Health 15ambulatory EHP would be a priority and every UHC system with a tax funded UHC system, over amodel would include systems for full and free access period of time.to essential generic medicines, through linkages with 2. The State Health Society should be empoweredGovernment pharmacies (for public providers) and with requisite resources and its capacity built toJan Aushadhi outlets (for all). Since the frequency of administer the coverage.use of services, nature of service delivery and cost of 3. Prepare the UHC Plan as a part of the Districtservices are fundamentally different for out-patient Health Action Plan of NHM for the pilot dis-(ambulatory) and in-patient care, and to obviate the tricts and identify the additional items to be cov-possibility of substitution of primary care by sec- ered for EHP.ondary and tertiary care, cost of ambulatory care 4. Frame and ensure compliance with Standardwould need to be earmarked in each UHC pilot. An Treatment and Referral Guidelines.effective health information network that could be 5. Strengthen the State and District programmeaccessed by all service providers and patients (for management units to implement the EHP.their own records) would enable the continuum of 6. A robust and effective Health Managementcare. All models could learn from the platform devel- Information System which, in the best case sce-oped by RSBY in terms of beneficiary coverage, facil- nario, tracks every health encounter and wouldity enrolment and prevention of fraud. enable assessment of performance and help in allocating resources to facilities.20.48. States may be encouraged and partially 7. Register all resident families in the area covered.funded to run at least one, but up to three UHC 8. Build an effective system of community involve-pilots in districts through the ‘Incentive Pool’ under ment in planning, management, oversight andNHM. Individual States, in consultation with the accountability.MoHFW, expert groups and institutions may final- 9. Build an effective community oversight and griev-ise the details of the pilot models before roll out. The ance redressal system through active involvementpilots could explore different models for provid- of Local Self-Government Agencies and Civiling universal access to an EHP, including those by Society.using public facilities in that area after being suit- 10. Develop and strengthen Monitoring and Inde-ably strengthened, empowered and networked, and a pendent Evaluation Mechanisms.combination of public and private facility networks.The pilot models must demonstrate the comparative OUTCOME INDICATORS FOR TWELFTHadvantages and costs of different approaches to UHC PLANthat would be appropriate for the level of develop- 20.50. The Twelfth Plan must work towards nationalment and the socio economic context of that state. health outcome goals, which target health indicators.Medical colleges can be asked to devise rigorous The national health goals, which would be aggregatesevaluation designs for testing the cost-effectiveness, of State wise goals (Table 20.4), are the following:patient’s satisfaction and change in household’s out-of-pocket expenses. 1. Reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 25: At the recent rate of decline of 5 per cent20.49. However, before rolling out UHC on pilot per year, India is projected to have an IMR ofmode, preparations for the following items need to 36 by 2015 and 32 by 2017. An achievement ofbe initiated: the MDG of reducing IMR to 27 by 2015 would require further acceleration of this historical rate1. Frame a national, core Essential Health Package of decline. If this accelerated rate is sustained, for out-patient and in-patient care for uniform the country can achieve an IMR of 25 by 2017. adoption in pilots. It is possible to expand the 2. Reduction of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to package of services under RSBY into an EHP, 100: At the recent rate of decline of 5.8 per cent with the vision of replacing an insurance based per annum India is projected to have an MMR
    • 16 Twelfth Five Year Plan TABLE 20.4 State-Wise Targets on IMR and MMR in Twelfth Plan Sl . Name of the States/UTs Recent Status Target for Twelfth Plan No IMR MMR Anaemia IMR MMR Anaemia India 44 212 55.3 25 100 28 1 Andhra Pradesh 43 134 62.9 25 61 31 2 Arunachal Pradesh 32 NA 50.6 19 – 25 3 Assam 55 390 69.5 32 177 35 4 Bihar 48 261 67.4 26 119 34 5 Chhattisgarh 48 269 57.5 28 122 28 6 Goa 11 NA 38 6 – 19 7 Gujarat 41 148 55.3 24 67 28 8 Haryana 44 153 56.1 26 65 28 9 Himachal Pradesh 38 NA 43.3 22 – 22 10 Jammu & Kashmir 41 NA 52.1 24 – 26 11 Jharkhand 39 261 69.5 23 109 35 12 Karnataka 35 178 51.5 15 80 26 13 Kerala 12 81 32.8 6 37 16 14 Madhya Pradesh 59 269 56 34 122 28 15 Manipur 11 NA 35.7 6 – 18 16 Maharashtra 25 104 48.4 15 47 24 17 Meghalaya 52 NA 47.2 30 – 24 18 Mizoram 34 NA 38.6 20 – 19 19 Nagaland 21 NA NA 12 – – 20 Odisha 57 258 61.2 33 117 31 21 Punjab 30 172 38 16 78 19 22 Rajasthan 52 318 53.1 30 145 27 23 Sikkim 26 NA 60 15 – 28 24 Tamil Nadu 22 97 53.2 13 44 27 25 Tripura 29 NA 65.1 17 – 33 26 Uttar Pradesh 57 359 49.9 32 163 20 27 Uttarakhand 36 359 55.2 21 163 28 28 West Bengal 32 145 63.2 11 66 32 29 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 23 NA NA 12 – – 30 Delhi 28 NA 44.3 15 – 22 31 Chandigarh 20 NA NA 12 – – 32 Dadra & Nagar Haweli 35 NA NA 20 – – 33 Daman & Diu 22 NA NA 13 – – 34 Lakshadweep 24 NA NA 14 – – 35 Puducherry 19 NA NA 11 – –Note: States which have opted for targets more ambitious than on pro-rate basis are coloured maroon.
    • Health 17 of 139 by 2015 and 123 by 2017. An achievement place to measure their burden. Broadly, the goals of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of of communicable diseases shall be as indicated reducing MMR to 109 by 2015 would require an in Table 20.5. acceleration of this historical rate of decline. At 8. Reduction of poor households’ out-of-pocket this accelerated rate of decline, the country can expenditure: Out-of-pocket expenditure on achieve an MMR of 100 by 2017. health care is a burden on poor families, leads3. Reduction of Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to 2.1: to impoverishment and is a regressive system of India is on track for the achievement of a TFR financing. Increase in public health spending to target of 2.1 by 2017, which is necessary to 1.87 per cent of GDP by the end of the Twelfth achieve net replacement level of unity, and Plan, cost-free access to essential medicines in realise the long cherished goal of the National public facilities, regulatory measures proposed Health Policy, 1983 and National Population in the Twelfth Plan are likely to lead to increase Policy of 2000. in share of public spending. The Twelfth Plan4. Prevention, and reduction of under-nutrition measures will also aim to reduce out-of-pocket in children under 3 years to half of NFHS-3 spending as a proportion of private spending on (2005–06) levels: Underweight children are at an health. increased risk of mortality and morbidity. At the current rate of decline, the prevalence of under- FINANCING FOR HEALTH weight children is expected to be 29 per cent by 20.51. In the Twelfth Plan, general tax revenues 2015, and 27 per cent by 2017. An achievement would be the principle source of finance for pub- of the MDG of reducing undernourished chil- licly delivered health services supplemented by part- dren under 3 years to 26 per cent by 2015 would nerships with the private sector and, contribution require an acceleration of this historical rate of by corporates as a part of their Corporate Social decline. The country needs to achieve a reduc- Responsibility. A designated sin tax to finance a part tion in below 3 year child under-nutrition to half of 2005–06 (NFHS) levels by 2017. This particu- TABLE 20.5 lar health outcome has a very direct bearing on National Health Goals for Communicable Diseases the broader commitment to security of life, as do Disease Twelfth Plan Goal MMR, IMR, anaemia and child sex ratio. Tuberculosis Reduce annual incidence and5. Prevention and reduction of anaemia among mortality by half women aged 15–49 years to 28 per cent: Anaemia, Leprosy Reduce prevalence to <1/10000 an underlying determinant of maternal mortality population and incidence to zero in and low birth weight, is preventable and treat- all districts able by a very simple intervention. The preva- Malaria Annual Malaria Incidence of <1/1000 lence of anaemia needs to be steeply reduced to Filariasis <1 per cent microfilaria prevalence in 28 per cent by the end of the Twelfth Plan. all districts6. Raising child sex ratio in the 0–6 year age group Dengue Sustaining case fatality rate of from 914 to 950: Like anaemia, child sex ratio <1 per cent is another important indicator which has been Chikungunya Containment of outbreaks showing a deteriorating trend, and needs to be Japanese Encephalitis Reduction in mortality by 30 per cent targeted for priority attention. Kala-azar Elimination by 2015, that is, <1 case7. Prevention and reduction of burden of Commu- per 10000 population in all blocks nicable and Non-Communicable diseases (includ- HIV/AIDS Reduce new infections to zero and ing mental illnesses) and injuries: State wise and provide comprehensive care and national targets for each of these conditions support to all persons living with will be set by the Ministry of Health and Family HIV/AIDS and treatment services for Welfare (MoHFW) as robust systems are put in all those who require it.
    • 18 Twelfth Five Year Plan TABLE 20.6 Development Services Scheme the total Government Budget Support for Departments of MoHFW in expenditure as a proportion of GDP in the Twelfth Twelfth Plan (2012–17) Plan is likely to increase from 1.94 per cent of GDP (Figures in ` Crores) in the last year of the Eleventh Plan to 3.04 per centBudget Support for Central Departments in Eleventh Plan in the corresponding year of the Twelfth Plan.(2007–12) and Twelfth Plan (2012–17) Projections (` Crores)Department of Eleventh Plan Twelfth % FUNDING AS AN INSTRUMENT OF INCENTIVEMoHFW Expenditure Plan Outlay Increase AND REFORMDepartment of 83407 268551 322% 20.54. In the Twelfth Plan, a paradigm shift is envis-Health and Family aged in Central Government funding to ensure thatWelfare sufficient amounts are made available and, fur-Department of 2994 10044 335%Ayurveda, Yoga ther that they leverage a comparable effort fromand Naturopathy, the States. In the Approach Paper to the TwelfthUnani, Siddha and Plan, it was stated that we should aim at raisingHomoeopathy the total expenditure on health in the Centre and(AYUSH) the States (including both Plan and Non-Plan) toDepartment of 1870 10029 536% 2.5 per cent of GDP by the end of the Twelfth PlanHealth Research period. Accordingly, the allocations proposed for theAids Control 1305 11394 873% Twelfth Plan makes Health a priority and will allowTotal MoHFW 89576 300018 335% Central Plan expenditure to expand by about 34 per cent per year. Since the expenditure by the States isof the health budget can lead to reduced consump- double the expenditure by the Centre, it is necessarytion of these harmful items (as tobacco and alcohol) to ensure that the States match the effort. If this isand could be considered. achieved, the total expenditure of the Centre and the States on Core Health would rise to about 1.87 per20.52. For financing the Twelfth Plan the projec- cent of GDP at the end of the Twelfth Plan period.tions envisage increasing total public funding, planand non-plan, on core health from 1.04 per cent 20.55. A key objective is to ensure that the Statesof GDP in 2011–12 to 1.87 per cent of GDP by the increase their expenditure on health at the sameend of the Twelfth Plan. In such an event, the fund- rate as the Centre. This may become possible if theing in the Central Plan would increase to 3 times the transfer to the States is made conditional upon aEleventh Plan levels involving an annual increase by higher expenditure by the States on health. States34 per cent (Table 20.6). With the incentive meas- would be eligible to receive assistance through anures proposed, States’ total funding, Plan and Non- incentive grant on the lines being recommended forplan, on Health is expected to increase to three times all Centrally Sponsored Schemes. They would be eli-the Eleventh Plan levels involving a similar annual gible if they maintain their health expenditure (Planincrease. The Central and State funding for Health, and Non-Plan) as a proportion of their budget at theas a proportion of total public sector health fund- base level (average of last three years) at the mini-ing will remain at 2011–12 levels of 33 per cent and mum, and also prepare a State wide health sector67 per cent respectively. plan based on District Health plans. The incentive grant could be operated as an instrument of equity20.53. When viewed in the perspective of the between states, where both performance and needbroader health sector, which includes schemes of is recognised in making allocative decisions. TheMinistries other than Health aimed at improving details of the proposed arrangement will be workedthe health status of people, namely Drinking Water out by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare inand Sanitation, Mid-day Meal and Integrated Child consultation with Planning Commission.
    • Health 1920.56. Flexibility in Central funding for States may observance of Standard Treatment Guidelines andbe built in so that States take the lead in devising delivery of affordable care. An additional modelplans suited to their health needs. The proposal for for consideration is the Not-for-profit Publica flexi fund to the States is being recommended for Private Partnership (NPPP) being followed in theall Centrally Sponsored Schemes in the Twelfth Plan. International Institute of Information TechnologyAccordingly, in the health sector, within the broad (IIIT), which have been set up as fully autonomousnational parameters, States would have the flexibil- institutions, with partnership of the Ministry ofity to plan and implement their own Health Action Human Resource Development, Governments ofPlans. A fixed portion of National Health Mission respective States and industry members. PPP andfunds could be earmarked to States and UTs, using Not-for-Profit PPP models can be considered inan objective formula based on the total popula- order to expand capacities for tertiary care in thetion and health lag of the State; these baseline funds Twelfth Plan.would be allotted and made known to the States. Asector-wide Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) 20.59. Resource generation by facilities and Colleges:between the State and Central Government may for- Given the gap in need and availability of tertiarymalise mutual commitments and provide strategic care facilities and to ensure maximisation of ben-direction for health sector reforms. efits from limited public funds, public facilities should be encouraged to part-finance their recur-OTHER MODELS OF FINANCING ring costs by mobilising contributions (including20.57. Public–Private Partnerships: PPPs offer an under Corporate Social Responsibility) and Internalopportunity to tap the material, human and manage- Extra-Budgetary Resources. Under the recentlyrial resources of the private sector for public good. drafted Companies Bill the Government has pro-But experience with PPP has shown that Govern- posed that companies should earmark 2 per centment’s capacity to negotiate and manage it is not of their average profits of the preceding three yearseffective. Without effective regulatory mechanisms, for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activi-fulfillment of contractual obligations suffers from ties. CSR is mandatory for Central Public Sectorweak oversight and monitoring. It is necessary, as the Enterprises, the guidelines of which issued by theHLEG has argued, to move away from ad hoc PPPs Department of Public Enterprises include healthto well negotiated and managed contracts that are service as one of the eligible components. To availregulated effectively keeping foremost the health of of this opportunity, all publicly funded health carethe ‘aam-admi’. Health has been included with other facilities would be allowed to receive donations,infrastructure sectors which are eligible for Viability and funding from companies under their CorporateGap Funding up to a ceiling of 20 per cent of total Social Responsibility head. Adequate safeguardsproject costs under a PPP scheme. As a result, pri- have to be built in so as to ensure ‘no-frills fund-vate sector could propose and commission projects, ing’ and that donations are not used to influencesuch as hospitals and medical colleges outside met- the policies or practices of healthcare facilities inropolitan areas, which are not remunerative per se, any way. All medical colleges should be encouragedand claim up to 20 per cent of the project cost as to develop their own corpus to attain financial flex-grant from the Government. Some models of PPP in ibility over a period of time. Tamil Nadu has issuedhealthcare covering Primary Health Care, Diagnostic guidelines to authorise Medical Officers in chargeservices, Hospitals which are currently being imple- of particular healthcare facilities to enter into MoUsmented in the States are illustrated in Box 20.3. These with interested persons to receive contributions forcan be considered wherever appropriate for replica- capital or recurrent expenditure in the provision andtion and upscaling. maintenance of facilities. On available models for self-generation of revenues, the option for cross-sub-20.58. PPP arrangements should address issues sidy in line with the Aravind eye care system basedof compliance with regulatory requirements, in Tamil Nadu could also be explored. Tertiary care
    • 20 Twelfth Five Year Plan Box 20.3 Public–Private Partnerships (PPP) in Health Sector Rajiv Gandhi Super-speciality Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka Contracting Arrangements: Government of Karnataka and Apollo Hospitals Type of Partnership: Joint Venture (Management Contract) Services: Provides super-speciality clinical care services and management of Hospital. Free Out-patient services for BPL patients. Rural Health Care Delivery and management of PHCs Contracting Arrangements: Karuna Trust and Government of Arunachal Pradesh Type of Partnership: Contracting in Services: Manages 11 PHC’s, provides health care facilities to the local population. Labs, Drug Supply and Diagnostic Services Hindlabs Contracting Arrangements: MoHFW and HLL Life Care Ltd Type of Partnership: Contracting in Services: A novel initiative delivers high end diagnostic services at CGHS rates Health Insurance Community Health Insurance Scheme Contracting Arrangements: Karuna Trust, National Insurance Co. and Government of Karnataka Type of Partnership: Joint Venture Services: A community health insurance scheme to improve the access and utilisation of health services Outreach/health Delivery Mobile Health Service in Sunderban, W. Bengal Contracting Arrangements: Government of West Bengal and Non-profit NGO Type of Partnership: Contracting in (Joint Venture) Services: Mobile boat based health services and access to health services in remote areas RCH Services Merry Gold Health Network (MGHN) and SAMBHAV Voucher Scheme in UP Contracting Arrangements: Joint endeavour of Government of India and USAID through UP SIFPSA Type of Partnership: Social Franchising network and Voucher system Services: Provide FP/RCH services through accredited private providersfacilities would have an incentive to generate reve- ‘Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana’ (RSBY), intro-nues if they are allowed flexibility in the utilisation of duced in 2007, was designed to meet the healthself-generated resources within broad policy param- insurance needs of the poor.eters laid down by the Government. 20.61. RSBY provides for ‘cash-less’, smart cardRASHTRIYA SWASTHYA BIMA YOJANA (RSBY) based health insurance cover of `30000 per annum to20.60. Health insurance is a common form of each enrolled family, comprising up to five individu-medical protection all over the world and until the als. The beneficiary family pays only `30 per annumEleventh Plan, it was available only to government as registration/renewal fee. The scheme covers hos-employees, workers in the organised sector; private pitalisation expenses (Out-patient expenses arehealth insurance has been in operation for several not covered), including maternity benefit, and pre-years, but its coverage has been limited. The percent- existing diseases. A transportation cost of `100 perage of the total population estimated to be covered visit is also paid. The premium payable to insuranceunder these schemes was only 16 per cent. The poor agencies is funded by Central and State Governmentsdid not have any insurance for in-patient care. The in a 75:25 ratio, which is relaxed to 90:10 for the
    • Health 21North-East region and Jammu and Kashmir. The be handled at the primary or even preventive stages.maximum premium is capped at `750 per insured The RSBY also does not take into account state spe-family per year. cific variations in disease profiles and health needs.20.62. RSBY was originally limited to Below Poverty Innovative Payment Methods to ImproveLine (BPL) families but was later extended to building Outcomesand other construction workers, MGNREGA benefi- 20.65. The weakness of line item budget paymentciaries, street vendors, beedi workers, and domestic methods for public facilities is well documented.workers. The scheme is currently being implemented More responsive resource allocation is a challengein 24 States/UTs. About 3.3 crore families have been for the Government. Investments in public facili-covered as on date and 43 lakh persons have availed ties will translate into better access, coverage, qualityhospitalisation under the scheme till November 2012. of care, and superior health outcomes only if these facilities and their personnel perform their expected20.63. Key feature of RSBY is that it provides for tasks in a responsive manner. Payment methodsprivate health service providers to be included in could be used as one of the instruments to improvethe system, if they meet certain standards and agree public sector performance. For example, managersto provide cash-less treatment which is reimbursed and health personnel in public sector facilities couldby the insurance company. This has the advantage be paid bonus for achieving higher coverage of ser-of giving patients a choice between alternative ser- vices as measured by reduction in the use of privatevice providers where such alternatives are available. sector services in the coverage area (unless these areSeveral State Governments (such as those of Andhra contracted in by the Government); they can be paidPradesh and Tamil Nadu) have introduced their own further incentives for delivering preventive care ser-health insurance schemes, which often have a more vices effectively and achieving measurable healthgenerous total cover. outcomes in their respective areas. UHC pilots to be rolled out by States could experiment with different20.64. A general problem with any ‘fee for service’ methods of organisation and delivery of services, andpayment system financed by an insurance mecha- payment systems so that resources allocated are ablenism is that it creates an incentive for unnecessary to generate better health outcomes.treatment, which in due course raises costs and pre-miums. There is some evidence that this is happen- Health Care for Government Employeesing and it is necessary to devise corrective steps to 20.66. There is a proposal for introduction of aminimise it. Some groups oppose insurance schemes health insurance scheme for the Central Governmentper se on these grounds, but that is not realistic. The employees and pensioners on a pan-India basis, withbeneficiary is able to choose from alternative care special focus on pensioners living in non-CGHSgivers covered by a common insurance scheme. areas. The proposal is to make this scheme voluntaryExperience with the RSBY, and with the other State- cum contributory for serving employees and pen-specific insurance schemes, needs to be thoroughly sioners. However, it is proposed to be made compul-studied so that suitable corrective measures can be sory for the new entrants in Government service.introduced before integrating these schemes into aframework of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). HEALTH AND MEDICAL REGULATIONThe shortcomings of RSBY noted so far include 20.67. Regulations for food, drugs and the medi-high transaction costs due to insurance intermedi- cal profession requires lead action by the Centralaries, inability to control provider induced demand, Government not only because these subjects falland lack of coverage for primary health and out under the Concurrent List in the Constitution,patient care. Fragmentation of different levels of but also because the lack of consistency and wellcare can lead to an upward escalation towards the enforced standards hugely impacts the commonsecondary level of patients who should preferably citizen and diminishes health outcomes. Keeping in
    • 22 Twelfth Five Year Planview the need to place authority and accountability 20.73. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act would betogether, the proposed Public Heath Cadre in States amended to include medical devices incorporatingwould be expected to be the single point for enforce- provisions for their risk-based classification, clinicalment of all health related regulations. trials, conformity assessments and penalties. As rec- ommended by the Mashelkar Committee, a Central20.68. There is also an urgent need to strengthen Drug Authority needs to be set up. This author-the regulatory systems in the States, where most ity would review the issuance of licenses for manu-of the implementation rests. This would entail the facture and sale of drugs. Once this Authority is instrengthening of and establishment of testing labs place, suitable strengthening of its infrastructure andand capacity building of functionaries. Such propos- laboratories would be done. The Government wouldals will be part-funded under the National Health mandate that labels on drugs and food fully discloseMission (NHM). Regulation can be made affordable all its ingredients.and effective by encouraging self-regulation, andentrusting responsibility to Public Health officers. 20.74. Strengthening of existing, and creation of new drug testing laboratories is essential to ensure theDRUG REGULATION quality of drugs being produced in India, whether20.69. E-governance systems that inter-connect all they are used for domestic distribution or for exportlicensing and registration offices and laboratories, to other countries.GPS based sample collection systems and onlineapplications for licensing would be introduced. A 20.75. A National List of Essential Medicinesrepository of approved formulations at both State would be made operational with the introductionand national levels would be developed. The drug of Standard Treatment Guidelines, including foradministration system would build capacity in train- AYUSH. It would be printed and supplied to alling, and encourage self regulation. facilities at regular intervals. These guidelines would incorporate generic prescriptions. Implementation20.70. The MoHFW would ensure that irrational of Standard Treatment Guidelines in the public andFixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) and hazardous private sectors is a priority to address drug resistance,drugs are weeded out in a time bound manner. promote rational prescriptions and use of drugs, and contain health care costs.20.71. Pharmaco-vigilance, post-marketing surveil-lance, Adverse Drug Response Monitoring, qual- 20.76. Pharmaceutical marketing and aggressive pro-ity control, testing and re-evaluation of registered motion also contributes to irrational use. There is aproducts would be accorded priority under drug need for a mandatory code for identifying and penal-regulation. ising unethical promotion on the part of Pharma companies. Mandated disclosure by Pharmaceutical20.72. Use of generic names or the International companies of the expenditure incurred on drugNon-proprietary Name (INN) would be made com- promotion, ghost writing in promotion of pharmapulsory and encouraged at all stages of Government products to attract disqualification of the author andprocurement, distribution, prescription and use, penalty on the company, and vetting of drug relatedas it contributes to a sound system of procurement material in Continuing Medical Education wouldand distribution, drug information and rational use be considered. To avoid medical conflicts of inter-at every level of the health care system. Established est, legislation requiring drug companies to disclosebrand manufacturers would be encouraged to bid for payments made to doctors for research, consulting,Government procurement, but should provide med- lectures, travel and entertainment would also beicines in non-propriety names. considered.
    • Health 2320.77. MoHFW would encourage public and patient consider mandating evidence based and cost-effec-education in the appropriate use of drugs, particu- tive clinical protocols of care, which all provid-larly antibiotics and antimicrobials, since it would ers would be obliged to follow. It would endeavourbenefit individual patients and public health. to gradually move towards a regime where clini- cal decision-making would be routinely subjected20.78. Institutional frameworks for regulation to prescription audits to confirm compliance. Theof clinical research and trials to ensure safety of rights of patients to obtain rational treatment ofresearch subjects will be a priority. In addition, effi- good quality at reasonable cost would be protected.cient assessment and approval of new technologies, Professional councils and faculty in medical col-drugs and devices would also be done. The pro- leges shall be encouraged to undertake prescriptioncess of approval and introduction of new medical audits to assess extent of compliance with Standardtechnologies, and devices, would be notified. India Treatment Guidelines for identifying violations ofstill has to safeguard itself from TRIPS plus provi- guidelines and taking appropriate action. There issions which will evergreen patents for more than 20 a need to revise and strengthen the existing regula-years. Safeguards like compulsory licensing, parallel tory mechanism for medical practice to prevent wil-imports, and so on, need to be adopted to protect ful negligence and malpractice. Grievance redressalnational’s public health. mechanisms would be put in place.FOOD REGULATION 20.84. Since there are no legislations on registra-20.79. The newly established Food Safety and tion of clinical establishments in many States, andStandards Authority of India (FSSAI) would strive the ones existing (as in States of Andhra Pradesh,to improve transparency in its functioning and deci- Maharashtra, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur,sion making. Bio-safety would be an integral part of Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab and West Bengal) haveany risk assessment being undertaken by FSSAI. major gaps, all States will be persuaded to adopt the Central Act under Clause (1) of Article 252 of the20.80. Food surveys would be carried out regularly Constitution.and their results made public. An annual report onstate of food safety would be published. 20.85. An appropriate regulatory mechanism would be considered to ensure compulsory rural service by20.81. Policies to promote production and consump- medical graduates. Concurrently, a set of monetarytion of healthy food would be developed. Sale and and non-monetary incentives would be built up toconsumption of unhealthy food would be discour- encourage doctors and allied health cadres to serveaged in general and in schools in particular. Public in rural areas.information campaigns to create awareness on foodsafety matters will be launched. 20.86. Effective enforcement of the provisions of Pre- Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques20.82. An appropriate module on food safety and (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act and relentlessbio-safety will be introduced in the Medical and public awareness measures would be put in place. ANursing curriculum. concerted societal conscientisation and communi- cation campaign would be launched to create valueREGULATION OF MEDICAL PRACTICE for the girl child and women, along with affirmative20.83. The provisions for registration and regu- action for girls. Local Self Government Institutions,lation of clinical establishments would be imple- specially the newly elected women panchayat andmented effectively; all clinical establishments would urban local body members, would be mobilised toalso be networked on the Health Information change deeply entrenched behaviours and mind-System, and mandated to share data on nation- sets about the girl child. Panchayats and urban localally required parameters. The Government would bodies which are able to achieve a reversal of the
    • 24 Twelfth Five Year Planfalling trend in child sex ratio would be recognised 20.91. Centres of Excellence need to be created forand awarded, along the lines of the Nirmal Gram training public health professionals in epidemiology,Puraskar. entomology and microbiology for effective disease surveillance and, disease outbreak investigations andNATIONAL LEVEL TERTIARY CARE for effectively responding to outbreaks, epidemicsINSTITUTIONS and disasters.20.87. A single Central Sector Scheme on ‘NationalLevel Tertiary Care Institutions’ will fund up-grada- 20.92. A continuous stream of qualified teacherstion of existing medical colleges and converting ter- would be required for serving in the new teachingtiary care facilities of the Central Government across institutions proposed. Apex institutions of learn-different departments into teaching institutions. ing like AIIMS, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) and Jawaharlal20.88. In the Twelfth Five Year Plan a concerted effort Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education andneeds to be made to confer greater autonomy to the Research (JIPMER) will be geared to build capacityexisting Tertiary Care Institution and Hospitals. They in regional and State teaching institutions for train-need to be delegated greater administrative and finan- ing of trainers.cial powers and need to be empowered to function aseffective Board managed entities (see Box 20.4). 20.93. A new category of mid-level health-workers named Community Health Officers, could be devel-20.89. In the Central Government sector, more oped for primary health care. These workers wouldAIIMS like Institutions (ALIs) will be established dur- be trained after Class XII for a three year period toing the Twelfth Plan period in addition to the eight become competent to provide essential preven-already approved. These would be completed and tive and primary care and implement public healthmade operational during the Plan period. They will activities at sub-centre level. Details of their func-serve as composite centres for continued professional tions, qualifications, designations, placement andeducation, and multi-skilling of health workers. career tracks within the health system need to be worked out. This new category offers an opportunity20.90. The existing teaching institutions will be to break through professional silos, develop compe-strengthened to provide leadership in research and tencies that draw upon different but complementarypractice on different medical conditions, and research streams of knowledge and help generate employmentthemes. Priorities include Cancer, Arthritis and while meeting health needs of under-served popula-musculo-skeletal diseases, Child Health, Diabetes, tions. These Community Health Officers would beMental Health and Neuro Sciences, Geriatrics, groomed to discharge public health functions.Biomedical and Bioengineering, Hospital andHealth Care Administration, Nursing Education 20.94. Simultaneously, programmes for Continuingand Research, Information Technology and Tele- Medical Education would be strengthened andMedicine and Complementary Medicine. expanded. Agencies such as the National Academy Box 20.4 Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Delhi: A Model of Autonomy and Sustainable Financing The Institute is a super specialty medical institute under Government of NCT Delhi that seeks to provide quality tertiary health care. Its services: are free for BPL card holders of Delhi, and charges for other classes are competitive. Its business model aims at attaining efficiency and self sustenance. The Institute is governed by a Society in an autonomus manner, which aims to combine the skills and structure of academic Universities, clinical and research acumen of the super-specialists and the managerial skills of the corporate world.
    • Health 25of Medical Sciences can play a useful role in provid- INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INing good quality teaching material and also help in HEALTHits dissemination, by using the National Knowledge 20.97. Information Technology can be used in atNetwork. least four different ways to improve health care and systems:20.95. Good health planning requires high qualitydata on estimates of supply and demand of various 1. Support public health decision making for bettercategories of health workers. Accurate data on the management of health programmes and healthnumber, specialisation, distribution, status of prac- systems at all levelstice of health professionals in the country is, however, 2. Support to service providers for better quality ofnot available. Professional Councils in respective care and follow upStates and at the national level should therefore, con- 3. Provision of quality services in remote locationstinually update their records on Human Resources, through Tele-medicinetrying to take into account the extent of internal and 4. Supporting education, and continued learning ininternational migration The MoHFW would exer- medicine and healthcise due vigilance to ensure this. 20.98. A composite HIS, when fully operational,20.96. Licensing of medical professionals with a would incorporate the following:view to control the entry of unqualified personsinto the market is governed by various laws. The 1. Universal registration of births, deaths and causeNational Commission for Human Resources and of death. Maternal and infant death reviews.Health (NCHRH) would be created as an overarch- 2. Nutritional surveillance, particularly amonging regulatory body for medical education and allied women in the reproductive age group and chil-health sciences with the dual purpose of reforming dren under six years of age.the current regulatory framework and enhancing 3. Disease surveillance based on reporting by ser-the supply of skilled human resource in the health vice providers and clinical laboratories (publicsector. The proposed Commission would subsume and private) to detect and act on disease out-many functions of the existing councils, namely breaks and epidemics.Medical Council of India, Dental Council of India, 4. Out-patient and in-patient information throughNursing Council of India and Pharmacy Council of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) to reduceIndia. The proposed NCHRH would also constitute response time in emergencies and improve gen-a National Board for Health Education (NBHE) and eral hospital administration.a National Evaluation and Assessment Committee 5. Data on Human Resource within the public and(NEAC) with a mandate to prescribe minimum private health systemstandards for health education, and developing and 6. Financial management in the public health sys-maintaining a system of accreditation of health edu- tem to streamline resource allocation and trans-cational institutes respectively. Apart from this, a fers, and accounting and payments to facilities,National Council has also been proposed to be set providers and beneficiaries. Ultimately, it wouldup under NCHRH to inter alia ensure ethical stand- enable timely compilation of the National Healthards among medical professionals. The NCHRH Accounts on an annual basis.is expected to assess the demand and availability 7. A national repository of teaching modules,to plan for the creation of the right mix of human case records for different medical conditionsresource in health. in textual and audio-visual formats for use by teaching faculty, students and practitioners for Continuing Medical Education.
    • 26 Twelfth Five Year Plan 8. Tele-medicine and consultation support to doc- 20.102. The gains of the flagship programme of tors at primary and secondary facilities from NRHM will be strengthened under the umbrella of specialists at tertiary centres. NHM which will have universal coverage. The focus 9. Nation-wide registries of clinical establishments, on covering rural areas and rural population will manufacturing units, drug-testing laboratories, continue. licensed drugs and approved clinical trials to support regulatory functions of Government. 20.103. A major component of NHM is proposed10. Access of public to their own health information to be a Scheme for providing primary health care and medical records, while preserving confiden- to the urban poor, particularly those residing in tiality of data. slums. Modalities and institutional mechanisms for11. Programme Monitoring support for National roll-out of this scheme are being worked out by the Health Programmes to help identify programme Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in consulta- gaps. tion with Planning Commission. NHM would give the States greater flexibility to make multi-year plans20.99. To achieve these goals, computer with inter- for systems strengthening, and addressing threats tonet connectivity would be ensured in every PHC and health in both rural and urban areas through inter-all higher level health facilities in this Plan period. ventions at Primary, Secondary and Tertiary levelsConnectivity can be extended to sub-centres either of care. The roles and responsibilities of the Centrethrough computers or through cell phones, depend- and States in the health sector would be made opera-ing on their state of readiness and the skill-set of tional through instruments such as State specific andtheir functionaries. All District hospitals would be Sector-wide Memoranda of Understanding (MoU). The MoU mechanism is a tool for collective prioritylinked by tele-medicine channels to leading tertiary setting, involves agreement on measurable outcomescare centres, and all intra-District hospitals would and their relative weight, allows flexibility in imple-be linked to the District hospital and optionally to mentation and accountability based on objectivehigher centres. assessment and incentivisation of performance.20.100. The role of the MoHFW would be to lay IT 20.104. The targets in the MoU would be finalisedsystem standards, and define indicators which would through a consultative process so that there is a con-be openly shared. States will be funded for their ini- sensus. The MoU will cover the entire health sector,tiatives in this field at primary or secondary levels be subject to rigorous monitoring, and linked to athrough the National Health Mission. Health surveys performance based appraisal and incentive system.would be annually conducted to generate district The MoU would include important policy reforms,level information on health status, which will also which may not necessarily have budgetary implica-serve to verify the accuracy of routine health infor- tions such as regulation, HR policies, inter-sectoralmation system convergence, use of generic medicines. The MoU can have a set of obligatory parameters, state spe-NATIONAL HEALTH MISSION (NHM) cific optional parameters and reform parameters.20.101. The Prime Minister in his Independence The MoU will follow the log frame approach in set-Day speech, 2012 had declared: ‘After the success of ting inputs, outputs, outcomes and impact goals forthe National Rural health Mission, we now want to the districts and States. System-wide MoUs betweenexpand the scope of health services in our towns also. Centre and States would allow a lot of flexibility toThe National Rural Health Mission will be converted the latter to develop their own strategies and plansinto a National Health Mission (NHM) which would for delivery of services, while committing the Statescover all villages and towns in the country.’ to quantitative, verifiable and mutually agreed upon outputs and outcomes.
    • Health 2720.105. In addition to the Common Review Mission, with an incentive, which they can share with theira methodology of external concurrent evaluation teams, to achieve and improve their quality rating.would be finalised and put in place to assess the The service and quality standards shall be defined,progress in MoU goals. These reports will be placed made consistent with requirements under thebefore the Mission Steering Group at the national Clinical Establishments Act, and performance oflevel and before the Governing Body of the State and each registered facility made public, and periodicallydistrict health societies. All major programme com- ranked. The work of quality monitoring will be suit-ponents would be evaluated as part of operational ably institutionalised.research and programme evaluation. 20.110. To enable access to quality diagnostic facili-20.106. The National Health Mission will incorpo- ties, pooling of resources available with differentrate the following core principles. agencies, their up-gradation wherever needed, out- sourcing and in-sourcing strategies would be adopted.CORE PRINCIPLES 20.111. The objective would be to achieve a mini-Universal Coverage mum norm of 500 beds per 10 lakh population in an20.107. The NHM shall extend all over the country, average district. Approximately 300 beds could be atboth in urban and rural areas and promote univer- the level of District Hospitals and the remaining dis-sal access to a continuum of cashless, health services tributed judiciously at the CHC level. Where needed,from primary to tertiary care. Separate strategies private sector services also may be contracted in toshall be followed for the urban areas, using opportu- supplement the services provided by the public sec-nities such as easier access to secondary and tertiary tor. The sanction of new facilities other than sub-facilities, and better transport and telecommunica- centres should be undertaken only when mappingtion services. There is greater scope for contracting of access demonstrates the need for new facilities toarrangements with the private sector in urban areas, improve accessibility.to fill gaps in strengthened public facilities. Area spe-cific NHM plans shall address the challenges unique 20.112. States would be encouraged to put in placeto their areas such as overcrowding, poor sanitation, systems for Emergency Medical Referral to bridgepollution, traffic injuries, higher rates of crime and the gaps in access to health facilities and need forrisky personal behaviour in urban areas. transport in the event of an emergency. Standards for these services will specify the time taken to trans-Achieving Quality Standards port patients from the location to designated health20.108. The IPHS standards will be revised to incor- facilities, and these standards shall be evaluatedporate standards of care and service to be offered at and followed. The possibility of positioning sucheach level of health care facility. Standards would referral with the response teams of Fire-Fightinginclude the complete range of conditions, covering Departments, as is the practice in many developedemergency, RCH, prevention and management of nations, should be explored. These facilities, onceCommunicable and Non-Communicable diseases operational, would also help in managing disasters,incorporating essential medicines, and Essential and in terms of early response, search and rescue, emer-Emergency Surgical Care (EESC). gency care and rehabilitation.20.109. All government and publicly financed pri- 20.113. For ensuring access to health care amongvate health care facilities would be expected to under-served populations, the existing Mobileachieve and maintain these standards. An in-house Medical units would be expanded to have a presencequality management system will be built into the in each CHC. Mobile Medical Units may also bedesign of each facility, which will regularly measure dedicated to certain areas, which have moving popu-its quality achievements. Facilities will be provided lations. For example, boat clinics of C-NES in Assam
    • 28 Twelfth Five Year Planprovide curative and emergency care for the popula- be used to universalise the upgrading of standards oftion residing in islands and flood plains of the State. health facilities and teaching colleges.Continuum of Care Decentralised Planning20.114. A continuum of care across health facili- 20.115. A key element of the new NHM is that itties helps manage health problems more effectively would provide considerable flexibility to States andat the lowest level. For example, if medical colleges, Districts to plan for measures to promote healthdistrict hospitals, CHCs, PHCs and sub-centres and address the health problems that they face (Boxin an area are networked, then the most common 20.5). The NHM guidelines could provide flexibilitydisease conditions can be assessed, prevented and to States and districts to plan for results.managed at appropriate levels. It will avoid frag-mentation of care, strengthen primary health care, 20.116. New health facilities would not be set up onreduce unnecessary load on secondary and tertiary a rigid, population based norm, but would aim tofacilities and assure efficient referral and follow up be accessible to populations in remote locations andservices. Continuum of care can lead to improve- within a defined time period. The need for new facili-ments in quality and patient satisfaction. Such link- ties of each category would thus be assessed by theages would be built in the Twelfth Plan so that all districts and States using a ‘time to care’ approach.health care facilities in a region are organically linked This will be done based on a host of contributingwith each other, with medical colleges providing the factors, including geographic spread of population,broad vision, leadership and opportunities for skill nature of terrain, availability of health care facility inup-gradation. The potential offered by tele-medicine the vicinity and availability of transport network. Forfor remote diagnostics, monitoring and case man- example, a travel time of 30 minutes to reach a pri-agement needs to be fully realised. Appropriate fac- mary healthcare facility, and a total of two hours toulty at the medical college can be given responsibility reach a FRU could be a reasonable goal. As for staff-for training, advising and monitoring the delivery of ing, the healthcare facilities should have a basic coreservices in facilities within their allotted jurisdiction. staff, with provisions for additional hands in responseThe resources saved in avoiding duplication could to an increase in case load, or the range of services Box 20.5 Flexibility and Decentralised Planning: Key Elements of National Health Mission 1. The guidelines of NHM would be indicative and within broad parameters leave the decision on prioritisation of requirements to the best judgement of the States and Districts. Each District would develop, through effective public participation, a multi-year Health Action Plan for prevention, service delivery and systems management. These plans would become the basis for resource allocation and be made public to enable social audits of the progress made towards the goals. The implementation of these plans would involve the local community. The outcomes of these plans would be subject to Community Based Monitoring (CBM). 2. Health Action Plans at District level and below will aim at convergent delivery of services in an integrated manner to the last beneficiary. The District Health Plans would factor in all determinants of health, and assign roles to each agency for achieving convergence. For instance, these plans can leverage the mid-day meal programme for addressing issues of school child malnutrition and anaemia. Joint training of AWWs and ASHAs would be promoted to build camaraderie and clarity on mutual roles and responsibilities. Anganwadi Centres could be used as base stations for ASHAs, and upgraded into health posts for the delivery of essential health services. 3. Innovations in service delivery to improve coverage, quality of care, health outcomes and reduce costs would be encouraged, and recognised. 4. The sector-wide health plans prepared by the States should incorporate all dispensations of health and health care, and all sources of funding. For instance, medical education, AYUSH, AIDS control, Health Research, convergence with ICDS and Drinking Water and Sanitation would find space in the state health plans.
    • Health 29provided. Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) These stores could be linked to centralised procure-would be revised accordingly. Individual States can ment at state level.choose from a range of staffing options, includingthose suggested by the Working Group on NRHM Strategy for Maternal and Child Healthand by the HLEG, both options will be included in 20.119. Maternal and child health care will continuethe Central funding envelop. Such flexibility to States to be a major focus, especially given the inadequatein location, size and staffing of the health care facili- progress in reducing IMR and MMR. Programmeties would ensure optimum utilisation of existing monitoring needs to track experiences and out-resources, and infrastructure. Every Panchayat and comes of women rather than only disbursement ofurban municipal ward should have at least one sub- cash. Training being provided to the Skilled Birthcentre. The sub-centre’s package of assured services, Attendants (SBA) needs to be evaluated indepen-and consequent staffing will vary according to the dently. Plans need to be made for rational postingepidemiological and health systems contexts. of those SBAs who have received this training, so as to reach the maximum population with skilledPRIORITY SERVICES attendance at birth. Appropriate area-specific inter- ventions will be made such as equipping TraditionalAccess to Essential Medicines in All Public Birth Attendants (TBAs)/dais for safe deliveries,Facilities (especially in remote and inaccessible areas) univer-20.117. Availability of essential medicines in public salising access to the SBA over a period of time, andsector health facilities free of cost is critical to achieve prioritising better access to emergency obstetric careaffordable health care for the bulk of the population. (both public and private) within a two-hour travelThis is the area which provides the speediest scope time in cases of complications. The quality of carefor improved service delivery in return for allocation being provided in routine institutional deliveriesof sufficient resources. A set of measures including needs to be carefully monitored and accessible griev-revision and expansion of the Essential Drugs List, ance redressal mechanisms put in place.ensuring the rational use of drugs, strengthening thedrug regulatory system, and supporting the setting 20.120. Simple strategies for prevention of pre-termup of national and state drug supply logistics corpo- births, and reducing deaths among pre-term babiesrations is being recommended as core components. can make a difference in survival and health of chil-States would be encouraged to plan and partially dren during the critical first month of life. These willfund universal access to essential drugs and diagnos- be built into protocols for health workers and stand-tic services in all government health care facilities. ards for health facilities (Figure 20.3).Drug supply would be linked to centralised procure-ment at state level to ensure uniform drug quality 20.121. Home-based newborn care, drawing onand cost minimisation by removing intermediaries. validated models, such as that of Gadchiroli in Maharashtra, and focused efforts to encourage20.118. The provision of essential medicines free of breastfeeding and safe infant and child feeding prac-cost must be backed by logistic arrangements to pro- tices will be promoted. While emphasis on earlycure generic medicines from suppliers of repute that breastfeeding is a part of Accredited Social Healthmatch pre-qualifying standards. The MoU instru- Activists’ (ASHAs) training, special training on neo-ment shall be used to encourage States to adopt the natal care for community and facility-level healthTNMSC model, for professional management of functionaries will result in a faster reduction in IMR.procurement, storage and logistics. Support to The findings of Maternal Death Reviews and Infantrational and generic drug prescription for the pri- death audits will be used to fill gaps in health systems,vate sector requires a different approach. This can in skills and service provision. Control and manage-be achieved through expansion of the existing Jan ment of diseases like malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS,Aushadhi stores in all sub‐divisions and blocks. and conditions like hypertension and gestational
    • 30 Twelfth Five Year Plan PREVENTION OF PRE-TERM BIRTH CARE OF THE PRE-MATURE BABY • Preconception care package, including family planning • Essential and extra newborn care, especially feeding (e.g., birth spacing and adolescent friendly services), support education and nutrition especially for girls, and STI • Neonatal resuscitation prevention • Kangaroo Mother care • Antenatal care packages for all MANAGEMENT OF PRE-TERM • Chlorhexidine cord care women, including screening LABOUR • Management of premature for and management of STIs, • Tocolytics to slow down labour babies with complications, high blood pressure, diabetes • Antenatal corticosteroids especially respiratory distress and behaviour changes and • Antibiotics for pPROM syndrome and infection targeted care of women at increased risk of preterm birth • Provider education to promote appropriate induction • Comprehensive neonatal intensive care, where capacity and cesarean allows • Policy support including smoking cessation and employment safeguards of pregnant women MORTALITY REDUCTION OF REDUCTION PRE-TERM BIRTH AMONG BABIES BORN PRE-TERMSource: Born too Soon: Global Action Report on Pre-term births, WHO 2012; pPROM: Premature Rupture of Membrane. FIGURE 20.3: Strategies to Prevent Pre-Term Births and Manage Pre-Term Babiesdiabetes which are directly related to maternal mor- is, mass vaccination campaigns aimed at immunis-tality would be integrated with RCH service delivery. ing 100 per cent of a predefined population within several days or weeks, introduction of a routine20.122. AYUSH doctors, wherever feasible, would second dose in high prevalence states, laboratory-to be given SBA, RCH and IMNCI training and supported surveillance, and appropriate manage-their services will be used in meeting unmet needs. ment of measles cases. Public awareness of theThis will increase the availability of trained human benefits of immunisation will be built, so that theyresource for better outreach of child and maternal demand the services. Effective implementation ofhealth services. the Mother and Child Tracking system and Mother and Child Protection Card jointly issued by theUniversal Immunisation Coverage MoHFW and the MoWCD would be used in captur-20.123. The goal of ensuring universal coverage of ing immunisation data better. Electricity supply willroutine immunisation through campaigns in dis- be ensured, especially at places where cold chains aretricts throughout the country is now within reach maintained.and will be achieved by the end of the Twelfth Plan.Registered Medical Practitioners (RMPs) will be Family Welfareused in this effort, wherever feasible. There is need 20.124. The experience of Indonesia and Japanfor expanding the use of available vaccines for vari- shows that, as compared to limiting methods,ous preventable diseases through an evidence based emphasis on family spacing methods like IUCDapproach. The existing alternate vaccine delivery and male condoms has had a better impact in meet-mechanism through mobile immunisation services ing the unmet needs of couples. A recent study hasfor outreach work will be upgraded. Other dis- estimated that meeting unmet contraception needsease specific recommended strategies will also be could cut maternal deaths by one-third. There is,adopted; such as, in the case of measles, periodic therefore, a need for much more attention to spacingSupplemental Immunization Activities (SIAs), that methods such as, long term IUCD. IUCD insertion
    • Health 31on fixed days by ANMs (under supervision of LHV 20.128. There would also be a thrust on identifiedfor new ANMs) would be encouraged. Availability of geographic areas where the problems are most severe.MTP by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) tech- The strategies employed would be disease manage-nique and medical abortions will be ensured at fixed ment including early case detection and prompt treat-points where Mini-Laparotomy is planned to be ment, strengthening of referral services, integratedprovided. Services and contraceptive devices would vector management, use of Long Lasting Insecticidalbe made easily accessible. This would be achieved Nets (LLIN) and larvivorous fishes. Other interven-through strategies including social marketing, tions including behaviour change communicationcontracting and engaging private providers. Post- will also be undertaken.partum contraception methods like insertion of IUDwhich are popular in countries like China, Mexico, Prevention and Control ofand Egypt and male sterilisation would be promoted Non-Communicable Diseaseswhile ensuring adherence to internationally accepted 20.129. For the escalating threat of NCDs like car-safety standards. diovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases which are emerging as major kill-Communicable Disease Control ers, a package of policy interventions would be taken20.125. State and District specific action plans will up. These include raising taxes on tobacco, enforcingincorporate status and strategies for TB control, bans on tobacco consumption in electronic media,with universal and assured access to quality DOTS counselling for quitting tobacco, early detection andservices. PMDT services will be included in the stan- effective control of high blood pressure and diabetes,dards of care and made available in all districts for screening for common and treatable cancers; and saltcomprehensively tackling the challenge of drug- reduction in processed foods (Table 20.7).resistant TB. 20.130. Care for the elderly would focus on pro-20.126. An increasing incidence of vector borne moting healthy lifestyles, encouraging care withindiseases like malaria, dengue and chikungunya in families, integrating strengths of Indian Systems ofurban, peri-urban and rural areas because of expand- Medicine with Modern Systems of Medicine in reju-ing urbanisation, deficient water and solid waste venation therapies, and preferential attention in allmanagement has been reported. To control this, public facilities.the emphasis would be on avoidance of mosquitobreeding conditions in homes and workplaces and 20.131. Problems relating to mental health, espe-minimising human–mosquito contact. The spread of cially in conflict zones would be managed with sensi-zoonotic diseases will also be prevented by strength- tivity at the community level, through better trainingening integrated surveillance of transmission of community workers and primary care teams, andbetween wildlife, close bred veterinary populations through education of care givers.and human communities. Focus on Public Health20.127. Improved entomological surveillance for 20.132. Insufficient focus on public health is a majorsource reduction, strengthening and expanding weakness of the system and must be urgently cor-diagnostic services, strengthening case management rected. Effective public health management requiresthrough standard guidelines, enhanced community a certain degree of expertise. There is an urgent realparticipation and inter-sectoral collaboration, enact- need for a dedicated Public Health cadre (with sup-ment and enforcement of civic and building by-laws port teams comprising of epidemiologists, ento-would be encouraged. Anti-microbial resistance will mologists, public health nurses, inspectors and malebe closely monitored through effective surveillance, Multi-Purpose Workers) backed by appropriateand enforcement of guidelines on the sale and pre- regulation at the state level. At present, only Tamilscription of antibiotics. Nadu has a dedicated public health cadre. In other
    • 32 Twelfth Five Year Plan TABLE 20.7 Interventions to Combat Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) Interventions 1. Tobacco control Raise taxes on tobacco Clean indoor air legislation Tobacco advertising ban • Information and labelling • Brief advice to help quit tobacco • Counselling to quit 2. CVD prevention Salt reduction in processed food via voluntary agreement with industry, and/or via legislation Health education through mass media Treatment for high Blood pressure, cholesterol and education 3. Diabetes and complications Health education on diet and physical activity Diabetes detection and management in primary health care Intensive glycaemic control Retinopathy screening and photocoagulation Neuropathy screening and preventive foot care 4. Cancer Screening for cervical, breast and oral cancer Strengthening of cancer therapy in District Hospitals 5. Dental Caries Education on oral health and hygiene; reducing dietary sugars; water fluoridation 6. General measures • Promote physical activity in schools and society • Restrict marketing of and access to food products high in salt, sugar or unhealthy fats • Targeted early detection and diagnosis using inexpensive technologiesNote: The list is illustrative only.States, the erstwhile Public Health cadre has been be limited to only those who visit or use the healthmerged with the regular medical cadre. The choice facilities, but would require them to actively reachof having a separate Directorate of Public Health on out and impact health outcomes in their respec-the lines of Tamil Nadu or incorporating it suitably tive catchment areas. An implication of such anin the existing set-up will be left to the judgement of approach would be that all data generated in theStates. facility would be analysed in terms of the denomina- tor, that is, the total population at risk in the jurisdic-20.133. A centrally recruited, professionally trained tion of that facility. Public health officials should alsoand constitutionally protected service on the lines of be deployed in Municipal areas to assist the UrbanAll-India services would be the preferred model for Local Bodies in maintaining public health.the Public Health Service. A second option wouldbe to have separate public health cadres at Centre 20.136. The National Centre for Disease Control (for-and States. merly National Institute of Communicable Diseases) shall function as the apex public health institute for20.134. The Centre and States would develop good providing surveillance, prevention and control ofquality training programmes for public health func- all diseases of public health importance. The up-tionaries, including the suggested new cadre of pub- gradation of NCDC covers physical infrastructurelic health officers. including public health labs and additional trained human resource. It is also proposed that NCDC20.135. Public health officials should be made branches will be opened/strengthened in State Head-responsible for the health of all people residing quarters to provide timely technical assistance to thein their assigned areas or jurisdictions, including State health authorities in routine disease surveil-migrants. Their responsibilities would, thus, not lance and in addressing epidemic-prone diseases.
    • Health 3320.137. Even though the subject of Public Health falls ill-effects of sedentary lifestyle, and encouraged toin the State list, a draft Model Public Health legislation increase physical activity.has been prepared by the MoHFW, which could serveas a useful reference for States in framing their own 20.140. Employees and their families, in large andPublic Health Acts. The experience of Tamil Nadu medium industries of the organised sector can alsoin prevention of diseases and promotion of health form an excellent sentinel surveillance system, espe-through a Public Health Cadre, and the regulatory cially for risk factors of NCDs, incidence of diseasesmechanism using Public Health Legislation deserve and health care costs as they are linked to organisedemulation. Also required are systems to implement intra-mural health services or reimbursement sys-those Acts, and mechanisms to motivate and involve tems which maintain regular records. An ‘organisedthe community in ensuring that provisions are com- sector’ surveillance system (such as one involving theplied with. One aspect of community-based monitor- Indian Railways network and PSUs) can be estab-ing could be to conduct public health audits in States, lished, at relatively low cost and also support work-including in major cities and publicise the results to site based programmes, health promotion and earlyhelp build public pressure to improve conditions and care seeking.bridge capacity gaps where needed. The indicatorsfor such audits could include faecal contamination of Behaviour Change Communicationwater, vector density, food safety and safe disposal of 20.141. The state of peoples’ health is dependent onsolid and liquid wastes. living habits that are partly determined by individual behaviour choices. The existing campaigns urging20.138. While safety measures at the workplace the avoidance of harmful behaviours such as use ofare necessary for the safety of workers and adjoin- tobacco, alcohol and drugs, advocating the use of hel-ing residents, and must be enforced, the workplace mets and seat belts, valuing the girl child, shunning ofalso presents an opportunity to introduce and prac- sex-selective abortions, adoption of the small familytice promotive behaviour, such as a healthy diet and norm would be further strengthened. Home-basedexercise. Ban on consumption of tobacco in public newborn care, exclusive and continued breastfeed-places is a progressive legislation, but it needs effec- ing are time tested and proven strategies to promotetive enforcement. Regular screening of workers for child health and survival, and need to be encouragedoccupational diseases should be introduced. The reg- on a priority basis. Mass media campaigns on mentalulations relating to workplace safety can be enforced illness should be launched, to reduce the stigma, pro-more effectively if there is greater coordinationbetween District health and labour authorities. mote early care seeking and encourage family mem- bers to be supportive and sensitive.20.139. Institutions like schools, workplaces andprisons provide opportunities for preventive health 20.142. Electronic (including ‘new’ media) andcheck-ups, regular and group exercises, early detec- print media can play a critical role in informing andtion of disease and for dissemination of information empowering communities and individuals on issueson lifestyle choices, yoga, exercise and healthy living. relating to health and quality of life. This includesThus, regular health status and competency check- using mobile telephones, multimedia tools as wellups, including laboratory investigations, of children as Community Radio Stations to achieve this objec-in schools, employees in workplaces and prisoners tive. While regulation of the media falls outside thein jails would be done, with the Government health domain of the MoHFW, there is a need to encour-machinery taking responsibility for public institu- age the media to carry messages that make healthytions. Age old principles of healthy living and pre- living popular, and to avoid the display of unhealthyvention, including those documented in AYUSH behaviour like smoking. Since there are severaltexts would be popularised during such health check- media—dark areas where the NCD disease burdenups. Employees and workers will be informed of the is increasing, innovative state specific Behaviour
    • 34 Twelfth Five Year PlanChange Communication strategies would also be deliberations in this committee will also be maderequired apart from electronic and print media. democratic, with an effort to arrive at decisions by consensus. All the four Secretaries of the MoHFW20.143. The MoHFW would also champion meas- will be on this committee, which can also serve as aures like legislation, regulation and fiscal measures forum for coordination within the Ministry.to reduce the exposure of citizens to health risks.An existing agency of the MoHFW, Central Health 20.147. Gaps in the management capacity at the stateEducation Bureau (CHEB), shall be assigned the level need to be addressed. States will be encouragedresponsibility of undertaking and guiding Health to set up efficiently functioning agencies/cells forPromotion all over the country. In this task, it will procurement and logistics, recruitment and place-use the health promotion Portal for dissemination of ment of human resource, human resource manage-information. The CHEB shall involve multi-sectoral ment, design, construction and upkeep of health careactors, conduct health impact assessment and will be buildings, use of Information Technology, Finan-developed as the Institute of Health Promotion. cial management, transport systems, standards set- ting and quality control, monitoring and evaluation20.144. Teaching self-care to patients and care givers of process and outcomes. States shall be advised toof chronic diseases not only empowers them to man- expand the roles and responsibilities of Medicalage their condition, but can also make a significant Officers in charge of public health facilities to coverdifference to long term health outcomes. NGOs can all determinants of health, with a focus on improvingplay a very active role in such campaigns, as the suc- national health outcome indicators. Their territorialcess of BRAC, Bangladesh in reducing infant mortal- jurisdiction should be made co-terminus with theity by promoting use of Oral Rehydration Solution developmental machinery, as Rural Developmenthas shown. Blocks.INSTRUMENTS FOR SERVICE DELIVERY 20.148. States can empower facility managers with more financial and hiring powers so that they canEffective Governance Structures take quick decisions on service related local issues.20.145. The broad and flexible governance structure The Rogi Kalyan Samiti model of facility autonomyof the National Health Mission would be used to seek launched under NRHM would be expanded to ena-willing participation of all sectoral agencies, and civil ble investment in facility upkeep and expansion, orsociety in identifying risks and planning for their even filling temporary HR gaps. Enhanced auton-mitigation, and integrated delivery of quality ser- omy would have to be matched by greater account-vices. States would be advised to merge the existing ability for the management of the facility for timelygovernance structures for social sector programmes, and quality care, and availability of essential drugs.such as drinking water and sanitation, ICDS, AIDS This will also need stringent regulation to ensurecontrol and NRHM at all levels, pool financial and that mismanagement of funds, drugs and equip-human resource under the leadership of local PRI ments does not happen.bodies and make multi-sectoral social plans to col-lectively address the challenges. 20.149. In order to promote sound HR management policies across the states, the Central Government20.146. The existing National Programme Coordina- would design model management systems incorpo-tion Committee (NPCC) of NRHM will be expanded rating improved methods for recruitment, retentionto serve the National Health Mission. It will be made and performance, incentive-based structures, careermore representative of all social sectors, sub-sectors tracks for professional advancement based on com-within the health sector, and include expertise petence. These guidelines could include strategieson monitoring and independent evaluation. The suggested in Box 20.6.
    • Health 35Accountability for Outcomes 20.152. Effectively functioning health systems20.150. In order to ensure that plans and pronounce- depend on human resource, which range from medi-ments do not remain on paper, a system of account- cal, AYUSH and dental graduates and specialists,ability shall be built at all levels, namely Central graduate and auxiliary nurses, pharmacists to otherGovernment reporting to the Parliament on items allied health professionals. The production of humanwhich are its business, States reporting on service resource in health is a time consuming process, tak-delivery and system reforms commitments under- ing as long as nine years for a specialist, to eighteentaken through the MoU system, district health soci- months for an ANM. The current availability ofeties reporting to States, facility managers reporting health personnel in the country (Table 20.8) is belowon health outcomes of those seeking care, and terri- the minimum requirement of 250 per lakh of popu-torial health managers reporting on health outcomes lation (Human Resources for Health: Overcomingin their area. Accountability shall be matched with the Crisis, 2004, Joint Learning Initiative, page 23).authority and delegation; the MoHFW shall frame Given the existing production capacity, we canmodel accountability guidelines which will suggest expect an availability of 354 health workers by 2017.a framework for accountability to the local com- It is generally accepted that the doctor to nurse ratiomunity, requirement for documentation of unit cost should be at least 1:3 for the team to perform opti-of care, transparency in operations and sharing of mally. This ratio is currently 1:1.6 and is expected toinformation with all stakeholders. improve to 1:2.4 by end of Twelfth Plan if no new colleges are started. These numbers regarding totalHealth Delivery Systems availability mask the fact that there is substantial20.151. Trained and competent human capital is the regional variation in the distribution of doctors andfoundation of an effective health system. Without nurses, because of which we should plan for a totaladequate human resources, additional expenditure availability which is significantly higher than the rec-on health will not lead to additional services and will ommended minimum. The basic data on the avail-only bid up wages. In this context it is important for ability and rate of new additions is summarised inthe Twelfth Plan to embark on a clear strategy to Table 20.8.expand the supply of appropriately trained healthworkers to support health care objectives being 20.153. We need to take up a large scale expansiontargeted. in teaching capacity in this plan so the situation improves towards the end of this plan, and reaches Box 20.6 Suggested Items in Model HR Guidelines • Quality standards for facilities should be taken as guiding principle for sanctioning posts, which would indicate the maximum staff that can be posted. In case a facility does not attract expected case-loads, the staff may be rationalised. • Recruitment should be decentralised with a quicker turnaround time and preference must be given to residents of the region of proposed deployment. • Fair and transparent system of postings and timely promotions. • Financial and non-financial incentives (like preferential eligibility for post graduate courses, promotions, subsequent choice of postings, reimbursement of children’s school fee) would be suggested to States for adoption, for performance and service in remote areas. • Measures to reduce professional isolation by preferential access to continuing medical education and skill up-gradation programmes, as well as back-up support on tele-medicine (Internet or mobile based) and by networking of professionals working in similar circumstances. • Measures to reduce social isolation by investing in processes that bring community and providers closer together. • Completion of training of ASHAs and retraining of the existing cadre of workers as Male Multi-Purpose Workers, AWW and ANMs, to make them relevant to local needs, and for their own upward mobility.
    • 36 Twelfth Five Year Planoptimal levels by the end of Thirteenth Plan. If we Expansion of Teaching Facilitiesadopt a goal of 500 health workers per lakh popula- 20.155. The Government shall take the lead role intion by the end of Thirteenth Plan, we would need creating teaching capacity in health, while privatean additional 240 medical colleges, 500 General sector colleges would also be allowed. InitiativesNursing and Midwifery (GNM)/nursing colleges would be taken to upgrade existing District hospi-and 970 ANMs training institutes. If work on these tals and CHCs into knowledge centres, where medi-new teaching institutions begins from the 2013–14 cal, nursing and para-medical teaching and refresherannual plan, and is completed by the end of the courses can be held side-by-side with patient care.Twelfth Plan, the flow of nurses and ANMs would States shall be encouraged to take this up through thebegin within this plan, while doctors from these incentive fund of the NHM. The existing state levelinstitutions would be available only from the begin- teaching institutions such as the State Institutes ofning of the Thirteenth Plan. The ratio of doctors to Health and Family Welfare would also be strength-nurses will then rise from 1:1.6 in 2012 to 1:2.8 in ened. Simultaneously, the existing Government2017 and reach 1:3 in 2022. medical colleges and central Government institu- tions would be strengthened so that the seats could20.154. The projected availability of HR in health be increased to the maximum level of 250. Effortsduring the Twelfth Plan is given in Figure 20.4. to support the existing institutions to create moreA density of 398 workers per lakh would be well Post-graduate seats would continue. The long termachieved by 2017, and 509 by 2021. goal would be to build at least one training centre in TABLE 20.8 Availability of HR during Eleventh Plan and Projections for Twelfth Plan Category Enrolled and Available Annual Expected Availability Desirable Colleges Available (2011–12) Capacity by 2017 Density Required if Colleges Created Enrolled Available Density Nos. Total Density 2017 2021 Physicians 922177 691633 57 42570 848616 65 1111554 85 240 67 85 AYUSH 712121 534091 44 30000 642386 49 640778 49 0 51 54 Dentists 117827 88370 7 24410 193797 15 196157 15 0 16 21 Nurses/ 1238874 743324 61 178339 1508684 115 2223107 170 500 129 170 GNM ANM 603131 361879 30 38290 516090 39 1111554 85 970 60 85 Pharmacist 657230 492923 41 100000 918276 70 915397 70 0 76 95 Total 241 354 474 398 509 Nurse/ 1.6 2.4 3.0 2.8 3.0 ANM: Doctor RatioNotes: Density: Per Lakh PopulationCurrent availability based on attrition @ 25 per cent (Physicians, AYUSH, Pharmacists and Dentists), 40 per cent for Nurses andANM.Except for New ANM schools all other colleges will be phased as follows: 50 per cent by 2013, 40 per cent by 2014 and 10 per cent by2015. ANM schools will be phased as follows 50 per cent by 2014 and 50 per cent by 2015.New colleges have been assumed to have a capacity of 250 (physicians), 100 (AYUSH, Dentist, Nurses/GN, Pharmacist) and 80(ANM, bi-annual batch of 40).
    • Health 37 30.0 Density per 10000 Population 26.9 25.5 23.9 25.0 22.3 18.9 20.6 Doctor 20.0 17.1 Nurse/ANM 13.4 15.2 15.0 11.8 AYUSH 10.5 9.1 9.0 9.5 9.9 Dentist 8.6 10.0 6.5 7.0 7.6 8.1 9.0 4.7 5.9 5.3 6.1 5.9 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.7 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 Pharmacist 5.7 5.0 4.1 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 0.0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Year FIGURE 20.4: Projected HRH Capacity Expansion in the Twelfth Planeach District, and one para-medical training centre 20.159. There are other categories of skilled health-in each sub-division block. workers, such as Physician assistants, who increase the productivity of the medical team, and should20.156. District hospitals which cannot be converted be encouraged. In the context of hospitals, a sur-to teaching institutions, can be accredited with the vey by FICCI in June 2011 has identified fiveNational Board of Examinations for training Post- skill-sets that need immediate attention, namelyGraduate candidates in the Diplomate of National Dialysis Technician, Operation Theatre/AnaesthesiaBoard (DNB) programme, in courses such as Family Technician, Paramedic, Lab Technician, PatientMedicine. This is a low cost measure which will help Care Coordinator cum Medical Transcriptionist.increase production of specialists, bring profession- The profession of midwifery will be revived, and pro-alism and also help improve standards of patient vided training and legal authority to serve as autono-care in district hospitals. mous medical practitioners for primary maternity care, such as in the Netherlands, so that skilled birth20.157. Centres of Excellence for Nursing and Allied attendance is universalised. The proposed DistrictHealth Sciences also need to be established in every knowledge Centres would create sufficient teachingState. These Centres would impart higher education capacity for such newer categories of health workers.in specialised fields, offer continued professionaleducation and have provisions for faculty develop- 20.160. A peculiar feature of India’s healthcare sys-ment and research. Centres for paramedical educa- tem is the presence of a large number of non-quali-tion would to be set up in 149 Government medical fied practitioners, such as traditional birth attendantscolleges, in addition to initiating paramedical institu- (dais), compounders and RMPs. As per law, they aretions in 26 States. Initiatives already taken to upgrade neither authorised to practice Medicine, nor to pre- scribe drugs. Nonetheless, they work everywhere inand strengthen the existing Nursing Schools into the country and address a huge unfulfilled demandColleges of Nursing would continue. Establishment for ambulatory care, particularly in rural areas. Theof ANM/GNM schools in under-served areas would challenge is to get them into the formal system.also be accorded priority. A road-map would be pre- The plan recommends giving these practitioners,pared for strengthening of pre-service, mid-wifery depending on their qualifications and experience,training and career development. an opportunity to get trained and integrate them into the health work-force in suitable capacities by20.158. In the Pharmacy sector, strengthening and mutual consent.up-gradation of Pharmacy Colleges and setting up ofColleges of pharmacy attached to Government med- 20.161. Another opportunity lies in utilising the ser-ical colleges would be initiated, wherever possible. vices of AYUSH graduates for providing primary
    • 38 Twelfth Five Year Plancare. There are two pre-requisites before this can relevance to local needs and to enable enhancedbe done—first by amendment of the legal frame- accountability and public oversight.work to authorise the practice of modern medicinefor primary care by practitioners of Indian Systems 20.165. Greater efforts at community involvementof Medicine; and secondly by supplementing skills in planning, delivery, monitoring and evaluationof AYUSH graduates by imparting training in mod- of health services would be made using establishedern Medicine through bridge courses. High profes- strategies from NRHM like community based moni-sional standards of eligibility for, and qualifying in toring, citizens’ charters, patients’ rights, socialthe bridge courses should be laid down so that the audits, public hearings and grievance redressalquality of such primary care integrated physicians mechanisms. Newly elected members of PRIs, espe-remains high. States like Tamil Nadu and recently cially women members, need support as they growMaharashtra have shown the lead in this regard. into their new roles. NGOs have an important roleAssociations of allopathic practitioners are gener- in strengthening capacity. An integrated curriculumally opposed to AYUSH practitioners being allowed will be drawn up to facilitate this process. NGOs canto prescribe allopathic medicines; they will have to play a key role in providing support to VHSNCs andbe persuaded to yield in the national interest of serv- PRIs in capacity building, planning for convergenting the masses, particularly the rural population and service delivery and more effective community basedthe urban poor. Suitably trained, AYUSH graduates monitoring. Recognition and instituting awards forcan provide primary health care, and help fill in the achievers along the lines of Nirmal Gram Puraskarhuman resource gaps in rural areas. under the Total Sanitation Campaign will be one way of incentivisation.20.162. The NHM will encourage the States to modifythe designation and job profiles of human resource Strengthening Health Systemscreated under various central and externally funded 20.166. A major objective of enhanced funding,programmes into generic, multi-functional categories flexibility to and incentivisation of States is to buildwhose services can be used as per local need. health systems. Some of the components of health systems strengthening for which States shall beCommunity Participation and PRI Involvement encouraged are listed in Table 20.9.20.163. Government health facilities at the levelof blocks and below can become more responsiveto population needs if funds are devolved to the NATIONAL AIDS CONTROLPanchayati Raj Institutions (Village Council or its ORGANISATIONequivalent in the Scheduled Areas), and these institu- 20.167. The programme strategy would be two-tions made responsible for improving public health pronged: intensification of interventions for highoutcomes in their area. States should formalise the risk groups and bridge populations, and integrationroles and authority of Local Self-Government bod- of prevention (including mother to child transmis-ies in securing convergence so that these bodies sion), testing, counselling and treatment servicesbecome stakeholders for sustainable improvements among the general population, including pregnantin health standards. The States would be advised women, with the routine RCH programme. Toto make Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition achieve mainstreaming of services, the State AIDSCommittees as the guiding and operational arms of Control Societies and District AIDS Prevention andthe Panchayats in advancing the social agenda. Control Unit (DAPCU) will be integrated into the National Health Mission structure at these levels.20.164. Health Action Plan for service delivery, sys- To build a multi-dimensional reporting system, thetems management and prevention would be formu- information systems on health systems, and AIDSlated through effective public participation to ensure control shall be synergised.
    • Health 39 TABLE 20.9 Illustrative List of Health Systems Strengthening in StatesHealth System Suggested Health System Strengthening Activities by StatesElements1. Effective Enact and Enforce Public Health Act Public Health Put in place a Public Health cadre, whose members shall be responsible for detecting public health problems Administration within their jurisdiction, framing strategy for its correction and implementing it Develop and deploy a Health Management Cadre, for providing management support to public health programmes and hospital administration Mandatory practice of Clinical Treatment Guidelines and prescription of generic medicines listed in the National List of Essential Medicines in all Government facilities Mandatory test audit of medical prescriptions by faculty of medical colleges Improve governance through stronger oversight mechanisms that include citizen participation, social audit and greater transparency Develop an effective and responsive grievance redress system Frame policies for, and provide services so as to achieve the goals of the National Population Policy (2000).2. Health Financing Increased expenditure on Health Sector Prioritise strengthening of Primary Health Care in state budgets3. Health Regulation Extend and enforce Central Clinical Establishment Act Empower Public Health functionaries under relevant laws namely Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, Food Safety Standard Act, and Drugs and Cosmetics Acts4. Develop Human Develop District Hospitals and Community Health Centres (CHCs) into Medical and para-medical Resource for training institutions with improved quality of training Health Organise bridge Courses for AYUSH graduates and legally empower them to practice as Primary Health care physicians Encourage career progression of ASHA and AWW into ANM, and assure career tracks for competency- based professional advancement of nurses5. Health Build a Health Information System by networking of all health service providers, establishing state level Information disease surveillance systems, universal registration of births and deaths to give accurate picture of health of Systems the population6. Convergence and Assess Health impact of policies and activities of departments other than health Stewardship Main-streaming of AYUSH into NHM Main-streaming of STI and HIV prevention and treatment up to district levels into NHM Main-streaming of all disease control programmes into NHM Empower Panchayats with funds, functions and functionaries to play a meaningful role in bringing convergence in the social sector Achieve inter-sectoral coordination at Block, District and State levels by using the mission structure of NHM Create and support systems for grievance redressal Synergise the working of ASHA and AWW by declaring AWC as the convergence station for all village level NHM and ICDS personnel, and Sub-centre as the HQ of ICDS supervisors Ensure that only double fortified salt (Iron-Iodine) is used in ICDS Scheme, Mid-Day Meal and sold through Public Distribution System7. Health Services Master plan for ensuring each district is able to provide assured set of services to all its residents Road-map for achieving Indian Public Health Standards at all facilities Public health care facilities are provided financial and administrative autonomy Develop an effective grievance redress system8. Ensure access Create a Special Purpose Vehicle to procure, store and distribute medicines, vaccines and diagnostics to Medicines, through an open, tender based procurement Vaccines and Mandate availability of drugs under the National List of Essential Medicines in all health facilities Diagnostics Strengthen state level drug regulation Ensure Jan Aushadhi stores in all Block Headquarters
    • 40 Twelfth Five Year Plan20.168. The primary goal of NACP during Twelfth 3. Increasing access and promoting comprehensivePlan will be to accelerate the process of reversal care, support and treatment;and further strengthen the epidemic response in 4. Building capacities at national stage, district andIndia through a well-defined, integration process. facility levels andThe programme will be further strengthened and 5. Strengthening Strategic Information Manage-programme management capacities decentralised ment Systemsto state and district levels. NACP-IV will remain aprevention oriented plan with adequate coverage INDIAN SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE ANDof HIV care in the context of the concentrated epi- HOMOEOPATHY SERVICES (AYUSH)demic situation in India. NACP will integrate with 20.169. Practice and promotion of AYUSH in theother national programmes and align with the over- States would be carried out under the broad umbrellaall Twelfth Five Year Plan goals of inclusive growth of the National Health Mission. A revampedand development. The key priorities of NACP-IV National Programme Coordination Committee ofwill be as follows. the National Health Mission with Secretaries of all the departments under the MoHFW as members• Preventing new infections by sustaining the reach would provide the funding and programme guidance of current interventions and effectively addressing for convergence and main-streaming of AYUSH in emerging epidemics. the health care system.• Preventing Patent-to-Child Transmission• Focusing on IEC strategies for behaviour change, 20.170. States would be encouraged to integrate demand-generation for HIV services among those AYUSH facilities, and provide AYUSH services in at risk and awareness among general population all facilities offering treatment in modern systems of• Providing comprehensive care, support and treat- medicine. The goal is to ensure that all Government ment to people with infection health care facilities offer suitable AYUSH services as• Reducing stigma and discrimination through per laid down standards. greater involvement of HIV affected persons• Ensuring effective use of strategic information at 20.171. In addition, the concept of AYUSH Gram all levels will be promoted, wherein one village per block will• Building capacities of NGO and civil society part- be selected for implementation of integrated primary ners, especially in states of emerging epidemics care protocols of AYUSH and modern system of• Integrating HIV services with the health system in medicine. In these villages, herbal medicinal gardens a phased manner will be supported, regular Yoga camps will be organ-• Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS activities with all ised, preferably through PRI institutions and youth key central and state level Ministries/depart- clubs, and the community provided basic knowledge ments and leveraging resources of the respective on hygiene, promotion of health and prevention of departments diseases.• Leveraging social protection and insurance mechanisms STRENGTHENING AYUSH 20.172. The strengths of Indian Systems of MedicineSTRATEGIES FOR NACP-IV and Homoeopathy, if suitably used, can help advance1. Intensifying and consolidating prevention ser- the goals of the Twelfth Plan. AYUSH systems would vices with a focus on (i) high-risk groups and vul- be main-streamed using their areas of strengths nerable population and (ii) general population; namely in preventive and promotive health care, dis-2. Expanding IEC services for (i) general popula- eases and health conditions relating to women and tion and (ii) high-risk groups with a focus on children, older persons, NCDs, mental ailments, behaviour change and demand generation; stress management, palliative care, rehabilitation and health promotion.
    • Health 4120.173. Every element of health system strength- technical expertise to jointly take up research, teach-ening and development, particularly use of IT, is ing and patient care. Orientation of medical studentsequally applicable to AYUSH systems and would be and doctors about basic concepts, applications andpursued. What follows are additional measures tai- scientific developments of AYUSH in order to dispellored to unique opportunities and requirements of ignorance and foster cross-system referral would beAYUSH systems. encouraged. Relevant AYUSH modules would there- fore be incorporated into medical, nursing and phar-RESEARCH macy course curricula and in the CME programme20.174. The National Health Policy of 2002 set for medical practitioners.an objective, which involved a re-orientationand prioritisation of research to validate AYUSH PRACTICE AND PROMOTION OF AYUSHtherapies and drugs that address chronic and life 20.178. The Department of AYUSH would developstyle-related emerging diseases. Cross-disciplinary standards for facilities at the primary, secondary andresearch and practice requires standardisation of ter- tertiary levels as a part of IPHS; Standard Treatmentminologies of classical therapies, and development of Guidelines and a Model Drugs List of AYUSH drugsStandard and Integrated Treatment Protocols. These for community health workers will be developed.would be developed based on core competencies and All primary, secondary and tertiary care institutionsinherent strengths of each system, and comparative under the MoHFW, State Health Departments andefficacy studies. National Health Programmes shall other Ministries like Railways, Labour, Home Affairsuse such composite protocols. and so on, would create facilities to provide AYUSH services of appropriate standards.20.175. To take this ambitious research agenda for-ward, all five Research Councils of AYUSH will pool 20.179. As longevity increases, geriatrics as a disci-resources, particularly human resource, clinical facil- pline would need greater attention. AYUSH therapiesities and information, to avoid duplication. For this have strengths in restoration and rejuvenation. Toto happen on an institutionalised basis, a common bring together the best of care for the elderly thatgovernance structure for the five Research Councils AYUSH systems have to offer, and to develop it fur-would be put in place. ther using modern scientific methods, a National Institute on Geriatrics (through AYUSH) will be20.176. The documentation of traditional knowl- set up.edge associated with medicinal plants is very impor-tant not only to preserve it for posterity but also to 20.180. In view of the growing incidence of meta-contest bio-piracy and bio-prospecting. This will be bolic and lifestyle diseases like diabetes and hyper-continued. tension and considering the strengths of AYUSH systems in their prevention and treatment, a NationalHUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT Institute on Metabolic and Lifestyle Diseases will be20.177. Cross-disciplinary learning between modern established.and AYUSH systems at the post-graduate level wouldbe encouraged. Details of modification in syllabi that 20.181. In view of the growing problem of drugwould be required at the undergraduate level, in abuse, and increase in use of tobacco, and the poten-order to make such cross-disciplinary learning pos- tial of AYUSH therapies and practices, particularlysible, would be worked out by a team of experts from of Yoga, for disease prevention and health promo-the different Professional Councils. Collaboration tion, a National Institute for Drug and Tobaccobetween AYUSH teaching colleges and with medical De-addiction will be established. Each of the threecolleges for mutual learning would be encouraged. national institutes would be equipped with post-AYUSH Chairs in Medical Colleges of the coun- graduate education and research facilities and housetry would be encouraged to provide the necessary advanced hospital facilities in all disciplines of
    • 42 Twelfth Five Year Planmedicine. These institutes would conduct and pro- 3. Low child sex ratio and discrimination againstmote interdisciplinary research in their area, advance the girl child;frontiers of knowledge on prevention and condition 4. Prevention, early detection, treatment, reha-management, teach and promote evidence-based use bilitation to reduce burden of diseases—of AYUSH systems, and are expected to emerge over communicable, non-communicable (includingtime as global centres of research, care and education. mental illnesses) and injuries (especially road traffic related), congenital malformation andRegulation and Quality Control disorders of sex development;20.182. Systems for quality certification of raw mate- 5. Sustainable health financing aimed at reducingrials, accreditation of educational programmes, household’s out-of-pocket expenditure;health services and manufacturing units and prod- 6. HIS covering universal vital registration, com-ucts would be promoted in the Twelfth Plan. This munity based monitoring, disease surveillancewould achieve both minimum standards through and hospital based information systems for pre-regulations and laws, as well as, excellence through vention, treatment and teaching;a voluntary scheme of accreditation. The existing 7. Measures to address social determinants ofpractice of a common legislation, and regulatory sys- health and inequity, particularly among margin-tems for AYUSH and modern medicines would be alised populations;further strengthened, with mandated representation 8. Suggest and regularly update Standard Treat-of AYUSH experts at all levels. Modernisation of ment Guidelines which are both necessary andpharmaceutical technology, in order to standardise cost-effective for wider adoption;the use of natural resources and production pro- 9. Public Health systems and their strengthening;cesses that are used by AYUSH, will be taken up as a andpriority in the Twelfth Plan period. 10. Health regulation, particularly on ethical issues in research.HEALTH RESEARCH20.183. Given the lag in progress on health indica- 20.186. Existing institutes of ICMR will be re-organ-tors in the country, need for accelerated progress ised, strengthened and new centres set up in deficitand optimal use of limited resources, DHR should areas to achieve the above listed goals.strategically move in a direction which brings forthactionable evidence in a time bound manner for 20.187. Build Research Coordination Framework:quick translation to address national health needs. In Though DHR is the empowered Department onsetting its priority areas, DHR would be guided by medical and health research, many organisations arethe disease profile in the country, burden of disease, engaged in research on related topics, namely theand the possibility of cost-effective intervention. Ministry of Environment and Forest, Departments of Health and Family Welfare, AYUSH, AIDS con-20.184. The strategy for health research in the trol, Space, Science and Technology, Biotechnology,Twelfth Plan would be the following: Agricultural Research; agencies like ICAR, DSIR, CSIR, NDMA, DRDO and the National Knowledge20.185. Address national health priorities: The key Network. DHR would play a lead role in researchoutcome of the efforts of DHR would be to generate involving human health, bringing all the concernedintellectual capital, which may have a public health organisations on one platform to facilitate mutualimpact. DHR would, therefore, prioritise its research discussion, resource pooling and prioritisation, andto find cost-effective solutions for health priorities avoid duplication, to find innovative solutions toand health system issues facing the country, namely: national priorities in a timely manner. It would also take the lead in suggesting institutional structures,1. Maternal and child nutrition, health and survival; like mutual representation in each others’ decision-2. High fertility in parts of the country; making and scientific bodies, and ‘coordinating
    • Health 43structures’ so that consultation and collaboration Injury in India and Bio-banking. DHR would alsobecome a norm rather than an exception. Efficient develop mechanisms to evaluate health researchmechanisms for selection, promotion, development, undertaken by various scientific departments includ-assessment and evaluation of affordable technologies ing ICMR. DHR would put in place mechanisms forwould be established. DHR would bring together benchmarking and accreditation of health researchbasic, translational and clinical investigators, net- institutions. The criteria for accreditation of researchworks, professional societies and industry to facilitate institutes would be based on the intellectual capitaldevelopment of programmes and research projects. generated and its public health impact.DHR would establish a mechanism for coordinationbetween academia and the industry, with a prefer- 20.191. Nurture development of research centres andence for multidisciplinary approaches. labs: In addition to the development of centres in deficit and strategic areas, DHR would identify and20.188. To address the need for operations research fund the development of existing medical collegeson impediments in delivery of services, DHR will and research centres into specialised subject areas,explore the possibility of stationing multi-disciplinary which may become capable of conducting cross-research teams within the NHM structure at differ- cutting, multidisciplinary and translational resear-ent levels, so that practical, relevant and area specific ches. Similarly, DHR would fund up-gradations ofsolutions to problems are suggested to programme existing Government labs to increase the capacitymanagers. To address the gaps in critical areas such for diagnosis of viral and other infectious diseases atas Health Information Systems, National Health the national, regional and District levels. A nationalAccounts and Public Health delivery DHR will dedi- list of diagnostic facilities shall be centrally main-cate national centres to these needs, and position tained to help guide decisions on creation of and upspecialised teams alongside operational managers. gradation of laboratory facilities. DHR would also build capacity of States and other institutions on20.189. Autonomy coupled with accountability in the periphery for solving various clinical and publicresearch: The elements of an efficient research system health problems.are clear enunciation of goals, sufficient resourceswith flexibility to raise extra-budgetary funds, func- 20.192. Utilise available research capacity by promot-tional autonomy, accountability and incentives for ing extra-mural research: Extramural programmes,performance. DHR would work to observe these under which grants are competitively awarded onprinciples in its research institutes so that each one selected topics, would be expanded to help tap tal-of them develops into a centre of excellence in its ent in medical colleges, tertiary hospitals, health uni-allotted field. versities and public health institutions. DHR would aim to increase the share of extramural funding in20.190. Efficient research governance, regulatory and its research budget from the current 33 per cent toevaluation framework: DHR would also put in place 50 per cent by the end of Twelfth Plan. It may alsoappropriate regulations, guidelines, authorities and commission ‘problem-solving research’, followingstructures to strengthen ethics-based research gov- the Open Source Drug Discovery model of CSIR,ernance and to protect the interests of research sub- but would need to subject it to strict scrutiny for out-jects especially, in clinical trials. DHR would prepare comes. Translational Research would be promotedguidelines on, among others, Stem Cell Research and so that research findings can be translated into betterTherapy, Assisted Reproductive Technologies incor- health status in the country.porating rights of egg donors; Ethical Guidelinesfor Biomedical Research involving human sub- 20.193. Human Resource Development: Investmentsjects, Ethical Guidelines for Conducting Research would be made in producing qualified research-on Mental Illness or Cognitive Impairment, ers, by improving career opportunities for youngCompensation to Participants for Research Related researchers and providing good initial support in
    • 44 Twelfth Five Year Planthe form of start-up grants. Additionally, fellowships consideration before framing or modifying poli-for training researchers in identified advanced fields, cies of non-health Ministries which can potentiallyscholarships at the PG level, Young Researcher Pro- impact public health. The proposed ‘Health Impactgrammes to encourage young students, mid-career Cell’ in the MoHFW would also perform Monitoringresearch fellowships for faculty development at and Surveillance functions in order to continuouslymedical colleges are some ways to ensure a steady gather information on health impacts of policies andflow of committed researchers. DHR will explore, in programmes of key non-health Departments. It canconsultation with concerned regulatory authorities, harmonise the programme data obtained from thethe possibility of introducing a stream of research sectors/non-health Ministries with the health impactprofessionals in medical colleges who would have reports received from the field, such as on water andavenues for professional advancement equal to those sanitation related disease outbreaks, and determineof teaching faculty. DHR will utilise the potential gaps in policies as well as in programme implemen-of Information Technology to standardise research tation. Various sectors would share data, particu-methodology courses, and train students in academic larly those that are relevant to health outcomes, withinstitutions through distance learning. the proposed cell. The proposed cell would also be equipped to serve early warnings and coordinate20.194. Cost-effectiveness studies to frame Clinical responses to health related emergencies and naturalTreatment Guidelines: On the lines of the UK’s disasters.National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE),DHR would develop expertise to assess available CONVERGENT ACTION ON NUTRITIONtherapies and technologies for their cost-effectiveness 20.196. The Ministry of health would build institu-and essentiality, and formulate and update, on a tional arrangements with the Ministry of Women andregular basis, the Standard Treatment Guidelines, Child development so that convergent delivery of ser-and suggest inclusion of new drugs and vaccines vices under ICDS becomes the norm. A national pol-into the public health system. The formulation of icy on promoting healthy diets, and regulating extentthe Guidelines must, of course, incorporate the best of salts, and trans fats in foods is required. Doubleavailable evidence, including in AYUSH systems, fortification of salt with iron and iodine presents aand prevalence of anti-microbial drug-resistance in cost-effective and feasible strategy to prevent two oforder to suggest treatment protocols for regular clin- the key nutritional deficiencies in our country. Whileical practice. Standard Treatment Guidelines devel- the Food and Nutrition Board under the Ministry ofoped by Army Medical Corps can also be referred to. Women and Child Development is expected to takeThe justification for housing the proposed institute the lead, all health workers would be sensitised so thatoutside the Department of Health, but within the they are able to disseminate knowledge on nutritionMinistry, is to provide it an element of objectivity and healthy living.and independence from practitioners, and to avoidconflict of interest. ANGANWADI CENTRE AS THE CONVERGENCE HUBCONVERGENCE ACROSS SECTORS FOR 20.197. Nutritional issues call for multi-stakeholderBETTER OUTCOMES strategies, including informing communities on how20.195. The impact of policies and programmes of to maximise nutritional benefits from locally avail-non-health sectors on health remains invisible for able foods, food fortification and micro-nutrientlong periods. It is, therefore, necessary to take proac- supplementation. States shall be encouraged throughtive steps to determine the health impact of existing the sector-wide MoUs to observe Village Healthand new policies in sectors which have a bearing on and Nutrition Days in complete convergence modethe health of population. The MoHFW would con- (Box 20.7) and ensure that Anganwadi Centresstitute a dedicated ‘Health Impact Cell’ to conduct become the hub for all health related services.such an analysis, and its views would be taken into
    • Health 45 Box 20.7 Convergence: Village Health and Nutrition Day in North Tripura The Village Health and Nutrition Day (VHND) organised in North Tripura district in a complete convergence mode secured it the Prime Minister’s award for excellence in Public administration for 2010–11. A monthly VHND is to be organised in every village through inter-sectoral convergence and community involvement with the Anganwadi Centre as the hub for service provision. It is an effective platform for providing first-contact primary health care. The Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees are expected to be the organiser with participation of ASHA, ANM, AWW and the PRI representatives. As per NRHM guidelines, the services to be provided on VHND include registration of all pregnant women, Ante-Natal Checkup, Vitamin A administration and vaccination of all eligible children, weighing of children, plotting of weights on cards and suitable management, administration of drugs to TB patients, provision of contraceptives (condoms and oral) to all eligible couples as per their choice, supplementary nutrition to underweight children, community awareness generation, identification of cases needing special attention. Special and additional features in North Tripura were the following: • Organisation of a health mela in a transparent and participative manner; extensive publicity through sign-boards and in- person contact for the event • Pooling of funds from different departments, and clear delineation of roles • Leadership role of headmasters of schools in training and health education • Convergence of service providers of health, ICDS, rural development, panchayat, drinking water,, district disability rehabilitation centre, education and adult literacy • Additional services provided include disability certificates, wheel chairs to the disabled, medicines and water purification tablets. doctor’s consultation, testing of eye, dental and for HIV, Strong cultural orientation to the event by including local songs, dances, drama, quizzes, sports events, healthy baby shows • The mid-day meal and ICDS were served together; with a community meal • Intense training of functionaries • Effective monitoring, record keeping and display of data on web site Outcomes: A quantum jump in detection of cases of various diseases and health problems, fewer deaths due to fever, malaria, diarrhoea, lowering of MMR and IMR while immunisation coverage improved, identification of malnourished children, initiation of their treatment and periodical monitoring. Lesson: Effectively organised VHSND can lead to awareness in the community on health issues, effective utilisation of services on health, and its determinants.MAIN-STREAMING DISASTER MANAGEMENT under different systems of medicine can synergisti-20.198. The Ministry of Health shall in its policies cally improve health status, and need for evidenceand programmes give due consideration to the ele- based decision making and practice, all the fourments of disaster management, namely Mitigation, departments of health which are engaged in theirPreparedness, Response and Recovery. At all stages allocated domains can act synergistically to addressof disaster management, active engagement of local the key national health needs. A coordinated deliv-communities shall be the ensured. ery of national programmes at the grass-root level can increase outreach and help better manage pro-CONVERGENCE WITHIN DEPARTMENTS OF grammes. Frontline health workers, and GovernmentMINISTRY OF HEALTH health facilities for primary care can be developed as20.199. Given the fact that many health conditions single points of contact for all local residents in meet-often co-exist and exacerbate each other with poor ing their entire range of health care needs.nutritional status as the underlying factor, therapies
    • 46 Twelfth Five Year PlanCONCLUSION system while regulating the private health care sys-20.200. The Twelfth Plan faces a colossal task of tem, so that together they can work towards address-putting in place a basic architecture for health secu- ing the management of delivery of preventive,rity for the nation. It must build on what has been promotive, curative and rehabilitatory health inter-achieved through the NRHM and expand it into a ventions. This is not a task that can be completedcomprehensive NHM. Since the primary responsi- within one Plan period. It will certainly span two orbility for health care rests with the States, the strategy three Plan periods, to put the basic health infrastruc-needs to effectively incentivise State Governments to ture in place.do what is needed to improve the public health care
    • 21EducationINTRODUCTION the same period. Aggregate public spending on edu-21.1. Education is the most important lever for social, cation during the Eleventh Plan period is estimatedeconomic and political transformation. A well- at `1244797 crore for both the Centre and Stateseducated population, equipped with the relevant taken together. Of this, 35 per cent was accountedknowledge, attitudes and skills is essential for eco- for by Plan expenditure and 65 per cent by non-nomic and social development in the twenty-first Plan expenditure. About 43 per cent of the publiccentury. Education is the most potent tool for socio- expenditure on education was incurred for elemen-economic mobility and a key instrument for build- tary education, 25 per cent for secondary educationing an equitable and just society. Education provides and the balance 32 per cent for higher education.skills and competencies for economic well-being. About half of the Central Government’s expenditureEducation strengthens democracy by imparting to was incurred for higher education and the remainingcitizens the tools needed to fully participate in the for elementary (39 per cent) and secondary (12 pergovernance process. Education also acts as an inte- cent) education. In the State sector, about 75 per centgrative force in society, imparting values that foster of education expenditure is for school education, ofsocial cohesion and national identity. Recognising which 44 per cent is on elementary education andthe importance of education in national develop- 30 per cent on secondary education.ment, the Twelfth Plan places an unprecedentedfocus on the expansion of education, on significantly 21.3. The following sections of this chapter provideimproving the quality of education imparted and on details of the strategy and initiatives for school edu-ensuring that educational opportunities are available cation and literacy and then for higher education.to all segments of the society. Issues related to skill development that have close linkages to education are dealt with in Chapter 321.2. Recognising the importance of education, pub- along with a discussion on employment.lic spending on education increased rapidly duringthe Eleventh Plan period. Education expenditure as SCHOOL EDUCATION AND LITERACYa percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) rose 21.4. The country has made significant progress infrom 3.3 per cent in 2004–05 to over 4 per cent in improving access to education in recent years. The2011–12. Per capita public expenditure on education mean years of schooling of the working populationincreased from `888 in 2004–05 to `2985 in 2011–12. (those over 15 years old) increased from 4.19 yearsThe bulk of public spending on education is incurred in 2000 to 5.12 years in 2010. Enrolment of childrenby the State Governments and their spending grew at the primary education stage has now reachedat a robust rate of 19.6 per cent per year during near-universal levels. The growth of enrolment inthe Eleventh Plan. Central spending on education secondary education accelerated from 4.3 per centincreased even faster at 25 per cent per year during per year during the 1990s to 6.27 per cent per year in
    • 48 Twelfth Five Year Planthe decade ending 2009–10. Youth literacy increased and its improvement in order to ensure adequatefrom 60 per cent in 1983 to 91 per cent in 2009–10 appropriate learning outcomes. In this context,and adult literacy improved from 64.8 per cent in States need to set up transparent and reliable systems2001 to 74 per cent in 2011. for tracking attendance in a meaningful way and work on effective strategies for boosting attendance21.5. A good progress has also been made in bridg- and sustaining high levels of attendance throughouting the equity gap in education. India’s educational the school year.inequality, measured in terms of the Gini co-efficient1for number of years of education, has decreased 21.8. While there has been a decline in the percent-from 0.71 in 1983 to 0.49 in 2010, indicating a large age of out-of-school children (OoSC) across genderreduction in inequality. The gender gap in elemen- and social categories, Muslim, scheduled caste (SC)tary education has declined with the female/male and scheduled tribe (ST) children need greater andratio for years of education and literacy reaching focused attention. The number of OoSC who areover 90 per cent in 2009–10. A significant reduction physically or mentally challenged remains a cause forin socio-economic inequality in access to education concern. The proportion of disabled out-of-schooland a narrowing of the gap between SCs/STs and children in 2005 was 34.19 per cent and remainedother social groups has been achieved. unchanged at 34.12 per cent in 2009. It is impor- tant to note that the maximum number of OoSC areChallenges those with mental disabilities (48 per cent), followed21.6. Despite many gains during the Eleventh Plan, by children with speech disabilities (37 per cent).education in India faces several challenges. The Neither the school system nor any other institutionalcountry’s mean years of schooling at 5.12 years is mechanism is equipped to address the challengingwell below the other emerging market economies needs of mentally disabled children who are mostsuch as China (8.17 years) and Brazil (7.54 years) disadvantaged both socially and educationally in theand significantly below the average for all developing system.countries (7.09 years). A matter of particular con-cern is the steep dropout rate after the elementary 21.9. There has been a substantial increase in thelevel. The sharp drop-off in enrolment at the middle availability of teachers at elementary level during theschool level and the increasing enrolment gap from past few years and if all the teacher posts sanctionedelementary to higher secondary suggests that the under both Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Stategains at the elementary level have not yet impactedthe school sector as a whole. Disadvantaged groups budgets are filled, the pupil–teacher ratio (PTR) atare worse off with the dropout rates for SCs and STs the national level will almost be 27:1. The challenge,higher than the national average. however, lies in correcting the imbalance in teacher deployment. The number of schools that do not21.7. While enrolment levels at the elementary comply with the Right to Education (RTE) normslevel are generally high, studies of student attend- for the required PTR is fairly high. School-wiseance show that there is considerable variation across analysis based on District Information System forStates in the percentage of enrolled students who are Education (DISE) 2009–10 indicates that 46 per centattending school on any given day during the school of primary and 34 per cent of upper primary schoolsyear. Of particular concern is that some of the most have poor PTRs. Another serious challenge is theeducationally backward States (Uttar Pradesh [UP], presence of teachers without professional qualifica-Bihar, Madhya Pradesh [MP] and Jharkhand) have tions approved by the National Council of Teacherthe lowest student attendance rates (below 60 per Education (NCTE), as is required under the RTE Act.cent). In the Twelfth Plan, there is a need for a clear There are about 8.1 lakh untrained teachers in theshift in strategy from a focus on inputs and increasing country with four States—Bihar, UP, Jharkhand andaccess and enrolment to teaching–learning process West Bengal—accounting for 72 per cent of them.
    • Education 4921.10. Under SSA, the country has seen massive sector today. This is particularly disturbing sinceinfrastructure development at the school level. Apart both macro- and micro-level evidence suggests thatfrom opening over 3 lakh new schools, SSA has also what matters for both national economic growthprovided basic facilities in existing schools. The aver- as well as individuals’ ability to participate in thisage student–classroom ratio (SCR) which was 39 in growth process is not the total years of education as2005–06 has come down to 32 in 2009–10. There much as the quality of education and value-additionare still a large number of schools which do not have for each successive year in school as representedthese minimum facilities. Only 4.8 per cent govern- by continuously improving learning outcomes andment schools have all nine facilities stipulated in skills. Improving learning outcomes is crucial forthe RTE Act, approximately one-third of the total inclusive growth and, therefore, a major focus of theschools have up to seven facilities, and about 30 per Twelfth Plan will be on measuring and improvingcent schools do not have even five of these facilities. learning outcomes for all children, with a clear rec-Keeping in view the RTE stipulations, these facilities ognition that increasing inputs (number of schools,have to be provided in all schools in a time-bound classrooms, teachers and so on) will by themselvesmanner. not be enough to ensure quality education for all children.21.11. The biggest concern in elementary educationis the poor level of student learning—both scholastic Strategiesand co-scholastic/non-cognitive. Evidence suggests 21.14. The Twelfth Plan needs to address these chal-that learning outcomes for children in Indian schools lenges in an integrated and holistic manner. Theare far below corresponding class levels in other focus needs to be on meeting the residual needs ofcountries, and that the learning trajectories for chil- access with sharper focus on the needs of the dis-dren who remain in school are almost flat. Clearly, advantaged social groups and the difficult-to-reachthe additional time spent by students in school as areas; improving the school infrastructure in keep-they move from one class to another is not translat- ing with the RTE stipulations; increasing enrol-ing into much improvement in learning levels. ment at the upper primary and secondary school levels; lowering dropout rates across the board; and,21.12. At the heart of the issue of quality are the weak broad-based improvement in the quality of educa-teaching processes and transactions between teach- tion with special emphasis on improving learningers and learners that are neither child-friendly nor outcomes. The four main priorities for educationadopt child-centred approach to curriculum. The policy have been access, equity, quality and gover-capacity, motivation and accountability of teach- nance. The Twelfth Plan will continue to prioritiseers to deliver quality education with significant and these four areas, but will place the greatest emphasismeasurable improvements in learning outcomes of on improving learning outcomes at all levels.students need to be critically and urgently addressed.Similar challenges of quality of learning also exist at 21.15. It is critical for the country to make second-the secondary and higher education levels. Dropout ary education much more job-relevant through skillsrates in secondary and higher education continue to training within the schools. For this, higher invest-be high, especially for socially excluded and econom- ments will need to be made to equip secondaryically marginalised groups of learners. schools with teachers/trainers who have technical skills, and equipment (such as workshops, machines,21.13. Despite higher levels of enrolment at all lev- computer equipment) that can be used to impartels of education, and a massive increase in physical technical and vocational skills. In countries such asinfrastructure, the value added by formal education South Korea and Australia, 25–40 per cent of highis still weak. Poor quality of education resulting in school students opt for vocational courses, mak-weak learning outcomes at each stage of education ing them job-ready once they finish Grade 12. Theis the central challenge facing the Indian education vocational credits they earn in secondary schools are
    • 50 Twelfth Five Year Planrecognised by the general education system and a weaker children having significantly lower learninghigh proportion of these students return to universi- outcomes. These gaps exist at the point of entry intoties to pursue a college degree at a later stage. the school system and continue to grow over time. Large and growing learning gaps threaten the equityAccess gains achieved on the enrolment front because chil-21.16. The challenge of access is no longer one of dren with lower levels of learning are more likely toenrolments at the primary level, but one of increas- drop out. Therefore, it is essential to bridge gaps ining attendance, reducing dropouts and increasing learning levels at an early stage if the equity goals ofenrolments at the secondary level. These challenges the Twelfth Plan are to be met effectively.will have to be tackled through a multi-prongedstrategy that should include: (i) a realistic assessment 21.18. Given the complex and chronic nature ofof the problems of the most vulnerable categories inequality and exclusion, the strategies adopted soof children; (ii) measures to help schools meet the far have tended to be somewhat isolated, fragmentedrequired PTR, classroom and other infrastructure and devoid of institutional support. As a result, thenorms (since they impact the retention of children); many forms that exclusion takes, and the different(iii) improving management systems for better ways in which it is manifested, have not been suffi-tracking and monitoring of school functioning; ciently addressed across the landscape of access, par-(iv) a focus on improvements in teaching–learning ticipation, retention, achievement and completion ofprocesses; and (v) on developing schools as inclu- elementary education. This makes exclusion the sin-sive learning spaces. Improving learning outcomes gle most important challenge in universalising ele-at the upper primary level is a critical requirement mentary education. The Twelfth Plan will, therefore,for improving enrolment levels in secondary schools. address the issue of equity as integral to the wholeA big part of the increase in secondary enrolment gamut of elementary education, moving away fromhas to come from students who are better prepared an incentives-and-provisions-based approach to ato benefit from secondary education and, therefore, rights and entitlements approach.are able to continue their education rather than dropout. This will require increasing the effectiveness of Qualityteaching models at both the primary and the second- 21.19. Improvement of the quality of education isary levels. strongly linked to the quality of physical space, tex- tual materials, classroom processes, academic sup-Equity port to the teachers, assessment procedures and21.17. While discussing the issue of social access and community involvement. All these areas will con-equity, the tendency is to confine it to broad catego- tinue to receive support during the Twelfth Planries like SC, ST, Muslims, girls and so on. But these are period. While adequate inputs and infrastructurenot homogenous groups. Social realities are far too are necessary for the proper functioning of schools,complex and there are groups within these groups, inputs will not automatically translate into effectivewhich for different reasons are more disadvantaged teaching–learning processes or satisfactory learn-than the category as a whole. In order to fully meet ing outcomes. Therefore, the Twelfth Plan will treatthe goal of universal access, the Twelfth Plan will improving school inputs as just the starting point inneed to remove barriers to access arising out of such improving educational quality, and will take a moresocial and economic realities. Special focus would be comprehensive view for building a strong systemicto ensure educational access in civil strife–affected focus on teacher capacity, improving school leader-areas and in context of rising urbanisation. While the ship/management, strengthening academic supportgaps in average enrolments between disadvantaged system, better community and parents’ participa-groups and the general population have decreased, tion, measuring and improving learning outcomes inthere is still a considerably large gap in learning lev- a continuous manner. Focus would be on provisionels with historically disadvantaged and economically for child-friendly schools and systems in teaching
    • Education 51and learning processes as well as in improved water, outcomes is a unifying theme of the Twelfth Plan.sanitation, hygiene and midday meal practices. Addressing the problem of quality will simultane-Considerable resources will be invested to not only ously address many of the other challenges. This isprovide high-quality independent measures of stu- not to say that inputs and resources do not matter,dent learning levels and trajectories over time, but but focusing on learning outcomes will also help toalso resources for large-scale instructional changes ensure that these inputs and resources are providedthat will lead to improvement in classroom transac- and utilised in a manner where they have the greatesttions leading to better learning outcomes. impact. Research from around the world highlights the importance of early childhood education, andGovernance suggests that high-quality early childhood education21.20. Several studies have reported the challenges may have the highest long-term returns in terms ofin education governance exemplified by teacher improved human development. The Twelfth Planabsence, delayed fund flows to schools and admin- will therefore place a high priority on universalisingistrative capabilities at the school level. Studies have pre-school education and improving school prepar-also found that improved measurement and manage- edness—especially for historically and economicallyment of teacher performance has a significant posi- disadvantaged children. More broadly, the approachtive impact on student learning outcomes. Specific of the Twelfth Plan for school education will be toand targeted measures of student learning along with define and measure outcomes, and allocate resourcesmeasures to hold teachers, schools and school sys- in ways that maximise progress towards achievingtems accountable for these learning outcomes will go these outcomes.a long way in improving governance by orienting theeducation system towards outcomes. The Twelfth 21.22. The Twelfth Plan strategies need to respondPlan will prioritise and invest in improving educa- to these challenges and drive towards achieving thetional leadership and management at the district, outcome targets laid out for the Plan (see Box 21.1).block and school levels, with a focus on making bet- The six core elements of the driving principles andter use of data and governing the education system strategy for the Twelfth Plan are:with the objective of improving learning outcomes atall levels of schooling. 1. All stages of education need to be viewed in an21.21. While there is a broad range of challenges integrated manner, through the perspective offacing education in the country, a focus on learning lifelong learning and education; Box 21.1 Targets for the Twelfth Plan 1. Ensure universal access and, in keeping with letter and spirit of the RTE Act, provide good-quality free and compulsory education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years; 2. Improve attendance and reduce dropout rates at the elementary level to below 10 per cent and lower the percentage of OoSC at the elementary level to below 2 per cent for all socio-economic and minority groups and in all States; 3. Increase enrolments at higher levels of education and raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) at the secondary level to over 90 per cent, at the Senior Secondary level to over 65 per cent; 4. Raise the overall literacy rate to over 80 per cent and reduce the gender gap in literacy to less than 10 per cent; 5. Provide at least one year of well-supported/well-resourced pre-school education in primary schools to all children, particularly those in educationally backward blocks (EBBs); and 6. Improve learning outcomes that are measured, monitored and reported independently at all levels of school education with a special focus on ensuring that all children master basic reading and numeracy skills by class 2 and skills of critical thinking, expression and problem solving by class 5.
    • 52 Twelfth Five Year Plan2. Strengthening the quality of teaching–learning REVIEW OF THE ELEVENTH PLAN processes requires comprehensive concerted large- 21.25. With the RTE Act, 2009, becoming opera- scale efforts with simultaneous attention to how tional from 1 April 2010, the vision and strategies these processes translate into better outcomes; of the ongoing SSA were harmonised with the RTE3. Motivation, capacity and accountability of teach- mandate and the programme norms were revised ers for improving learning outcomes at all levels accordingly. Financial outlays were enhanced and the must be focused upon; changes approved to the annual work plans to enable4. Governance of educational institutions requires government schools to become RTE Act compliant. an institutional focus on quality based on prin- ciples of autonomy, accountability and per- Enrolments formance; this may involve fundamentally 21.26. Against an estimated child population of 192 re-defining the recruitment criteria, eligibility million in the 6–14 age group, 195 million children of teachers and merit-based processes of recruit- were enrolled at the elementary stage in 2009–10. ment in these institutions; The GER2 increased from 111.2 per cent in 2006–075. Within a common national legal and pol- to 115 per cent in 2009–10 and the Net Enrolment icy framework, innovations and diversity of Ratio (NER)3 improved significantly from 92.7 per approaches will be encouraged in matters of cur- cent to 98 per cent during this period. The GERs for ricula, pedagogies and community engagements SCs and STs range between 130 per cent and 140 per in order to respond to the diversity of learner cent at the national level and, in some States, these groups, regional/social contexts and various are nearly double that of eligible age group children. stages/forms of institutional and human devel- GER in excess of 100 per cent at the primary stage opment in the educational sector; and indicates presence of overage and underage children6. It is imperative to strengthen the monitoring in the schools, and reflects the delayed provision of and accountability mechanisms of stakeholders access to schooling and lack of pre-schooling facili- in school education including community and ties, particularly in rural areas. parents as envisaged under the RTE Act. 21.27. Girls account for the majority (5.3 million)21.23. The following subsections provide details of of the additional enrolment of 7.21 million childrenstrategy and initiatives for elementary education and between 2006–07 and 2009–10. More than half ofthen secondary education. This is followed by a sec- them (53 per cent) belong to SCs and STs. Three ini-tion on issues that cut across school education such tiatives of the Eleventh Plan helped to increase theas the use of technology, teacher education, govern- enrolment of girls. These included (i) setting up ofance and school leadership, followed by a section on 3600 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas in 27 Statesadult education. and Union Territories (UTs), (ii) establishment of 7000 Early Childhood Care Centres in EBBs andELEMENTARY EDUCATION (iii) implementation of Mahila Samakhya pro-21.24. Elementary Education comprising primary gramme in ten States.(Class I–V) and upper primary (Class VI–VIII)forms the foundation of the education pyramid. 21.28. The GER at upper primary level is low, evenUnless this foundation is strengthened, it will not be though it improved by 11.8 per cent in the fourfeasible to achieve the goal of universal access to qual- years between 2006–07 and 2009–10. At 62 perity education for all. A major achievement in recent cent the NER at upper primary level is also a causeyears has been the establishment of Constitutional for concern. This varies from 47 per cent in UP andand legal underpinnings for achieving universal 53.1 per cent in Bihar to 91 per cent in Tamil Naduelementary education. The Right of Children to Free and 83 per cent in Himachal Pradesh.4 It is evi-and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, became dent that although a larger number of children areoperative on 1 April 2010. entering the educational system, all of them are not
    • Education 53progressing through the system and this progression fact that quality of education should be the key focusis uneven across the States. of attention in the Twelfth Plan. Improving learning outcomes, with a focus on supplemental instruction21.29. A large number of children are still OoS. Of for disadvantaged children, will directly contributethe 8.1 million OoSC in the country in 2009, UP (34 to the objective of reducing dropouts, because evi-per cent), Bihar (17 per cent), Rajasthan (12 per cent) dence suggests that children who fall behind grade-and West Bengal (9 per cent) account for 72 per appropriate learning levels are significantly morecent.5 Although surveys have reported a decline in likely to drop out. The structure of enrolments inthe proportion of OoSC to the corresponding child elementary education shows that about 80 per centpopulation of various communities such as SCs, STs of children are enrolled in government and govern-and Muslims,6 these estimates need to be taken with ment-aided institutions; therefore, the focus on qual-caution, keeping in mind the steep decline in abso- ity improvement in elementary education has to belute numbers of OoSC reported in the correspond- on government institutions.ing period. A recent study for rural India places theproportion of children not enrolled in schools at 21.32. Some progress has been made in preparing3.5 per cent.7 However, in a few States like Rajasthan children better for primary education. Pre-schooland UP, the percentage of OoS girls in the age group enrolment has more than doubled from 21 per cent inof 11–14 years is as high as 8.9 per cent and 9.7 per 2005 to 47 per cent in 2010.9 More recent ASER datacent, respectively.8 (2010) indicates that 83.6 per cent of 3- to 6-year- olds in rural areas are enrolled in some preschool21.30. The Eleventh Plan had targeted a reduction programme mostly in Integrated Child Developmentin dropout rates from 50 per cent to 20 per cent at Services (ICDS) centres, including those in privatethe elementary stage. Even though there has been pre-schools. The quality issues of pre-primary edu-some reduction, progress has not been satisfactory cation in Anganwadi need serious review.and the national average is still as high as 42.39 percent. The dropout rates for SC and ST children at 21.33. During the Eleventh Plan, the Sarva Shiksha51.25 per cent and 57.58 per cent, respectively, are Abhiyan (SSA) was the flagship programme formuch higher than that for non-SC/ST children at impacting elementary education, but the fol-37.22 per cent. This clearly suggests the challenge lowing major Central Government schemes andof school retention of children from vulnerable programmes were also implemented: Nationalcommunities. Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE; commonly known as the21.31. Having achieved near-universal enrolment at Mid-Day Meal Scheme), Teacher Education Scheme;the lower primary level, it is critical to turn the focus Mahila Samakhya; Schemes for Providing Qualityon the poor levels of learning outcomes achieved by Education in Madrasas (SPQEM) and Infrastructurechildren who complete five years of primary school- Development in Minority Institutions (IDMI).ing. Several independently conducted national stud-ies including the ASER (2005 to 2011) and the School SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (SSA)Learning Study (2010) have reported very low levels 21.34. The SSA is implemented as India’s main pro-of learning among Indian school children. The ASER gramme for universalisation of elementary educa-2011 findings illustrate that over half the children in tion (UEE). Its overall goals include universal accessclass V are unable to read even at class II level. In the and retention, bridging of gender and social gaps inrecent Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enrolment levels and enhancement of learning lev-Development–Programme for International Student els of all children. The SSA has merged componentsAssessment (OECD–PISA) study, India has been of the National Programme for Education of Girlsplaced at the tail-end in international comparisons at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) and the residentialrating (PISA-2009+). These results underscore the school scheme, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya
    • 54 Twelfth Five Year Plan(KGBV), that have focus on girls’ education. The identification and mainstreaming of all children intoapproved outlay for SSA in the Eleventh Plan was age-appropriate class would be needed. Reduction in`71000 crore. Against this, an amount of `77586 dropout rates is closely linked to quality. There is acrore was released to the States. Details of cumula- need for a system-wide effort to move the focus of alltive progress made under the SSA up to 2011–12 are activity in elementary education from schooling togiven in Table 21.1. learning. This entails a shift at every level, macro and micro, whether in planning, resource allocation and TABLE 21.1 implementation or measurement of processes and Cumulative Progress under SSA up to 2011–12 practices that is designed to achieve significant, sub- S. No. Item Sanctions stantial and continuous improvement in children’s 1 Opening of New Schools 209914 learning outcomes. The entire process of education Opening of New Upper Primary Schools 173969 should be firmly anchored to the notion that every 2 child must be in school and learning well. 3 Construction of Primary Schools 192392 4 Construction of Upper Primary Schools 105562 21.37. A major focus of the Twelfth Plan will be on 5 Construction of Additional Classrooms 1603789 implementing the objectives of the RTE Act and 6 Toilets 583529 aligning the government policies and practices with the overall goal of providing quality schooling for all 7 Drinking Water facilities 223086 children until the age of 14 years. The States that have 8 Teachers 1965207 seven-year elementary education cycle (four years ofSource: Ministry of HRD. primary education and three years of upper primary education) have begun to realign to eight-year cycle.21.35. Though there was notable success in expand- During the Twelfth Plan this would be implementeding capacity and enrolments during the Eleventh throughout the country. All the States have noti-Plan, the challenge of raising quality standards still fied State-specific rules under the Act. Pursuant toremains. Although the number of elementary schools the RTE Act, notifications of teacher qualificationshas increased to 13.04 lakh, many schools lack the under section 23 of the RTE Act and the prescriptionbasic infrastructure facilities required under the RTE of a Teacher Eligibility Test (TET) by the NCTE haveAct. For example, the retention of girls in school also been issued.remains difficult given that over 63 per cent of ruralschools have no usable toilet facilities for them.10 If 21.38. Clear articulation of learning goals is the criti-the envisaged convergence of the Mahatma Gandhi cal first step in this process. National learning stand-National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme ards must be developed on the basis of which States(MGNREGS), Total Sanitation Programme (TSP) should be encouraged to define, in simple terms,and Drinking Water Supply (DWS) Mission mate- meaningful learning goals to be achieved at the endrialises, some of these infrastructural shortcomings of each class or set of classes. Resources will have tocould be mitigated. While bridging infrastructure be devoted to developing concrete, achievable meas-gaps may be achievable, it will be far more challeng- ures of student learning at the State and nationaling to bridge learning gaps. level. Articulation and expression, team work, criti- cal thinking and problem solving are important skillsTWELFTH PLAN STRATEGY to be learned, alongside basic literacy and numeracy.21.36. The overarching goal of the Twelfth Plan is The meaning of literacy and numeracy should notto enrol OoSC, reduce dropouts and improve learn- be traditional, but keep in mind, reading, and mathing outcomes across the elementary school years. In literacy as defined by PISA/OECD countries contex-order to enrol OoSC, strengthening of institutional tualised for Indian conditions. Teachers and admin-capacity, developing an appropriate statistical base, istrators should be reoriented to ensure that theyharmonising the definition of OoSC and finally understand and imbibe the values of critical thinking,
    • Education 55problem solving and expression. The National class 1 and 2, which is a very effective mechanism toCurriculum Framework 2005 (NCF-2005) and its ensure child motivation and ‘coping’ ability to dealaccompanying 22 focus group reports form the basis with school texts. Besides, a strong foundationalfor curriculum revival and improved learning out- learning support needs to be immediately given tocomes in the country. The formulations of NCF-2005 children in class 3–5, and 6–8 who have not evenneed to be converted into tangible teaching–learning achieved basic skills to negotiate the curriculum ofmaterials, classroom transactions and assessment upper primary or secondary schooling to which theysystems in every State of the country. The creation will transit. The methodology of Comprehensive andof improved textbooks by the National Council of Continuous Evaluation (CCE) mandated by the RTEEducational Research and Training (NCERT) after Act once properly implemented can go a long way inNCF-2005, used mostly by schools affiliated with tackling this issue.the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE),needs to be emulated in every State to cover all the 21.41. To make sure that all the children make pro-children of the country. gress towards the learning goals, new and inno- vative strategies will have to be tried in terms of21.39. Once basic goals are clearly articulated, all teaching–learning and consequently in preparingaspects of the elementary education system (such and supporting teachers. The overall strategy foras methods of teaching–learning, use of materi- elementary education in the Twelfth Plan is summa-als, grouping for effective instruction, optimal use rised in Box 21.2.of time, daily instructional time and number ofdays of teaching, measurement of progress, capac- TWELFTH PLAN INITIATIVESity building and ongoing support for teachers and 21.42. SSA will continue to be the flagship pro-administrators) will need to be strongly aligned to gramme for developing elementary education duringthe achievement of the learning goals. System-level the Twelfth Plan for realising the rights to elemen-administrators at various levels need to ensure that tary education for each and every child. There wouldthe activities of the system at every level are aligned be four strategic areas under SSA during the Twelfthto the stated goals. Periodic reviews (at least annu- Plan. These are: (i) strong focus on learning out-ally) need to be conducted to track progress and comes; (ii) addressing residual access and equityrefine and rework strategies to reach the stated goals. gaps; (iii) focus on teacher and education leadership; (iv) linkages with other sectors and programmes.21.40. The elementary education system needs to These are described in the following sections.focus on two major tasks. First, children enteringschool should be prepared and should learn basics I. Strong Focus on Learning Outcomesby the time they complete class 2 or 3. Second, the 21.43. Quality in education is inherently depen-proportion of children who are lagging behind in dent on the following six aspects: (i) curriculumhigher grades (class 3, 4 and 5 and also in upper pri- and learning objectives, (ii) learning materials,mary) acquire required levels of competencies. There (iii) pedagogic processes, (iv) classroom assessmentis strong evidence that for children whose home lan- frameworks, (v) teacher support in the classrooms,guage is different from the textbook language with no and (vi) school leadership and management devel-supplemental parental guidance at home, problems opment. A new framework for curriculum is neededof ‘coping’ eliminate them from the system earlier on at regular intervals in order to take cognizance ofby class 3. A great deal of attention needs to be paid the developing issues in society and how to addressto such linguistically determined barriers in the pas- them. A variety of learning packages should besage of children from lower to higher classes. There developed at State and district levels, with adequateis a need to develop primers for bridging the home provision for cluster- and school-level modificationslanguage to the school language from pre-school to to aid the teacher and provide increased choice. As
    • 56 Twelfth Five Year Plan Box 21.2 Twelfth Plan Strategy for Elementary Education 1. Shift from a project-based approach of SSA to a unified RTE-based governance system for UEE; 2. Address residual access and equity gaps in elementary education by adopting special measures to ensure regular attendance of children in schools and devising special strategy to tackle the problem of dropping out before completing the full cycle of elementary schooling; 3. Integrate pre-school education with primary schooling in order to lay a strong foundation for learning during primary school; 4. Prioritise education quality with a system-wide focus on learning outcomes that are assessed through classroom- based CCE independently measured, monitored and reported at the block/district/State levels; 5. Focus on early grade supplemental instruction to ensure that all children achieve the defined age-/class-specific learning levels by the end of class 2; 6. Articulate clear learning goals that have to be achieved by the end of each class or set of classes. These goals should be understood by parents and teachers; 7. Improve teacher training with an emphasis on effective pedagogy given the realities of Indian classrooms such as multi- age, multi-grade and multi-level contexts. Also, make teachers professional development a needs-driven process as opposed to top-down decision wherein curriculum design and delivery is centrally driven; 8. Invest in both top-down administrative oversight and bottom-up community-driven monitoring of schools; 9. Focus on strengthening practices of good governance in all schools and related institutions that ensure performance- based internal and external accountability for teachers and administrators at all levels and also ensure holistic assessment- driven development of schools; 10. Invest in strengthening ongoing and continuous field-based systems of academic support to schools and teachers and in strengthening district and block-level capacity for better management and leadership; 11. Support States to set learning goals and invest in independent monitoring of outcomes, but provide States with substantial autonomy in how to achieve these goals, and provide additional results-based financing to States who show the most improvement in educational outcomes; 12. Provide a supportive environment for evaluation of innovative practices, and sharing of best practices across States and districts; 13. Support States towards motivation, capacity development and accountability of community and parents for ensuring regular attendance and quality education; and 14. Ensure convergence with panchayats, Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) and other sectors at school level.education is concerned with all-round development (A) Strong Focus on Early Years in Schoolof the child (physical, socio-emotional along with 21.44. Research on the impact of PTR on studentcognitive), all aspects need to be assessed rather than learning suggests that a low PTR matters most atonly academic achievement. During the Twelfth younger ages, when children are being socialised intoPlan, however, there will be a system-wide focus the process of learning, and less so in older classes.on holistic development of children by improv- Thus, it may make sense to supplement the require-ing learning outcomes and other non-scholastic ments under the RTE, for communities to hire mul-areas. Learning enhancement programme (LEP) tiple community-based teachers on contract to focusunder the SSA would be continued in the Twelfth on improving school preparedness and basic literacyPlan, for which specific zones of operation should be and numeracy for pre-school children. In addition,identified by the concerned State/District authori- class I should receive special attention in the Twelfthties. Every year, States need to articulate the learn- Plan period. Ideally, the strongest or most experi-ing goals that are being targeted and the strategies enced teacher in the school should be assigned to(methods, materials, models and measurement) that this class. States must develop a process to identifywill be used to reach those goals. Institutional assess- specialist teachers of early/initial primary educationment/accreditation of the elementary schools will be and design specific professional development andintroduced in the Twelfth Plan, and possibly made academic support programmes for them. If the foun-mandatory from the Thirteenth Plan onwards. dations are strong and solid in class I, many of the
    • Education 57later problems that children encounter—both aca- enable students and teachers to access wide variety ofdemically and non-academically—would be reduced. resources available in the digital format, and digitalSpecial training needs to be provided each year to resources that are seamlessly integrated in classroomthe teachers who will work with class I. Countries processes. Efforts will be made to adopt energy-like Finland, Sweden and Denmark, who top the efficient, cost-effective ICT solutions, which increasePISA tests have demonstrated that equity can con- the number of access points in each school enablingsiderably help to improve overall learning outcomes, more and more children to use the facility more fre-through mixed and inclusive classrooms, that do quently. Appropriate mechanisms to maintain thenot segregate the so-called ‘bright’ and ‘slow learn- infrastructure and protect it from breakdowns willers’, or children from different social, ethnic or other be ensured. ICT should also be used to networkdifferences. Students who had attended pre-primary teachers and schools in a specific geography—thistend to perform well than those who have not. These would enhance collaborative teaching and learning.approaches need to be emulated in our classrooms The RTE Act mandates provision of laboratory andtoo so that the classrooms of the country resonate library facilities in schools. SSA funding would bewith the diversity of our country, and help improve made available for this purpose particularly to caterlearning outcomes as the Scandinavian school sys- to children from the disadvantaged groups.tems have shown. (D) Research for Quality Improvement(B) Review of School Textbooks 21.47. Priority will be given to research projects21.45. School text books should be reviewed by concerned with quality-related issues, including, forNCERT/State Council of Educational Research and example, assessing States’ curriculum in the lightTraining (SCERT) to be made more engaging yet of NCF-2005, students’ learning outcomes, stu-simple and interesting. Review of textbooks must dents’ and teachers’ attendance rates, effectivenessalways be accompanied by special development of of teacher training, efficacy of textbooks and otherteachers to use these books effectively. Learning lev- TLMs, quality of academic supervision provided byels expected of children as seen in textbooks should Block Resource Centres (BRCs)/Cluster Resourcebe aligned to the overall learning goals—keeping in Centres (CRCs)/District Institutes of Educationmind that the goals and standards should be achiev- and Training (DIETs), discriminatory practices inable by majority of the children. Work-books should schools, teaching–learning in classrooms, implemen-accompany textbooks for mathematics, science and tation of CCE in schools, role of School Managementlanguages. The textbook should be supplemented by Committees (SMCs) in school management; estimat-learning facilitation manuals for teachers for improv- ing OoSC; status and effectiveness of Special traininging classroom transaction. All government schools centres, completion rate/dropout rate and transitionshould be provided with electricity and facilities for rate; and so on.computer-aided learning on a large scale. Privatesector resources should also be enlisted for content (E) Pre-Primary Educationdevelopment based on curriculum and syllabi. 21.48. Every primary school would be facilitated to have a pre-primary section to provide pre-primary(C) Enhancing Facilities in Schools education with a school readiness programme for at21.46. A programme for Information and Commu- least one year for children in the age group of fournication Technology (ICT) in elementary schools to six years. The concept of ‘early learning units’will replace the erstwhile Computer-Aided Learning would be introduced which would bring together the(CAL) under SSA. This would include provision of pre-primary and early primary grades into an inte-networked computers, accessories and an Internet grated unit. The implementation would be phasedconnection in a phased manner. A variety of soft- out and by the end of the Twelfth Plan, about 50 perware tools and pedagogically appropriate e-content cent of the schools would have pre-primary classes.in local languages will be sourced or developed to Educationally lagging States/Districts/Blocks shouldserve the school curriculum. The focus will be to be covered on priority basis. For this, pre-school
    • 58 Twelfth Five Year Planeducation would be included under SSA/RTE as same. This would help to improve retention at thea separate component with a specific budget line. primary stage.NCTE would lay down standard qualifications andadapt its TET guidelines to accommodate teach- (F) Moving From Grade-Level to Ability-Levelers of this Early Learning Stage, that is, pre-primary Teaching–Learningand Grades 1 and 2. A few States have planned 21.50. Recent research in the country and abroadAnganwadi in primary schools. Pre-service teacher underlines the need for teaching children from thepreparation curriculum needs to be enhanced to level that they are and taking them to the level thataddress needs of pre-primary children. Pre-Service they need to be. This requires a substantial rethink-Teacher Education in the area of Early Childhood ing of the age–grade instructional pattern by whichEducation must be significantly strengthened. the education system is organised. In the last decadeSelected universities and institutions must be spe- there have been several promising approaches tocifically encouraged to run rigorous exemplar Early break away from this mould in order to enhance andChildhood Teacher Education programmes. There is accelerate children’s learning. Such approaches havea huge dearth of other specialists in this area—devel- been tried on scale in the government and also byopmental psychologists, curriculum developers for non-governmental organisations (NGOs). However,early childhood education and so on. Similar pro- barring the effort of some NGOs, none others havegrammes in these areas too need to be designed and been rigorously evaluated. The main governmentimplemented. Short-term certified refresher pro- effort in this direction is activity-based learninggrammes for in-service early childhood teachers and (ABL) or multi-grade multi-level learning (MGML)Anganwadi workers (this could also include teach- that is reaching more than 3 million children. Threeers of early primary classes) must be designed and States—Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilimplemented by identified organisations. Nadu—have expanded the programme to all schools in their States. This method promotes child-friendly21.49. The RTE Act has provided for pre-primary learning and assessment methods that enable chil-education for underprivileged children enrolled in dren to be ‘free from fear and anxiety’ and in promot-private schools in 25 per cent earmarked seats. States ing social inclusion among children in the classroomshould also be free to obtain services from reputed situations. Systemic reforms are needed to ensureprivate-aided and unaided institutions/NGOs and its sustainability, including its integration with cur-to compensate them on a cost recovery basis for riculum/textbooks, pre-service teacher education,these services. Communities can also be empowered sustainability across leadership changes. There is aand provided the financial resources to hire one or need for an objective evaluation of these efforts alongmore educated local young men and women (meet- with other initiatives that are child friendly, effectiveing minimum qualifications) on a contractual basis in multi-grade, multi-ability situations before scalingfor dedicated pre-school instruction. Broadly, from up in the country.planning to implementation, this pre-school yearshould be well resourced and supported. Currently, (G) Promote State-Level/Local-Level Innovationthere is an overlap with ICDS in so far as pre-pri- 21.51. Across the country, there are several prom-mary education is concerned. A strategy could be ising approaches to improve teaching–learning atdeveloped for gradual shift of the pre-primary year the elementary stage. These need to be explored infrom the purview of ICDS to the primary schools. greater depth to understand the basic elements ofThe nutrition component of ICDS in any case gets their functioning and their impact on learning out-addressed through midday meal. Thus, in the third comes. Among others, these include ABL initiatedand fourth year, children go to the Anganwadi cen- by the Government of Tamil Nadu, Gujarat govern-tres for early childhood education and in the fifth ment’s innovative Gunotsav programme, and Punjabyear, children attend pre-primary classes in regular government’s Purrho Punjab initiative. Amongschools that would have adequate provision for the efforts initiated by non-government bodies (often
    • Education 59working in collaboration with State Governments), these ‘learning reports’ to modify their classroom/among others, there is the Pratham Read India teaching–learning approaches.programme, the Hoshangabad Science TeachingProgramme and Prashika of Eklavya, and other (I) Measuring Learninginitiatives undertaken by UNICEF, Azim Premji 21.54. Considerable efforts and resources are neededFoundation, Tata Institute of Social Sciences and Shiv to develop independent and objective and achievableNadar Foundation. These are all promising interven- measures of student learning at the school, block,tions that can be scaled up further during the Twelfth district and State levels that approach the issue withPlan in order to achieve explicit focus on learning an understanding of the linguistic complexities whileoutcomes. formulating their testing methods. It is expected that better measurement and reporting of outcomes will(H) Child-Friendly Assessment play a strong catalysing role in making State, dis-21.52. The RTE Act mandates that a system of Con- trict and block-level education administrators focustinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation should be more on improving education quality as measuredput in place to enable the teacher to be continuously by student mastery of achieving the defined grade-guided by the child’s response and participation in wise learning outcomes. States should be encouragedclassroom activities. Support will, therefore, be pro- to define transparent, meaningful and simple learn-vided to enable teachers to maintain child-wise port- ing levels to be achieved at the end of class 2, 5 andfolios, incorporating a record of children’s work 8. Mechanisms must be put in place to ensure thatand progress—as an integral part of their teaching– schools neither ‘teach these external tests’ nor uselearning process. Teacher Training programme will these for punitive measures.include training on systems for CCE. Since a major-ity of children in Indian schools are not at grade (J) Learning from International Experiencelevel, adequate flexibility needs to be provided in the 21.55. There are also several international initia-CCE framework and in its implementation to iden- tives that have recognised the centrality of mov-tify and to address the needs of such children. In fact, ing from focus on enrolment to learning outcomes.teacher education institutes must be mandated to use United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural(not just teach) CCE during the pre-service teacher Organization (UNESCO) and the Centre for Uni-preparation programmes. versal Education (CUE) at the Brookings Institution have recently set up a ‘Learning Metrics Task Force’21.53. Regular and accurate reports of student learn- to investigate the feasibility of identifying commoning and progress should be provided to parents, learning goals to improve learning opportunities andalong with encouragement and guidance for parents outcomes for children and youth. India should bothon how to support their child’s educational progress. learn from these international efforts, where pos-It is important to de-stigmatise falling behind (‘fail- sible, and more importantly, play a leading role ining’). Every child (and parent) needs to be assured defining and implementing these standards, since itthat learning basic skills is well within his/her reach, has the largest primary school education system inand if he/she is not learning, it is a failure of the the world and also has the world’s largest number ofsystem rather than that of the child. ‘Assessment children who do not meet basic learning levels.of learning’ and ‘assessment for learning’ are twoaspects of education representing accountability II. Address Residual Access and Equity Gapsand improvement. One cannot be emphasised over 21.56. Special efforts are needed in the Twelfth Planthe other and neither can be sacrificed in favour for those children who are still not in school or whoof the other. While the teacher needs to ‘assess for need sustained attention for remaining linked tolearning’, the administrators and the parents of the school. Here the focus has to be on every child inchildren need ‘assessment of learning’. In the spirit school and learning well. So efforts must includeof these aspects, teachers must be supported to use strategies for effective and sustained mainstreaming
    • 60 Twelfth Five Year Planwith accelerated learning strategies built in as part tribal children. Special thrust is needed for childrenof the mainstreaming strategy. Special focus would at risk that include orphans, run-away platform chil-be on targeting OoSC, girls and socially excluded dren, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquiredgroups in specific locations. Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, children of sex workers, and so on. It also requires(A) Targeting Out-of-School Children that transport/escorts be provided for children in21.57. In order to achieve universal elementary edu- areas of civil strife, for children with disabilities, andcation in a planned and time-bound manner, better for children of the most marginalised ST and SCtargeting of uncovered and under-covered children is groups. Residential schooling opportunities are alsonecessary. Concerted and flexible efforts are needed excellent for accelerating learning among children.to reach out to all OoSC, including children with Residential facilities for children should be providedspecial needs (CWSN) and street children. Bridging by: (i) redeploying existing government/local bodythe social and gender gaps in enrolment with regard buildings and underutilised schools, (ii) constructingto SCs, STs and minority girls should receive special new buildings where redeploying existing buildingsattention. Residential programmes for the 11–14 is not possible. New buildings will be as per KGBVage group need continued support as do the efforts norms and school playgrounds will be developed into ensure sustained mainstreaming into the regu- convergence with Sarva Krida Abhiyan (SKA).lar school system. The option of open schoolingneeds to be strengthened so that rural labour, arti- (C) Focus on SC/ST Childrensans and others in petty jobs in villages and urban 21.59. At least 5 per cent of existing Government ele-slums achieve some learning equivalency in order mentary schools in all EBBs with more than 50 perto enable them to continue in community polytech- cent tribal population would be converted into resi-nics, part-time community colleges, Jan Shikshan dential school complexes (RSCs) having provisionsSansthan (JSS) and accredited Skill Knowledge for pre-school (non-residential), primary and middleProviders (SKPs) to pursue secondary education and schools. There should be provision of seasonal hos-acquire upgraded vocational skills. Those who have tel facilities for children of migrating families bothdropped out before completing the elementary stage at the place of origin and of migration in urbanneed opportunities for education and certification and rural areas. These hostels will follow norms setin a flexible manner. Helping such children (those out in the KGBV scheme. In EBBs with over 50 perwho have been left out or left behind) to accelerate cent tribal population, government schools wouldto the learning levels of their counterparts in school be converted into RSCs and seasonal hostels forhas to be an important part of the strategy for main- migrating tribal children. A few State Governments,streaming. Hence, the identification of OoSC should such as that of Andhra Pradesh, have integratedinclude an assessment of current ability to read and Ashram schools (regular residential schools) underto do arithmetic, comprehension, critical thinking, the RTE-harmonised SSA. Other States should fol-problem solving as well as their ability to express low the same approach. Further, convergence withthemselves. Teachers would require special train- the Ministry of Tribal Affairs for all Ashram shalasing for ‘accelerated learning’ of OoSC to be main- should be forged to achieve adequate PTR and infra-streamed into age-appropriate class. States would structure/facilities/Teaching–Learning Equipmentneed guidance for this. (TLE) as per the RTE norms. Special support would be needed to ensure retention and improved learning(B) Provision of Residential Schools for children from SC communities that are socially,21.58. Residential schools are particularly useful to economically and educationally deprived and dis-reach out to children from vulnerable sections of criminated. These efforts need to converge with thesociety. The RTE-enabled SSA envisages the provi- programmes of the Ministry of Social Justice andsion of residential schools for children in areas of Empowerment (MSJ&E). There is a need to reviewcivil strife, children of migrating populations and and revise curriculum addressing caste-based
    • Education 61exclusion and promoting inclusion. Interventions in the Twelfth Plan will be guided by the principlefor SCs include (i) process-based interventions such that gender equality in elementary education is bothas curricular review to include discussion on caste- a quality issue and an equity issue. Special focusbased discrimination in textual material; (ii) resi- needs to be placed on developing gender-sensitivedential schools run with assistance from the MSJ&E curricula, pedagogical practices, teacher trainingto conform to the RTE norms; (iii) convergence on and evaluation. Schools should be developed to bepre-matric scholarships and incentives provided by inclusive and safe places. Specific modules on issuesMSJ&E; (iv) partnerships with Dalit Civil Society such as sexual harassment and violence will need toOrganisations (CSOs) for support of Dalit children. be developed and integrated into the teacher train-As discussed in the previous sections, it is impor- ing design. Other specific initiatives to improve girls’tant to plan for improvement of learning of children education include:from disadvantaged backgrounds. It is only when thespecial efforts and provisions translate into learning 1. Strengthening and expansion of KGBVs to pro-gains that such children have a real chance to com- vide one more KGBV in EBBs, with special focusplete and go beyond elementary education. on wards with high migration rates in urban and semi-urban areas, and EBBs with a high concen-(D) Special Provision for Children with Special tration of SC, ST and Muslim populations.Needs (CWSN) 2. NPEGEL programme to include running Bridg-21.60. For CWSN, efforts will include identification, ing Centres, developing MCS as Model Schoolseducational placement in general schools, school for gender, equity and quality integration,readiness programmes, provision of aids and appli- development of MCS library to include digitalances, development and production of Braille books content, including audio visual resources, devel-and construction of ramps and disabled-friendly opment of bridging modules and manuals andtoilets. Considering the complexities and enormity training of SMCs on gender and equity issues.of the work involved in developing appropriate cur- 3. Mahila Samakhya would be continued as anricula, NGOs and competent private entities with independent programme with full operationalrelevant experience and ability to work in this area and programme autonomy and a Nationalshould become natural partners in implementation of Resource Centre, with strong State-level orthis aspect of the RTE Act. Such children would need regional units would be set up to strengthen thisindividualised educational plan, for which commu- programme (see 21.84 and 21.85 for details).nity mobilisation, parental training and peer sensiti-sation would be necessary. Engagement of resource 21.62. Overall, the interventions with regard toteachers and volunteers/caregivers to cater to their girls’ education would be aligned to the ‘Nationalneeds would also be needed. States must work closely Vision for Girls’ Education in India: Road-map towith the Rehabilitation Council of India on this—it 2015’ which was developed last year at State andis important not to duplicate efforts especially where national level through partnership between SSA,teacher development in this area is concerned. Mahila Samakhya and civil society with the sup- port of UNICEF with the aim of ensuring increased(E) Special Focus for Education of Girls and more targeted investments for girls’ education21.61. Promoting girl’s education is a critical issue. through strengthened systems for local service deliv-During the Twelfth Plan not only efforts will be ery which ensure gender equality in basic education.made to enable girls to keep pace with boys, butgirls’ education will be viewed from the perspec- (G) Focus on Educationally Backward Minoritiestive spelt out in the National Policy on Education 21.63. Even though there has been significant1986/92 which states that education should be a improvement in enrolment and retention of Muslimtransformative force, build women’s self-confidence children in elementary education, the gap betweenand improve their position in society. Interventions Muslims and non-Muslims continues to be high.
    • 62 Twelfth Five Year PlanDuring the Twelfth Plan, the unit of earmarking, tar- in minority schools and expanding facilities forgeting and monitoring of interventions for Muslim formal education of minority children. Over 100children would be changed from District to Block. minority institutions have been assisted during theSPQEM and IDMI could be merged. Urdu would be Eleventh Plan Period. Both these schemes need tooffered as an optional language in schools located in be continued in the Twelfth Plan with larger outlaysMuslim-dominated areas, along with its attendant and wider coverage of minority institutions. Thererequirements like teacher training, TLMs and so is a need to ensure that all efforts for inclusion alsoon. There seems to be some overlapping activities result in improved learning outcomes for childrenwith the Multi-Sectoral Development Plan (MSDP) from educationally backward communities which isof the Ministry of Minorities Affairs and the sup- essential for sustained mainstreaming of such chil-port extended on a ‘first come first serve’ basis by dren and their continued progress through the edu-the Ministry of Human Resources Development cation system.(MHRD). The specific activities of minority institu-tions supported under the MHRD schemes should (H) Focused Efforts in Urban Areasbe part of the larger district plan prepared for minor- 21.65. Along with growth in urban population,ities, particularly with regard to the convergent infra- urban poverty has increased, as large numbers ofstructure approach which is recommended. families migrate to urban habitations in search of livelihoods. Greater attention needs to be paid to21.64. The Central Government has been imple- enhancing the access to elementary education bymenting the SPQEM to encourage traditional insti- children of urban poor families. Innovative partner-tutions like madrasas and maktabs to modernise ships with urban local bodies are the key to enhanc-their curriculum by giving financial assistance to ing access and improving learning outcomes (seeintroduce science, mathematics, social studies, Box 21.3). Allotment of land and buildings for newHindi and English in their curriculum so that aca- schools and extension of existing schools needs todemic proficiency for classes I–XII is attainable for be facilitated. The requirement that schools earmarkchildren studying in these institutions. This has 25 per cent of their admission for children from dis-enabled Muslim children to transit to higher stud- advantaged groups and weaker sections will requireies and also ensured quality standards similar to support for related costs: uniforms, bags, books andthe national education system. The States of UP, bridging and supplementary support. SSA normsMP, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura and Jharkhand have would need to be revised to provide for financialbeen supported with teachers, book banks, science support to the State for reimbursement of cost tokits, computer laboratories and teacher training private unaided schools against such admissions andfor madrasa teachers teaching modern subjects in also for other costs mentioned above. In order toabout 1000 madrasas. The Scheme for Infrastructure cater to the high population density in urban areas,Development of Private Aided/Unaided Minority the norms for establishment of new schools in urbanInstitutions (IDMI) facilitates education of minorities areas with high population density should be basedby augmenting and strengthening of infrastructure on number of children being served per school rather Box 21.3 School Excellence Programme—Mumbai 1. Programme taken up by the Mumbai municipal authorities with technical support of UNICEF to enhance learning outcomes of urban slum children in Mumbai municipal schools targeting 500000 children across 1327 schools. 2. Involved systematic tracking of school and children, baseline assessment of learning levels of children, development of pedagogy and training of teachers in more inclusive and interactive teaching and learning process, training of headmasters on school leadership and partnership development. 3. Multiple partners involved included the State Bank of India, Tata Consultancy Services, McKinsey as well as several reputed CSOs including Naandi Foundation and Rishi Valley.
    • Education 63than distance. Migration brings huge challenges for institutionalising a system of school mentoring arechildren—regular/typical school programmes will common in elementary and secondary educationnot work. States must be encouraged to use specific sectors and are dealt later in the chapter.approaches which have been tried and established asuseful. IV. Linkages with Other Sectors 21.68. In order to achieve targeted outcomes forIII. Focus on Teachers and Education elementary education, there is a need to bring in Leadership resources and knowledge from related sectors.21.66. Competence of teachers and their motiva- Several States, particularly those that have acutetion is crucial for improving the quality. This would school infrastructure gaps, will face limitation ofrequire a number of initiatives towards (i) addressing funds to implement the RTE Act. A pragmaticteacher shortages, particularly through new and rigor- approach to meet the goals with limited resourcesous approaches to imparting teaching certifications, is through convergence with schemes like Mahatma(ii) improving the quality of pre-service teacher Gandhi National Rural Employment Guaranteeeducation, (iii) improving the quality of in-service Scheme (MGNREGS). Appropriate revision in theteacher professional development and options for MGNREGA guidelines would be required to bringtheir upward career mobility with special attention about such convergence. Decentralised implemen-to para-teachers in many States, (iv) enhancing the tation would ensure that local bodies take up thesestatus of teaching as a profession and improving works on a priority basis and ensure full access toteachers’ motivation to teach well and their account- elementary education in a convergent manner.ability for ensuring learning outcomes, (v) improv-ing the quality of teacher educators. It is important 21.69. The Twelfth Plan target for civil works isto align all ongoing teacher capacity and capability given in Table 21.2. School buildings being mean-building exercises to the achievement of improved ingful assets, particularly in rural areas, additionallearning outcomes. support could come from Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) and21.67. Teachers need to be adequately prepared to Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) funds asdeal with the realities of their schools. In many areas, well. A few States are already utilising funds underparticularly rural areas, there are multi-age, multi- Integrated Action Plan (IAP) and Backward Regionsgrade and multi-ability classrooms. This would Grant Fund (BRGF) for strengthening school infra-require special competencies amongst teachers to structure. Besides, there is a need to tap funds fromnot only have the necessary subject knowledge, but philanthropy for accelerated infrastructure build-a repertoire of pedagogical approaches and tech- ing. One creative way is to allow donors to nameniques that help them to teach effectively to improve TABLE 21.2learning outcomes for a diverse group of children. Civil Works under SSA in the Twelfth PlanFor improving teacher competence, quality ofteacher training and the rigor of teaching certifica- Items Number Estimated Costtion have to be considerably enhanced. Motivating (` in Cr)teachers is more difficult. Teachers usually get moti- 1. New School Buildings 67010 7685vated when they are supported to achieve attainable 2. Residential Schools 10500 10500learning goals for their students, and are recognised 3. Additional Classrooms 498560 19942and rewarded for the same. The issue of teachers is 4. DWS 62366 468critical and needs focus; hence, it is discussed sepa- 5. Toilets 343013 2884rately later in the chapter after secondary education. 6. KGBVs and so on 3598 3692Similarly, the issues of governance and leadership Total 45171development, building community partnership andparental engagement, educational leadership and Source: Ministry of HRD.
    • 64 Twelfth Five Year Planbuildings or rooms or install plaques, or other such to express ideas, emotions and thoughts freely, tocommemorative features (such as naming a scholar- comprehend and build perspectives. Children expe-ship scheme after a benefactor). rience joy, sense of freedom in the process of learn- ing when they have the opportunity to explore, toDevelop Partnerships with the Community- imagine, visualise, observe through their senses, toBased Organisations (CBOs) participate and communicate. It enhances interest as21.70. A Council for People’s Participation in Edu- children connect arts with all subjects and with theircation (CPPE) will be set up as a registered auton- daily lives. Art also has a cognitive component; itomous body for institutionalising the partnership makes us think, reflect, hypothesise, perceive, com-through well-defined structures involving both gov- prehend and create. Institutions like the Nationalernment and voluntary agencies on a regular basis. Centre for Performing Arts and the National SchoolIn addition to processing proposals for funding sup- of Drama along with the Central academies shouldport for educational projects, such partnerships will contribute significantly to the inclusion of arts in theprovide technical support, facilitate peer interaction school curriculum and its implementation.amongst practising groups and provide resourcesand technical persons on a continuous basis. CPPE Increased Role of the Private Sectorwill be a permanent structure, funded by the govern- 21.73. Private providers (including NGOs and non-ment, with functional autonomy but working in con- profits) can play an important role in elementarysultation with the Central and State Governments. education. Their legitimate role in expanding ele- mentary education needs to be recognised and a flex-Integration of Sports and Physical Education ible approach needs to be adopted to encourage them21.71. Physical education, games and sports should to invest in the sector. The current licensing andbe made an integral part of the curriculum and daily regulatory restrictions in the sector could be easedroutine in schools for the holistic development of and a single window approach should be adopted sochildren. Provision of infrastructure for these activi- that the process of opening new schools by privateties should also be made in the Twelfth Plan in con- providers is streamlined. It is also important that thevergence with SKA, the principal scheme for broad regulations be flexible and context-dependent—carebasing of sports and developing a sports culture in needs to be taken so that schools that are serving dis-the country. The Schedule to the RTE Act man- advantaged populations effectively do not get shutdates that all schools shall be provided play mate- down. A few States have already adopted a more flex-rial, games and sports equipment. Since many urban ible approach in this regard in framing State rules.schools have inadequate facilities of sports on their In all, private players would be encouraged to set upown, other neighbourhood schools with such facili- more schools, provided they are committed to, andties in the public and private sectors and also munic- held accountable for, providing high-quality educa-ipal parks and public play fields should be opened up tion and are transparent in their operations.for children of such schools during school hours onnominal maintenance costs. Building on innovative FUNDING PATTERNapproaches undertaken during the Eleventh Plan, 21.74. Government has revised the fund-sharing pat-teachers must also be trained to lead quality and tern between the Central and State Governments forinclusive physical education sessions as part of both implementation of the modified SSA programme,their pre-service and in-service training. which is now fixed in the 65:35 ratio. The fund- sharing pattern for the States in the NER, however,Integration of Arts in Education continues to be in the ratio of 90:10. While the21.72. Visual and performing arts are a critical part revised fund-sharing pattern may be adequate forof school education and also provide space for chil- most States, some States that are educationally dis-dren with different abilities. Arts are a powerful tool advantaged with low levels of literacy, grossly inad-in the teaching learning process. It enables children equate school infrastructure and difficult terrain face
    • Education 65a heavy financial burden to meet the RTE mandate pedagogies in the classroom including those thatand norms. A big push is called for to enable these leverage technology in the classroom, supplementalStates to come at par with other States. This is crucial instruction for first-generation learners, methods forto achieve national and international goals under the improving teacher motivation and effectiveness, andMillennium Development Goals (MDG). Over time, methods for leveraging resources from third partiesfinancing of SSA has to be made more sustainable. for improving education. States may also becomeSince the grants available based on the Thirteenth partners with appropriate third parties to provideFinance Commission recommendations for elemen- key capabilities that may help these goals. States willtary education for the States would extend up to 2015, be encouraged to carefully document and evalu-the new funding pattern (50:50) would be deferred ate these initiatives and to share best practices withuntil the beginning of the Thirteenth Plan. Central other States and with the Centre.assistance to the States in terms of per child normsand performance-based financing would gradually 21.77. To encourage innovation and sharing of bestbe built in along with results-based management. practices, the Plan will provide a certain amountStates and institutions which perform well should be of untied ‘flexi’ funds to the States and also pro-incentivised with untied funds. Educational spending vide additional amounts of ‘results-based’ financ-should be equitable and more efficient. More prag- ing. States in turn will be encouraged to invest inmatic tax concessions should be devised to encourage district-level leadership and provide autonomy andprivate investment in education. resources to districts and encourage capacity build- ing at the district level to monitor and improveIMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND education outcomes. To support this endeavour,EVALUATION the Plan will also dedicate resources to high-quality21.75. The focus in the Twelfth Pan is to address independent measurement and monitoring of learn-the weaknesses in implementation that have been a ing outcomes (along the lines of the Annual Healthmajor constraint in achieving the goals of previous Survey). The annual reporting of learning outcomesPlans. Implementation needs to take into account at State, district and block levels can in turn be usedlocal conditions, it would therefore be desirable to to encourage a mission-like focus on improving edu-give States (and even districts) a lot of autonomy. cation outcomes in the Twelfth Plan.Consequently, the approach in this Plan would be toprovide clear goals and direction to States and educa- 21.78. A key challenge for e-monitoring is thetion departments, provide considerable operational absence of high-quality data that is updated on aautonomy to States on how to achieve these goals, frequent and reliable basis. Infrastructure such asand invest in strong and independent monitoring of the Unique Identification (UID) could be deployedoutcomes by the Central Government. to keep track of student enrolment, attendance, and dropouts, and biometric authentication could also be21.76. In implementation, equal emphasis would deployed to improve teacher attendance. Modern cellbe placed on provision of inputs for quality educa- phone–based technologies may prove to be a prom-tion (infrastructure, teachers, training, enrolment ising way of empowering communities to reportand other inputs) as well as ensuring that these real-time data on school performance metrics suchinputs translate into improved processes (attend- as teacher attendance, student attendance, availabil-ance, instructional time) and outcomes (retention, ity of midday meals and so on. Technology platformslearning outcomes, equity). States will be encouraged such as mobile phones and tablet personal com-to innovate and experiment with ways of achieving puters (PCs) can also be used for rapid diagnosticthese outcomes effectively. Innovations can cover testing of student learning, analysis of common mis-a very broad range of areas—some of which may takes and areas of misunderstanding, and dynamicinclude methods for systematic assessment of stu- testing based on performance on initial questions.dent learning, improved teacher training, innovative Several non-profit and third-party organisations are
    • 66 Twelfth Five Year Planworking on building such applications, and States/ ensure that the nutrition scheme is implemented indistricts will be encouraged to experiment with such both spirit and letter.methods for improved real-time data collection onthe performance of the education system. Coverage 21.81. MDMS covered 7.18 crore primary school21.79. Finally, it is worth noting that the evidence children and 3.36 crore upper primary school chil-base for effective policymaking in elementary edu- dren in 2010–11. The coverage of children in thecation is quite limited—especially in crucial areas States of Bihar (43 per cent), UP (57 per cent) andsuch as the effectiveness of different types of peda- Jharkhand (58 per cent) is below the national aver-gogy, the effectiveness of using technology within age of 72 per cent, whereas it is well above thethe classroom, the optimal ways to organise children national average in Chhattisgarh (83 per cent) andof different initial learning levels in a classroom, and Odisha (82 per cent). Based on the Annual Workhandling multi-grade teaching more generally. The Plan and Budget of the States/UTs for the year 2012–Twelfth Plan will place a high priority on improv- 13, the district-wise performance of the MDMS ining research and the evidence base for policymaking, all the States/UTs has been analysed and the poorand will provide both funds as well as strong encour- performing districts (144) have been identified foragement to States to take up high-quality research focused attention. Of the poor performing districts,studies on primary education in India in partnership 17 are in areas affected by the Left Wing Extremismwith universities and reputed individual research- (LWE); 11 in the North Eastern States (Tripura—3,ers. Each State should be encouraged to earmark and Meghalaya—4, Assam—4); 17 in tribal districts, andspend adequate funds for independent measurement 13 in the hilly areas (Uttarakhand—4, J&K—9).of learning outcomes. While each State may adoptdifferent ways of doing it, some broad central guide- 21.82. During the Twelfth Plan, MDMS will belines may be desirable. expanded to cover pre-primary schooling in a pro- gressive manner, private unaided schools, particu-MID-DAY MEAL SCHEME (MDMS) larly in the SC/ST and minority-concentrated areas,21.80. In keeping with the Constitutional provisions and poor children admitted in neighbourhood pri-to raise the level of nutrition of children and enable vate schools against the 25 per cent earmarked seatsthem to develop in a healthy manner, the NP-NSPE as per provisions of the RTE Act. While expandingwas launched as a Centrally sponsored scheme in the coverage, fiscal incentives like tax exemptions1995. Commonly referred to as MDMS, this was may be considered to encourage private participa-expected to enhance enrolment, retention, atten- tion in the scheme. Partnerships with panchayatsdance of children in schools apart from improving and municipalities, as well as with other NGOs andtheir nutritional levels. This was extended to upper government agencies may be developed to ensureprimary (classes VI to VIII) children in 3479 EBBs in good-quality, nutritious and regular supply of food2007 and then universalised at the elementary level in to all children. The guidelines revised in 2009 requirethe year 2008. The scheme is implemented through supply of cooked food. For this, funding for con-the States/UTs. MDMS is managed and imple- struction of kitchen-cum-store for proper storagemented by School Management/Village Education of foodgrains and preparation of meal in hygienicCommittees, Panchayati Raj Institutions, and Self- environment is being provided. This would beHelp Groups. MDMS now includes madrasas and implemented throughout the country and capacity-maktabs supported under the SSA as well as children building initiatives would be taken up for this. Fullunder the National Child Labour Projects. A detailed convergence of the MDMS with the school healthsurvey of implementation of intended nutritional programme would be ensured during the Twelfthvalues including calorific value, protein inclusion, Plan to benefit from synergy in two programmes.additional nutritional supplements and vitamins, Over a period of time, this will provide good longitu-as detailed in the scheme, needs to be carried out to dinal data on the impact of MDMS.
    • Education 67Monitoring and Evaluation 21.85. Continuance of Mahila Samakhya during21.83. There are several concerns in implementation the Twelfth Plan is crucial due to current thrust onof the MDMS, namely, wide variations in enrolment, inclusive education through the RTE-SSA. The largeattendance and actual coverage of children, mis- pool of trained women associated with MS would bematch of foodgrains and cash fund utilisation, lack used to achieve goals of the RTE, namely, equity andof controls over the quantity and quality of meals, equality in and through education. Once the exter-irregular and uncertain supply of meals, and poor nal funding is completely utilised, the programmequality of grains in certain States. In order to address would be brought under RTE-harmonised SSA withthese concerns, the monitoring system under MDMS 100 per cent internal funding. A National Resourcewould be made more effective during the Twelfth Centre with strong State level or regional units wouldPlan. An MIS portal for monitoring of the scheme be set up to bring MS programme’s varied insightshas already been launched. All the States/UTs are on women’s empowerment, learning, agency, girls’now feeding data into the portal and annual data for education and institution-building to address gender2.7 lakh schools have already been fed into the portal. barriers into the mainstream. The programme itselfThe MIS would be integrated with Interactive Voice would be strengthened and expanded both in its cov-Response System to capture the information on daily erage as well as scope/role during the Twelfth Plan.basis and monitor the Scheme on real time basis.The MIS would enable the States/UTs and Central SECONDARY AND HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATIONGovernment to plan the visits to the poorly perform- 21.86. With a dramatic growth in elementary educa-ing area of the respective States. It will also be used tion enrolments and improvements in retention andas a mechanism for social audit as the data fed into transition rates in recent years, particularly amongstthe system through the IVRS would also be sent back the more disadvantaged groups, there is an increas-to SMC members for verification. This will enhance ing pressure on the secondary schools to admit moretransparency and accountability in the implementa- students. With the enforcement of RTE Act and fur-tion of the MDMS and enhance the overall effective- ther improvement in retention and transition rates,ness of the Scheme. Such independent evaluations demand for secondary schooling will grow rapidlywould be strengthened during the Twelfth Plan. in the coming years. Meeting this demand is criti- cal for three reasons. First, the secondary educationMAHILA SAMAKHYA (MS) fulfils large manpower needs of the semi-organised21.84. Mahila Samakhya (MS) launched in 1988–89 and the organised sectors of the economy. Second, itis being implemented in 10 States across 105 districts, is the supply chain for higher education. And, finally,495 blocks (including 233 EBBs) and 33577 villages it caters to the needs of teachers for primary school-and has special focus on the EBBs. Successive evalu- ing. Low participation rates and poor quality at theations have acknowledged Mahila Samakhya as a secondary stage are a bottleneck in improving bothunique process-oriented programme which has dem- the higher education participation and the schoolingonstrated ways of empowering rural poor and mar- at the elementary stage.ginalised women and thereby enabling their effectiveparticipation in the public domain and in educational 21.87. Further, there are both social and economicand learning processes. Through sustained perspec- benefits of secondary schooling. While there are cleartive building and training of field staff, it has been improvements in health, gender equality and livingpossible to keep the focus of MS programme on conditions with secondary education, investmentsmost marginalised women. Of the 10.5 lakh women in secondary schooling have high marginal rates ofthat were covered until the end of the Eleventh Plan, return. Thus, the country needs to move towards36.74 per cent are SC, 16.33 per cent ST, 27.47 per universalisation of opportunity to attend secondarycent OBC, 9.13 per cent Muslim and only 10.38 per schooling of adequate quality. With enrolment incent are women from the general categories. elementary education reaching near universal levels,
    • 68 Twelfth Five Year Planthere would be an opportunity to move towards uni- through innovative public–private partnerships,versal access to secondary education. The current while concurrently stepping up public investment byGER for the combined secondary and senior second- the Central and State Governments at the secondaryary stages (Classes IX–XII) in 2009–10 at about 50 per level. And given that the presence of private schoolscent is woefully low. Thus, the capacity of the sec- varies considerably across States, context-specificondary schooling system has to be expanded sig- solutions need to be promoted.nificantly. There are very large inequalities in accessto secondary education, by income, gender, social 21.89. While private provision in secondary educa-group and geography. The average quality of sec- tion should be fostered wherever feasible, the gov-ondary education is very low. Thus, urgent efforts ernment will have to take the prime responsibilityare needed to improve its quality. The challenge is to provide access to disadvantaged sections and toto dramatically improve access, equity and quality of bridge the rural/urban, regional, gender and socialsecondary education simultaneously. group gaps. Simultaneously, government must invest in teacher education and accountability, curriculum21.88. India has a long tradition of partnership reform, quality assurance, examinations reform,between the public and private sectors in secondary national assessment capabilities and managementeducation. There are four types of schools: (i) gov- information systems, which will require time andernment—established by State Governments (as well significant institutional capacity building to succeedas some Centrally established institutions); (ii) local at a national scale.body—established by elected local government bod-ies; (iii) aided schools—private schools that receive ENROLMENTSState Government grants-in-aid; and (iv) private 21.90. GERs at the secondary (Class IX–X) and seniorunaided schools. Most of the growth of secondary secondary (Class XI– XII) levels are 62.7 per cent andschools in the private sector in the last two decades 35.9 per cent, respectively, leading to a combinedhas occurred among unaided schools (25 per cent GER for Class IX–XII at a considerably low 49.3 perof schools). About 60 per cent of schools are now cent (see Table 21.3). The significant dip in GERsaided or unaided. It is essential, therefore, that the from secondary to senior secondary level for all cat-private sector’s capabilities and potential are tapped egories is driven by a number of factors including TABLE 21.3 GER for Secondary Education by Social Groups (2009–10) SCs STs Non-SCs/STs Overall Secondary Level Boys 71.19 54.24 67.02 66.65 Girls 63.50 44.22 58.97 58.45 Total 67.58 49.41 63.13 62.71 Senior Secondary Level Boys 37.42 31.36 39.17 38.31 Girls 33.48 22.32 34.39 33.31 Total 35.60 26.91 36.88 35.92 Both Secondary and Senior Secondary Level Boys 54.52 43.45 52.86 52.39 Girls 48.86 33.68 46.54 45.86 Total 51.88 38.70 49.82 49.26Source: Selected Education Statistics, Ministry of HRD, 2009–10.
    • Education 69 98 99 101 100 100 89 81 82 78 79 77 74 69 68 63 65 63 61 61 59 49 52 46 43 35 26 29 23 n/a n/a Jharkhand Bihar Assam Kerala Himachal Tamil India China Indonesia Thailand Malaysia Brazil Developed Developing World Pradesh Nadu countries countries Average States with low GER States with high GER International comparison 1999–2000 2009–10 Source: Selected Education Statistics, Ministry of HRD, 2009–10, EFA-GMR-2011 and UIS. FIGURE 21.1: GER for Secondary Education: By States/Select Countries (High/Low GER States and International Comparisons)general lack of access, paucity of public schools, high 21.92. Within the relatively low GER at the second-cost of private senior secondary education and poor ary level, there are wide regional and inter-Statequality of education, along with the very important variations. Among the major States, secondary-factor of high opportunity cost of deferred entry level GERs are as low as 29 per cent in Jharkhandinto the workforce. India’s GER at the secondary and 35 per cent in Bihar and as high as 89 per centlevel is close to that of the average for all developing in Himachal Pradesh and 98 per cent in Kerala, ascountries (63 per cent), but substantially lower than compared to the national level (62.7 per cent). At thethat of emerging economies like China, Indonesia, Senior Secondary level, the GER ranges from beingThailand and Brazil (see Figure 21.1). very low at 6.5 per cent in Jharkhand and 13 per cent in Assam and quite high at 60 per cent in Haryana21.91. Enrolments of the SCs—both boys and girls— and 69 per cent in Himachal Pradesh. In addition, inhave improved significantly in recent years and now some States like Rajasthan and MP, the gender gap incompares favourably with the non-SC/scheduled GER is as wide as 20 per cent.tribe categories. This has been possible with gov-ernment support for hostels, scholarships and other 21.93. In India, only 5 per cent of the populationforms of financial aid combined with increased of 19–24 age group has acquired some sort of skillsaccess to secondary education, particularly in urban through vocational education, while the corre-and semi-urban slum areas. However, despite similar sponding figure for Korea is as high as 96 per cent.efforts, the GER for STs continues to be significantly The National Knowledge Commission has recom-low at the secondary level. This may be attributed to mended expansion and re-designing of vocationallow transition rates from the elementary to the sec- education and improvement of its quality. Theondary level as well as access related challenges in mid-term appraisal of the Eleventh Plan empha-disadvantaged locations—both of which are accentu- sised the need for curriculum revision in vocationalated for girls. education, appropriate certification by accrediting
    • 70 Twelfth Five Year Planagencies, horizontal and vertical mobility with mul- Government support for it increasing several fold.tiple entry/exit possibilities and linkage with indus- The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan, atry for employment opportunities. The National Centrally sponsored scheme with a funding patternSkill Development Mission has also recognised the of 75:25 between Centre and States (90:10 for Specialdemand for employment-oriented vocational educa- Category and NE States), was launched in 2009–10.tion programmes with provision for hands-on train-ing. In order to reap the benefits of the demographic 21.97. The major objectives of the RMSA are todividend, it is critical to align vocational educa- (i) raise the minimum level of education to classtion within the composite framework of secondary X and universalise access to secondary education;schooling. Thus, more efforts are needed for voca- (ii) ensure good-quality secondary education withtional education at the secondary stage. focus on Science, Mathematics and English; and (iii) reduce the gender, social and regional gaps inGOVERNMENT SPENDING enrolments, dropouts and improving retention.21.94. Public expenditure on secondary educa- The interventions supported under RMSA includedtion has increased from `35806 crore in 2007–08 to (i) upgrading of upper primary schools to second-`94183 crore in 2011–12, leading to an increase in ary schools; (ii) strengthening of existing second-its share as a percentage of GDP from 0.78 per cent ary schools; (iii) providing additional classrooms,to 1.05 per cent. Per capita expenditure on second- science laboratories, libraries, computer rooms,ary education has gone up from `315 to `784 during art, craft and culture rooms, toilet blocks and waterthis period. The Central Government’s expenditure facilities in schools; (iv) providing in-service traininghas gone up from `2578 crore in 2007–08 to `13278 of teachers; and (v) providing for major repairs ofcrore in 2011–12, a five-fold increase. There is sig- school buildings and residential quarters for teach-nificant private expenditure as well. The average pri- ers. Despite being launched in the third year of Plan,vate expenditure on secondary education in private there was good progress under the RMSA during theschools is as high as `893 per month as compared to Eleventh Plan (see Table 21.4). Against a target ofonly `275 per month in Government Schools.11 This enrolling an additional 3.2 million students, 2.4 mil-difference is primarily due to high tuition fees in pri- lion additional students were enrolled in secondaryvate schools. schools during the Eleventh Plan period.21.95. During the Eleventh Plan, the Central Plan Other Schemesoutlay for secondary education was `54945 crore. 21.98. In addition to the RMSA, the following fiveAgainst this, an amount of `17723 crore (or 32.26 per Centrally sponsored schemes were launched duringcent of the outlay) was actually spent. Elaborate the Eleventh Plan: (i) setting up of model schools;consultation process with stakeholders including (ii) setting up girls’ hostels in secondary and seniorthe State Governments preceded launch of the new secondary schools; (iii) National Scheme of Incen-schemes, resulting in sub-optimal utilisation of tive to Girls for Secondary Education (NSIGSE);planned resources in the first three years of imple- (iv) Inclusive Education for the Disabled at thementation. However, in the last two years of the Secondary Stage (IEDSS); and (v) National Merit-Eleventh Plan period, the Ministry was fully geared cum-Means Scholarship scheme (NMMS). In addi-to implement schemes rapidly, but only limited tion, the ongoing scheme of ICT in Schools wasresources were made available. revised. The targets and achievements under these schemes are given in Table 21.5. In addition, theREVIEW OF THE ELEVENTH PLAN scheme of vocational stream at the +2 stage that was launched in 1988 and revised in 1992–93 was con-Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) tinued after further revision as approved in 2011.21.96. Secondary schooling received a major Despite massive infrastructure of 21000 Sections inthrust during the Eleventh Plan with the Central over 10000 schools for vocational streams catering
    • Education 71 TABLE 21.4 RMSA: Achievement in the Eleventh Plan Sl. No. Items Target Achievement (Approved) 1 Sanction of New Schools 11188 9636 2 Strengthening of existing Schools 44000 34311 3 Additional Classrooms 88500 49356 4. Additional Teachers 179000 59000 5. In-Service Training for All Teachers 100 per cent 100 per cent 6. Annual Grants to Schools Full coverage 75394 7. Minor Repair to Schools Full coverage 62221Source: Department of School Education and Literacy, Govt. of India. TABLE 21.5 Centrally Sponsored Schemes for Secondary Education Target/Achievements in the Eleventh Plan Sl. No. Schemes Start Year Target Achievement 1. Model Schools 2009–10 3500 1940 (a) EBB (KV Template) (b) Non-EBB (PPP Mode) 2012–13 2500 – 2. Girls’ hostels 2008–09 3479 958 3. Inclusive Education for Disabled at the Secondary Stage (a) Beneficiaries (in lakh) 2009–10 – 10.76 (b) School Covered (in lakh) 2009–10 – 2.18 4. NSIGSE (in lakh) 2008–09 – 12.60 5. NMMS (in lakh) 2008–09 4.0 1.04 6. ICT in Schools (a)School covered (nos.) 2009–10 (Revised) – 90209 (b) Smart Schools (nos.) 2009–10 (Revised) 150 63Source: Department of School Education and Literacy, MHRD. Govt. of India.to over 1 million students, only about 4.8 per cent new schools were set up. In addition, there are Sainikof all students are enrolled in the vocational streams Schools and Eklavya Residential Schools underagainst a target of covering 25 per cent of such Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Tribal Welfarestudents. under the Central Government, respectively.21.99. There are 1740 schools (Kendriya Vidyalayas— 21.100. The apex bodies in school education,1092, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas—586 and National University of Educational Planning andCentral Tibetan Schools—62) with an enrolment of Administration (NEUPA) for policy, planningabout 13 lakh students that are directly under the and data collection, National Council of EducationCentral Government. These schools usually outper- Research and Training (NCERT) for curriculumform other schools both academically and otherwise design, and developing textbooks and teaching–and hence there is demand for more such schools all learning materials for school education, Centralover the country. During the Eleventh Plan, over 100 Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) for affiliation,
    • 72 Twelfth Five Year Planexamination and assessment and National Institute are already stagnating, some will reach the peak byfor Open Schooling (NIOS) were very active dur- 2016–17, some will stabilise only by 2025. Micro-ing the Eleventh Plan and played a key role in school planning for secondary education is hence neces-education reforms. sary with proper future projections. Each State may devise a 10-year perspective plan for school educa-TWELFTH PLAN STRATEGY tion that would cover the period till the end of the21.101. The Twelfth Plan’s objective for secondary Fourteenth Plan.education is to make quality education available,accessible and affordable to the target population 21.104. Enrolment in more than one-third of thein the age group of 14–18 years. Given this general secondary schools in the country is less than 80 stu-objective, the following targets (see Box 21.4 below) dents per school. The numbers of such schools arewill need to be achieved during the Plan period: about 40000 and 16000 in rural and urban areas, respectively. About one-half of the rural schools are Box 21.4 government funded. Secondary and higher second- Secondary Education: Twelfth Plan Goals ary schools must be viable and large enough to ben- efit from investment on quality. The fact is that it is 1. Achieve near-universal enrolment in secondary edu- cation, with the GER exceeding 90 per cent by 2017; much harder to have good-quality education in very 2. Raise the GER at the higher secondary level to 65 per small schools with few teachers. The consolidation cent by 2017; in secondary education will be achieved by (i) creat- 3. Reduce Dropout rate to less than 25 per cent by 2017; ing more and more composite schools from grades 4. Ensure quality secondary education with relevant skills 1 to 12; (ii) upgrading primary schools into elemen- including basic competency in mathematics, science, tary schools in phases to fulfil the commitments of languages and communication; 5. Implement common curricula and syllabi of nationally RTE-universal elementary education; (iii) upgrad- acceptable standards for Science, Maths and English in ing every third elementary school to a second- all schools in the country. ary school; (iv) upgrading every fourth Secondary 6. Develop life skills including skills of critical and School to a Higher Secondary School by adding constructive thinking, use of ICT, organisation and additional classrooms, laboratories, strengthening leadership, and community services. libraries and sports and games facilities and teach- ers. The cost of additional classrooms and facili-21.102. Key elements of the strategy to achieve these ties will be far less than establishing new schools.objectives include: (i) consolidation and optimum New schools will be set up only in un-served areas.use of existing resources; (ii) facilitating private Provision of transport, especially in rural areas, willgrowth, (iii) improving quality, (iv) focus on teacher be made for schools to avoid school dropout, espe-availability and teacher training, (v) ICT integration cially among girls and economically weaker sectionsin education and (vi) renewed focus on vocational due to non-availability of schools within ‘walkingeducation at the secondary level. Each of these ele- distance’. The transport facility will be more cost-ments is briefly described below. effective and socially acceptable than setting up hos- tels. Nonetheless, hostel facilities would be providedConsolidation and Expansion in these schools on a priority basis in order to make21.103. Strategies for universal secondary education them operationally viable in terms of teacher deploy-must be based on population projection of the sec- ment and provision of other infrastructure facili-ondary education age group. There have been some ties. In the unaided private sector, there are aboutprojection exercises for some States on secondary 25000 schools operating with enrolments of less thanage group population and demand for secondary 80 pupils, per school. Efforts are required to utiliseeducation depending upon population growth rate the surplus intake capacity in these schools to meetand rate of transition from elementary to secondary additional demand for secondary education. Thereeducation corrected by dropout factor. Some States are about 14000 such schools located in rural areas.
    • Education 73These schools may also be incentivised to cater to the Some portion of the land area could be evaluated toeducational needs of disadvantaged groups in their be leased out to private schools under contractualneighbourhoods. obligation of the lessor for reconstruction of exist- ing government school building. The contractual21.105. Several institutions of higher education have agreement should provide for access of governmentvast tracts of unutilised or underutilised land. Model school children to laboratory, library and commonschools/JNVs/KVs could be set up in such places. playfield facilities of the private partner in the sameThe public sector should also concentrate on open- campus.ing new secondary schools in un-served and difficultareas where availability of land is not a major con- 21.107. Many schools in the country that were ini-straint. Second shift operations in schools in thickly tially started as private schools through local initia-populated areas and urban slums should also be eval- tives have become government grant-in-aid schools.uated. Overall, the strategy should be on consolida- This system encourages local participation and fillstion by better use of existing land, infrastructure and the gap that exists in interior areas. Devising a goodphysical facilities through resource-mapping and regulatory mechanism designed to ensure qual-leveraging private and non-governmental expertise ity will be a preferable option over governmentsand resources to improve the quality of education. setting up their own schools and operating with very low levels of enrolments. Encouraging privateFacilitating Private Growth unaided schools would cater only to the popula-21.106. The role of the private sector in second- tion which can pay, unless there is a policy of crossary schooling can be further strengthened through subsidisation of fees so that certain percentage ofright policies, proper regulation, innovative public– children from the poorer sections of the society canprivate partnerships and a variety of demand-side also be accommodated for free or at subsidised tui-financing measures that improve accountability and tion fees. There is no ceiling on their intake capac-enhance parental choice, thereby achieving all three ity but resource constraints could come in the wayobjectives of access, quality and equity in second- of expansion. Institutional funding for expansionary education. This would require easing of entry of school infrastructure is essential for acceler-barriers with dismantling of multiple licensing sys- ated growth of secondary education. This is also antems and procedures and the State Governments important opportunity which should be seized toshould revisit norms including requirement of land link new funding to the performance of institutionsfor setting up institutions. Many States have school in achieving certain objectives, such as graduation ofland norms laid down in the 1960s and 1970s which students, academic improvement and retention ofneed to be immediately revisited. A single window disadvantaged groups.approach needs to be adopted to facilitate barrierfree entry of private institutions including online 21.108. There is an urgent need to focus onmonitoring of application status for setting up of Economically Backward Blocks (EBB) to reach thenew schools. Suitable taxation and land policies are learning population from marginalised groups andneeded to encourage expansion of secondary schools provide them access to secondary education. Publicin the private sector, along with concessional loans Private Partnerships in secondary education shouldfor NGOs, trusts and registered societies for build- be fostered wherever feasible. In private schools,ing new schools or improving the infrastructure of a mechanism could be devised to fund enrolmentexisting schools. Most of the publicly funded schools of disadvantaged children with reasonable cost perthat have been in existence for some time have large child norms. For this to happen, three elements areopen spaces, particularly those in rural areas. Most of essential: (i) funding facilities for investible resourcesthese old school buildings require repair and upgra- for additional infrastructure development of recog-dation and, in several cases, reconstruction. SSA and nised schools; (ii) proper accreditation of schoolsRMSA do not fund the reconstruction of old schools. for ensuring quality education; (iii) revisiting of
    • 74 Twelfth Five Year Planrules and regulations infringing upon autonomy of of School Education, State Boards of Secondaryschools, including prescription of teachers’ salary Education, Resource Institutions like NCERT,for private schools. If minimum prescribed stand- SCERTs, SIEs and such other institutions should beards and norms are met for school infrastructure and strengthened as part of RMSA/Teacher Educationqualified teachers with CTET/STET eligibility are schemes so that these institutions lend credible sup-deployed, the market should be left to determine the port services and undertake effective periodic moni-compensation structure for the faculty and staff. toring and concurrent evaluations. While the rate of funding for MMER (Management, Monitoring,Improving Quality Evaluation and Research) will be suitably raised21.109. No recent, reliable, large-scale learning under RMSA, its current skewed distribution acrossassessments at the secondary level exist. However, the States should be revised with minimum fund-small-scale standardised assessments of student ing ensured for smaller States/UTs. National pro-achievement in mathematics at the secondary and grammes on curriculum renewal, school-basedsenior secondary level in two States (Rajasthan and Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE),Odisha) suggest that the quality of instruction innovation and related institution-building wouldand learning is very low at the secondary level. There be launched during the Twelfth Plan. Each State hasare multiple factors for low levels of learning. Schools multiple agencies, that is, SCERTs, SIEs, Educationplay a very important role in determining nearly half Boards, SPOs, Directorates and so on, which haveof student achievement. Thus, in the Twelfth Plan, more or less the same objective of imparting qualityall secondary and higher secondary schools would be education to all and improving the education sys-made to conform to minimum standards in facilities tem but they lack synergy. There is an urgent need toand quality. This will require a greater role for the establish effective linkages amongst them for achiev-Central Government in supporting the States, par- ing the desired results.ticularly those lagging in secondary education. Thefocus should be on building the capacity of schools Examination Reformsin terms of knowledge and skills, autonomy and 21.112. Examination reforms that would focus onaccountability structures, and allocation of untied problem-solving, critical thinking and reasoninggrants for undertaking school improvement mea- skills and decrease the emphasis on rote memorisa-sures for imparting quality education. Local capaci- tion are critical to improving quality at the second-ties would be strengthened at the school level giving ary level. Such reforms have the potential to changethem the ability to ‘think and innovate’. the teaching–learning processes inside the class- rooms and have direct relation to improving learn-21.110. In secondary schooling, there is too much ing outcomes. In recent years, CBSE has introducedemphasis on rote learning and insufficient develop- wide-ranging examination reforms in 13000 schoolsment of conceptual understanding and higher order affiliated to it (see Box 21.5). During the Twelfththinking skills. There is insufficient quality assur- Plan, other Boards would be facilitated to emulateance and accountability mechanisms in place, while these reforms.capacity and quality of pre-service and in-servicetraining of teachers is low. The issues of curriculum, SCHOOL BOARDS FOR ACADEMICexaminations reforms, school leadership, assessment TRANSFORMATIONand accreditation would also have to be addressed. 21.113. Exceptions apart, currently, all School Boards function exclusively as examining bodies.Curriculum Renewal During the Twelfth Plan, the School Boards should21.111. The outdated curricula and syllabi in the be enabled to take up leadership for reforms in theeducational system need a complete overhaul. There school system. They must remodel themselves inis a need for periodic revision of curricula and for such a way that they have strong academic and ITreforms in the examination system. Directorates divisions closely coordinating with examination
    • Education 75 Box 21.5 CBSE Examination Reforms Class X Board Examination has been made optional from the year 2011 for students studying in CBSE’s Secondary Schools and who do not wish to move out of the CBSE system after Class X. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) has been strengthened in all CBSE-affiliated schools from October 2009 onwards in Class IX, wherein both scholastic and co-scholastic areas, including life skills of the students, are assessed on an ongoing basis for their holistic development. In order to bring greater objectivity in reporting of performance and to reduce stress and undesirable competition, a system of grading in place of marks has been introduced.and administration divisions for academic trans- outside the school system to take up leadership; andformation and capacity building. They should take establishment of a network of institutions to impartupon themselves the role of capacity building of leadership education. The programme will have two-the school principals, headmasters, teachers and tier institutional arrangement with a National Centreeven parents. Quality initiatives taken up by some for Leadership in School Education and LeadershipSchool Boards like the CBSE should be promoted Academies in selected Institutions of Higher Learn-as national programmes. Among the important ing. NUEPA through the National Centre forinitiatives are producing quality-assured digital Leadership in School Education (NCLSE) will becontent in local language and encouraging teach- entrusted with the responsibility of coordinating theers to create their own content and upload on a work of the Leadership Academies located in differ-common web portal, provisioning affordable ICT ent Institutes of Higher Learning.facilities in classrooms, ICT-integrated educationsupported by LMS, Continuous and Comprehensive School Quality Assessment and AccreditationEvaluation for reducing stress on students through 21.115. A School Quality Assessment and Accred-adopting scientific techniques of evaluation, School itation System would be established to cover allQuality Assessment and Accreditation for Social aspects of school functioning, including scholasticAccountability, and such others. All State boards and co-scholastic domains, physical infrastructure,must be encouraged and supported wherever neces- faculty management, school leadership, learningsary for implementing these quality interventions. outcomes and satisfaction of pupils and their par-CoBSE shall catalyse this development. The volun- ents/guardians. This system should be in sync withtary association of School Boards and CoBSE needs similar accreditation systems in advanced countriesto be strengthened and made much more effective. and in CBSE-affiliated schools. Examination reformsMost School Boards are financially sound and may are needed to promote the acquisition of analyti-not need additional funding. cal and thinking skills amongst students rather than emphasising rote learning. The Government isDevelopment of School Leadership already committed to developing a national assess-21.114. Programme of Leadership Development in ment survey at grade X, which could lead the waySchool Education will act as the vehicle to empower to new forms of learning assessment, and whichand drive critical education reforms through inten- will enable cross-State comparisons of performancesive and interdisciplinary curricular experiences, to be made. Schools should be encouraged to workactive exchange of ideas, adoption of an interactive towards achieving average international standardspedagogical approach that promotes team work and and this effort should be led by the Centrally fundedcollaboration; creation of opportunities for profes- KVs and JNVs, which would function as exemplars.sional development of leaders in school education; There are half-a-dozen States with GERs above theidentification and nurturing of talent within and world average.
    • 76 Twelfth Five Year Plan21.116. Orientation and capacity-building pro- problem solving and ideation in the classroom set-grammes need to be organised for officials of school ting. Research scholars in the field of education inboards, teachers, principals and school administra- Universities/Colleges should be brought in to con-tors on a massive scale for effective implementa- duct seminars, classes and tutorials and should betion of NCF and RTE. Close collaboration is needed compensated over and above their fellowships.between SCERTs and school boards for organisingworkshops for teachers and educators for strength- 21.119. Significant shortages of secondary schoolening skills in teaching–learning and assessments. teachers exist, especially in the critical subjects ofInvolvement of grass-roots teachers drawn from mathematics, science and foreign languages. A majorschools including KVs and JNVs for preparation recruitment effort is needed. Curricular reformor adaptation of NCERT textbooks should also be can also promote more efficient use of teachers.promoted. Continued benchmarking against inter- Moreover, new and flexible ways of encouragingnational performance is essential to measure India’s people to come into or return to the teaching pro-progress. The outcomes for this system of assess- fession are needed; with an emphasis on identifyingment and accreditation must be made public so as to those with relevant competencies rather than thosepromote greater accountability of secondary schools. who have certain qualifications. National Mission on Teachers and Teaching should address issues ofSchool Mentoring teachers at the secondary stage in a comprehensive21.117. The Government will reach out to private manner.schools with a reputation for quality and standardsto ask them to support government schools in their Renewed Focus on Vocational Educationneighbourhoods to improve quality. Partnerships 21.120. Recognising the fact that younger childrenwill be forged for sharing their infrastructure and learn and acquire skills faster, skills training of ele-academic facilities with neighbourhood schools mentary nature, for example, manipulating simplefor teacher training and empanelment of certified instruments at the elementary level, and pre-voca-resource persons. The Centrally funded KVs and tional courses as an alternative to work educationNVs could become hubs for inter-school activi- would be offered in Class IX and X. Students who taketies so as to catalyse improvement in other pub- these pre-vocational options could be encouragedlicly funded schools in the area. This is especially and facilitated to take up advanced vocational sub-true in the case of science and mathematics educa- jects at the higher secondary level. In addition, ver-tion, organising joint school seminars and educa- tical mobility options for students taking vocationaltional exhibitions and running bridge courses in courses should be available at the undergraduate andEnglish. Well-functioning schools under the State postgraduate level. For high-quality vocational edu-Governments and private schools could also become cation at school level to evolve and grow in the coun-hubs for inter-school activities. try, there is a need to train and equip teachers on a continuous basis with the latest skills and pedagogyTeacher and Training techniques in vocational education.21.118. Teacher training for secondary educationwas launched in the Eleventh Plan but the approach 21.121. The vocational curriculum needs to be inte-so far has been mechanical and limited to train- grated and closely aligned with the academic curricu-ing teachers to help students score high marks in lum and should contain modules on various genericnational board exams so as to raise school averages and specific vocational skills for which industrywith very little focus on developing thinking, appli- should be involved. There should be an emphasis oncation skills, attitudes and values. The Twelfth Plan development of generic and multiple skills so thatwill promote professional cadre development in trainees/students may respond to changes in tech-education and will empower educators to develop nology and market demands. The revised scheme ofeffective tools for promoting and gauging creative vocationalisation of secondary education should be
    • Education 77revisited based on the pilots that have been under- of aided schools and higher secondary schools, pro-taken to test and to ensure that it is aligned with the vision of untied funds for innovation and so on. Innew qualifications framework and industry-led sec- addition, the RMSA framework should focus ontor skill councils, so that vocationalisation does not promoting better-quality education against clear-cutbecome an expensive dead end for students. Given benchmarks and enable States, districts and schoolsthe different economic contexts across the country, to respond flexibly to their specific needs.system of monitoring and evaluation of the schememust be strengthened. 21.124. The RMSA should continue with the cur- rent funding pattern in the Twelfth Plan period.TWELFTH PLAN INITIATIVES RMSA should have inter-State allocation criteria for equitable distribution of Central assistance soRashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) that educationally backward States are not denied21.122. During the Twelfth Plan, RMSA will be made their legitimate share, while advanced States takea single comprehensive scheme to address issues of additional advantage due to prior preparation. Thecoverage and quality in secondary education. This RMSA should gradually move towards fundingshould be gradually extended to the higher second- States on per child cost basis/norms which wouldary stage and should cover all government and gov- incentivise enrolment, retention and completion,ernment-aided schools. There are several Centrally and thus move away from inputs-based funding tosponsored schemes that benefit secondary school outcome-based decision-making.students of different categories and background.These are: 21.125. The RMSA will make provisions for resi- dential schools/hostels for boys and girls in existing1. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) schools to enhance access and participation of chil-2. Model Schools Scheme dren from hilly and sparsely populated areas and3. Girls Hostel Scheme from districts afflicted with civil strife as well as sup-4. ICT @ Schools port OoSC as per guidelines developed by NIOS. It5. Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary would include provision for schools without build- Stage ings and relax ceiling on civil works for infrastruc-6. Scheme of Vocational Education ture-deficient States with adoption of State Schedule7. National Means-cum Merit Scholarship Scheme of Rates for civil works. Provision should be made8. National Incentive to Girls for ramps and at least one toilet for CWSN.9. Appointment of Language Teachers 21.126. Science and Maths education would need21.123. While the RMSA is a large scheme, others special attention during the Twelfth Plan. Poor sci-are comparatively smaller schemes. For convergence ence and maths education (and English) accounts forand improved efficiency, the smaller schemes shall 80 per cent of total students who fail in Tenth Boardbe merged into RMSA. This should be done without Examination. The transition rate from X to XIlosing focus on the objectives, goals and targets of Science is very small as indicated by less than 12 perany of the existing schemes. In following the exam- cent share of students in UG Science stream. Thisple of RTE, RMSA shall develop and/or adopt/adapt low enrolment in science stream at higher secondarynational norms of secondary schooling for universal- level and poor-quality education is a constraint inisation of secondary education. This will be required development of scientific manpower in the country.to ensure minimum quality of schooling. Significant Under RMSA, a special component will be created toissues to be addressed within the RMSA framework identify scientific talents at the secondary level andinclude construction of residential facilities for boys to strengthen science and mathematics education;and girls, revising civil works norms to State sched- teachers will be trained and retrained on modernule of rates, review of school infrastructure, coverage methods of science education.
    • 78 Twelfth Five Year Plan21.127. Physical education and games and sports will be implemented from the secondary stagewould be made an integral part of the curriculum onward.in schools for the holistic development of youth.Minimum infrastructure and consumables will be 21.129. The National Scheme of Incentive to Girlsmade available under RMSA in convergence with for Secondary Education will be continued as sepa-MYA&S (Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports) rate scheme. Schemes that are based on specificschemes to all government and government-aided proposals from the States could easily be integratedschools. School playgrounds of NVs and KVs will within the composite RMSA. MHRD could providebe opened up to neighbourhood schools. Local bod- financial assistance to the State/UTs for (i) appoint-ies would be impressed upon to extend support ment and training of Hindi teachers in non–Hindi-in earmarking open fields, sports stadia and com- speaking States/UTs; (ii) appointment of Urdumunity playgrounds for neighbourhood schools in teachers and grant of honorarium for teaching Urdu;urban areas, as many private schools and even some (iii) appointment of teachers of Modern Indianpublicly funded schools do not have playgrounds Language (other than Hindi) in Hindi-speakingwithin school campuses in many cities and towns. States/UTs; (iv) appointment of Urdu Teachers inSuch schools will be encouraged to adopt alterna- any locality where more than 25 per cent are fromtive sports and games activities that support physical Urdu language–speaking group.development and nurturing of kinaesthetic intelli-gence. Appointment of additional Physical Education Vocational EducationTeachers (PETs) would be funded under RMSA. 21.130. Vocational education at the secondary stage provides for diversification of educational oppor-21.128. In an effort to ensure coordination and tunities so as to enhance individual employability,efficient implementation across a range of second- reduce the mismatch between demand and supplyary education programmes, RMSA will become the of skilled manpower and provides an alternativeumbrella programme and four other schemes would for those pursuing higher education. Hence, it isbe subsumed under it during the Twelfth Plan. important and would be implemented from class IXThese are: onwards, unlike the present provision for its imple- mentation from class XI, and would be subsumed1. ICT@Schools will be integrated with RMSA to under RMSA. Vocational Education courses will be provide greater flexibility, enable optimal utilisa- based on national occupation standard brought out tion of resources and yield better results. by the Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) that determine the2. Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary minimum levels of competencies for various voca- Stage (IEDSS) scheme will be subsumed tions. Academic qualifications would be assessed and under RMSA and will cover children with certified by educational bodies and vocational skills blindness, low vision, leprosy cured, hear- would be assessed and certified by respective SSCs. ing impairment, locomotor disabilities, mental retardation, mental illness, autism and cerebral 21.131. In the Twelfth Plan, a mechanism would palsy. Coordination of the scheme with other be created for convergence of vocational courses programmes will be emphasised. offered by various ministries, private initiatives and3. Girls’ Hostel for Students of Secondary and vocational education institutions, and use schools as Higher Secondary Schools will be subsumed the outlet for vocational education of young people. under RMSA. The scheme also provides for a PG A comprehensive repertoire of vocational courses, teacher as warden to support residents in scho- duration of each course, equipment and facilities, lastic assignments and boost their confidence. costs and agencies will be developed. Like Germany4. The Scheme of Vocational Education will be and many other industrialised countries, the reper- subsumed under RMSA without any modifica- toire should have modular courses, which allow exit tion in the existing fund-sharing pattern and and entry into the job market and further.
    • Education 7921.132. The process for revamping of the scheme of 21.133. Based on the learning from the pilot(s), avocational education at the higher secondary stage possible road map could be to expand the coveragehas already been initiated. This is now aligned with of vocational education from 2013–14 to about 400NVEQF (National Vocational Education Quali- schools in Haryana. The number of courses offeredfications Framework) to create clear educational could be increased from 8 to 10 and pilots be startedpathways from school to higher education level and during 2013–14 in all States which show interest.provide more options to students to choose voca- States which manage the pilot successfully couldtional modules depending on their aptitude and expand the coverage in year 2014–15 to about teneconomic requirements. The revised scheme has times the number of schools covered under pilot. Abeen designed to address the weaknesses identified nodal resource centre could be created at the nationalin the current system of vocational education. The level to support the State Governments.salient components of the revised scheme include(i) strengthening of existing schools imparting 21.134. Students pursuing vocational courses at +2vocational education; (ii) establishing new schools; level would be provided facilities for apprenticeship(iii) in-service teacher training of seven days for training under the Apprenticeship Act. While skillexisting teachers; (iv) 30-day induction course for formation has to be mainstreamed in the formalnew teachers and (v) support to private schools in education system right from class IX onwards, skillPPP mode and support to NGOs for carrying out creation outside the formal education system needsinnovative practices. Competency-based modules coordinated action and innovative approaches. Awill be developed for each individual vocational VE cell has been established within the CBSE. Thecourse. It will be mandatory for schools to revise their States would also be encouraged and supported tocurricula every three years to ensure that it is guided set up similar cells in the State Boards and encour-by the needs of the industry. A separate Pilot pro- age students to take vocational courses along withgramme within the National Vocational Education academic courses either as combination subjects orQualifications Framework has been launched in additional subjects, and allow credit accumulationHaryana. Assam, West Bengal and Karnataka are and transfer on the pattern of CBSE-NIOS collabo-also in the process of launching a pilot. Based on the ration. The National and State Boards would drawlearning from the pilot, this would be scaled up in up a detailed scheme of evaluation with respectivethe Twelfth Plan. An MIS and web portal on voca- SSCs to enable competency-based assessment of stu-tional education will be set up to share best practices dents. As the course design and TLM developmentand experiences. Haryana has launched a pilot for get decentralised, PSSCIVE, the expert central insti-introducing vocational education under NVEQF in tution, should be elevated for quality assurance in40 pilot schools in eight districts (see Box 21.6). vocational education. Box 21.6 Pilot Project on Vocational Education under NVEQF • Each of the pilot schools offer two vocational subjects out of IT/ITes, Retail, Automobile and Security. These would be started from Class 9 and Class 11. • The Curriculum has been designed by the respective Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) under NSDC. The content has been created by PSSCIVE, CBSE and Wadhwani foundation. • Teachers have been recruited on a contract basis, and have undergone training in pedagogy and domain skills. Principals of schools have undergone orientation. • Each school has a vocational coordinator to create and nurture linkages of local industry and business with the school and its students. They will also facilitate guest lectures, industry visits and placements. • Assessment will be done by Board of School Education Haryana and assessors of respective SSCs.
    • 80 Twelfth Five Year Plan21.135. PSSCIVE in collaboration and partnership National Means-Cum-Merit Scholarshipwith State Boards/CBSE/Experts will develop exem- 21.138. This scheme will be continued in the Twelfthplar competency-based curricula with inputs from Plan to award 100000 scholarships each year, at classindustry, business organisation, agricultural initia- IX stage. The scheme should have reached a targetedtives for contextualisation and localisation of con- coverage of 4 lakh scholarship by 2011–12. Reasonstent by States. Competency-based curricula will be for poor performance of the scheme should be stud-adopted/adapted by Central/State Boards of Edu- ied and remedial action taken. The States in whichcation. Each curriculum will have to meet national the number of candidates selected is low in com-standards for competencies and other applicable parison with the quota allotted to them may requirenorms set by SSCs. remedial classes for students. There is a need for wider publicity for the scheme to generate awareness.21.136. Vocational education at the secondary level There are several NGOs, Foundations and Corporatewould be aligned with skills training under the organisations which offer merit-cum-means scholar-Ministry of Labour through Industrial Training ship to students in schools. To avoid duplication andCentres and modular training programmes as well as avoidable waste of resources, a database of all suchshort-term training provided through National Skills agencies will be developed; similarly, a database of allDevelopment Corporation (NSDC). Skills training beneficiaries will be created so that scholars can beunder the JSS and NGO schemes of Adult Education traced for evaluation of the scheme and for improv-programmes would be aligned with the framework ing its effectiveness.for vocational education at the secondary level. Inorder to roll out these skills programmes, a massive Schools under the Central Governmenteffort would be needed for professional development 21.139. During the Twelfth Plan, an additional 500of school leadership, master faculty trainers, inspec- KVs and 378 JNVs, including 27 for uncovered dis-tors, test evaluators and counsellors. Appropriate tricts and 2 special NVs in Manipur, will be set up.institutional arrangements with linkage to NSDC for The intake capacity will be expanded from 80 to 160 students per class and 10 Science Magnet schoolscapacity development for professional certification will be set up within or in close proximity to theand accreditation systems for institutions should institutions of higher education and other scientificalso be put in place. research institutions. The charter of KVs and NVs will be revisited and their scope expanded includ-Model Schools ing provisions for economically weaker section21.137. During the first three years of the Twelfth enrolments. About one-third of enrolments couldPlan, 2500 Model Schools in PPP mode would be be allowed for wards of non–Central Governmentrolled out in non-EBBs in a phased manner. Instead employees.of setting up of a new organisation to oversee imple-mentation of Model Schools, it is preferable that the 21.140. The Twelfth Plan will work towards shapingadditional responsibility is given to KV Sangathan so KVs and JNVs into pace setting schools with specificthat the new schools can benchmark the format of activities such as acting as Smart Schools. To beginKVs. However, the number of Model Schools being with, about 500 KVs and 500 NVs covering all Statessubstantially large, as compared to existing KVs, the will commence pace setting activities by extend-Sangathan needs to be considerably strengthened ing their facilities after school hours to students ofwith resources and their role with regard to Model neighbouring State/UT Government schools. TheSchools should be clearly defined. It should also KVs/NVs could use outsourcing model for inno-be ensured that these Model Schools indeed serve vative programmes including training of studentsas exemplars in their blocks and carry out specific for participation in international assessments andactivities to share their best practices with other gov- allow the use of their premises for the purpose. Artsernment schools in their vicinity. Departments will be established in KVs to achieve
    • Education 81excellence in co-scholastic areas such as visual and In-service teacher education. These three areasperforming arts. require in-depth studies, impact studies as well as action researches. A proper system of documenta-21.141. The KVs/NVs will also be able to avail fund- tion for researches and best and innovative practicesing for additional sports activities from the schemes in secondary education needs to be evolved at vari-of Urban Sports Infrastructure/PYKKA under the ous levels. Moreover, researches must not be lim-Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports. Rural KV/NVs ited to only providing research reports; there is alsowill allow rural youths to utilise their facilities after a need to evolve a mechanism for sharing of theseschool hours. Neighbouring school children will be researches with various stakeholders including cur-allowed enrolment in NCC/NSS/Scouts and Guides/ riculum developers and policymakers.Judo/Karate/Yoga/Archery and so on in KVs/NVs.These schools will be hubs for the National Physical 21.145. A panel of agencies both at the national andFitness Programme to be launched during the State levels will be put in place to carry out third-Twelfth Plan with 100 per cent Central Assistance. party appraisals and evaluations of ongoing schemesThese new initiatives of KVs/NVs, including hiring by identifying sectors/sub-sectors and developingof personnel for providing coaching and other recur- appropriate tools for evaluation. There is a need toring expenses, will be supported with budgetary pro- involve national-level institutions to build the capac-visions to cover about 20000 children per year. ity of teacher educators and resource persons in States/UTs and help them to evolve a mechanism21.142. All facilities, provisions, and quality initia- for monitoring the introduction of the interventionstives stipulated for JNVs shall be made available to in the classroom process which have been providedEklavya and Sainik Schools, which are residential during the training programmes. Resource andschools. The respective Ministries would be required Responsibility centres at national, State, district andto provide financial resources for these initiatives. sub-district levels for enhancing the quality of sec-MHRD will coordinate with other ministries and ondary education would be put in place.wherever necessary shall provide academic inputs.Similar coordination would also be required with 21.146. A school-based Annual Information System,Atomic Energy Education Society. called SEMIS, is already in place to collect data on physical infrastructure and facilities, availability of21.143. The Twelfth Plan will strengthen the infra- teachers, enrolment and academic performance ofstructure facilities for NIOS and 16 State Open students, professional development of teachers, andSchools (SOS) under RMSA in order to improve the so on. This needs to be strengthened. A number ofoutreach of open schooling programmes with special quality indicators could be generated for differentfocus on skill development and vocationalisation, levels that will reflect the wholesome educational sce-particularly in the educationally backward districts nario of the respective State. This will also promoteof the country. An enrolment target of 25 lakh stu- micro-planning and the preparation of annual workdents has been set for NIOS/SOS. The Accredited plans for a district/State. Unified System of DataVocational Institutes (AVIs) under NIOS will be Collection for School Education Statistics would beevaluated and rated before expansion. Examination put in place in the Twelfth Plan.reforms will be carried out so that year-round facili-ties are made available for open schooling. USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION 21.147. Most of the secondary schools have limitedRESEARCH, MONITORING AND EVALUATION availability of computer facilities. This constrains21.144. There are three areas that require urgent the students from acquiring ICT-related skills essen-attention with regard to secondary education, tial in the knowledge economy and limits teachers’namely, Curriculum Reform, Reform in Assessment ability to upgrade their subject-matter knowledgeand Examination and Reform in Pre-service and and students’ ability to access essential learning
    • 82 Twelfth Five Year Planmaterials. ICT can potentially make significant dif- attendance, tracking deployment, training pro-ference in improving quality. The National Policy gramme attended by teachers, their skills/capabilityof ICT in school Education envisions and provides areas and so on. Using this targeted deployment plan,for the development of a holistic framework of ICT skill development programme could be developed.support in the school system. Mission Mode Project Tagging records of students with those of teachers(MMP) on School Education is now under the can help build accountability of teachers. In longNational e-Governance Plan (NeGP). This would run, this may also provide pointers to interventionsenable comprehensive technology enablement of (made at teachers’ improvement areas) that have hadthe school education sector. More specifically, this a higher impact on improving learning outcomes.would cover: Aadhaar seeding would be used in tackling scholar- ship funds misuse. Recently, Andhra Pradesh has1. Developing ICT skills of all heads of schools, used it to identify fake student enrolments, same stu- teachers, non-teaching staff and students; dent enrolments in multiple colleges/courses, same2. Creating a repository of quality-assured digi- faculty teaching in a large number of institutions. tal contents in English, Hindi and regional lan- Aadhaar-enabled payment system could be used for guages in all subjects especially in science and transferring and managing scholarship payments. mathematics;3. Training and encouraging teachers to develop TEACHER EDUCATION and use e-content; 21.150. There is a large number of teacher vacancies4. Creating provisions for ICT in classrooms or in the school system. An estimated 12.58 lakh (5.64 portable facilities like a netbook/laptop/iPad and lakh old and 6.94 lakh newly sanctioned under SSA) a projector with rechargeable battery, and imple- vacancies exist at the elementary level. These are ment ICT-integrated education; mainly accounted for by six States: UP (3.12 lakh),5. Enabling provision of ICT-integrated examina- Bihar (2.62 lakh), West Bengal (1.81 lakh), MP (0.89 tion and e-governance at the institutional and lakh), Chhattisgarh (0.62 lakh) and Rajasthan (0.51 systemic level including setting up of education lakh). Several States in the North, East and North- portal(s). Eastern regions have an acute problem of untrained teachers. Therefore, pre-service and in-service train-21.148. The MMP also envisions extensive use of ing of teachers needs to be mounted on a missiontechnology to ensure delivery of services to stu- mode during the Twelfth Plan. In particular, modulardents, teachers, autonomous institutions and part- teacher training programmes should be developed soners on an ‘anytime-anywhere’ basis by leveraging that para-teachers can attend training courses duringthe Common Service Centres (CSC) established up the summer and winter vacations and get formallyto the village level across the country. This along qualified over a three- to five-year period. In-servicewith the policy on ICT in School Education will ena- training using technology and innovative deliveryble a holistic and coordinated attempt to optimally methods could address the problem of poor qualityuse and leverage technology to achieve quality and of existing teachers.efficiency in all of the interventions under variousschemes. 21.151. In order to address the issue of availability and quality of teachers for the school system, each21.149. There would be special focus on Aadhaar State must maintain a detailed district-wise databaselinkage of teachers and students databases with a of teachers, teacher educators and teacher educa-view to remove ghosts, fakes, duplicates and clean- tion institutions. National professional standardsing up databases. This linkage coupled with effec- for teachers and teacher educators must be evolved.tive analytics can help in addressing accountability, These must be used as a basis for designing pre-traceability and measurement-related challenges. It service and in-service training programmes and theircould also be used for tracking students and teachers performance assessment processes for professional
    • Education 83development. A system of teacher performance 21.154. The content and pedagogy of teacher educa-appraisal and feedback needs to be put in place as a tion would be gradually aligned with the Nationaltool for their development and empowerment and Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education,not as punitive measures. These systems are directly 2009, which, inter alia, recommends a shift to a four-linked to improved classroom teaching and student year integrated degree programme with concurrentlearning. Rational deployment of teachers and objec- study of a subject discipline and education after Classtive and transparent policies for their transfers and XII or two-year Bachelors in Education degree afterplacements would help in mitigating teacher short- graduation. Diploma in Education programmes forages. Innovative ways need to be found to attract teachers for the elementary stage currently impartedtalent from other streams into the teaching profes- by DIETs and other independent institutes should besion. Superannuated qualified teachers may be re- progressively upgraded to degree programmes andemployed in subject areas that have severe shortages. these institutions could be upgraded as undergradu-This strategy would be particularly useful in States ate colleges affiliated to the universities.like Kerala and Andhra Pradesh that have a relativelylow retirement age for teachers in the government 21.155. Distance-cum-contact degree programmes,schools. increased use of ICT in regular programmes and adopting learn-work-learn cycles as an alternative21.152. Upward career mobility options for teachers to one-shot training would also be promoted. Theshould be developed within each stage of education professionals and BRC/CRCs should be organicallyrather than across the stages, and should be linked linked with DIETs under SCERT with knowledgewith achievement of specific in-service certifica- capital infusion. It is essential that all these institu- tions are headed by professionals with appropriatetions and experience criteria. High-quality teachers qualification, experience, competence and vision. Awho wish to remain in active teaching as opposed to large number of institutions and individuals must betaking up administrative roles should have oppor- identified to develop material for teachers and teachertunities for career progression. A system of teacher educators in Indian languages based on curricularevaluation based on objective measures of perfor- needs of pre-service programmes to begin with.mance can be used as a basis for career ladders forteachers for bonuses, increments and promotions. 21.156. Linkages of teacher education institutes withThese efforts along with continued professional each other, for example, of DIETs with CTEs anddevelopment of teachers will ensure the teachers are IASEs, and with the field, for example, the schoolsmotivated and lead to improving learning outcomes system and NGOs operating in the sector need to beof the children. strengthened across the country such that academ- ics and practitioners can work together towards theRevamp Pre-Service Teacher Education improvement of teacher education and school edu-21.153. In view of large gaps in both quantity and cation more broadly. There should be effective usequality of teachers, pre-service teacher education of technology as a tool for teacher education wherewould be revamped. A revised scheme for teacher special modules could be imparted to candidateseducation would be implemented during the Twelfth across different geographical locations. These mod-Plan. The Scheme would strengthen institutional ules should integrate video lectures of professionalsstructures of DIETs, CTEs, IASEs and SCERTs. For and highly reputed facilitators with careful selec-their regular monitoring, elaborate process and per- tion of content. This can be combined with practicalformance indicators would be developed. In order to ‘hands on’ training in school environments in identi-ensure adequate representation of teachers from the fied schools. Videos of best practices in teaching andSC/ST/Minority communities, Block Institutes of pedagogy in Indian languages should be made avail-Teacher Education in 196 SC/ST/Minority concen- able at these centres. Innovative alternate paths thattration districts would be set up. would also allow lateral entry of talent from various
    • 84 Twelfth Five Year Planother streams into the teaching profession by choice institutions across all States in the country would beshould be explored and appropriate policy and identified and prepared to deliver such programmes.regulatory structures put in place to support their Selected multi-disciplinary public and private uni-adoption. versities must be facilitated to establish depart- ments/schools of education with direct links to good21.157. Regulatory arrangements for teacher edu- schools which can serve as a practice ground of hon-cation require overhaul with proper oversight in ing practical teaching skills. Universities can alsoeach State. Accreditation arrangements need to provide special courses which could be designed tobe strengthened and new credible agencies could combine specialised subject knowledge with educa-be roped in for the purpose. There is an immedi- tional courses and practical learning in an integratedate need to lay down performance standards and manner, so that the problem of shortage of subjectbenchmarks for teacher education institutions with teachers is also addressed.clear accountability. This needs to be balanced withgreater flexibility and rational norms and standards Ensure Continued Professional Developmentaround infrastructure, faculty, curricula and entry 21.160. The system of continued professional devel-eligibility from regulatory and governing bodies opment of in-service teachers would be strengthenedand Boards, in particular the National Council for during the Twelfth Plan. For this, training needsTeacher Education (NCTE). Importantly, innova- would be systematically identified and programmestive programmes should be recognised by NCTE designed to meet their local requirements so that thepromptly so that these programmes can begin teachers are engaged and find the programmes use-developing teachers in a short period of time. The ful. Capacity-building programmes of short durationrecently introduced Teacher Education Index would as well as relatively longer full-time or distance-cum-be widely used to measure the quality of teacher contact degree programmes should be encouraged.education institutions. This third-party assessment These programmes should develop in teachers theby approved entities to avoid malpractice should be necessary orientations and expose them to the rangedone periodically every five years and made public to of skills/activities which impact upon quality class-ensure transparency. room transactions. Use of technology and innovative delivery methods would be important components.Develop Teacher Educators Along with specific training programmes, exposure21.158. Availability of adequate number of quality visits or action research projects to be conductedteacher educators will receive high priority during the with field organisations and academia should beTwelfth Plan. A large number of teacher educators organised. Appropriate enablers in the form ofwould be developed by identifying potential teacher long-leave options or a significant number of man-educators through a transparent competency-based dated required days of in-service training along withprocess. They will then undergo full-time capacity appropriate budgetary support per-day/per-practi-programmes at selected institutions. For this purpose, tioner should be provided to the schools.credible institutions in both the public and privatesectors would be involved. Voluntary professional 21.161. Untrained teachers and para teachers wouldnetworks of teacher educators must be facilitated require special attention. Modular courses to beand strengthened to provide forums for professional delivered in distance-cum-contact mode could beinteraction and development. developed and delivered so that these teachers can obtain formal qualifications over a three- to five-21.159. New programmes would be conceptu- year period. Partnerships between teacher educa-alised for teacher educators. Curriculum, dura- tion institutes and colleges, both public and private,tion and structure of the M.Ed. programme would and National and State Open Universities to developbe revamped based on NCFTE 2009 and the new and deliver these programmes at an accelerated pacemodel curricula proposed by NCTE. At least 100 should be actively encouraged.
    • Education 85Quality and Certification Issues conduct research into curriculum, pedagogy, and21.162. In order to assess the quality of teachers, assessment and evaluation issues and offer degreeTETs would be institutionalised and made man- programmes and conduct training for teacher educa-datory for teacher hiring. This would ensure that tors. While CTEs that offer B.Ed. degrees are under-despite alternate pathways open to become teach- graduate colleges, these and organisations like theers, standards of teaching are maintained. Teachers NCERT and the SCERTs lack any meaningful link-could be required to renew their certifications peri- ages with the university system.odically so such that they continue to invest in theirown development. With focus on outcome, teacher GOVERNANCE AND EDUCATION LEADERSHIPeducation institutions could be rated on the basis of 21.165. Performance-based innovative practices likethe scores in the eligibility tests. While focusing on social audits, linkages with panchayats and munici-eligibility tests as objective and transparent outcome palities, energising and empowering village educa-measure for performance of teacher and teacher edu- tion committees, public reporting of expenditurescation institutions, care is needed that such eligibility linked to outcomes and results, and multi-stake-tests do not become an end in themselves. holder dialogues would be used to improve gover- nance in the school system. Most important would21.163. Thus, in addition to TETs, national perfor- be to empower local communities so that they havemance standards for teachers, teacher educators better oversight over schools and teachers. Localand teacher education institutions must be devel- community could be given authority to hire, pay,oped. A well-defined system of teacher performance and renew the contracts of community-based con-appraisal (based on teacher competencies, teacher tract teachers (hired over and above the stipulatedperformance, efforts made by the teachers to trans- number of regular teachers), who can focus onact learning-related processes in the classroom and supplemental and remedial instruction after schoollearning levels) would be introduced in stages. These hours or during summer camps.could include (i) possibilities for internship for threeyears before getting a ‘license’, (ii) introducing a 21.166. Overall strategy in governance reformssystem of teacher evaluation based on attendance, would be to strike a right balance between mandat-effective teaching, evaluation of classroom work and ing and persuading. While efforts should be made toso on, (iii) teachers once appointed could come up listen to stakeholders and embrace their concerns, afor evaluation and renewal of license every 5 years, line must be drawn when it came to pushing through(iv) teachers should have avenues open for retrain- a reform or in ensuring commonality across theing for other jobs they may want to take, and (v) lat- system. At the initial stage, the reforms are almosteral and vertical mobility for professional growth of always driven from the Central agencies. Later, as theteachers. system improves, the locus for improvement shifts to instructional practices and primarily driven by theNational Mission on Teachers and Teaching teachers and the schools by themselves.21.164. During the Twelfth Plan, a National Missionon Teachers and Teaching would be launched so that 21.167. A system of regular assessment of schools forissues of teacher education are dealt with in a holis- both managerial and pedagogical aspects is needed.tic manner. This would also strengthen institutional This would set the stage for formal accreditationmechanisms for strengthening vertical and lateral of schools. In addition, there is a need to estab-linkages. This would consolidate and strengthen lish a vibrant teacher support system closer to theongoing programmes related to teachers and teach- school setting. Evaluation studies of Block Resourceing through effective coordination and synergy by Centres and Cluster Resource Centres that were con-significantly enhancing the investment. Under the ceptualised under DPEP and continued under theproposed mission, 30 Schools of Education will SSA would be revamped and repositioned so thatbe established in the selected universities that will these can work effectively for improving teacher
    • 86 Twelfth Five Year Planperformance. Their role could be extended to the rewarded to motivate teachers and administratorssecondary schools. Finally, systemic improvement to achieve excellence. This recognition can be eitherrequires integration and coordination across differ- financial or non-monetary, but the system as a wholeent levels as can seen in Table 21.6. The Twelfth Plan should show that effort and performance is valuedwould focus on such integration and ordination. and rewarded. Third is to ensure full functioning of the already established National Centre for School21.168. Seven specific interventions are proposed Leadership and setting up of four Regional Centresin the Twelfth Plan. First is to improve functioning of Educational Management co-located in existingand strengthening of existing institutions such as the institutions.SCERT, SIEMAT, and DIETs. These entities woulddevelop and disseminate best practices for effective 21.170. Fourth, the parents have to be more effec-classroom instruction, support teachers in effective tively engaged so that they demand better qualitypedagogy and efficient organisation of resources at education and result-oriented teaching–learningschool level (that is, people, teachers and students, process. For this, effective functioning of SMCsspace and time) so as to optimise learning opportu- and Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) is essen-nities for all children. A key goal will be to identify tial. These are central to the formation of Schoolhighly effective teachers for positions of educational Development Plans and effective working of theleadership and mentoring, and to identify less-effec- schools. Special efforts and innovative approachestive teachers for coaching and support. would be needed to enable illiterate, semi-literate or less-educated parents to partner with schools in their21.169. Second would be on training of district and children’s learning process. Fifth is focus on the roleblock-level education officers as well as head teach- of community-based structures and the complemen-ers for better management practices, on using data tary and mutually reinforcing nature of their respon-to better monitor and support school performance, sibilities in support of government machinery inand to mobilise community resources and efforts monitoring of schools. Given the technical require-to improve school performance. Good performance ments, while the government can go deeper into theof schools and teachers should be recognised and issue of inclusive classroom, some simple indicators TABLE 21.6 Roles in System Improvement Stakeholder Key Role Teachers Deliver classroom instruction Collaborate with peers to develop, and share pedagogical practices that raise learning outcomes Engage parents as needed to advance student performance School Define and drive school improvement strategy, consistent with Administrators direction from district/State headquarters Provide instructional and administrative leadership for the school Involve school community to achieve school improvement goals District/Sub-district Provide targeted support to schools and monitors compliance School Leadership Facilitate communication between schools and the State Encourage inter-school collaboration Buffer community resistance to change State Set system strategy for improvement Leadership Create support and accountability mechanisms to achieve system goals Establish decision rights across all system entities and levels Build up skills and leadership capacity at all system levelsSource: Adapted from ‘Education: How the World’s Most Improved Systems Keep Getting better’ by Mona Mourshed, Chinezi Chijiokeand Michael Barber.
    • Education 87could be developed for monitoring by community- quality issues and active involvement of parents inbased institutions. the monitoring of quality of education imparted in the schools will also be ensured.21.171. Sixth, good schools could act as exemplarsfor neighbourhood schools and a system of mentor- ADULT AND ADOLESCENT EDUCATIONing of schools, particularly in educationally back- 21.173. As shown in Figure 21.2, in the decade fromward regions, would be institutionalised. A system of 2001 to 2011, literacy levels rose from 64.8 per centsharing of best practices would also be introduced. to 74 per cent and the number of illiterates declinedThis means that schools should match the best in absolute terms by 31 million with the number ofpractices from a variety of perspectives from other literates rising by 218 million. The gap in literacyschools in the same region. All Kendriya Vidyalayas rates between urban and rural areas reduced byand Navodaya Vidyalayas, along with newly set up 5 percentage points. Female Literacy rate increasedModel Schools, should undertake pace setting activi- at a faster rate (11.79 per cent) than that for malesties for neighbourhood schools. (6.88 per cent), thus reducing gender gap from 21.59 per cent to 16.68 per cent. Gains in literacy levels are21.172. Seventh, sensitisation and re-orientation in part due to success of the adult education pro-programme for national, State and field-level func- grammes and in part due to improvements in pri-tionaries of the education departments would be mary schooling. Relative contribution of each wouldconducted to bring quality and learning outcome be known once the age-wise disaggregated data forfocus in their work. Quality indicators need to be the 2011 Census is available. Despite these signifi-included in the agenda of review meetings at all lev- cant gains, large gender and regional disparities inels. This would include attendance of students and literacy levels persist.teachers, learning outcome, supportive supervisionprovided by the field functionaries, graduation/ Saakshar Bharatdropout rate and so on. Revamping MIS/reporting 21.174. During the Eleventh Plan, Saakshar Bharat, asystems having specific provision for reporting on Centrally Sponsored Scheme that focused on women 82.1 75.3 74.0 +6.88 64.1 64.8 65.5 56.4 53.7 +11.79 52.2 43.6 39.3 29.8 1981 1991 2001 2011 Gender Gap 26.6% 24.8% 21.6% 16.7% Persons Male Female Source: Census of India, 2011. FIGURE 21.2: Improvements in Literacy Levels, 1981–2011 (%)
    • 88 Twelfth Five Year Planin particular and the disadvantaged groups in gen- 21.177. At the same, there is a need to not onlyeral, was launched. Saakshar Bharat is currently in redefine literacy but for a paradigm shift from basicoperation in 372 districts. Under this scheme, func- literacy to lifelong learning. In the present technol-tional literacy would be provided to 70 million adults ogy-driven knowledge-based competitive econ-(60 million women and 10 million men) in the age omy, even the basic ability to read and write withgroup of 15 years and above. Besides 3 million adults, understanding is not enough; adults need to learnhalf of them under basic education programme to manage information and knowledge in a criticaland the other half under vocational education and and reasonable manner, learn to search, identify,skill development programme are aimed to be cov- evaluate, select, and use information and knowledgeered. The scheme is anchored with Panchayati Raj wherever they are available: print, mass media, orInstitutions and local self-government bodies and the Internet. Nevertheless becoming literate can noadopts a targeted approach with focus on women, longer be viewed as a specific and terminal period inSC, ST, and minorities; gives emphasis on quality; the life of a person. In fact literacy is the entry pointuser context and group specific approach; promotes to basic education and a stepping stone to lifelongconvergence and partnership and effectively uses education. Lifelong learning is today essential forICT in implementation. Saakshar Bharat is using the survival and for enhancing people’s quality of life,concept of total quality management and is develop- as well as for national, human, social and economicing core curriculum framework for adult literacy. development. It should cover ‘all learning activ- ity undertaken throughout life-whether in formal,21.175. Though Saakshar Bharat is conceived as a non-formal and informal settings with the aim ofvariant of National Literacy Mission (NLM), yet due improving knowledge, skills and competence withinto hiatus during the Tenth Plan period, management personal, civic, social and for employment relatedstructures under the NLM had become moribund. perspective’. Under this new paradigm of lifelongThus, galvanising the implementation machinery for learning and literacy, the focus is not only on non-Saakshar Bharat was a huge challenge. Now that it is formal education set up but on establishing strongin third year of its operation, significant support for linkages with the formal system with mechanism forSaakshar Bharat has been mobilised. Through large recognising prior learning and accreditation.scale countrywide environment building and massmobilisation campaigns, voluntary teachers/preraks 21.178. Accordingly, Saakshar Bharat would behave been motivated and trained in large numbers revamped during the Twelfth Plan and aligned to theand community has been mobilised. A meaningful new paradigm of lifelong learning. The key featuressynergy between schemes of adult education, school of this programme would be:education, departments of adult education in theuniversities, and other departments is being created. 1. It would provide opportunities to meet all types of learning needs including functional literacy,Strategic Shift from Literacy to Lifelong basic education, vocational education, physicalLearning and emotional development, arts, culture, sports21.176. Saakshar Bharat as a flagship scheme for and recreation. Such opportunities of learningadult education would be continued during the will be for all adults, disadvantaged and advan-Twelfth Plan and, by 2017, it shall strive to raise the taged, in the age group of 15 years and above,literacy rate to 80 per cent and reduce the gender gap who missed the opportunity of formal educationto less than 10 per cent. Through continuing focus as well as all adults who wish to learn outside theon literacy in the years to come, the goal of universal formal system of education. It would continueliteracy by 2025 or even earlier would be achieved. to focus on inclusion with programmatic inter-During the Twelfth Plan, Saakshar Bharat will give ventions in rural areas, urban slums, low literacyspecial focus on young adults and OoS adolescents areas, tribal areas, SCs and minority concen-(15–19 years). trated areas. To facilitate more equitable access
    • Education 89 and participation, the revamped programme systems. Lifelong learning and literacy under would create appropriate infrastructure, espe- the revamped programme should be seamlessly cially in difficult, backward, tribal, and rural integrated with formal education system for areas, and enhance culture of learning and edu- horizontal and vertical migration by establish- cation by eliminating barriers to participation ing equivalency frameworks to facilitate credit through ICT, awareness, mobilisation, environ- transfer among formal, non-formal and infor- ment building and well-designed and targeted mal education. guidance, information and motivation.2. At the Gram Panchayat level and at the equiva- 21.179. The revamped Saakshar Bharat would be lent levels in the urban areas, the existing well- a continuing programme as a lifelong learning and equipped ICT-enabled multi-purpose Adult literacy support system for the country. To promote Education and Skill Development Centres a systematic lifelong learning, the country might (AESDCs) would be strengthened (or set up require comprehensive legislation to formally recog- where these do not exist) to offer a range of adult nise forms of education other than formal, integrate learning and education programmes to meet formal, non-formal and informal learning and for local needs of the adults. For higher levels of recognition, validation and accreditation of learning adult education, secondary level institutions at obtained in non-formal ways. Need for enabling leg- the block and community colleges at the district islative measures would thus be examined to provide level need to be set up. a robust framework for lifelong learning and literacy.3. Existing programme structures, including National Literacy Mission Authority at the apex HIGHER EDUCATION level, the State Literacy Mission Authorities at 21.180. Higher education is critical for developing a the State level and the Lok Shiksha Samitis at modern economy, a just society and a vibrant pol- the District, Block and the Gram Panchayat, as ity. It equips young people with skills relevant for the well as the resource support bodies, would be labour market and the opportunity for social mobil- remodelled, strengthened and aligned to lifelong ity. It provides people already in employment with learning and literacy. Inter-sectoral and inter- skills to negotiate rapidly evolving career require- ministerial cooperation would be obtained. In ments. It prepares all to be responsible citizens who addition, active involvement of public authori- value a democratic and pluralistic society. Thus, the ties at all administrative levels, civil society, nation creates an intellectual repository of human private sector, community and adult learners’ capital to meet the country’s needs and shapes its organisations in the development, implementa- future. Indeed, higher education is the principal site tion and evaluation of adult learning and edu- at which our national goals, developmental priorities cation programmes would be obtained. The and civic values can be examined and refined. revamped programme would need a permanent system with nationwide and multilevel network 21.181. It is estimated that developed economies and of institutions and structures that conform to even China will face a shortage of about 40 million these parameters. Additional resources should highly skilled workers by 2020, while, based on cur- be allocated for building capacities of PRIs and rent projections of higher education, India is likely other implementing agencies. to see some surplus of graduates in 2020. Thus, India4. Objective criteria to assess learning outcomes, could capture a higher share of global knowledge- skill development, prior learning and equiva- based work, for example by increasing its exports lency should be developed based on which third of knowledge-intensive goods and services, if there party assessment and certification should be is focus on higher education and its quality is glob- undertaken. For this, partnerships should be ally benchmarked. The country cannot afford to lose developed with accredited national and State- time. The demographic bulge evident in India’s pop- level agencies and open and distance learning ulation pyramid is encountering lower fertility rates,
    • 90 Twelfth Five Year Planleading to a rapid slowdown in population growth expansion without quality improvement would berates and a looming decline of the population in the counterproductive for the future of India, given theprime educable age up to 25 years within the next serious quality issues noted in the sector. Second,couple of decades. the Plan also strives to diversify higher education opportunities, not only to meet the needs of employ-21.182. Despite considerable progress during the ers, but also to offer a wide range of paths to suc-Eleventh Plan, less than one-fifth of the estimated cess for our youth. India must develop world-class120 million potential students are enrolled in HEIs research universities as well as have sophisticatedin India, well below the world average of 26 per teaching institutions to impart key vocational andcent. Wide disparities exist in enrolment percent- generic skills in a timely manner to cope with theages among the States and between urban and rural rapidly changing labour market needs. Third, thisareas while disadvantaged sections of society and excellence in diversity will be implemented throughwomen have significantly lower enrolments than the governance reforms, to enable institutions to havenational average. The pressure to increase access to the autonomy to develop distinctive strengths, whileaffordable education is steadily increasing with the being held accountable for ensuring quality. Hence,number of eligible students set to double by 2020. At the Twelfth Plan adopts a holistic approach to thethe same time, significant problems exist in the qual- issues of expansion, equity and excellence so thatity of education provided. The sector is plagued by a expansion is not just about accommodating evershortage of well-trained faculty, poor infrastructure larger number of students, but is also about provid-and outdated and irrelevant curricula. The use of ing diverse choices of subjects, levels and institutionstechnology in higher education remains limited and while ensuring a minimum standard of academicstandards of research and teaching at Indian univer- quality and providing the opportunity to pursuesities are far below international standards with no higher education to all sections of society, particu-Indian university featured in any of the rankings of larly the disadvantaged.the top 200 institutions globally. 21.185. These objectives must guide the development21.183. The key challenge is to find a path to achieve of all three segments of higher education: Centralthe divergent goals for the growth of higher educa- institutions, which account for 2.6 per cent of thetion in India. Combining access with affordability total enrolment; State institutions which accountand ensuring high-quality undergraduate and post- for 38.5 per cent of enrolment; and private institu-graduate education are vital for realising the poten- tions that cater to the remaining students. All threetial of the country’s ‘demographic dividend’. Future segments have to be expanded to achieve enrolmentexpansion should be carefully planned so as to cor- target (see Box 21.7) by creating additional capacityrect regional and social imbalances, reinvigorate and ensuring equal access opportunities, while beinginstitutions to improve standards and reach inter- supported to improve the quality of teaching–learn-national benchmarks of excellence, match demand ing, attain excellence in research, and contribute towith supply by improving employability, and extend economic development.the frontiers of knowledge. STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK OF THE TWELFTHSTRATEGIC AIMS OF THE TWELFTH PLAN PLAN21.184. The Twelfth Plan will build on the momen- 21.186. In the light of past experience and consider-tum generated during the Eleventh Plan and con- ing the inter-linkages between expansion, equity, andtinue the focus on the ‘Three Es’—expansion, excellence, a new strategic framework (see Figure 21.3)equity and excellence. However, the Plan proposes is required to pursue the objectives of the Twelfth Plan.a paradigm change in the way we achieve such This would involve cultural, strategic and organisa-goals—through three new principles. First, an over- tional changes impacting on all aspects of higher edu-riding emphasis will be given to quality—as further cation ranging from access and equity to governance,
    • Education 91 Box 21.7 Enrolment Target for the Twelfth Plan Additional enrolment capacity of 10 million students including 1 million in open and distance learning would be created by the end of the Twelfth Plan. This would enable roughly 3 million more students in each age cohort to enter higher education and raise the country’s GER from 17.9 per cent (estimated for 2011–12) to 25.2 per cent by 2017–18 and reach the target of 30 per cent GER by 2020–21 which would be broadly in line with world average. OUTCOMES • Expanded availability of higher education • Narrowing of group inequalities in access to higher education • Improved teaching and research across all institutions EXPANSION EQUITY EXCELLENCE • Capacity expansion of existing • Increased budgetary • Learner-centric approach institutions support for targeted equity • Focus on teaching-research • Institutional differentiation schemes synergy • Widespread use of ICT • Faculty development • Internationalisation • Creation of alliances/networks FINANCING • Quantum leap in public and private sector funding • Increased and strategically deployed central funding • Funding streams connected to outcomes GOVERNANCE • Institutional autonomy • Widespread and coordinated regulatory reform FIGURE 21.3: Strategic Frameworkfunding, monitoring and regulation, institutional 3. Use the transformative potential of new technol-structures, curricula and teaching–learning processes. ogies to improve quality, reduce costs, improve processes and efficiency and reach a larger body21.187. The strategic framework for the Twelfth Plan of students, while promoting efficient and trans-for higher education identifies such a paradigmatic parent governance and raising the quality ofshift in the following critical areas related to expan- teaching and research.sion, equity, excellence, governance and financing. EquityExpansion 1. Provide significant increase in budgetary sup-1. Expand access by scaling up capacity in existing port for equity-related measures through tar- institutions rather than increasing the number geted, integrated and effective equity-related of institutions, with the exception of new insti- schemes, which will replace the existing maze of tutions needed to address critical regional and multiple and diffused small outlay schemes. social gaps.2. Create a system of institutional differentiation Excellence and distinctiveness to cater to a diverse body of 2. Foster a shift from an input-centric and students and the varied needs of employers. credential-based pedagogical approach to a
    • 92 Twelfth Five Year Plan learner-centric and learning-outcome based 12. Directly connect funding streams to specific approach to improve the quality of teaching and outcomes and desired impacts related to the research. Plan objectives through reforms in governance3. Ensure availability, recruitment and retention arrangements at the national, State and institu- of qualified people to meet the growing need for tional levels with suitable implementation and quality faculty; upgrade the skills of existing fac- monitoring mechanisms. ulty; and, build synergies between teaching and research to promote excellence in both. 21.188. Figure 21.3 shows the various elements of4. Facilitate translation of academic research into the strategy framework and inter-linkages amongst innovations for practical use in society and econ- them. The issues of expansion or widening access, omy and foster entrepreneurship that creates improving equity in access, improving quality and wealth and public goods. fostering research and innovation, governance,5. Promote internationalisation by encouraging financing, Plan implementation, monitoring and and supporting institutions and their faculty to evaluation have been further elaborated in the sub- engage more deeply with institutions and faculty sequent sections. In each section, the experience of around the world in areas ranging from teach- the Eleventh Plan is first analysed which leads to the ing–learning to research and outreach. specific strategy to be adopted and initiatives to be6. Create and facilitate alliances, networks, clusters, undertaken in the Twelfth Plan. and consortia of academic institutions amongst themselves and with research institutions and EXPANSION OF ACCESS TO HIGHER industry to accelerate the process of knowledge EDUCATION development by better resource utilisation and by complementing mutual expertise. Enrolment Expansion in the Eleventh Plan 21.189. The Eleventh Plan recognised and respondedGovernance to the rising demand for higher education.12 Enrol-7. Enable institutional autonomy by transforming ment increased in government as well as private the role of government from command and con- institutions. Table 21.7 provides the enrolment trol to a steering and evaluative role. numbers for the Tenth and the Eleventh Plan, the8. Enhance the capacity of the higher education increase in enrolment and the compounded annual system to govern itself by widespread and coor- growth rate (CAGR). dinated regulatory reform.9. Increase transparency in both public and pri- 21.190. Enrolment13 in open and distance learning vate institutions by requiring them to disclose (ODL) programmes also grew rapidly during the important standardised information related Eleventh Plan from 27.41 lakh students in 2006–07 to admissions, fees, faculty, programs, place- to 42.01 lakh students in 2011–12 (Table 21.8). Apart ments, governance, finance, business tie-ups and from the Indira Gandhi National Open University, ownership. there are 13 State Open Universities and 183 other Distance Education Institutions (DEIs) approved byFinancing the Distance Education Council. Enrolment in DEIs10. Implement a quantum leap in both public and that includes at least 44 private institutions grew private sector investment in higher education to most rapidly over 10 per cent per year during the achieve the various goals set out for the Twelfth Eleventh Plan period. Plan.11. Implement a significant increase in Central plan 21.191. GER is often used to measure the higher edu- funds for higher education and strategically cation access. GER is the total enrolment in higher deploy these funds to improve the entire system education (both degree and diploma programmes) of higher education, including State systems. as a percentage of the population in the eligible age
    • Education 93 TABLE 21.7 Growth of Enrolment in the Eleventh Plan (Enrolment in lakh) Category 2006–07 2011–12 Increase Growth Rate (Per cent) Total Per cent Total Per cent By type of institutions Government 63.38 45.8 89.63 41.1 26.25 7.2 Central 3.10 2.2 5.63 2.6 2.53 12.7 State 60.28 43.6 84.00 38.5 23.72 6.9 Private 75.12 54.2 128.23 58.9 53.11 11.3 By degree/diploma Degree 123.54 89.2 184.84 84.8 61.30 8.4 Diploma 14.96 10.8 33.02 15.2 18.06 10.8 Total 138.50 100.00 217.86 100.00 79.36 9.5Source: University Grants Commission (UGC), All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), NCTE, Indian Nursing Council(NCTE).Note: (a) Central institutions include Indian Institutes of Management even though they award PG diplomas in management; (b)Figures in parentheses are percentage of total for the year. TABLE 21.8 Growth of Enrolment in ODL Programmes in the Eleventh Plan (Enrolment in lakh) Enrolment 2006–2007 2011–2012 Increase Growth Rate (per cent) Indira Gandhi National Open University 4.68 6.97 2.29 8.3 State Open Universities (SOU) 7.77 10.80 3.03 6.8 Distance Education Institutions (DEI) 14.96 24.24 9.28 10.1 Total 27.41 42.01 14.60 8.9Source: Distance Education Council.cohort of 18–23 years. Using this definition, GER disciplines and sectors (see Table 21.9 for growthfor higher education was 12.3 per cent in 2006–07 by field of study) and ensure further expansion hasand increased to 17.9 per cent in 2011–12. In regular diversity in the provision of higher education includ-programmes alone, GER has increased from 10.4 per ing a focused emphasis on improving the quality ofcent in 2006–07 to 15.2 per cent in 2011–12. institutions, faculty and curricula.21.192. Increased enrolments in the Eleventh Plan INSTITUTIONAL EXPANSION INenabled Indian higher education to cross the thresh- THE ELEVENTH PLANold of 15 per cent GER, moving the country from an 21.193. Increase in higher education capacity during‘elite’ to a ‘mass’ higher education system. Despite the Eleventh Plan was largely achieved through thethis, the unmet demand for access to higher educa- setting up of new institutions by Central and Statetion remains significant, indicating that a further Governments and the private sector. The number ofexpansion is required. However, expansion dur- institutions grew by 58 per cent from 29384 to 46430.ing the Twelfth Plan must factor that the recent By the end of the Plan, the country had 645 degreegrowth has been skewed in favour of certain regions, awarding institutions, 33023 colleges affiliated to
    • 94 Twelfth Five Year Plan174 universities and over 12748 diploma granting of engineering and technical disciplines, this indi-institutions. Table 21.10 provides a snapshot of this cates that further expansion should be undertakengrowth. With the growth rate of institutions match- in the context of also achieving disciplinary diversitying that of enrolment, the problem of low enrolment and increasing capacity within existing institutionsper institution evident at the start of the Eleventh rather than creating new institutions.Plan remains. Combined with the skewed growth TABLE 21.9 Growth of Enrolment by Field of Study during the Eleventh Plan (in lakh) Faculty 2006–07 2011–12 Growth Rate (Per cent) Total Per cent Total Per cent Arts 54.86 39.6 65.78 30.2 3.7 Science 25.43 18.4 30.57 14.0 3.8 Commerce and Management 22.87 16.5 34.34 15.8 8.5 Education 6.21 4.5 13.00 6.0 15.9 Engineering 18.06 13.0 54.68 25.0 24.8 Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy 5.98 4.3 12.02 5.5 15.0 Agriculture and Veterinary Science 0.93 0.7 1.21 0.6 5.4 Law 3.00 2.2 3.48 1.6 3.0 Others 1.16 0.8 2.78 1.3 19.1 Total 138.5 100 217.86 100 9.5Source: UGC, AICTE, NCTE and INC. TABLE 21.10 Growth of Institutions in the Eleventh Plan Category 2006–07 2011–12 Increase Growth Rate (Per Cent) Central Institutions Degree Awarding Institutions 87 152 65 11.8 Colleges 58 69 11 3.5 Sub total 145 221 76 8.8 State Institutions Degree Awarding Institutions 227 316 89 6.8 Colleges 9000 13024 4024 7.7 Diploma Institutions 1867 3207 1340 11.4 Sub total 11094 16547 5453 8.3 Private Institutions Degree Awarding Institutions 73 191 118 21.2 Colleges 12112 19930 7818 10.5 Diploma Institutions 5960 9541 3581 9.9 Sub total 18145 29662 11517 10.3 Total 29384 46430 17046 9.6Source: UGC, AICTE, NCTE and INC.Note: Central degree institutions include Indian Institutes of Management even though they award PG diploma in management.
    • Education 9521.194. Growth in private institutions was signifi- On their own, the State Governments added 89 uni-cant during the Eleventh Plan period. Ninety-eight versities, 4024 colleges and 1340 diploma institutionsprivate State universities, 17 private deemed uni- during the same period.versities, 7818 private colleges, and 3581 privatediploma institutions were set up during the Plan 21.196. Expansion of HEIs by Central ministriesperiod. While a majority of them offer professional and departments other than MHRD was also sig-or vocational programmes almost exclusively, it’s nificant with 14 institutions being established byworth noting that a number of arts, commerce and other Ministries/Departments. These include medi-science colleges and a few comprehensive multidisci- cal and agricultural universities, institutes of fashionplinary universities have also been established in the technology, pharmaceutical education and researchprivate sector in recent years. institutes and the South Asia and Nalanda universi- ties. However, this does not include institutions for21.195. The expansion of Central institutions dur- maritime education and for flying and aeronauticaling the Eleventh Plan was historic. The Central education approved by the Directorate General ofGovernment has never established so many institu- Shipping and Directorate General of Civil Aviation.tions in a single Plan period. The Central Govern-ment established 51 new institutions during the 21.197. Affiliated colleges, which enrol 86.7 per centEleventh Plan period (see Table 21.11). Each State of all students, are the mainstay of the country’snow has at least one Central university except Goa, higher education system. They enrol over 90 perwhere the State Government did not want one. cent of undergraduate students, over 70 per cent ofSpecial financial assistance was provided by the the postgraduates and about 17 per cent of doctoralCentral Government to existing Central institutions students. They follow curricula and examination sys-to raise their intake capacity in order to provide tems determined by the affiliating universities.27 per cent reservation to OBCs without affecting thenumber of general seats. The Central Government 21.198. Despite the growth in number of institu-also supported the States to set up 45 model degree tions, their geographical spread remains highlycolleges (as against the 374 proposed in low enrol- skewed with a large concentration in big cities andment districts) and 279 government polytechnics (as towns. While overall institutional density increasedagainst the 300 proposed) during the Plan period. from 10 to 14 institutions per 1000 sq. km. during TABLE 21.11 Growth of Central Institutions during the Eleventh Plan Type of Institution 2006–07 2011–12 Increase Central Universities 19 40 21 Indian Institute of Technology 7 15 8 Indian Institute of Management 6 13 7 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research 2 5 3 School of Planning and Architecture 1 3 2 National Institute of Technology 20 30 10 Other Technical Institutions 15 15 0 Other Universities/Institutions 17 31 14 Total 87 152 65Source: Ministry of HRD, Other Ministries.Note: Other universities/institutions include deemed universities fully funded by the Central Government (via UGC) and institutionsunder other ministries.
    • 96 Twelfth Five Year Planthe Eleventh Plan, a large number of habitations and distance learning) grew by 9.3 million from 16.6 mil-settlement clusters with a population of more than lion (in 2006–07) to 25.9 million in 2011–12. Target10000 and less than 100000 are without any proxi- for the Twelfth Plan is to increase enrolment capac-mate institution of higher education. ity by another 10 million. Of this, 1 million will come from ODL, 3.3 million through large scale expansion21.199. Even though GER at the national level is 18 per of skill-granting diploma programmes and remain-cent, there are wide inter-State variations. Delhi, ing 5.7 million will come from further expansionChandigarh and Puducherry, which attract a large of degree programmes with accelerated expan-number of students from outside their States, have sion of postgraduate and doctoral programmes (seeGERs exceeding 30 per cent while States like Bihar, Table 21.12).Jharkhand, Assam, Rajasthan, Odisha and WestBengal have significantly lower GERs. This suggests 21.202. This additional enrolment capacity of 10 mil-a need for State-specific strategies in addressing lion students would enable roughly 3 million moreissues of expansion of higher education during the students in each age cohort to enter higher educa-Twelfth Plan period. tion and raise the GER broadly in line with the cur- rent global average from 17.9 per cent (estimated for21.200. To support institutional expansion, Central 2011–12) to 25.2 per cent by 2017. Enrolment capac-Government spending on higher education has ity of Central institutions would be doubled fromgrown steadily over the years and increased over six- 0.6 million to 1.2 million. In the State institutions,fold between 2006–07 and 2011–12. In contrast, State it will increase from 8.4 million to 11 million. Thenon-Plan funding grew at a modest pace even though bulk of growth would be in the private institutions.institutions in the State sector have also expanded In private institutions, the enrolment capacity wouldsignificantly. As a result, the quality of State institu- increase from 12.7 million now to 18.5 million by thetions has continued to deteriorate over the years. end of the Twelfth Plan period (see Figure 21.4).21.201. During the Eleventh Plan, enrolment in 21.203. Planning for expansion should be demand-higher education (including enrolment in open and driven. First, the national government would TABLE 21.12 Enrolment Targets by Level/Type for the Twelfth Plan (student numbers in lakh) Level/Type 2011–12 2016–17 Growth Rate (Estimates) (Targets) (Per Cent) PhD 1 3 24.6 PG General 17.3 33.2 13.9 PG Technical 5 12.2 19.5 UG General 116.6 128 1.9 UG Technical 45 66 8.0 Sub total 184.9 242.4 5.6 Diploma 33 65 14.5 Total 217.9 307.4 7.1 ODL 42 52 4.4 Grand Total 259.9 359.4 6.7 Population 18–23 years 1451.2 1427.4 –0.1 GER (%) 17.9 25.2Source: Planning Commission Estimates/Targets.
    • Education 97 185.0 128.2 110.4 84.0 75.1 60.3 52.0 42.0 27.4 12.0 3.0 5.6 2006–07 2011–12 (Estimated) 2016–17 (Target) Central State Private ODL Source: Based on figures drawn from UGC, AICTE, NCTE, MHRD and INC. FIGURE 21.4: Enrolments in Higher Education (in lakh): 2006–07 to 2016–17prepare long-term occupational demand projections definition, and purpose of higher education. Therecognising that these must be updated periodically Twelfth Plan strives to create diverse educationto meet the changing needs of the economy and soci- opportunities to cater to the growing number of stu-ety. For Central institutions, this would be followed dents passing out of higher secondary classes on thethrough by developing institutional supply targets. one hand and the diverse needs of the economy andFor each State, the expansion plan should similarly society on the other. Therefore, the four key princi-be based on State-level demand projections. This ples that will drive the strategy for higher educationwould require coordinated efforts and enhancing the expansion in the Twelfth Plan are as follows:capacity for such planning both at the national andState levels. 1. Expansion must focus on locations, States, sub- ject areas/disciplines, and types of institutionsTWELFTH PLAN EXPANSION STRATEGY where current capacity is low, instead of creating21.204. The expansion that took place in the Eleventh additional capacity across the board.Plan was a logical response to the rising aspirations 2. Expansion must be aligned to the country’sof young people, improved schooling, and the fact economy. Therefore, a variety of HEIs offer-that jobs created through rapid economic growth ing innovative and relevant curricula designedand skill-based technical change require higher lev- to serve different segments of the job marketels of education. During the Eleventh Plan, Indian or provide avenues for self-employment musthigher education moved from ‘elite’ to ‘mass’ higher be developed. Specific emphasis must be giveneducation (threshold of 15 per cent GER) and is now to the expansion of skill-based programmes inmoving towards universal higher education (thresh- higher education.old of 50 per cent GER). This must be accompanied 3. The relative strengths of different types of insti-by offering a wider, diverse range of education—the tutions must be harnessed to serve differentstudent should be able to acquire skills in multiple needs. Central institutions must be assisted todisciplines while achieving a solid core set of skills become quality-leading institutions. State insti-and at a pace that is customised to individual’s capac- tutions must be supported to expand furtherity to learn. With this in mind, further expansion will and simultaneously address equity issues andrequire a re-examination of the design, organisation, improve quality. The philanthropic sector should
    • 98 Twelfth Five Year Plan be invited and incentivised to infuse more funds the size of the student body passing out at the higher and build larger, sustainable and higher qual- secondary level. ity private institutions. New models of Public– Private Partnership (PPP) in higher education 21.208. While expanding capacity, costs have to be must be encouraged not only for technology kept low while maintaining high quality. This can intensive education but also for multidisciplinary be achieved by ensuring that expansion primar- and research-based education. Open and dis- ily takes place by increasing the capacity of existing tance learning must be used to widen access in a institutions. Several universities and colleges oper- cost-effective and flexible manner. ate sub-optimally with just a few hundred students.4. Overall, expansion will be carefully planned to Several specific strategies could be adopted for opti- provide better access to the poor and disadvan- mal operations. First, existing physical facilities can taged social groups and first generation learners be used more efficiently through scheduling with from backward areas. multiple shifts and year-round operations. Second, high-cost full-time faculty can be engaged in high-21.205. Expansion should not only mean having value teaching while specially trained teaching assis-more institutions of the same kind, but also develop- tants or adjunct faculty could be used for tutorialsing new kinds of institutions. First, the country must and online courses that are blended with face-to-facehave some globally competitive research-intensive instruction.institutions which should: (i) keep India abreast ofthe international scientific frontier; (ii) ensure that 21.209. Third, the land, which has become a bind-educational content and curricula is of world stand- ing constraint for setting up new campuses, shouldards and updated regularly; (iii) ensure that research be efficiently used. Norms for land area requirementis actively used to solve India’s own problems; and should be reviewed, keeping in mind energy and envi-(iv) engage the best researchers in the country in ronmental impact, while affording adequate physicalteaching the next generation of students both within space for learning. The advent of new teaching tech-and outside their institution. nologies must be factored in the way, classrooms, laboratories and libraries are designed. Institutions,21.206. Second, teaching-focused institutions particularly in urban agglomerations, would bemust offer a wide range of good-quality educa- encouraged to consolidate capacity through mergers.tional options, from liberal arts to professional and The more reputed institutions would be encouragedtechnical education. Part-time programs should to establish multiple campuses and benefit from thealso be introduced for working professionals and economies of scale and scope. And finally, there isadult learners conferring the same degrees that are benefit in co-locating institutions in large educationawarded through traditional full-time programmes. or integrated hubs that would incubate and nurture talent, create innovation ecosystem and foster entre-21.207. Third, there must be institutions offering preneurship. A few large education clusters would becredible short-duration programmes that provide established during the Twelfth Plan. These could beskills for development opportunities as well as reme- anchored by public and/or private universities withdial education—to make sure that those coming out other higher education institutions and knowledgeof variable quality secondary schools have the oppor- intensive industries in close proximity. This wouldtunity to succeed in the higher education environ- facilitate and enhance interactions and collabora-ment. Fourth, geographical mapping of HEIs should tions across different higher education institutionsbe done to identify habitations and settlements that and firms.lack higher education facilities. Expansion at theState or district level should be planned to develop TWELFTH PLAN EXPANSION INITIATIVESdiverse types of institutions of higher education 21.210. The Twelfth Plan initiatives would bedepending on the opportunities for employment and designed to implement these strategic objectives
    • Education 99through new and continuing initiatives. The specific and PPP models for the basic infrastructure. Theymajor Twelfth Plan initiatives are as follows: will thus assist other institutions to improve stand- ards, particularly in the States or regions where theyDevelop Central Institutions as Quality- are located. Co-location of State and private institu-Leading Institutions tions and other enterprises with new Central institu-21.211. Enrolment in Central institutions will be tions could build vibrant innovation clusters.increased from 6 lakh to 12 lakh students mainlywithin existing Central institutions. Only research Strategic Support for State Higher Educationand innovation based institutions or exemplar insti- 21.213. Central funding for State higher education istutions would be established in the Central sector small; its reach is limited, and its impact insignificant.or supported by the Central Government (see Box It is poorly coordinated and plagued by excessive21.8). Older Central institutions will be financially bureaucracy, inefficiencies, low levels of monitoringsupported to redevelop campuses to achieve scale and poor quality of outcomes. It therefore, providesand build state-of-the-art facilities. In some cases, little value for money. During the Twelfth Plan, Statemultiple campuses would be encouraged to enable higher education would be provided significantlyeconomies of scale and institutional efficiency. The more Central funding. There will be a strategic shiftcampuses to be upgraded during the Twelfth Plan in the manner in which State higher education sys-would include ISM Dhanbad to IIT-level, BESU tems are supported by the Central Government.Shibpur to an Indian Institute of Engineering, Central funding for higher education will be doneScience and Technology, and NIFFT Ranchi as a pre- on a State-specific basis and allocated for the State’smier institution for forging and foundry technology. higher education system as a whole, even though itHEIs with potential in the UTs that come under the would flow to individual universities and colleges viaCentral Government (through the Ministry of Home the UGC as before. Details for allocation and flowAffairs) and have potential like the PEC University of of Central funds to State universities and collegesTechnology and Chandigarh College of Architecture would be worked out through a consultative process.would also be upgraded. The UGC would play an important and more strate- gic role in allocation and disbursal of Central funds,21.212. Central institutions should become cata- particularly in funding strategic investment planslytic role models for other institutions in all aspects as proposed by institutions on a selective basis (seeincluding governance, infrastructure, faculty and Box 21.9).curricula. For instance, in infrastructural develop-ment, they can help define new building technolo- 21.214. The goal of Central funding of State highergies, the use of fixed-cost and time EPC contracts education should be to benefit from the synergies Box 21.8 TISS: A Multi-Location Networked University Tata Institute of Social Sciences has expanded rapidly since 2006 and emerged as a multi-location networked university for social sciences. It has enlarged its research base in social sciences and diversified its course offerings to provide access to a much larger body of students in various trans-disciplinary areas across the country. The capacity of its Mumbai Campus increased from 200 masters and 50 doctoral students in 2006 to 1650 masters and 350 doctoral students in 2012; with a corresponding increase in the range of courses it offers. The Institute has established three campuses at Tuljapur (operational since 2004) and at Hyderabad and Guwahati, each of them will have about 1000 students each by 2016. This expansion has been funded largely from resources mobilised through Indian trusts and foundations that have so far contributed about 130 crore with Central Government putting in another 26 cr. In addition, the Institute mobilised over `200 crore for research work and to set up new academic programs. Further, the Institute has collaborative research, faculty and student exchange programs with over 60 universities and institutions in the country—each of the collaboration is supported by competitive funding secured by the institute that enabled exchange at no extra cost to its students.
    • 100 Twelfth Five Year Plan Box 21.9 Strategic Shift in Central Funding for State Higher Education • Enable a State system-wide planning perspective and benefit from the synergy in spending by the Central and State Government. • States to develop comprehensive State higher education plans that utilise an interconnected strategy to address issues of expansion, equity and excellence together. • Central funding to be linked to academic, administrative and financial reforms of State higher education. • Funding to be provided through a flagship programme: Rashtriya Uchcha Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA).between State and Central spending and to more to be established under Section 25 of the companieseffectively use Central funding to bring about admin- Act and allowing existing trusts and societies to con-istrative, academic and financial reforms in State sys- vert to institution under Section 25 of the companiestems, and as a powerful tool to address equity issues Act; (iii) giving priority recognition to the sector,and improve quality at the State level. like providing it ‘infrastructure’ status with similar, financial and tax treatment.Quality Private Growth21.215. The Private sector has contributed signifi- 21.217. The government could support non-profitcantly to higher education expansion during the private institutions in three ways—(i) access to publicEleventh Plan and private higher education now student financial aid would be extended to accreditedaccounts for 58.5 per cent of enrolments. The pri- private institutions; (ii) access to research fundingvate sector will be encouraged to establish larger will be on an equal footing with public institutionsand higher quality institutions in the Twelfth Plan. with suitable protection for intellectual propertyCurrently, for-profit entities are not permitted in derived from such research; and (iii) private institu-higher education and the non-profit or philanthropy- tions would benefit from various long-term qualitydriven institutions are unable to scale-up enough to enhancement efforts like enhanced use of technol-bridge the demand–supply gap in higher education. ogy and faculty development initiatives. The corpo-Therefore, the ‘not-for-profit’ status in higher educa- rate sector could be involved in higher education andtion should, perhaps, be re-examined for pragmatic their large in-house training capacities, particularly inconsiderations so as to allow the entry of for-profit skill development and management, could be lever-institutions in select areas where acute shortages per- aged to improve access to higher education.sist. This should, however, be subjected to the nec-essary oversight and accreditation arrangements to 21.218. Simultaneously, measures to ensure that pri-ensure quality and equity. For-profit private higher vate institutions are committed to quality, equity andeducation can be taxed and the revenue from it transparency will be introduced through reform ofcan be channelled into large scale scholarship pro- regulatory oversight. The current regulatory frame-gramme to promote equity as is practised in Brazil work needs to be revamped to: (i) encourage seriousand China. private philanthropy and investment to innovate and provide high-quality education; (ii) promote21.216. At the same time, innovative ways have to be better availability of information on private institu-found to encourage the infusion of more private cap- tions to the public; (iii) ensure that institutions thatital in the traditional not-for-profit higher education. indulge in unfair practices are dealt with swiftly.Some proposals that require serious consideration Accreditation will be central to such reforms.include: (i) enabling liberal financing options forthe sector, like allowing private institutions to raise 21.219. New models of Public–Private Partnershipsfunds through public offerings of bonds or shares; (PPP) in higher education will be encouraged in(ii) changing the legal status of the sector to attract the Twelfth Plan, particularly in the establishmentmore investors, like allowing all types of institutions of research and innovation institutions. Based on
    • Education 101the Eleventh Plan experience of setting up Indian interest. Given these objectives, community collegesInstitutes of Information Technology (IIITs) and would be located to afford easy access to underprivi-polytechnics in PPP mode, a framework will be put leged students. Such colleges could either be estab-in place to encourage the spread and growth of PPP lished as affiliated colleges of universities governed,models, increase and improve resource utilisation guided and managed through a ‘Department of Skillsand enhance the quality of education in such insti- and Lifelong Learning’ (DSLL) or as entirely autono-tutions. In some cases, public institutions that are mous institutions linked to sector-skill councils.failing to meet standards could be assisted by the pri-vate partners to transform them through innovative 21.222. Ongoing UGC initiative that supports career-PPP models. oriented add-on courses in traditional universities and colleges and the IGNOU’s scheme of commu-Expansion of Skill-Based Programmes nity colleges would be reviewed. Technical support21.220. Special emphasis will be placed on expan- of Philanthropic Foundations and the Indian Centresion of skill-based programmes in higher educa- for Research and Development of Communitytion during the Twelfth Plan. A framework for Education (which has 230 community colleges in itssetting up community colleges based on the North fold) would be taken to build on the current initia-American model is under development and has been tives and create a robust framework for skill-basedendorsed in principle by the Central Advisory Body education within the higher education sector in theon Education (see Box 21.10). country. This could include institutional arrange- ments for recognition of prior learning.21.221. Community Colleges can serve multipleneeds, including (i) provide career oriented educa- Open and Distance Learning Initiativestion and skills to students interested in directly enter- 21.223. Open and Distance Learning (ODL) will being the workforce; (ii) provide contracted training used to widen access and significantly expand capac-and education programmes for local employers; (iii) ity in a cost-effective and flexible manner. Duringprovide high-touch remedial education for secondary the Twelfth Plan, support to IGNOU, State openschool graduates not ready to enrol in traditional col- universities and other institutions of distance educa-leges, giving them a path to transfer to three or four tion will be increased to expand access particularlyyear institutions; (iv) offer general interest courses for those beyond the normal schooling age. Suchto the community for personal development and programmes will be regularly evaluated for learning Box 21.10 Concept and Framework for Establishing Community Colleges • Community Colleges will provide modular credit-based courses with entry and exit flexibility that conforms to the National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF). • They will offer programmes leading to certificates (after one year), diplomas, advanced diplomas or associate degrees (after two years) with options to transfer to regular degree programmes. • Their curricula will include an appropriate mix of academic and vocational skills and will be aligned to national occupational standards determined by employer-led sector skill councils. • The assessment of vocational skills and training provided by Community Colleges will be done in accordance with assessment protocols developed by sector skill councils. • Their faculty will typically consist of a permanent core, who will teach fundamentals (language, mathematics, science) and a large pool of adjunct or part-time faculty who will focus on specialisations. • Well-designed online offerings would be integrated with face-to-face instruction to enhance and maintain quality. • Community Colleges will be located in habitations with large potential student population. • There will be local community involvement in their academic and administrative boards. • They could be established in the premises of existing colleges, polytechnics, or even higher secondary schools and use online training and industry sites, wherever possible.
    • 102 Twelfth Five Year Planoutcomes so that curricula and pedagogical changes 21.225. The data on Gross Attendance Ratio forcan be made on an ongoing basis. In the face of grow- 2007–08 confirms that higher education access foring concern about the quality of ODL programmes, all disadvantaged social groups is well below theregulatory oversight would be strengthened during national average of 17.2 per cent. As Figure 21.5the Twelfth Plan. Traditional institutions will be shows, despite substantial overall improvement, theencouraged to offer part of their curriculum online broad picture of inter-group inequality has changedto promote blended learning and provide students only marginally. While access to higher educationmore choices while keeping costs low. This would has improved for all social groups, including thealso enable them to reach out to more students and disadvantaged, their relative disparities have notnon-traditional learners. reduced substantially. These inequalities are not one dimensional: gender, disability, class, caste, reli-EQUITY IN ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION gion, locality and region are some of the principal dimensions of inequality and when more than one ofMulti-Dimensional Inequalities these conditions exist, their impact is compounded.21.224. Equitable access to quality higher education Access to higher education, especially to prestigiousis an essential prerequisite for realising the Consti- programmes and institutions that are in demand,tutional promise of ‘Equality of Opportunity’ as well continues to reflect inherited social privileges.as achieving the goal of inclusive development in theTwelfth Plan. However, many of these imbalances 21.226. The participation of SCs, STs and OBCsoccur at the school level due to low enrolments and in higher education is significantly lower than thehigh dropouts amongst the deprived, underprivi- national average. The low percentage of studentsleged and marginalised sections. Thus, only a lim- from the SC/ST and OBC categories in the domainited pool of such students is available for entry into of higher education is an acute problem that stillhigher education. As a result, a large proportion of persists and pulls the country backward. As per dataseats in higher education reserved for SC, ST, OBC, of NSS 64th round, GER in the ST category is one-and persons with disabilities remain unfilled (see fourth that of general category students. It is lessFigure 21.5). than half for the SC and more than half for the OBC GAR by Rural, Urban, Male, Female GAR by Socio-Religious Groups Urban Female 30.5 Christian General . . 44.9 Urban Total 30.0 HIndu General . . 32.9 Urban Male 29.6 All . . 17.2 All 17.2 OBC . . 14.8 Rural Male 13.7 SC . . 11.6 Rural Total 11.1 Muslim . . 9.6 Rural Female 8.3 ST . .7.7 Source: Graph drawn from various sources like UGC, AICTE, NCTE, MHRD and INC. FIGURE 21.5: Gross Attendance Ratio, 2007–08
    • Education 103students. When compared with the 2004–05 data, number of girls’ hostels was taken up to encouragethere is improvement in the educational levels of SC girls to enrol in HEIs.and the OBC groups, but a lowering of the figures forthe ST group. 21.229. Merit-cum-means scholarships for students from families with annual incomes less than `4.5 lakh21.227. As higher education expands, more students were started in 2008–09. Since 2009–10 the Centralwill come from hitherto marginalised sections of Government has provided 100 per cent interest sub-society. HEIs must gear themselves to face the chal- sidy during the moratorium period on educationallenge of catering to the needs of such students to loans taken by students with family income of lessfurther reduce inequalities in access. The higher edu- than `4.5 lakh per annum. A review of these initia-cation system must: tives and previous experience provides the following basic lessons:1. Facilitate entry of the socially disadvantaged into HEIs and, in the case of some extremely disad- • despite progress, relative disparities across vari- vantaged communities, devise incentives that ous social groups and gender gaps in educational would allow ‘over-drawing’ from this currently attainments continue to be high even today and small pool of eligible students. area/beneficiary targeted approaches and spe-2. Support retention of those disadvantaged stu- cific interventions are necessary to narrow these dents who enter higher education by ensuring inequalities; that they do not drop out for lack of resources • a substantial increase in funding is needed to and inadequate academic preparation. achieve a quantum jump in the volume, range and3. Enhance the quality of learning of disadvantaged amount of student support in the form of scholar- students and provide guidance and support to ships, stipends, assistantships and loans for disad- improve their chances of entering disciplines vantaged students; that ensure decent employment opportunities or • the funding mechanisms for such aid should be gaining admission to postgraduate degrees at top structured in such a way that money follows the institutions. students for whom it is meant;4. Use the ‘community college’ as a key vehicle for • it is necessary to have differentiated access strat- entry into regular higher education by way of egies for different groups and in particular for widely located, community-based institutions those extremely disadvantaged communities/ offering relevant education of high quality. social groups that still remain largely excluded from the world of higher learning;ELEVENTH PLAN EXPERIENCE • special attention needs to be paid to measuring21.228. Several measures were initiated in the and redressing inequalities in high-end coursesEleventh Plan to achieve the goals of equity and and institutions;inclusion. Centrally funded institutions received • special emphasis should be put on those schemesspecial financial assistance to increase the intake of that recognise the intersectional nature of disad-disadvantaged groups and provide 27 per cent res- vantages to address all dimensions of inequality inervation for OBCs without affecting the number of a holistic manner;general seats. Establishment of 374 colleges in low • the delivery system for financial aid needsGER districts and setting up of 1000 new polytech- revamping to remove cumbersome processes andnics was taken up. Universities and colleges located promote awareness of the schemes among thein border, hilly, remote, small towns, and educa- intended recipients;tionally backward areas and those with larger SC/ • there is a need for mechanisms such as a ‘DiversityST/OBC/Minority/Persons with Disabilities student Index’ to monitor equity performance of institu-population were supported. Construction of a large tions and to link it with monetary incentives.
    • 104 Twelfth Five Year PlanTWELFTH PLAN STRATEGY 21.232. The reach of scholarships and student loans21.230. The thrust of the Twelfth Plan will be to with government guarantees would be universal-achieve a quantum jump in the number, range and ised so that no student is deprived of higher educa-amount of student financial aid schemes in order to tion opportunities for financial reasons. This will be(i) significantly enhance funding for equity-related complemented by schemes tailored to the specificmeasures; (ii) evolve a differential response to the needs of different groups. Attention to measures likevarious dimensions of inequality; (iii) consolidate improving the quality of teaching–learning in Indiana range of schemes, especially those which address languages should also be initiated in order to addressthe intersection of more than one dimension of the language-based dimension of inequality.disadvantage. TWELFTH PLAN INITIATIVES21.231. The Plan will pay special attention to inter-State variations, the rural-urban divide, income ine- Creation of a Comprehensive Studentquality, gender disparities, persons with disabilities, Financial Aid Programmemarginal social groups such as SC, ST, Muslims, and 21.233. Public spending on student financial aidthe especially vulnerable sub-groups such as com- would be enhanced considerably so as to increasemunities involved in scavenging, particularly vul- the number and amount of scholarships. All stu-nerable STs, most backward SEBCs and Nomadic/ dent financial aid schemes under the Ministry ofDNT communities. Muslim disadvantage has been HRD would be consolidated under a single ‘Studenthighlighted by the Sachar Committee report and the Financial Aid Programme’ in order to rationaliseneeds of communities engaged in scavenging and and strengthen the administration of equity-relatedDNT/Nomadic communities have also received a lot schemes by bringing them under a single umbrellaof attention in recent times. Inter-sectional dimen- initiative (see Box 21.11). An Empowered Committeesions of inequality shall be recognised by linking would decide on guidelines for each of the scholar-individual-oriented schemes to a multi-dimensional ships keeping in mind the need for avoiding overlap‘Index of Disadvantage’. HEIs would be encouraged and enhancing impact.to craft their admission policies to address intersec-tional dimensions of inequality as is practised by 21.234. In addition to the Student Financial AidJawaharlal Nehru University for over three decades Program, which focuses on scholarships, the Centralnow. The performance of institutions in increasing Government will take significant steps to supportthe participation of disadvantaged groups could be student loan programs. A student loan guaranteemeasured through a ‘Diversity Index’ and linked to corpus would be created under the management of abudgetary incentives. Credit Guarantee Trust to guarantee against default Box 21.11 Student Financial Aid Programme (SFAP) • Cover higher education at all levels—undergraduate, postgraduate, doctoral and post-doctoral research and include general as well as professional education; • Cover significant costs of education in determining scholarship amounts and establish a mechanism to linking its revision to change in price index; • Earmark a fixed proportion of these scholarships for SC, ST, SEBC, Minorities and Person with Disabilities as per the existing policy; • Create a multi-dimensional ‘Index of Disadvantage’ that measures the inter-sectional dimensions of inequality that gives due weight to caste/community, gender, poverty and rural background and provide additional scholarships and individual-oriented financial aid schemes linked to such an Index; • Simplify processes, self-certification and linkages to the unique identity numbers under the UID scheme; and • Implement a single portal for delivery of all scholarships under the Central Government and explore the possibility of allowing States to join and integrate their student financial aid programmes with this single portal.
    • Education 105in repayment of student loans. This will substantially colleges and universities. This initiative would haveprotect lending institutions from student default effective linkages with the other ongoing and newthereby encouraging them to make more student activities for language development and book pro-loans. In addition, the government guarantee should motion. This decentralised, flexible, and user-drivenreduce the rate of interest on student loans (it should initiative would include setting up of new centresbe only slightly more than the yield on comparable within and across universities, creation of teach-10-year Government Securities) benefitting the stu- ing–learning resources, use of technology to createdent community at large. e-books and other learning media in Indian lan- guages, career incentives and support for teachersNational Initiative on Inclusion of Persons and support for quality Indian languages publica-with Disabilities tions in academic disciplines.21.235. All ongoing and several new initiatives forinclusion of persons with disabilities shall be covered Focus on Muslims, SC, ST and OBCsunder an umbrella National Initiative on Inclusion 21.237. Schemes for establishing model degree col-of Persons with Disabilities in higher education. This leges, community colleges and new polytechnics ininitiative would: the low GER districts would be modified to cover districts that have concentration of Muslims. Setting1. provide incentives and support to individual stu- up of Women’s Colleges in small towns and quan- dents and faculty with disabilities; tum jump in the capacity as also number of hostels2. give support and policy direction to HEIs and for women would be given high priority. All these services to make them disabled-friendly and cre- schemes should be included within the ambit of the ate model universities and colleges at the State State strategic plans for higher education to take into and district levels; account the local context of each State.3. use new technologies effectively to address chal- lenges of learning for persons with disabilities 21.238. Targeted schemes will be launched to draw through various access devices and high quality students from Muslims that have low participation learning materials; in higher education. These schemes will have to4. create curricula, and provide research and combine special incentives to the very tiny pool of training-related support to enhance awareness, school pass-outs from these communities (for exam- knowledge and sensitivity about disability issues; ple, scholarship from first degree to doctorate) with5. specify minimum standards of disability access a pro-active approach to identification of beneficiar- that must be met by all physical infrastructures ies with the help of non-governmental organisations offering higher education. working among these communities. Special scheme will be devised to support those HEIs in districts thatNational Initiative for Quality Higher have Muslim concentration. Particular emphasis willEducation in Indian Languages be given to educational opportunities for girls.21.236. The proposed national initiative (the‘Bhasha Initiative’) recognises that language con- 21.239. Despite a number of initiatives in the pre-nects access and equity with quality of education vious Plan periods, there is a staggering differenceand thus improving quality of teaching–learning in among different groups. Hence, a targeted approachIndian languages is a cost-effective and sustainable with focus on SC and ST dominated regions and con-intervention for reducing inequalities. This initia- vergence of various equity schemes in a compositetive is aimed at coordinating all the agencies that manner to address the educational needs of the dis-promote Indian languages with the aim of enhancing advantaged sections including the OBCs will be criti-the teaching–learning process with Indian languages cal to enhancing their inclusion in the mainstreamas the medium of instruction and promoting origi- of higher education. Given the co-existence of edu-nal research and publication in Indian languages in cational backwardness in both social and locational
    • 106 Twelfth Five Year Planfactors, such as their greater presence in rural, hilly, overall quality of higher education in the country bygeographically difficult to reach terrains, a synergy of improving the quality of the ‘average’ institution inefforts to address these multiple factors in a holistic the system.manner will be significant. 21.244. Notwithstanding the growth of technicalOther Equity-Related Initiatives higher education, over half of students will enrol21.240. Concerted efforts to increase the enrolment in general (meaning arts, science and commerce)of students from disadvantaged communities will be undergraduate programmes. If properly imparted,supplemented by strengthening the current remedial general education could be an excellent foundationteaching programmes with teaching/coaching mod- for successful knowledge-based careers. Therefore,ules, preparatory training and special coaching for focus should be primarily on improving the qualityentrance examinations to highly sought-after courses of general education. Graduates should be able toand institutions. acquire skills beyond the basics of reading, writing and arithmetic (the ‘3Rs’). Critical thinking, com-21.241. Schemes for establishing model colleges, munication, collaboration and creativity (the ‘4Cs’)community colleges and new polytechnics in low are increasingly important now. Special emphasis onGER districts may be modified to cover minority verbal and written communication skills, especially,concentrated districts and Fifth Schedule Districts but not limited to, English would go a long way inwith greater focus on States with low enrolment. improving the employability of the large and grow-Targeted schemes will be launched to draw students ing mass of disempowered youth. ‘Professional’ edu-from especially vulnerable communities such as the cation that currently focuses on technical skills alonemost backward amongst the Muslim and the minor- should adopt integrated curriculum with greaterity community. Given the negligible presence of such flexibility in choice of subjects and innovative peda-groups in higher education, these schemes will have gogic practices to improve its quality and enable bet-to combine special incentives to the very tiny pool ter learning outcomes.of school pass-outs from these communities with apro-active approach to identification of beneficiar- ELEVENTH PLAN EXPERIENCEies with the help of non-governmental organisations 21.245. Several initiatives to improve quality wereworking among these communities. taken up in the Eleventh Plan. These were related to faculty issues, use of technology, academic and gov-21.242. All equity-related schemes in higher educa-tion across different ministries under the Central ernance reforms and accreditation.Government would be brought under one umbrella,namely, ‘Equal Opportunity for Higher Education Faculty InitiativesInitiatives’. These would be coordinated by the 21.246. Measures taken during the Eleventh PlanPlanning Commission to effectively monitor them to address faculty shortages, included (i) raisingand also take into account State-level initiatives. the retirement age of faculty to 65 years with provi- sion for further extension to 70 years; (ii) institutionEXCELLENCE AND IMPROVING ACADEMIC of several fellowship and scholarship schemes forQUALITY MPhil and PhD programmes; (iii) a faculty re-charge scheme to enable increased availability of youngCriticality of Quality faculty; (iv) an initiative to enlist professionals and21.243. Except at a few top-level institutions, qual- experts from outside academic institutions as adjunctity is serious concern. The casual link between faculty or scholars-in-residence; (v) a programme forcognitive skills acquired through education and post-doctoral fellowships for Indian scholars to aug-economic growth is now well-established. A major ment faculty resources which will begin operationsgoal of the Twelfth Plan is, therefore, to improve the during the Twelfth Plan.
    • Education 107Technology Initiatives system. While institutional accreditation through21.247. The National Mission on Education through NAAC and programme accreditation through NBAInformation and Communication Technologies gained momentum during the Eleventh Plan, the(NME-ICT) was launched during the Eleventh Plan. coverage is still small. Only about one-third (167 outUnder this initiative, 392 universities and 18374 of 516) eligible universities and about one-fifth (4529colleges were provided broadband connectivity. out of 22500) eligible colleges have been accreditedOngoing initiatives for creation of e-content were so far.strengthened and new initiatives were taken up.Virtual labs were developed for science and engi- TWELFTH PLAN STRATEGYneering and are currently being rolled out. Enterprise 21.250. Improving academic quality is a major objec-resource planning software for administrative and tive of the Twelfth Plan. Higher education needs tofinancial management of institutes and learning prepare graduates not only for immediate employ-management system, both using open source soft- ment but also for an economy in which most peopleware have been developed and are being tested by a will not only change jobs but also change careers sev-number of institutions. A low-cost computing-cum- eral times in their lives. Hence, it requires inculcatingaccess device ‘Aakash’ was developed and is being the ability in students to think creatively, read criti-currently tested for large-scale deployment. Overall, cally, construct effective arguments using persuasivean investment of `1472 crore was made on this mis- evidence, write clearly, remain flexible and look atsion during the Eleventh Plan. issues with an open mind. This, in turn, requires the right curriculum, better teaching–learning processes,Quality Initiatives sharing of best practices nationally and internation-21.248. The first phase of the three-phase ‘Tech- ally and the ability to impart a well-rounded andnical Education Quality Improvement Programme socially conscious education.(TEQIP)’ with World Bank support was conductedfrom 2002 to 2009. With an investment of `1378 21.251. The Twelfth Plan strategy, therefore, includescrore, the programme covered 127 engineering insti- a range of reforms aimed at improving the over-tutions. Phase-II of TEQIP (2010–14), which extends all educational experience in HEIs. These includeinto the Twelfth Plan, would cover another 180–190 reforms in institutional organisation; reforms of ped-institutions. Evaluation of the first phase has clearly agogy and curricula, particularly at the undergradu-shown a marked improvement in placement of grad- ate level; and a focus on faculty and their work. Theseuates, more capacity in postgraduate and doctoral reforms would be supported by smarter use of tech-programmes and improved research performance. nology, initiatives to promote internationalisation, the fostering of social responsibility in higher edu-Governance, Regulatory and Financial cation, promotion of sports and wellness, increasingInitiatives inter-institutional collaboration and coordination,21.249. Several measures were taken during the and strengthening the accreditation system.Eleventh Plan to rationalise governance to promoteinnovative programmes and ensure standards, par- TWELFTH PLAN INITIATIVESticularly in the areas of academic structure, interdis-ciplinary teaching and research, and accreditation. Reforming Institutional OrganisationIn order to promote interdisciplinary teaching and 21.252. During the Twelfth Plan, a five-prongedresearch both at the UG and PG levels, 417 depart- strategy will be adopted to reform the affiliating col-ments of universities/colleges were provided finan- lege system. First, large and reputed colleges withcial support of up to `60 lakh during the Eleventh necessary capabilities and diverse learning streamsPlan. A few States adopted the semester system for will be converted into full-fledged universities.their institutions and several universities, most nota- Second, college-cluster universities, under a newbly University of Delhi, have shifted to the semester name, with each college working as a campus of
    • 108 Twelfth Five Year Planthe university or its constituent unit will be created. and could include support for four-year undergradu-Third, some of the large and unwieldy affiliating uni- ate programmes.versities will be bifurcated or trifurcated into man-ageable units. Fourth, colleges desiring to scale up to Focus on Teachers and Teachingleverage existing infrastructure and to offer new pro- 21.255. Due to rapid expansion, number of qualitygrammes would be allowed to consolidate through teachers in higher education is grossly inadequate.merger under an autonomous framework. Finally, A doubling of faculty from the current 8 lakh to 16affiliating universities will be required to revamp lakh is envisaged during the Twelfth Plan. The largetheir college development councils and give greater increase in capacity at the postgraduate and doc-autonomy to their colleges in all academic, adminis- toral levels to enable this would require all institu-trative and financial matters. tions, whether Central, State or private to work in collaboration.Deepening Academic Reforms21.253. The institutional framework to deepen aca- 21.256. There is a common perception that higherdemic reforms would include introduction of choice- education is a poorly paid profession in India. How-based credit system, CCE, and regular revision of ever, a recent survey14 of academic salaries acrosscurricula for making them up-to-date and relevant to 28 countries shows that median academic salariescontemporary and future needs. To help institutions in India (on a purchasing power parity basis) arereform their courses, subject-specific model curri- amongst the highest in the world. It is important,cula and packaged, re-usable digitised content (such therefore, to correct the misperceptions about teach-as packaged lectures and open source textbooks) ing careers in India in order to attract talent.would be created by instructors with the requisiteexpertise. This can best be done by subject-based 21.257. A large portion of those teaching in HEIs arenetworks such as Network of Social Work Education currently casual or part-time academic staff and thisled by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences and the is likely to continue. To improve their performance,mathematics initiative taken by Delhi University. improvements in their hiring practices and workingSuch networks across subject areas would be encour- conditions, and engaging them in faculty develop-aged. An important goal of these reforms would be ment programmes, including using online technolo-to create active learning environments in colleges gies for faculty development are needed. Most of theand universities. sixty-six Academic Staff Colleges (ASCs) established for faculty development have unfortunately notRe-Crafting Undergraduate Education delivered. These were recently reviewed by NAAC.21.254. Reforming undergraduate curriculum Based on the review findings, institutional weak-through funding and institutional support will be nesses in the ASCs should be removed and a quali-emphasised in the Twelfth Plan. Undergraduate pro- tative change in their content and methodology ofgrammes should provide a holistic education and faculty development must be brought about.give students opportunities for intellectual explora-tion, hands-on research, job skilling, experiential 21.258. In addition to the ASCs, ‘Teaching andlearning, creative thinking, leadership, ethics educa- Learning Centres (TLCs)’ must be established in thetion, community service and more. In place of three- country within existing universities, preferably thoseyear programs, several institutions have introduced that have a strong research culture as well as largefour-year undergraduate programs to achieve these undergraduate programmes. During the Twelfthmultiple objectives. During the Twelfth Plan, four- Plan, 50 such centres will be set up. In some cases theyear undergraduate programmes would be pro- Academic Staff Colleges could also serve as a TLC.moted. UGC currently provides financial support forstarting specialised programmes in interdisciplinary 21.259. To provide global exposure and thus facili-and emerging areas, which could be strengthened tate adoption of innovations and best practices in
    • Education 109teaching and research, an International Faculty 21.262. Recognising the central role of teachers inDevelopment Programme would be launched. improving academic quality, a ‘National MissionAs part of this, Indian universities would be sup- on Teachers and Teaching’ would be launched inported to organise 2–4 weeks summer workshops the Twelfth Plan. This would address all the issuesconducted by leading international teachers and of teachers and teaching in a comprehensive man-researchers for select Indian post docs and faculty. ner and strengthen linkages between the school andForty to fifty such workshops would be held annually higher education sectors. This would be organisedon a range of topics and disciplines. Collaborations under two sub-missions aimed at the school and thewith foreign universities would be encouraged for higher education sectors, respectively.organising such workshops. In addition, faculty inlarge numbers would be sent for three to six months 21.263. The sub-mission on higher education wouldto the best universities of the world for training and pool all the ongoing initiatives and new initiatives onmentoring. An enabling policy framework would be faculty development under one umbrella for theirput in place to attract faculty from abroad, particu- implementation and better monitoring. Under thelarly from amongst the overseas Indians teaching in sub-mission on school sector, the focus would be onuniversities abroad. Senior and tenured overseas fac- expanding the capacity for preparation of teacherulty could be invited as international visiting profes- educators by setting up 40 Schools of Education insors by offering them attractive remuneration. the university system. These schools of education would also conduct research and capacity building in21.260. A programme to fund doctoral students to curriculum, teaching–learning processes and assess-study at international institutions needs to be imple- ment and evaluation systems. In addition, Schoolsmented, in return for commitments to join the fac- of Academic Leadership will be established in selectulty pool in India on completion of their studies. institutions.This could be supplemented by tapping the grow-ing pool of retired experts. They could function as 21.264. The transformative potential of online learn-adjunct faculty and also enrol for doctoral degrees, ing is beginning to unfold now. From a few coursesfor which current eligibility requirements could be by a couple of elite universities, there are now globalwaived. efforts to build massive online courseware by many of the world’s best universities. Given the acute short-21.261. Faculty motivation is crucial to improve age of faculty and the unlikelihood of our ability toacademic quality. For faculty to be actively engagedin the teaching–learning process, they need control overcome this severe constraint, technology wouldover their task, time, technique, and work environ- be leveraged by using these massive online courses soment, which is often not the case. Absence of basic that the Indian students are a part of global learningamenities is one of the most de-motivating factors systems at very low cost. The country’s efforts shouldfor a large section of faculty. The strategy for moti- be to contribute to this global repository, contextu-vating faculty would focus on developing healthy alise and perhaps translate these courses in the localwork environment with high-quality minimum facil- languages to reach out to the maximum number ofities and a flexible framework of accountability and the students in the country.performance evaluation. Consistent with interna-tional best practices, faculty selection, performance National Mission on Use of ICT in Higherevaluation and promotion should be handled at the Educationdepartment level. New faculty may be kept under 21.265. During the Twelfth Plan various initiativesprobation for a period of five years and confirmation of the Eleventh Plan would be carried forward withcould then be done on the basis of rigorous perfor- an objective to make these programmes more effec-mance evaluation including peer review and student tive, efficient and sustainable. These include:feedback.
    • 110 Twelfth Five Year Plan1. Digital Infrastructure Initiatives: (i) upgrade Architecture and town planning would be included connectivity for universities and colleges to in phase-3 of TEQIP. Separate and independent ini- 10GBPS and 1 GBPS, respectively; (ii) build tiatives should be taken up for improving quality in computer labs in all institutions as required other fields like management education, pharmacy and increase availability of laptops and low-cost education, and hotel management. access devices for faculty and students; (ii) pro- vide smart classrooms; (iii) set up classrooms Language and Book Promotion Programmes with interactive video-conference facilities link- 21.267. Promotion and development of Indian lan- ing Meta-universities and affiliating universities; guages, including classical languages, English, and (iv) set up 100 server farms for cloud computing. foreign languages will receive focused attention dur-2. Content Initiatives: (i) develop virtual labs, to ing the Twelfth Plan. Particular thrust would be on promote creation of user-generated content; preservation, promotion and development of endan- (ii) establish a single national-level consortium gered languages which have less than 10000 speakers. for propriety content; (iii) create open access The National Translation Mission will be strength- content repositories including interoperable ened. There will be a focus on developing specialised institutional repositories; (iv) create platforms to courses in translation technology and related areas facilitate user-generated content and related net- and capacity building of translators through short- works; (iv) create a single portal for access to all term training programmes and language teaching content; (v) continue current initiatives of DTH programmes. Recognising the growing use of tech- channels to telecast digital educational videos. nology in knowledge delivery, promotion of e-books3. Governance Initiatives: (i) rollout institutional and digitisation of National Book Trust (NBT) books Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); (ii) com- and records will be taken up during the Twelfth Plan. puterise examination wings of all universi- Capacity of NBT would be strengthened to discharge ties; (ii) provide robust online linkage of all its new responsibilities. affiliating universities with their affiliated col- leges; (iii) create online data collection system; Strengthening Intellectual Property Rights (iv) library automation; (v) automation of grants 21.268. During the Twelfth Plan, existing pro- management. grammes under the Scheme of Intellectual Property4. Training and Capacity-Building Initiatives: Education Research and Public Outreach (IPERPO) (i) train faculty in instructional design content cre- will be continued. New Plan initiatives include: ation; (ii) implement massive capacity-building the setting up of new IPR Chairs, modernising the efforts for adopting technology-mediated peda- Copyright Office, and establishing a Centre for IPR gogy in classrooms. studies. The rise of new electronic methods of pub- lishing and distribution has resulted in an expan-Technical Education Quality Improvement sion of the scope of copyright issues internationally.Programme The Copyright Board would be strengthened with21.266. During the Twelfth Plan, the second phase of experts in new and emerging areas of Copyright lawTEQIP would be continued and phase-3 of TEQIP as per the new Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2010would be launched. Under phase-3, focus would be that came into force in June 2012. Copyright officeson the ‘eco-system’ by supporting State Technical would also be modernised on the lines of other IPRUniversities introducing curriculum diversity and offices like the Trademark office and the Patent office.scaling up sector-wide programmes. This wouldensure that the benefit of quality improvement inter- Higher Education Internationalisationventions flow to all segments of technical educa- 21.269. A strategy for higher education international-tion. The programme would also leverage synergy isation to be developed during the Twelfth Planwith other initiatives like the mission for teachers would include faculty and student exchange pro-and teaching and mission for use of technology. grammes, institutional collaborations for teaching
    • Education 111and research, exposure to diverse teaching– capacities and to create shared visions and agendaslearning models and enhanced use of ICTs. Globally for excellence in teaching and research.compatible academic credit systems, curricula inter-nationalisation and processes for mutual recognition 21.273. With a view to expanding student choiceof qualifications would be put in place. A professional and increasing the design of innovative interdiscipli-national agency, the ‘India International Education nary programmes, a Meta-university framework asCentre’ would be created to undertake internationali- a network of universities would be promoted in thesation activities. It will support selected institutions to Twelfth Plan. This would enable several universitiesestablish dedicated internationalisation units. to come together and offer courses across disciplines, treat faculty and students from all institutions alike,Fostering Social Responsibility in Higher and provide all network members access to con-Education tent, teaching, and the research support they need.21.270. In the face of growing isolation of HEIs from Massively open online courses (MOOCs) would alsosociety, there is a need for renewed effort for HEIs be encouraged under this framework.for genuinely engaging with community, conductsocially relevant research and education and foster Strengthening Accreditation Systemsocial responsibility amongst students as part of their 21.274. Accreditation will play a central role in thecore mission. For this purpose, a National Initiative regulatory arrangements for higher education underto Foster Social Responsibility in Higher Education the Twelfth Plan. Accreditation will be mandatorywould be launched. An Alliance for Community with clear incentives and consequences. In order toEngagement, an independent association of practi- handle large-volume accreditation, multiple accredi-tioners, academics and community leaders would be tation bodies (in addition to NAAC for institutionalcreated to support its implementation. accreditation and NBA for programme accredita- tion) would be established. In order to facilitatePromoting Sports and Wellness student mobility and academic articulation, it is21.271. A National Initiative on Sports and Wellness important to develop easily comparable, comprehen-would be launched in the Twelfth Plan. Activities sible and consistent qualifications throughout theunder this initiative would include: (i) fitness and system. A new accreditation law that provides forwellness programmes for all students; (ii) encour- accreditation by independent non-profit agenciesaging institutions to include physical education as a registered with a national accreditation authoritygeneral institutional requirement; (iii) raising par- is currently under consideration. While, the properticipation in competitive sports from the current institutional structure would only emerge once the2 per cent of students to 10 per cent of students; new law is enacted, capacities of existing agencies,(iv) creating and supporting departments and units NAAC and NBA should be enhanced in the interim.for physical education in all institutions; (v) sup- Indian institutions would also be encouraged toporting creation of adequate sports infrastructure in obtain programmatic accreditation from a selectinstitutions; (vi) encouraging development of a sports group of credible international accrediting bodies.club system; (vii) establishing inter-disciplinaryresearch centres on sports technology, sports medi- RESEARCH AND INNOVATIONcine and sports management; (viii) creating an infor- 21.275. Research and innovation are now vital func-mation network on sports. tions of higher education worldwide. The value of interdisciplinary research is recognised globally, asIncrease Inter-Institutional Collaboration and innovation is now happening at the intersections ofCoordination disciplines. Collaboration is now central to innova-21.272. In the Twelfth Plan, inter-institutional col- tion. Entrepreneurship that leverages innovation islaboration and coordination would be encouraged also an increasingly integral part of higher educa-to reap the benefit from synergies in capabilities and tion systems. While all HEIs cannot be expected to
    • 112 Twelfth Five Year Planbecome research-based institutions, it is vital that the capacity. Low levels of funding and segregation ofcountry promote a research culture across all institu- the country’s R&D institutions from universities andtions while ensuring special support for those able to colleges have been responsible for the weak researchengage in state-of-the-art research. capacity of Indian universities. It is disappointing to note that even the country’s top universities remain21.276. The HEIs should contribute to the national largely teaching-focused with limited research andinnovation agenda, even when they are not research doctoral education.intensive—albeit in different ways. Teaching-focusedinstitutions must train their students in the tech- 21.280. This lack of research orientation, even inniques of research so that the doors to research-based the best of the Indian institutions, is reflected ingraduate education and employment are opened to their standing in global rankings, most of whichthem. Vocational institutions must enable the future rely heavily on measurable indices of research per-workforce to engage at least in the ‘development’ formance. No Indian university figured amongst thecomponent of R&D. It is essential that all institu- top 200 universities in the Times Higher Educationtions equip their graduates with core skills of critical (THE) Rankings or the Academic Ranking of Worldthinking, communication, collaboration and creativ- Universities (ARWU) for the year 2011. While it isity to enable the country to continuously innovate to neither necessary nor realistic to expect all institu-adapt to new environments. tions to achieve high levels of research excellence, a natural pyramid of quality excellence suggests that, if21.277. India’s research performance turned around the average quality improves, then the best will enterin the last two decades, after over a decade of stagna- the top leagues of research-intensive universities.tion. An improvement in scientific output is evidentboth in absolute terms and relative to the compari- 21.281. India’s output in PhDs was small at 10781son group. During the past 10 years, India’s overall in 2008–09, when compared against internationalshare of publications in the world has risen from 2.8 peers. The total number of PhDs in science andper cent to 3.4 per cent, with a significant improve- engineering at 4500 is miniscule as compared toment in researcher productivity since 1999. India the approximately 30000 and 25000 for China andproduces over twice as many scientific publications the USA, respectively. In terms of innovation and thea year than it did a decade ago. Though dwarfed by creation of intellectual property, Indians file andChina’s achievements, India’s output of publications receive only a small number of worldwide patenthas grown faster than that of Brazil and Russia. applications (merely 11937 applications filed by Indians compared to 241546 by Chinese in 2009)21.278. There are indications that research quality and no Indian academic institution figures in the listhas improved as well. India’s publications have accu- of top applicants for patent filing.mulated 1610511 citations with 5.77 citations perpaper, better than China, but still low compared to 21.282. Output measures related to publications,the world average of 10.81 citations per paper. The patents/licensing and spinoffs can provide somerelative impact rose from 0.48 to 0.66 (world average indications of research and innovation performancebeing one). In 2009, India stood eleventh in terms for research intensive institutions though even forof the number of papers published, seventeenth in them, these would be too narrow for gauging over-terms of the number of citations, and thirty-fourth in all research performance. For less research intensiveterms of number of citations per paper as per the ISI institutions, their contributions to innovation andWeb of Science. economic development could derive from much less visible activities such as faculty consulting or devel-21.279. Notwithstanding such achievements, Indian opment projects or education to instil students withhigher education continues to have limited research creativity and entrepreneurship.
    • Education 113ELEVENTH PLAN EXPERIENCE the country to study abroad. Upper-tier institutions21.283. During the Eleventh Plan, several schemes should be allowed to hire globally, including foreign-for promoting excellence in academic research were ers on permanent appointments, and provide com-implemented. A major scheme was to promote Basic pensatory benefits to those who relocate.Scientific Research (BSR). This included grants todepartments and colleges for improving basic infra- 21.288. The governance and structure of doctoralstructure; fellowships both for doctoral and post- education must be reviewed, as current programmesdoctoral work, networking centres, summer and often sacrifice quality in the interests of rapid com-winter schools, faculty recharge scheme, and promo- pletion of the doctorate. Benchmarking doctoraltion of research at the undergraduate level. programmes with global requirements on capacity to be developed is the key. Existing PhD programmes21.284. In addition, several new Central institu- would be modernised, and new ones created, par-tions with research focus were established in the ticularly in new institutions and those that requireEleventh Plan. However, these initiatives tended to inter-disciplinary efforts.spread resources thinly and raised concerns about‘relevance’ to needs and to innovation and entrepre- 21.289. There is a need for an overall increase in theneurship in particular. While national research insti- level of research spending, more of which shouldtutions play key roles in meeting national needs in be spent through HEIs which would provide mul-some key areas, much more could be done. tiple benefits. Concentrating significant resources in high-potential institutions and faculty throughTWELFTH PLAN STRATEGY competition is necessary to create exemplars of21.285. In the Twelfth Plan, research efforts need global excellence. In funding research, social sci-to be more directly linked to the national develop- ences require a greater boost given past neglect. Thement agenda and better connected to the needs of country must also put in place better mechanisms forindustry and society. Public R&D institutions should university research capacity to lead to innovation,be permanently and closely coupled—including as has become the norm globally. This will requirein governance structures—to local institutions of building university research capacity in areas of highhigher education. HEIs must, in turn, be the doors potential, encouraging closer linkages between aca-to collaborating with industry. There is also a need to demia and industry, building institutional capacitylook beyond an institutional focus for research pro- to support academics to engage in innovation andductivity to a faculty focus, so as to enable creative commercialisation, and creating a dynamic ecosys-faculty to build teams that cross the boundaries of tem which can provide an enabling environment forinstitutions. innovation and entrepreneurship. There is a need for Indian institutions to build a range of institutional21.286. The Twelfth Plan would focus on the devel- support mechanisms such as technology incuba-opment of faculty, institutions, departments and tors, proof-of-concept centres, entrepreneurshipcentres of excellence in research and research train- programmes and technology transfer mechanismsing. Overall, investments in research will need to within HEIs. Institutions should also be encouragedincrease gradually from the current low level of less to build collaborative ties with private actors in thethan 1 per cent of GDP to over 2 per cent nationally, area of innovation and entrepreneurship includingwith HEIs receiving a much higher share of research technology companies, venture capitalists, as well asinvestments than before. national and international foundations.21.287. Emphasis will be laid on creating a better 21.290. During the Twelfth Plan, the country mustresearch infrastructure and work environment to develop objective and transparent research evalua-attract the top talent from within the country and tion practices that are relevant to the national con-also bring back India’s brightest graduates who left text and culture. To provide analytical underpinning
    • 114 Twelfth Five Year Planfor research evaluation at national and institutional national importance. Collaborations with promisinglevels, a Centre for Research Evaluation within a faculty across the nation will be encouraged.research-intensive university could be established. NATIONAL INITIATIVESTWELFTH PLAN INITIATIVES 21.294. A National Initiative for Excellence in Basic21.291. In the Twelfth Plan, universities at the top of Sciences would cover the ongoing activities for pro-the quality hierarchy would be identified and gen- motion of basic scientific research that are beingerously supported so they can reach the global top implemented by the UGC. A new National Initiativeleague. Equally important, promising faculty in all for Excellence in Social Sciences and Humanitiestiers of institutions will be identified through peer would be launched to encourage bright students toreview and supported. Similarly centres of excellence choose programmes in the humanities and socialwithin existing universities would be created. High- sciences and improve the quality of teaching andcalibre faculty would be attracted from around the research in these disciplines. An empowered com-world on non-permanent teaching assignments and, mittee may be constituted for revamping existingsimilarly, Indian faculty would be provided exposure institutional funding and launching new schemesto teaching and research practices in the best univer- such as scholarships on the lines of INSPIRE schol-sities from across the world. All related initiatives arships for basic sciences, up-scaling doctoral andwould be pooled to benefit from synergy under an post-doctoral fellowships, flexible one-time support‘India Excellence Initiative’ during the Twelfth Plan. to existing centres of global excellence and creationThis would include: of new Inter-University Centres.Multi-Disciplinary Research Universities 21.295. A National Initiative for Innovation and21.292. During the Twelfth Plan, research univer- Entrepreneurship will be launched. This initia-sities with the capacity to engage in research and tive would (i) enable an environment that fostersteaching in multiple disciplines will be promoted. innovation, value creation and technology trans-A legislative framework to set up such universities fer; (ii) aim at creating awareness and developing atermed ‘Universities for Research and Innovation’ culture for protection and management of IPRs inis currently under consideration, with a target of 20 HEIs; (iii) help maximise benefits and returns frominstitutions by the end of the Twelfth Plan. These investments in research by developing partnershipscould be public or private universities or they could amongst universities/institutes, R&D organisationsbe set up as Public–Private Partnerships and may and industry; (v) creation of national research parks.include both the conversion of existing institu- This initiative would pool all related activities undertions and new universities. Some may be mentored the MHRD, UGC and AICTE and build synergy withby existing world-class universities. At the core of similar activities, schemes and programmes underachieving excellence is the ability of institutions to the Ministry of Science and Technology.attract and retain high-quality faculty from acrossthe world. 21.296. Design-centred innovation is a force mul- tiplier that can help the country move up the valueCentres of Excellence (CoE) chain, making Indian industry globally competi-21.293. The Twelfth Plan will aim to create 20 tive. In this context, a National Initiative for DesignCentres of Excellence as world-class research cen- Innovation would be launched in the Twelfth Plan.tres within existing universities and institutions of Under this initiative, 20 new Design Innovationnational repute. In addition, fifty (50) centres for Centres (DIC), one Open Design School (ODS) andtraining and research in the frontier areas of science a National Design Innovation Network (NDIN),and technology, social science and humanities would linking together all these schools, would be set up.be established. The goal is to build the competen- ODS would ensure maximum reach of design edu-cies of the host institutions in selected disciplines of cation and practice in the country through various
    • Education 115collaborative education programmes (linking a broad such hubs would be enhanced through a structured,spectrum of educational institutions), and free shar- highly interactive and collaborative framework. Theing of its courseware through the Internet. NDIN institutions would be incentivised to collaborate andwould be a network of design schools that work allow their courses to be available for students ofclosely with other leading institutions of industry other institutions.and academia, NGOs and government to furtherthe reach and access of design education, to pro- 21.301. Even though the collaboration between themote design innovation in all sectors, and to develop academia and the industry is now growing, but thiswide-ranging collaborative projects between institu- continues to be low-key and has significant room fortions. ODS and NDIN would also raise the standards improvement. A systematic approach to strengthenof design education and innovation in the country the scale and scope of these partnerships would bethrough various initiatives including the creation of adopted during the Twelfth Plan. For this, a nodalfabrication labs and digital media zones across edu- agency—potentially called the Council for Industrycational institutions on a large scale. and Higher Education Collaboration (CIHEC)— would be established to promote and facilitate indus-Promoting Collaborative Research try-higher education collaboration. CIHEC will be21.297. Driven by the success of the research-based an independent not-for-profit organisation foundedInter University Centres (IUCs) and their posi- by contributions from industry and government andtive impact on the university system, several new will comprise business and higher education leaders.research-based IUCs in different areas would be The goals of the CIHEC span the entire higher edu-established in the Twelfth Plan. These areas would be cation and research landscape including frameworkbroad, contemporary, inter-disciplinary and of stra- development, capacity creation, research, training,tegic importance to the country, and would involve and certification. The corporate sector could par-both basic and applied research. All research-based ticipate in existing institutions of higher educationIUCs could be brought under an umbrella Governing by setting up institutes offering degree/non-degreeCouncil, while each of them would have its own gov- programmes in specific fields, creating centres oferning board. excellence for research and postgraduate teaching, establish teaching–learning centres to train faculty.21.298. In order to foster inter-disciplinary research, In addition, the Indian Corporate Higher Educationenhance research training and increase innovationcapacity, about 10 Inter-Institutional Centres (IICs) Scholarship Fund with contribution from the cor-would be established in the Twelfth Plan. These porate sector and the Indian Corporate R&D FundCentres could either emerge as broad partnership jointly funded by the government and the corporatebetween multiple research-oriented institutions or sector could also be established.programme-specific partnership between fundingagencies and research institutions. 21.302. Finally, international research collabora- tions now hold the key to competitiveness in the21.299. Excellence Clusters and Networks will be global knowledge economy. Only a few top Indianestablished by creating linkages between national institutions are currently engaged in internationallaboratories/national research centres and the uni- research collaborations. In the Twelfth Plan, specialversities. During the Twelfth Plan, several of these efforts would be made to strengthen internationalcluster and networks would be supported through research linkages and involve a larger number ofresearch funds earmarked for research teams involv- Indian institutions in forging such links. Such col-ing two or more institutions. laborations would leverage the 22 million–strong Indian Diaspora which is recognised worldwide21.300. Similarly, local alliances would be created in as a powerful asset for research, innovation anddifferent cities and interaction across institutions in entrepreneurship.
    • 116 Twelfth Five Year PlanGOVERNANCE institutions; (iii) The Education Tribunals Bill to21.303. The government needs to play a sensitive and create a Central tribunal and State-level tribunals forless intrusive role in the governance and regulation expeditious resolution of disputes relating to insti-of higher education than it does at present. In place tutions, faculty, students and regulatory authorities;of a uniform regulatory role in respect of all insti- (iv) Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation oftutions, the government’s role could be calibrated Entry and Operations) Bill to enable quality foreignaccording to the type of institution involved. While, education institutions to enter and operate in Indiathe government could have a promotional and eval- and regulate operations of foreign education provid-uative role for upper-tier institutions, it may play a ers; (v) National Commission for Higher Educationsteering role in mid-tier institutions, and should and Research (NCHER) Bill to create an umbrellaactively regulate the lower-tier institutions. The gov- regulatory authority subsuming the UGC, and cur-ernance structure should also enable institutions to rent regulators, AICTE, NCTE and DEC; and (vi)increasingly differentiate themselves through course The National Academic Depository Bill, 2011, todiversity, multi-disciplinary programmes and other create a repository of all academic credentials in theapproaches. Enabling differentiation requires a new country.regulatory structure that encompasses all fields ofeducation rather than the current structure that sep- 21.305. These new laws together reflect the Govern-arates the regulation of technical fields from other ment’s focus on quality, accountability, access, andfields. In this context, a paradigm shift in governance inclusion and on preparing the country’s higheris needed. It should shift from inspection-based education system for a more competitive globalis-processes to autonomy and accountability through ing world. These reforms would enable and facilitateindependent third-party validation, regulation by innovative and high-quality institutions to grow,mandatory self-disclosures, and objective evaluation while making it difficult for poor-quality institutionsschemes. The overall approach is to allow institu- to operate. In the next few years, a new governancetions to make their own policies and decisions within structure at the national-level consisting primarily ofa broadly defined memorandum of understanding the NCHER, National- and State-level Tribunals andon performance. the National Authority for Accreditation would be in place.National-Level Governance21.304. Based on the recommendations of the 21.306. In the meantime, the UGC and other regula-National Knowledge Commission (2005) and the tory agencies have an opportunity to revitalise them-Committee on Renovation and Rejuvenation of selves to ensure a smooth transition to the NCHER.Higher Education (2009), steps were initiated dur- In this context, a review of internal processes anding the Eleventh Plan to create a new legislative staff capabilities is essential and agencies shouldframework and provide a new governance structure draw up year-wise transformative action plans. Infor higher education in the country. For this pur- addition, the UGC could immediately implement apose, several new laws are currently under consid- number of innovative financing schemes that coulderation. These include (i) The Prohibition of Unfair impact the state of higher education significantly.Practices in Technical Educational Institutions, For example, (i) the UGC could shift from its cur-Medical Educational Institutions and Universities rent scheme-based approach to more effective pro-Bill aimed at checking unfair practices relating to grammatic interventions including norm-basedcapitation fees and misleading advertising through financing of institutions; (ii) it could consider amandatory disclosures by academic institutions; move from historically determined detailed opera-(ii) The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority tional budgets to formula-based funding for generalfor Higher Educational Institutions Bill that seeks operations; (iii) it could start strategic funding ofto make accreditation by independent accredita- innovative programmes to promote certain activi-tion agencies mandatory for all higher educational ties/changes/investments based on institutional
    • Education 117proposals evaluated selectively and competitively; institutions of higher education, with each category(iv) finally, the UGC or some other Central agency of institutions being treated differently for purposescould further play a leading role in longitudinal of academic regulation, governance and funding.profiling of students as they transition through thehigher educational cycle into the workplace and 21.310. Empirical evidence suggests that better-runcould also play a role in institutional benchmarking institutions are highly autonomous, especially whenon a longitudinal basis. autonomy over academic matters vests with faculty. Autonomy in the areas of finance, organisationalState-Level Governance structure, operations and staffing is also important,21.307. The structure of governance of higher edu- but should be consistent with internal systems ofcation and their legislative framework varies widely evaluation and accountability and tied to the missionacross the States. All States will be encouraged to of the institution. Recently the Central Governmentundertake a review of their current legislative and has taken several measures to loosen its grip overgovernance arrangements with a view to preparing institutions funded by it, as in the case of the Indianthemselves for the unique challenges they face in Institutes of Management, where the government nohigher education. longer has any role in the selection of Board mem- bers. The Board plays the key role in the selection of21.308. It would be desirable for each State (except the Director, though the final decision is still madesmall States) to set up a State Council for Higher Edu- by the government. The government has also explic-cation to lead the planned and coordinated develop- itly promoted autonomy in State-funded institutionsment of higher education in the State and to foster through programmes like the Technical Educationsharing of resources between universities, benefit Quality Improvement Programme. This process offrom synergy across institutions, lead academic and freeing public institutions from government controlsgovernance reforms at the institution level, maintain would be continued in the Twelfth Plan. This woulddatabanks on higher education and conduct research be based on a framework for autonomy on all its fiveand evaluation studies. In small States, the main dimensions.affiliating university can perform this role. Privateuniversities and colleges form a bulk of higher edu- 21.311. Institutional autonomy and external disci-cation in several States. States could also establish pline arising from competitive grants and competi-independent agencies to regulate private HEIs. tion for students and faculty go hand in hand. For effective institutional governance, there is a needInstitutional Level Governance to shift towards smaller and more effective govern-21.309. Academic institutions primarily rely on ing bodies that have several external experts that theindividual initiative and creativity to develop their universities select themselves, faculty representationunique institutional culture and tradition over a and alumni that value the reputation of the institu-long period of time. Principles of academic freedom, tion. Given the potential positive contribution thatshared governance, meritocratic selection, promo- the alumni can make in the growth of institutions,tion of diversity and institutional accountability are well-established institutions, with over 10 years indefining features of a well-governed academic insti- existence should have a fair representation of thetution. Moreover, the oversight, governance and alumni in their governing bodies. Overall, compe-management of HEIs should be closely tied to their tition amongst institutions with nimble and pro-mission. For this the current practice of treating all fessional governing boards responsive to externalinstitutions alike will need to be abandoned. There change would be encouraged in the Twelfth Plan.is a need to move away from enforcing standardisa-tion of education and processes to allow for diver- Developing Academic Leadershipsity in institutional types, missions, resources and 21.312. During the Twelfth Plan, an ecosystemprivileges. This would require a categorisation of for scholarship and development of professional
    • 118 Twelfth Five Year Planacademic leadership in higher education would academic mission and admissions philosophy. Thisbe created. For this, an ‘Institute for Academic would align students with the right institution, sig-Leadership in Higher Education’ could be co-located nificantly reduce hardships on students and reducewithin NUEPA or any other institution of higher admission-related unfair practices.education. This institute would function as a hubwith university-based ‘Academy for Leadership FINANCING STRATEGYDevelopment’ as nodes. At least five such academieswould be set up in the Twelfth Plan. Review of Funding Trends 21.316. India faces a huge challenge to fund its rap-Student Services and Admissions idly growing higher education sector. Overall, the21.313. Student affairs and services receive scant country spent about 1.22 per cent of its GDP onattention and are plagued by lack of professionalism higher education in 2011–12. Household spendingin Indian higher education. The Twelfth Plan focuses and investments by the private sector have grownon supporting universities and colleges to address more rapidly than government spending on higherthe basic personal needs of students by providing education in recent years. Government spending,them a comprehensive set of out-of-classroom stu- and particularly State Government spending, hasdent services. fallen far short of the funding requirement in the face of a dramatic expansion of the system and the21.314. Since HEIs fall under multiple agencies, reli- rising expectations of the people in terms of qual-able and current information about institutions is not ity, equity and access. The Central and the Stateavailable in any one place and information provided Governments jointly fund higher education. Theby regulatory agencies is not in a student-friendly Central Government’s share is about 30 per cent,format. As a result, students and their parents often while the State Governments spend the balance 70rely upon brokers/agents, and promotion materials per cent mostly under the non-Plan head. Tablein the selection of institutions. Such information is 21.13 shows the funding responsibilities of Centraloften unreliable. The Prohibition of Unfair Practices and State Governments for the country’s universitiesin Technical Educational Institutions, Medical Edu- and colleges.cational Institutions and Universities Bill has provi- TABLE 21.13sions that can take care of such admission-related Funding Responsibility for Universities and Collegesunfair practices and maladies. The Bill is under con-sideration. However, until the law comes into force, Funding Responsibility Universities Collegesa centralised portal may be created to provide accu- Central govt. (both Plan and 152 69rate and current information about institutions and Non-Plan)courses to students and parents in a way that helps Central govt. (Plan only for State 144 6285them in the process of decision-making with respect institutions via UGC)to institutions and courses for admissions. State govt. (both Plan and Non-Plan) 316 13024 No funding from Central or State 191 1993021.315. There is also a very obvious need to reform Govt(s)the overall admissions process in the country. The Source: Planning Commission.multiplicity of admissions tests has resulted in large-scale coaching, often at the cost of regular education. 21.317. Overall, Central funding of State institu-The country should move towards fewer admissions tions is meagre. Together the State systems enrolledtests, each of which should be conducted in a trans- 15 times more students than Central institutions,parent and objective manner. Universities should be but received only one-third of the Plan grants dur-provided the autonomy to set their own admissions ing the Eleventh Plan. Half of the Central Plan fundscriteria and utilise the results of the nationwide tests (`20630 crore) went to Central institutions, withfor their admissions process as appropriate to their State universities, colleges and polytechnics receiving
    • Education 119just about `10446 crore. In addition, Central insti- also to leverage desired change in the entire systemtutions received about `25000 crore as non-Plan of higher education. This will include serious invest-grants during the Eleventh Plan period, while the ments in building key institutions such as accredi-State institutions do not receive any non-Plan grants. tation and funding bodies and mechanisms, so thatConsequently, State universities and colleges face they can take on the strategic central roles effectively.serious financial difficulties that often result in poor A continued and significant increase in Centralquality. Plan funds including investments to promote better implementation capacity is essential.21.318. The government spending on higher edu-cation has grown steadily over the years. Central 21.321. The Twelfth Plan advocates a paradigm shiftPlan spending grew most rapidly from `1600 crore in funding from demand-based grants and input-in 2005–06 to `13100 crore (over eight times), while based budgeting to normative and entitlement-basedState Plan funding increased much less. On the grants and outcome-based budgeting. For exam-non-Plan side, while Central spending increased ple, block grants should replace line-item budgetstwo and a half times, State non-Plan funding just and Plan allocations should be based on long-termabout doubled during the same period. Thus, State strategic plans developed by the institutions. Con-Government spending has been growing slower than sequently, annual funding should be linked to theCentral spending and the rise in funding levels do performance of institutions against the milestonesnot match the rapid expansion of the State higher and targets laid down in their strategic plans. In turn,education systems. institutions need to provide complete transparency about their financial performance and use of funds21.319. The share of education in total Plan outlay by putting their financial statements online. Allincreased from mere 6.7 per cent in the Tenth Plan to institutions should implement the recently finalised19.4 per cent for the Eleventh Plan, of which 30 per accounting standards developed by ICAI that laycent was earmarked for higher education. This was down a common format for the reporting of finan-a nine-fold increase over the Tenth Plan—`84943 cial statements.crore against `9600 crore during the Tenth Plan.Actual expenditure during the Eleventh Plan has Public Fundingbeen `39647 crore (45.6 per cent of the Plan out- 21.322. Funding from both the Central and thelay). This was mainly due to the fact that funds were State Governments has to be significantly increasednot allocated as per the approved outlays. It may be and efficiency of its utilisation improved during theworthwhile to note that there is a committed invest- Twelfth Plan. The Plan should target public spendingment of over `53200 crore for activities initiated in on higher education to reach 1.5 per cent of the GDPthe Eleventh Plan. A large part of this would in new from the current 1.22 per cent. For this, the CentralCentral institutions established during the Eleventh Government has to use its Plan funds strategically toPlan, where investment so far has been very small. encourage greater State funding and promote effi- ciency in expenditure.Twelfth Plan Strategy21.320. Higher education requires significantly 21.323. During the Twelfth Plan, the States wouldlarger investments to deliver on the multiple objec- be encouraged to draw up strategic plans for highertives and to achieve the various goals set out in the education. Such plans should be comprehensive andTwelfth Plan. This investment has to come from take a holistic view of increased demand pressureboth public and private sources and from both with improvements in the school system and greaterCentral and State exchequers. The role of Central need for more qualified people from the economyPlan funds for higher education is critical not only and the labour market. An institutional mechanismto revamp Central institutions so that they can play for joint funding of State plans by the Central andnational leadership roles in delivering three Es, but the State Governments would be evolved and there
    • 120 Twelfth Five Year Planwould be a joint review mechanism to ensure proper institutions, a practice that should be encouraged anduse of funds. Central funding would be linked to gov- incentivised by the government. The focus can beernance and academic reforms in the State system on setting up empowered committees to devise andthat would focus on building overall system capacity. execute strategies to tap funds from individuals and corporates. Such funds can be targeted to be deployedInstitutional Fee Structure for the purpose of specific projects like creating and21.324. While, about 60 per cent students are enrolled running research centres for specialised subjects.in private unaided institutions and pay full fees, theremaining 40 per cent are enrolled in public-funded Twelfth Plan Outlayinstitutions and usually pay very low fees. Central 21.326. During the Twelfth Plan, the focus willuniversities, particularly that are Delhi-based, have be on expansion by scaling up capacity of exist-not raised the fees for decades, while several State ing institutions, better targeting of equity initiativesuniversities have raised the fees to reasonable levels. and greater focus on improving quality and foster-Maintaining low levels of fees is not sustainable; in ing excellence. Central institutions, in particular thefact, it is regressive since it often tends to benefit the new ones established in the Eleventh Plan, wouldbetter-off students. With growing prosperity, rising require huge investments over the next few years forhousehold incomes and strong family values, more developing basic infrastructure and facilities to gainand more households are now willing to pay higher critical mass and make a meaningful impact. Statefees. Hence, the process of raising fees, which started universities and colleges that constitute the bulk ofwith the elite Central institutions like the IIMs and HEIs are poorly funded and suffer from acute qualityIITs raising their fees in recent years, should be con- deficit. A quantum jump in Central funding for Statetinued and brought to reasonable levels. This should universities and colleges is envisaged. This fundingeventually cover all Central institutions. Similarly, would be strategically used to foster academic andState Governments should also be encouraged to administrative reforms, address challenges and fillraise fees to reasonable and sustainable levels in State in the gaps in the overall State plans for higher edu-universities and colleges. Some flexibility should also cation. In addition, a separate outlay has been keptbe provided to private institutions in matters related for creation of a large-scale ecosystem for skill-basedto fee fixation, which should be accompanied with higher education. A large outlay is needed for thetransparency and provision of credible information revamped students’ financial aid programme to sig-about quality and fee levels to potential students. nificantly increase the reach of scholarships and edu- cation loans through government-backed guaranteesRevenue from Other Sources as well as for various equity-related initiatives.21.325. Institutions should be encouraged to mobiliseresources through alternative sources so that student 21.327. In addition, there are other ongoing schemesfees do not form the only source of revenue. They and initiatives of the Ministry of HRD, UGC andshould be encouraged to seek funding from diverse AICTE which require large outlays. These wouldstakeholders through external contracts/grants for also include the provision of flexi funds. Much ofresearch, consulting and/or training projects. The the focus is on consolidation and improving qual-profile of external funding would be different across ity and focused interventions to address challengesinstitutional types, with some having revenues from of access, equity and excellence. Overall, an outlaypatent licensing, with others having greater incomes `110700 crore for higher education is proposed forfrom short courses or consulting or even training. the Twelfth Plan. This is merely 30 per cent moreThere is also a need to develop conducive frame- than the outlay in the Eleventh Plan, even thoughwork to encourage endowment and promote culture it is more than two and a half times the actualof philanthropy in education sector in the country. expenditure in the Eleventh Plan. Such a significantWorldwide, individual and corporate donations have increase is justified because of the increasing demandbeen a significant source of revenue for educational for quality higher education driven by improved
    • Education 121schooling coupled with the shortfall in spending 7. Provide greater flexibility to the implementingduring the Eleventh Plan. A detailed matrix for the agencies by grouping schemes under umbrellaoutlay is provided in the appendix. national initiatives.21.328. About two-thirds of the increase in the Monitoring and EvaluationTwelfth Plan outlays over the actual expenditure in 21.331. Based on the implementation framework,the Eleventh Plan is accounted for by the follow- it would be necessary to develop strategic indica-ing four major areas: (i) State universities and col- tors against various goals that clearly identify whatleges (including polytechnics); (ii) equity initiatives would be measured. Monitoring of achievement of(including student financial support); (iii) Central Twelfth Plan targets, annual and cumulative, mayuniversities and institutions; and (iv) research and be done on the baseline data at the beginning of theinnovation initiatives. Twelfth Plan. Monitoring would not be confined to the flow of funds and their utilisation, but will alsoIMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND include evaluation of programmes and initiativesEVALUATION for outcomes and impact. Services of independent evaluation agencies and researchers could be usedImplementation Framework for the purpose. Data on institutional performance21.329. Specific interventions taken up during the on various parameters would be collected, compiledTwelfth Plan would be aligned to the broad strategy and shared. It is important that the practice to assessspelt out in the Plan document. To overcome pro- learning outcomes, to conduct student experiencecedural bottlenecks, a system of empowered com- surveys, and to undertake longitudinal studies ofmittees would be deployed wherever necessary. New students as they transition through the educationalstructures and institutional mechanisms would also cycle into the workplace should be initiated. In orderbe created for coordination across ministries and to globally benchmark Indian higher education,agencies. India should proactively participate in various inter- national surveys and evaluations.21.330. The implementation framework for theTwelfth Plan aims to: Higher Education Database Management System1. Interlink expansion, equity and excellence, and 21.332. The country lacks current and compre- focus on those programmes that serve as the hensive data for evidence-based policymaking and locus at which more than one objective is met. effective planning. It would be critical to publish a2. Bring down the walls that separate higher edu- comprehensive data book on the landscape of higher cation from technical education with a focus on education with complete facts, figures and trends. interdisciplinary action points. This could include data across time and geography3. Recognise State education systems as the prin- and should contain both State-level break-up and cipal site for expansion and focus on improving also inter-temporal trends. Data collection on higher the average quality of State institutions. education should be aligned to the International4. Recognise that diverse disadvantaged groups Standards Classification of Educational Data final- suffer from different kinds of disadvantages and ised by UNESCO recently. A classification frame- need specifically targeted interventions. work of HEIs will also be necessary for getting a better5. Revamp student financial aid programmes as sense of the institutional landscape in the country. the main channel for individual-focused equity schemes. 21.333. The Central Government is conducting an6. Recognise that fostering excellence is a multi- All India Survey on Higher Education. This should dimensional challenge requiring simultaneous provide useful insights and can be the first step action on many fronts. towards creating a comprehensive higher education
    • 122 Twelfth Five Year Plandata management system. The onus of providing solutions. This chapter has outlined the widespreadtimely and reliable data on student enrolments and systemic changes needed to effect such a paradigmother strategic indicators/key metrics for a central- shift in the cultural, policy, strategic and operationalised web-based higher education data management environment of higher education in the country.system should rest with the educational institutions,whether public or private. The web-based higher FINANCIAL RESOURCESeducation data management system should be used 21.336. The indicative Twelfth Five Year Plan Grossfor tracking the progress of HEIs and for carrying Budgetary Support for Ministry of Human Resourceout a variety of analysis leading to improved per- development is `453728 crore. The Department wiseformance of HEIs. Also, the higher education data allocation is given Table 21.14 below:management system can be used for conductingsurveys and generating additional data from educa- TABLE 21.14 Gross Budgetary Support for the Twelfth Plantional institutions that could be used as inputs forhigher education planning at the Central, State and ` Croreinstitutional levels. Higher education database man- Department of School and Secondary Education 343028agement system can also provide the desired data of whichto various stakeholders such as national academic 1. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan 192726depository, planning bodies, research entities, stu- 2. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan 27466dents and other academic bodies. 3. MDMS 90155Higher Education Policy Research 4. Others 3268121.334. India does not have any major higher edu- Department of Higher Education 110700cation research centre or a group of researchers Of whichfocusing on this key subject. Higher education as an 1. Central Universities and Centrally funded 45000academic subject is not taught at Indian universities. institutionsAs a result, there is a dearth of dependable, reliable, 2. State Universities and Colleges, including 25000fact-based, unbiased, ideology-neutral policy infor- RUSAmation about Indian higher education. It is impor- 3. Equity initiatives (including students financial 7000tant for the country to create an ecosystem for higher support)quality policy research on higher education. In the 4. Technical Education Quality Improvement 2000Twelfth Plan, a network of centres for higher edu- Programmescation research located at institutions that have the 5. Research and innovation initiatives 3000expertise for such research activity will be created. 6. Expansion of skill-based higher education 5000 including polytechnics and community colleges21.335. In conclusion, it is imperative that during 7. National Mission in Education through ICT 4000the Twelfth Plan period the country undertakes an (NMEICT)overhaul of higher education and creates a robust, 8. National Mission for Teachers and Teaching 2000 including teaching quality improvementquality-driven system that is accessible to all seg- initiativesments of society. This is essential not only to ensure 9. Open and Distance Learning 700the continued economic growth of the country, butit is also necessary for social cohesion and to meet 10. UGC (multiple schemes including flexi-funds) 10000the rising aspirations of the country’s young people. 11. AICTE (multiple schemes including 5000 flexi-funds)Building such a system of higher education requiresclear articulation of the shortcomings and problems 12. Other initiatives (including language 2000 development, book promotion and copyright,of the current system, a shared understanding of the Internationalisation, Planning and so on)solutions, and an alignment of the efforts of variousstakeholders in higher education to implement these Source: Planning Commission.
    • Education 123NOTES 11. NSS, 2007–08. 1. Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality. Zero value shows 12. Globally, enrolment in the 18–22 age cohorts is used perfect equality where all values are the same, while value of to measure the GER. Using the global definition GER one shows maximal inequality. increased from 15.2 per cent in 2008–08 to 20.2 per cent in 2. Total enrolment as a percentage of the child population 2011–12. in specified age groups including under-age and over-age 13. Students enrolled in ODL programmes might not register in children. each semester/year. They usually take longer than students 3. Percentage of age-specific enrolment to the estimated child enrolled in regular programmes to complete their studies, population in specified age-groups. and a large proportion of ODL students are older than those 4. DISE, 2010–11. in the traditional age cohort and some of them may also be 5. IMRB, 2009. enrolled in regular programmes. 6. IMRB, 2005, 2009; ASER-Rural, 2011. 14. This survey was conducted by the Centre for International 7. ASER, 2011. Higher Education at Boston College and Laboratory 8. ASER, 2011. of Institutional Analysis (LIA) at the Higher School of 9. UNESCO, 2010. Economics (Russia). See http://acarem.hse.ru/.10. ASER, 2010.
    • 22Employment and Skill DevelopmentEMPLOYMENT employment elasticity in the latter half of the decade22.1. Generation of productive and gainful employ- has been negative. The negative employment elastic-ment with decent working conditions on a sufficient ity in agriculture indicates movement of people outscale to absorb the growing labour force was a critical of agriculture to other sectors where wage rates areelement in the Eleventh Plan strategy for achieving higher. This migration of surplus workers to otherinclusive growth. The Eleventh Plan aimed at bring- sectors for productive and gainful employment ising the overall unemployment down by generating necessary for inclusive growth. However, the nega-new work opportunities exceeding the projected tive employment elasticity in manufacturing sectoraddition to the labour force. The results of NSS 66th is a cause of concern particularly when the sectorround (2009–10) indicate that 18 million new work has achieved 6.8 per cent growth in output duringopportunities were created on CDS basis between Eleventh Plan.2004–05 and 2009–10. The unemployment in abso-lute terms came down by 6.3 million and the unem- TRENDS IN THE LABOUR FORCE AND WORKployment rate declined to 6.6 per cent in 2009–10 FORCE PARTICIPATION RATESfor the first time since 1993–94, after increasing to7.31 per cent in 1999–2000 and 8.28 per cent in Quantitative Dimensions of Employment2004–05. On UPSS basis also, during the same 22.3. The quantitative dimensions of employmentperiod, the unemployment rate declined to 2 per captures the trends in Labour Force, Work force atcent in 2009–10 from 2.3 per cent in 2004–05. The rural–urban, Male Female and sectoral level. Table 22.1overall labour force expanded by just 11.7 million. provides the Labour Force (LFPR) and Work ForceThe increase in labour force was lower compared to Participation Rates (WFPR) during the decade 1999previous years. This, however, is a positive develop- and 2009–10. It emerges that the second half of thement as it can be attributed to higher retention of the last decade witnessed the decline in LFPR in spite ofyoung in schools and colleges, and also lower distress increase in the population growth. Further it emergeslabour participation by working age women as fam- that there has been decline in both rural and urbanily incomes improved in both rural and urban areas. LFPRs and WFPRs during the second half of the decade. Female LFPR and WFPR show greater fluc-22.2. The employment elasticity in India in the last tuations particularly in rural India. The rise in femaledecade declined from 0.44 in the first half of the LFPR and WFPR during the first half of the decadedecade 1999–2000 to 2004–05, to as low as 0.01 dur- might be the result of agricultural distress whiching second half of the decade 2004–05 to 2009–10. depressed household income and pushed womenThe similar trends have been witnessed at the sec- into the labour force. Since all women entering thetoral level, namely agriculture, service, and manu- labour force did not get employment, the first half offacturing sectors. In agriculture and manufacturing the decade was also characterised by an increase in
    • Employment and Skill Development 125 TABLE 22.1 LFPR and WFPR by Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status, 1993–4, 2004–05 and 2009–10 (%) Persons LFPR, WFPR and Unemployment Rate of 1999–00, 2004–05 and 2009–10 by UPSS LFPR WFPR UR 1999–00 2004–05 2009–10 1999–00 2004–05 2009–10 1999–00 2004–05 2009–10 Rural 42.3 44.6 41.4 41.7 43.9 40.8 1.5 1.7 1.6 Urban 35.4 38.2 36.2 33.7 36.5 35 4.7 4.5 3.4 All 43 40 39.7 42 39.2 2.3 2Source: NSS 55th, 61st and 66th Rounds.unemployment rate. In absolute terms, the first half by 7.6 million from 115 million in 2004–05 to 122.6of the decade experienced an increase of 20 million million in 2009–10, in the urban sector. However theworkers (238 million to 258 million) in agriculture. number of unemployed in the rural sector declinedThe slow growth in the labour force and hence in from 5.9 million in 2004–05 to 5.5 million in 2009–10work force may be due to rising participation in edu- and in urban sector from 5.4 million to 4.3 millioncation by both male and female after the enactment during the same period, indicating that the decline inof the Right to Education for 6–14 years old. urban sector was steeper than in the rural sector. The unemployment rates in rural sector have also seen a22.4. There has been a substantial divergence in the marginal fall from 1.7 per cent in 2004–05 to 1.6 perdirections of growth of labour force and workforce cent in 2009–10 and from 4.7 to 3.4 in the urban sec-in rural and urban sectors. In the Rural sector, the tor (Table 22.1 and Figure 22.1).labour force declined marginally by 6.8 million from348.7 million in 2004–05 to 341.9 million in 2009–10. 22.6. After rising from 6.06 per cent in 1993–4 toThe size of the workforce also showed similar trends. 7.31 per cent in 1999–2000 and further to 8.2 perThe workforce declined from 342.9 million in 2004–05 cent in 2004–5 It fell to 6.6 per cent in 2009–10.to 336.4 million in 2009–10, in the rural sector, mark- On the UPSS the unemployment rate has declineding a decrease of 6.5 million. The decline in labour from 2.3 in 2004–05 to 2 per cent in 2009–10. Theforce and workforce in the rural sector are impacted decline in the LFPR for women and increase in theby MGNREGA programme and other new opportu- Work force participation rates for men are sugges-nities in rural sector. Please refer to Table 22.2. tive of increase in the wages. Table 22.3 indicates that the wages for regular salaried male rural workers in22.5. In the Urban sector, the trends show a totally real terms have increased by about 51 per cent anddifferent picture. The size of the labour force went 56 per cent for casual workers. It also emerges fromup by 6.6 million from 120.3 million in 2004–05 to table below that increase in the wages have resultedtouch 126.9 million in 2009–10.The workforce grew in increase in the consumption both in the rural and TABLE 22.2 Estimated Number of Persons in Millions 61st Round of NSS (2004–05) 66th Round of NSS (2009–10) Rural Urban Rural Urban Usual Status Labour Force 348.7 120.3 341.9 126.9 (ps+ss) work force 342.9 115 336.4 122.6 unemployed 5.9 5.4 5.5 4.3Source: NSS 61st and 66th Rounds.
    • 126 Twelfth Five Year Plan 10 9.22 8 8.28 7.31 6 6.6 6.06 4 2 0 1983 1993–94 1999–2000 2004-05 2009–10 Unemployment rate (%) Source: NSS Rounds. FIGURE 22.1: Trend in Unemployment Rate TABLE 22.3 Unemployment, Wages and Consumption Expenditure, 1993–4 to 2009–10 Unemployment Rate Salaries and Wages Consumption (%) Regular Casual Rural Urban (CDS) ` Per day, for male rural workers Monthly per capita (in `) 1993–94 6.06 58.48 23.18 281.4 458.04 (33.23) (13.17) (159.9) (264.8) 1999–00 7.31 127.32 45.48 (46.98) (16.78) 2004–05 8.2 144.93 55.03 558.78 1052.36 (45.43) (17.25) (175.2) (311.3) 2009–10 6.6 249.15 101.53 927.7 1785.81 (50.44) (20.55) (187.8) (355.0)Source: NSS Rounds.Note: Figures in parentheses are at constant prices. For rural areas derived from CPI for agricultural labourers with base 1986–87 = 100,and for urban areas derived from CPI for urban non-manual employees with base 1984–85 = 100.urban areas by 1.4 per cent and 2.67 per cent respec- employment and unemployment indicators are pre-tively during 1993–94 to 2009–10. sented in Box 22.1.22.7. The rise in employment for males and wages 22.8. In terms of Sectoral shares in employmenthas led to a sharp rise in consumption. As per NSSO it emerges that the agriculture share in employ-data on consumption (NSS 66th Round) Monthly ment declined from 59.9 per cent at the beginningper capita consumption expenditure in rural areas of decade to 53.2 per cent at the end of the decade.in real terms increased to 1.4 per cent per year in However, this is still very high compared with thethe five years from 2004–5 to 2009–10 from 0.8 per share of agriculture in other countries in the region.cent per year in the 1993–4 to 2004–5 period. For The share of manufacturing in the total employmenturban areas, the real per capita expenditures grew after increasing to 12.2 per cent in the first half of thefaster during the same period from 1.47 per cent decade declined to 11 per cent in the second half ofbetween 1993–4 and 2004–5 to 2.67 per cent between the decade indicating usage of more capital intensive2004–5 and 2009–10. The Conceptual frameworks of technology in the absence of skilled manpower. The
    • Employment and Skill Development 127 Box 22.1 Conceptual Framework of Key Employment and Unemployment Indicators Different approaches for determining activity status: On the basis of activities pursued by individuals during certain specified reference periods. There are three reference periods, namely (i) one year, (ii) one week and (iii) each day of the reference week. Based on these three periods, three different measures of activity status are arrived at. These are termed respectively as usual status, current weekly status and current daily status. Usual activity status: The activity status on which a person spent relatively longer time (major time criterion) during the 365 days preceding the date of survey is considered the usual principal activity status of the person. Subsidiary economic activity status: A person whose principal usual status is determined on the basis of the major time criterion may have pursued some economic activity for 30 days or more during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The status in which such economic activity is pursued during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey is the subsidiary economic activity status of the person. Current weekly activity status: The current weekly activity status of a person is the activity status obtaining for a person during a reference period of 7 days preceding the date of survey. It is decided on the basis of a certain priority cum major time criterion. A person is considered working (or employed)) if s/he, while pursuing any economic activity, had worked for at least one hour on at least one day during the 7 days preceding the date of survey. A person is considered ‘seeking or available for work (or unemployed)’ if during the reference week no economic activity was pursued by the person but s/he made efforts to get work or had been available for work any time during the reference week though not actively seeking work in the belief that no work was available. Current daily activity status: The current daily activity status for a person is determined on the basis of her/his activity status on each day of the reference week using a priority-cum-major time criterion (day to day labour time disposition). Labour force participation rate (LFPR): Labour force refers to the population which supplies or offers to supply labour for pursuing economic activities for the production of goods and services and, therefore, includes both ‘employed’ and ‘unemployed’ persons/person days. Labour-force participation rate (LFPR) is defined as the proportion of persons/person days in the labour-force to the total persons/person-days. Worker Population Ratio (WPR): The estimates of employed (or worker) according to the usual principal status gives the number of persons who worked for a relatively long part of the 365 days preceding the date of survey. The work force, considering both the usual principal status and the subsidiary status, includes the persons who (i) either worked for a relatively long part of the 365 days preceding the date of survey and (ii) also those persons from among the remaining population who had worked at least for 30 days during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. Unemployment rate (UR): Unemployment Rate (UR) is the ratio of number of unemployed persons/person-days to the number of persons/person-days in labour force (that is, number of employed and unemployed person/person-days). Estimates of UR are obtained by the three approaches used for classification of the activity statuses of the person. Source: NSS Reports.share of services has increased from 23.7 per cent in TABLE 22.4the beginning of the decade in 1999 to 25.3 per cent Proportionate Share of Sectors in Employmentin the end of the decade. The non-manufacturing Sectors 1999–2000 2004–5 2009–10sector has seen a sharp increase in employment and Agriculture 59.9 56.6 53.2this is mostly in the construction sector (Table 22.4). Manufacturing 11.1 12.2 11.0 Non-manufacturing 5.3 6.5 10.5Sector-wise Employment Generation22.9. During the period between 2004–05 and Services 23.7 24.7 25.32009–10 a total of 18 million work opportunities on Total 100 100 100CDS basis and 2 million at UPSS basis have been Source: NSS Various rounds.created. The performance varied across different
    • 128 Twelfth Five Year Plansectors. The mining, manufacturing, trade, electric- reveals interesting results. It emerges that the indus-ity related sectors witnessed a decline in employment tries that registered an increase in employment inopportunities in spite of good sectoral growth. In all the first half of the decade, more than 80 per centthe sectors the performance was slightly short of the of them registered decline in the employment dur-projections at the beginning of the Plan. The data in ing the latter half of the decade. This decline wasrespect of employment in different sectors is given in observed in the labour intensive industries whichAnnexure 22.1. accounted for 68 per cent of total manufacturing employment in 1999–2000. The decline may be due22.10. Agriculture witnessed an oscillating trend in to fall in the international demand for these prod-the employment in the last decade. While in the first ucts such as textiles, food products; tobacco, wear-half of the decade there was an increase in employ- ing apparel, wood products and fabricated and so on.ment from 238 million in 1999–2000 to nearly 259 These six industries registered an increase of 8.7 mil-million in 2004–05, an increase of 21.25 million, there lion employment during the first half of the decade,was a substantial decline in the number of people and a decline of 7.6 million employment during theemployed in agriculture in the later half of the decade second half.from 259 million to 245 million, a decline of about14.08 millions. However, total agricultural employ- 22.13. The employment in the non-manufacturingment at the end of the decade was still higher by 3 sector in the decade1999–2009 has increased byper cent than it was at its beginning (Annexure 22.1). 27.44 million to reach 48.28 million in 2009–10, anThis suggests that the process of structural change in increase of 2.3 times relative to 1999–2000. In theemployment that one would expect with a period of first half of the decade non-manufacturing employ-unprecedented growth in output in the economy out- ment increased from 21 million in 1999–2000 to 30side of agriculture, is not occurring fast enough. million in 2004–05, or nearly a 50 per cent increase from employment in 1999–2000. The absolute size22.11. The manufacturing sector witnessed an abso- of employment in non-manufacturing by the end oflute increase in employment in the first half of the the decade was 1.6 times compared to 2004–05, ordecade from 44 million to nearly 55.77 million in 2.3 times relative to the level in 1999–2000. This is2004–05. However, the second half of the decade comparable to employment in manufacturing sec-witnessed a decline by about 5 million to reach the tor which is 50 million during the same period. Theemployment level of 50.74 million. However, this main increase has been contributed by construc-was still 15 per cent higher than the employment in tion sector where the employment in the decadethe beginning of the decade. This change in the trend increased by 26.6 million of which 8.5 million wasin employment generation in manufacturing sector in the first half and 18.1 million during the secondmay perhaps be due to faster increases in the aver- half. The other important sectors, namely miningage annual increases in real wages in India driven by and quarrying, electricity, gas and water supply havea greater shortage of skilled workers (use of capital witnessed a very marginal increase (Table 22.4).intensive technologies) and unskilled casual work-ers. The employment elasticity for manufacturing 22.14. The Services/Tertiary sector witnessed ansector has shown a downward trend from 0.76 in the increase in the employment in the decade to reachfirst half of the decade to –0.31 in the second half of a level of 116.34 million in 2009–10, contributingthe decade. This suggests substitution of labour by about 24.5 per cent to total employment. The growthcapital intensive technology resulting in fall in total in employment in the services sector was lower inemployment despite an increase in total manufactur- the second half of the decade than in the first half.ing output. Within services, trade was the most important con- tributor to employment and accounted for one third22.12. A close look at the employment trend in the of total services and employment in the economymain manufacturing industries given in Annexure 22.2 both at the beginning as well as at the end of the
    • Employment and Skill Development 129decade. It accounted for around 36 per cent (nearly The greater thrust of the government on educa-7 crore) of the increase in employment that occurred tion, skill development and health in the Twelfthin the service sector in India in first half of the dec- Plan will increase employment in the sector in theade as compared to second half which of the dec- Twelfth Plan.ade, there was hardly any increase in employment.The second most important sector within services is EMPLOYMENT SCENARIO IN THE STATEStransport, storage and communication whose contri- 22.17. The variation in population increase in dif-bution to total employment increased from 15.5 per ferent states and in turn working age population hascent at the beginning of the decade to 17.2 per cent at implication for employment generation. The presentthe end of the decade in 2009–10. analysis of trends in employment in different sec- tors in different States would highlight the sectors22.15. The employment in public sector services that are contributing and would contribute in thestagnated and there is, severe shortage in the public employment in future.services of doctors, nurses, teachers, policemen, andjudges. A rapidly growing economy cannot function Agriculturewithout the simultaneous rapid expansion of such 22.18. In agriculture at the national level thereservices. As this transition occurs in India in the has been increase in the absolute number of peo-next ten years a substantial improvement in higher ple employed in the last decade (1999 to 2009–10)quality jobs in public sector services may occur. The although in the second half of the decade the pro-other services sector vis banking and financial ser- portion has declined marginally. The vast major-vices and real estate have also witnessed an increase. ity of the states have also experienced a decline inThe Employment in banking and insurance, which employment in agriculture between 2004–05 andwas 2.25 million in 1990–2000, had risen to 3.82 mil- 2009–10. However, since the total fall in employ-lion in 2009–10 and in real estate from 2.7 million ment in agriculture in the latter half of the decadein 1990–2000 to 5.7 million at its end. The growth was only 21 million, the distribution of this declinein real estate employment commensurate with among the states did not lead to a significant shiftincreased focus of the government on both housing of workers out of agriculture to industry or services.as well as infrastructure investment in the Eleventh This doesn’t indicate that temporary migration fromPlan period. rural to urban areas was not occurring. In fact for the first time since the Census of 1921 within the last22.16. Investment in infrastructure is expected to decade, that is, 2001 to 2011 Census, the increase ingrow from $500 billion during the Eleventh Five Year the urban population (91 million) has been greaterPlan to 1 trillion dollars in the Twelfth Plan, that is, than the increase in the rural population over theto nearly 10 per cent of GDP. NSS data on employ- decade (90 million). This may be because workers doment in health and education services show marginal migrate from rural to urban but only for temporaryincrease in the second half of the decade although periods during the lean season for agriculture andfirst half had witnessed an increase. However while moves back during the season. Therefore, this work-the GVA for education sector increased to 8.4 per force is not available for work in manufacturing orcent per annum in the latter half of the decade from modern services due to lack of appropriate skill set.7.1 per cent in the first half, for health sector the Their migration reflects rural distress, driven by thegrowth rate of GVA in was robust (10.1 per cent per fact that 84 per cent of India’s farmers are small andannum) in the first half of the decade and declined to marginal, tilling only less than 2.5 acres of land.4.2 per cent per annum in the second half of the dec-ade, which perhaps explains the rather small increase 22.19. In this context, it is important to mentionin employment in the health sector in the latter half that just two states alone accounted for nearly halfof the decade. With persistent shortage of health of the decline in agricultural employment in the lat-workers even post National Rural Health Mission. ter half of the decade. Thus, in Bihar employment in
    • 130 Twelfth Five Year Planagriculture fell from 21.2 million in 2004–05 to 17.2 states could continue to grow fast during the Twelfthmillion at the end of the decade. Similarly, in U.P. Plan period. But this depends to a larger extent onemployment in agriculture fell from 43.3 million in the manufacturing employment elasticity of out-the middle of the decade to nearly 39.7 million at its put. While States of Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana,end. On the contrary the state of Maharashtra that Delhi, Uttarakhand and West Bengal have posi-witnessed an increase in the employment in agri- tive employment elasticity, the states of Jharkhand,culture 3.97 million in the latter half of the decade. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have negative employ-Another state which saw an increase in agriculture in ment elasticity which implies usage of more capitalthe latter half of the decade was Punjab, from 3.6 to intensive technology.4.7 million. Non-ManufacturingManufacturing 22.23. All the States experienced increase in non-22.20. The employment in manufacturing sec- manufacturing employment, mainly in constructiontor at All India level has fallen in the second half sector in the second half of the decade.of the decade from 55.9 to 52.2 million. Most of Servicesthis decline in employment was confined to states 22.24. Services sector contributed about 25.2 perlike Maharashtra (1.81 million) Tamil Nadu (0.98 cent of total employment in 2009–10. Most of theMillion), Uttar Pradesh (0.85 million) and Jharkhand states have shown a positive trend in the employ-(0.25 million). The most distressing part was the fall ment generation in the services sector in the latterin employment in the most industrialised states, half of the decade with exception of Andhra Pradesh,namely Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu which accounted Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Punjab whichfor 75 per cent of the decline in the manufacturing have shown decline in the service sector employmentemployment in the country in the second half of the and negative employment elasticity. There is needdecade. for state governments to focus their attention on pro- motion of services for employment generation. 1122.21. In terms of state wise share of employment, states share of services in total employment is greaterit emerged that the national average for the share than the national average namely Delhi (67.9 perof manufacturing employment accounted for 11 cent), Haryana (25.2 per cent), Kerala (39.2 perper cent of total employment in 2009–10. There are cent), Maharashtra (29.8 per cent), Punjab (29.1 per9 major states where this share is greater than the cent), Tamil Nadu (27.0 per cent) and West Bengalnational average: Andhra Pradesh (11.9 per cent) (30.4 per cent).Delhi (24.8.4 per cent), Gujarat (12.6), Haryana(12.2 per cent), Kerala (13.5 per cent) Punjab QUALITATIVE DIMENSIONS IN EMPLOYMENT(15.9 per cent), Tamil Nadu (19.6 per cent), Uttar TRENDSPradesh (11.1) and West Bengal 18.4 per cent. 22.25. While the above analysis provide trends in cre-Given the fact that there advantages of agglomera- ation of total employment both at the macro level andtion in the manufacturing sector it is likely that even at state level as also the sectoral composition of thein the future these states will continue to account for employment so created, it is necessary to look intogrowth in manufacturing of GVA and employment. the qualitative dimensions of employment in terms ofThe state of Karnataka (9.4 per cent) also has similar equity, dignity, social security, status of employmentproportion in employment as at national. and so on. This would help in formulating strategy for India’s future challenges in generating productive22.22. In terms of the share of manufacturing in state employment, with decent working conditions.GVA seven states have higher than the national aver-age of manufacturing share in GDP (15.9 per cent) in Informalisation of Employment2009–10: Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana. Jharkhand, 22.26. A critical issue in assessing employ-Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. These ment behavior of the economy is the growth of
    • Employment and Skill Development 131 TABLE 22.5 93 per cent, which is still very high as compared to Formal and Informal Employment in Organized and that in Brazil (51 per cent), Mexico (50 per cent), Unorganised Sector (millions) Indonesia (78 per cent), Philippines (72 per cent), Sectors Employment and Thailand (49 per cent). 2009–10 22.28. The above trend is indicative of movement of Informal Formal Total workers from informal agricultural sector employ- Unorganised 385.08 2.26 387.34 ment to informal non-agricultural sectors. The tran- Organised 42.14 30.74 72.88 sition from informal employment in the unorganised Total 427.22 33.00 460.22 sectors to informal employment in the organised sec- 2004–05 tors is indicated by a decline of 8.4 million informal Unorganised 393.5 1.4 394.9 workers in unorganised sector along with an increase Organised 29.1 33.4 62.6 of 13 million informal workers in the organised sec- Total 422.6 34.9 457.5 tor.2 What is notable is that formal employment 1999–2000 in the organised sector is not increasing. This shows Unorganised 341.3 1.4 342.6 that organised enterprises employers are increas- Organised 20.5 33.7 54.1 ingly hiring workers on contractual terms due to Total 361.7 35.0 396.8 labour laws and other concerns. Small and medium size enterprises generally belong to the unorganisedSource: For 2009–10, computed from NSS 66th round, for other sector and employ informal workers. Hence analys-years taken from NCEUS, 2007. ing employment by size of enterprises would pro- vide some insights on the qualitative dimensions ofemployment in the organised sector vis-à-vis the employment.unorganised sector and particularly in terms offormal and informal employments. It is generally Size of Enterprises by Employmentopined that unorganised sector employment is of 22.29. The data in Table 22.6 on size class of enter-low quality compared to organised sector employ- prises by the number of workers that they employment. Table 22.5 presents the employment in organ- shows an occurrence of shift in non-agriculturalised and unorganised sector in terms of formal and employment in the 2000s. The workers in the enter-informal employment. prises with less than six employees (that is, micro enterprises) show a remarkable decline both in abso-22.27. The above data shows a decline in the employ- lute as well as in relative terms between 2004–05ment in the unorganised sector from 86 per cent and 2009–10. Such micro enterprises accounted forin 2004–5 to 84 per cent in 2009–10.1 This means 152.5 million workers in the middle of the decade,that the share of organised sector employment has or 75 per cent of all non-agricultural workers. Byincreased to 16 per cent in 2009–10 from 14 per cent the end of the decade the number of workers inin both 1999–2000 and 2004–05. However, the such enterprises had fallen by nearly 4 million, andincrease in the organised sector employment is the share of such micro enterprises in the total non-mainly in the is mainly in the informal category. agricultural employment was down to 65.6 per cent.The informal employment in the organised sector Correspondingly there was an increase in the num-has increase from 46.6 per cent in 2004–05 to about ber of workers employed in enterprises with 6 and57.8 per cent in 2009–10. The informal employment above but less than 10 workers, from 15.2 million inin the unorganised sector remains the same. Nearly the middle of the decade to nearly 24 million at its93 per cent of the total workforce in 2009–10 is in end, thus raising the share of workers in such enter-informal employment, a rise from 91 per cent in prises from 7.5 per cent to 10.5 per cent of all non-1999–2000. If agriculture is excluded from the work- agricultural employment in the country. It is betterforce, the share of informal workers in the total non- for workers since it reduces the fragmentation andagricultural workforce drops to 85.6 per cent from enables them to organise.
    • 132 Twelfth Five Year Plan TABLE 22.6 Number of Workers by Size of Enterprise in Industry and Services Number of Workers in 2004–05 2009–10 Enterprises Number of Workers in Million Share % Number of Workers in Million Share % Less than 6 152.5 74.93 148.7 65.6 6 and above but less than 10 15.2 7.46 23.8 10.5 10 and above but less than 20 11.8 5.81 15.4 6.8 20 and above 24.0 11.8 38.8 17.1 Total 100 100Source: Compiled from NSS, 2009–10 (66th Round) and NSS, 2004–05 (61st Round).Category of Workers by Employment Status 22.32. The incidence of employment by level of edu-22.30. In the labour market casual labour and self- cation in India (by UPSS) in Annexure 22.3 indicatesemployed are most vulnerable. Table 22.7 shows that illiterates have the lowest rate of unemployment,the annual increase in the work-force by category and the rate of unemployment tends to rise withof employment in first half of the decade compared every level of education, with the highest unemploy-with second half of the decade. A notable feature is ment rate for those with diploma/certificates (orthe increase in the number of jobs created at regular those with one or two years of post higher secondarysalaried wage and as casual worker. This may be due education). The unemployment rate for Diploma/to increase in non manufacturing and service sector Certificate holders was 9.6 per cent at the end of theemployment as discussed earlier. decade. The unemployment rate does decline for graduates and slightly again for postgraduates and TABLE 22.7 above, but not significantly. Number of Workers According to Usual Status (PS+SS) Approach by Broad Employment Status EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG THE SOCIAL (Million Workers) GROUPS 1999–00 2004–05 2009–10 Self employed 209.3 (52.6) 258.4 (56.4) 232.7 (50.7) Women’s Employment Regular/Salaried 58.2 (14.6) 69.7 (15.2) 75.1 (16.4) 22.33. Although there has been consistent decline in employee workforce participation rate (WPR) of women since Casual labour 130.3 (32.8) 129.7 (28.3) 151.3 (33.0) 1980s but the decline seems to have accelerated in the later half of the decade, that is, between 2004–05 andSource: Compiled from NSS, 55th, 61st and 66th Rounds. 2009–10 pushing down the overall LFPR and WFPR to a low level. The decline in female labour forceUnemployment among Young and the participation has occurred in both rural and urbanEducated areas, though the decline is much sharper in rural22.31. The data and the Figure 22.2 show that compared to urban areas. This points to the fact thatUnemployment is higher among the youth and the that in both urban and rural areas girls over 14 yearseducated who are looking for better quality jobs. of age (that is, of working age) are either attendingThe figure shows that unemployment among the age the educational institution or have withdrawn fromgroup 15–29 years for both males and females and in work due to improvement in the family income. Theurban and rural areas is significantly higher than the most serious problem that women in the work forceaverage level of unemployment of all persons. face is poor quality of work. For the vast majority of
    • Employment and Skill Development 133 Unemployment Rate Among Youth (15–29 years) 25 20 15 10 5 0 1992–94 1999–2000 2004–05 2009–10 Rural Male 9 11.1 12 10.9 Rural Female 7.6 10.6 12.7 12 Urban Male 13.7 14.7 13.7 10.5 Urban Female 21.2 19.1 21.5 18.9 Source: NSS 55th, 61st and 66th rounds. FIGURE 22.2: Unemployment Rate among Youthwomen in non-agricultural employment they tend to 22.34. At the policy level, there is need to give prioritywork from home in home-based work, usually sub- to Women in the National Rural Livelihood Missioncontracted to them by male contractors in a variety (of the Ministry of Rural Development). NRLM willof low-productivity work (for example, bidi-making, facilitate the creation of self-help groups of women atzari-making, and so on) or as helper in the construc- national scale and provide credit to SHGs to enabletion industry. It is expected that attainment of the them to undertake self-sustaining economic activity.education would empower the women to join thelabour market at a slightly later age better qualified Child Labourand in quality employment though in unorganised 22.35. Table 22.10 analyses incidence of Child laboursector. Please refer to Tables 22.8 and 22.9. since 1993–94. The incidence of child labour has declined since 1990s. TABLE 22.8 TABLE 22.9 LFPR by Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status, WPR by Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status, 1993–04, 2004–05 and 2009–10 (%) by Gender 1993–04, 2004–05 and 2009–10 (%) by GenderSector Males Females Male Female 1993–04 2004–05 2009–10 1993–04 2004–05 2009–10 1993–04 2004–05 2009–10 1993–04 2004–05 2009–10Rural 87.6 85.9 82.5 49 49.4 37.8 86.4 84.6 81.2 48.7 48.5 37.2Urban 80.1 79.2 76.2 23.8 24.4 19.4 76.8 76.3 74 22.3 22.7 18.3 TABLE 22.10 Child Workforce Participation Rate by UPSS (Percentage), 1993–04, 2004–05 and 2009–10 Area 1993–04 2004–05 2009–10 Boys Girls Children Boys Girls Children Boys Girls Children Rural 6.8 7.8 7.3 3.5 3.7 3.6 2.0 2.4 2.2 Urban 3.5 2.7 3.1 2.6 1.9 2.3 0.7 1.5 1.1 Combined 6.2 6.0 6.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 1.7 2.2 2.0Source: NSSO 1993–04, 2004–05 and 2009–10.
    • 134 Twelfth Five Year Plan22.36. It emerges that the active participation of sections (Table 22.11). For instance, the work forceboth boys and girls in the market is falling. The participation rate (by usual principal and subsidiarydecline in child labour commensurate with signifi- status) for SCs in 1993–4 was 71 per cent and for STscant increase in school enrolment of both boys and It was 81 per cent, which were both much greatergirls. Since the proportion of girls who were out of than the workforce participation rate (WFPR) for allschool was higher than that for boys until the middle social groups (68 per cent) in rural areas; similarly,of the 2000s, the decrease in the incidence of female they were higher in 2005. Although urban WFPR ischild labour is largely on account of their enrolment consistently lower for all groups, SCs and STs havein schools. However, the NSS data for 1993–4 and a much higher WFPR compared to all groups. This2007–8 reveals that girls are still being held back at higher than average WFPR for SCs and STs is attrib-home in order to perform household chores. In the uted to the fact that SCs and STs of working age (thatproportion of children in the age of 5–14 who are is, 15 and above) have lower enrolment ratio in sec-categorised neither as child labourers nor as students ondary school than other social groups. The vulner-enrolled in schools 11.4 per cent of girls belong to ability of SCs and STs in terms of the labour marketthe category of nowhere girls in the 6–14 year old age is emphasised by the fact that by current daily statusgroup, while only 3.8 per cent of boys in the same SCs and STs have much higher unemployment rates,age group belong to nowhere children. The educa- by and large, at least in urban areas.tion sector has a pre-eminent role in ensuring thatall children in the age group 6–14 years are at school. 22.38. Table 22.12 gives the unemployment ratesThe stricter implementation of SSA and Child labour among various social groups including SCs and STsregulations can ensure that the child labour is eradi- from National Sample Surveys from 1993 to 2009.cated from the country. It may be seen that between 2004–05 and 2009–10, the unemployment rates for SCs have declined byWeaker Social Groups: The Scheduled 2.1 percentage points in urban areas while it did notCastes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs) change for rural areas and remained at 1.6 per cent.22.37. In terms of most social indicators the Sche- The unemployment rates for all the social groups induled Castes (SCs) and the Scheduled Tribes (STs) both the rural and urban areas, however, witnessedamong social groups are the most marginalised a decline, 0.1 percentage point in rural areas and TABLE 22.11 Workforce Participation Rate by Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status, by Social Group, 1993–4, 2004–5 and 2009–10 (%) Sector SCs STs All Groups 1993–94 2004–05 2009–10 1993–94 2004–05 2009–10 1993–94 2004–05 2009–10 Rural 71.1 68.7 61.4 81.4 79.1 68.9 67.8 66.6 59.5 Urban 56.8 54.1 51.8 57 54.9 49.2 50.9 50.6 47.2Source: NSS rounds. TABLE 22.12 Unemployment Rate by Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status, by Social Group, 2004–5 and 2009–10 (%) Sector SCs STs All 1993–94 2004–05 2009–10 1993–94 2004–05 2009–10 1993–94 2004–05 2009–10 Rural 1 1.6 1.6 0.6 0.8 1.4 1.2 1.7 1.6 Urban 4.4 5.3 3.2 3.9 3.1 4.4 4.5 4.4 3.4Source: NSS rounds.
    • Employment and Skill Development 1351.0 percentage points in urban areas. But the unem- the population and labor force projections for theployment for STs has increased in both rural and Twelfth Five Year Plan are shown in the Table 22.13.urban areas during the period 2004–05 to 2009–10. 22.40. With the enactment of Right to EducationLABOUR FORCE AND WORKFORCE (RTE), introduction of the National Skills Quali-PROJECTIONS FOR THE TWELFTH PLAN fication Framework (NSQF) and integration of vocational education with the secondary education,Labour Force Projections drop-out rates are likely to decrease. Creating non-22.39. The projections of labor force have been made farm employment opportunities for the educatedusing the latest population projections made by the youth will be a challenge for the country in nearNSSO and 2011 census data. The projected increase future. To meet the education targets of near fullin labor force during the Twelfth Plan period for universalisation of secondary education (>90 perthe 15 and above age group is now estimated to cent), GER of 65 per cent in higher secondary classesbe around 24.5 million from 477.9 million in 2011 and expected increase of enrollment in universitiesto 502.4 million by the end of 2016–17. This is the and colleges from 200.3 lakhs in 2011–12 to 300.2calculated on the basis of age specific LFPRs and lakhs by 2016–17, about 28 million will be drawn outpopulation distribution trend that has existed since of the labor force (15–59 age group). Therefore, in2004–05. India has seen deceleration in population order to ensure that the overall labor force partici-growth rate (Census 1991, 2001 and 2011). The 66th pation rate does not fall much over the Plan period;round has also shown a decline in the female partici- efforts have to be made to raise the female work par-pation rate, which could be the effect of increasing ticipation rates.enrolment in educational institutions, as also theimpact of rising incomes, where women don’t want Work Force Projections: Total and Sectoralto do low quality jobs (backward bending labour Employment Projectionssupply curve). With the focus of the policy planners 22.41. The total employment over the period hason raising the gross enrollment ratio in secondary been estimated on the basis of employment projec-and higher education, the number of people enter- tions for individual sectors which are then aggregateding the labor force may not see a significant rise. for the economy as a whole. These sectoral employ-Assuming the rate of decline in population growth ment projections are based on sectoral GDP growthrate to be in line with the past trend, and taking into rates combined with computed employment elastici-account the effect of education and rising family ties (1999–2000 to 2009–10). There are two plausibleincome on female work participation, the LFPR is scenarios with respect to employment situation overexpected to decline further. The absolute increase in the Twelfth Plan period. First is the business-as-the labor force by the end of Twelfth plan is therefore usual scenario, where projections rely on an analysisexpected to be small. Based on these assumptions, of growth and employment trends for agriculture, TABLE 22.13 Population and Labour Force Projections Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total population (0+) 1210.2 1227.1 1244.0 1260.6 1277.1 1293.5 1309.7 15 and above population (%) 70.2 71.0 71.8 72.6 73.4 74.2 75.0 Population (15 and above) in millions 849.6 871.3 893.2 915.2 937.4 959.8 982.2 LFPR for 15 and above age group (%) 56.3 55.4 54.6 53.7 52.9 52.0 51.2 Labor force (15 and above) (in millions) 477.9 482.7 487.2 491.5 495.4 499.1 502.4Source: NSS Round and Census 2011.
    • 136 Twelfth Five Year Plan TABLE 22.14 Employment Elasticity from Past Data Agriculture Mining Manufacturing Utilities Construction Trade, Finance, Other Total and Transport Real Estate, Services Quarrying and so on and so onEmployment 0.04 0.52 0.09 0.04 1.13 0.19 0.66 0.08 0.19elasticitymanufacturing, non-manufacturing industry and side basis is about 508.9 million. This would lead to aservices over the last Five Year Plan period. It is built reduction in unemployment rate, and when adjustedon the assumption the growth pattern of various sec- for labor force participation rates, the employmenttors during the Twelfth Plan would be similar to that in agriculture is expected to decline. Even with busi-it was during the Eleventh Plan period. Second is the ness-as-usual growth rates, the farm sector share inTwelfth Plan scenario, which takes into account the employment is expected to drop from 51.8 per centaim of the Twelfth Five Year Plan of creating qual- in 2011–12 to 47.3 per cent in 2016–17. This alsoity and productive employment opportunities, with shows that shift from the farm to non-farm sectorfocus on acceleration of the rate of transition of labor would be small, if the skill up-gradation and expan-out of low productivity agriculture to higher produc- sion of employment opportunities in manufactur-tivity industry and services sectors. If the manufac- ing and services does not take place. Please refer toturing sector is able to reverse the declining trend Tables 22.15 and 22.16.of employment growth with focus on expanding thelabor-intensive manufacturing, agriculture is able to Twelfth Plan Scenariogrow at 4 per cent with improvements in productiv- 22.44. If the manufacturing sector becomes anity and diversification, and the contribution from the engine of growth, by growing at the targeted two per-non-manufacturing sectors, particularly construc- centage points above the overall growth rate (11 pertion and services continues to increase, the planned cent); and the agriculture sector grows at 4 per cent,scenario gives the alternative set of employment the sectoral growth rates would be as given in theprojections (Set 2). One of the main objectives of the Table 22.17.growth strategy in the Twelfth Plan period must beto ensure that this process of structural change in 22.45. The cornerstone of the manufacturing policyterms of employment opportunities is accelerated. for the Twelfth Plan is to create 10 million addi- tional jobs in the manufacturing sector by focusingEmployment Elasticity22.42. Sectoral employment elasticity’s have been TABLE 22.15calculated by running a log-log regression on Sectoral Growth Rates: Business-as-usual Scenarioobserved sectoral GDP figures at constant prices Sector Growth Ratesfrom 1999–2000 to 2009–10 (independent vari-able) and employment figures for the same period, Agriculture 3.3obtained by interpolating the series on the 1999– Mining and quarrying 3.22000, 2004–05 and 2009–10 employment outcomes Manufacturing 6.8obtained from various NSSO rounds. Utilities 6.0 Construction 7.3Business-as-Usual Scenario Trade, transport, hotels, and so on 10.022.43. If the economy and its sectors continue to Finance, insurance, real estate and so on 10.7grow at the rates with which they grew during the Community, social and personal services 8.3Eleventh Plan (Table 22.14), the projected employ- Total 7.9ment (15 and above age group) on a pure demand
    • Employment and Skill Development 137 TABLE 22.16 Sectoral Employment (in million): Business-as-usual ScenarioYear Agriculture Mining and Manufacturing Utilities Construction Trade, Finance, Community, Total Quarrying Transport, Banking, Personal Hotels, Real Estate, and Social and so on and so on Services2009–10 241.7 2.7 50.0 1.4 43.6 68.6 9.5 37.2 454.72011–12 242.3 2.8 50.6 1.4 51.1 71.2 10.9 37.7 468.02016–17 243.9 3.1 52.2 1.4 75.8 78.2 15.4 39.0 508.9(pure demandside)2016–17 237.4 3.1 52.2 1.4 75.8 78.2 15.4 39.0 502.4(adjusted forlabour forceparticipationrates)Projected Share of Employment in per cent2011–12 51.77 0.60 10.81 0.29 10.91 15.22 2.34 8.06 100.02016–17 47.25 0.61 10.38 0.28 15.09 15.57 3.06 7.77 100.0 TABLE 22.17 Sectoral Growth Rates—Twelfth Plan Scenario Agriculture Mining and Manufacturing Utilities Construction Trade, Finance, Community, Total Quarrying Transport, Insurance, Social and Hotels, Real Estate Personal and so on and so on ServicesGrowth 4.0 3.2 11.0 6.0 7.3 10.0 10.7 8.3 9.0Rateson labor-intensive manufacturing and by suitable training to join the work force, those under-employedamendments to the labor regulatory framework, so in agriculture will be drawn out to fill the job oppor-that manufacturing becomes a genuine engine of tunities created by the non-farm sector. This could,employment growth in the country. If we focus on in the planned scenario, bring down the projectedmore productive and quality (organised and self- share of employment in farm sector to about 45 peremployed) employment in the manufacturing and cent of the total. The details are summarised in theservices sector, additional 50 million job opportuni- Table 22.18.ties can be created in the non-farm sector. But thiswill need a huge effort in the form of skill devel- 22.47. To summarise, the Twelfth Plan should focusopment aligned to the market needs. In particu- on demand aligned skill development, and aim atlar, manufacturing, construction, trade, transport, significantly stepping up growth in employment inhospitality and financial services are the promising manufacturing, so that under-employed labour forcesectors where skill development can lead to a faster can speedily move from low-paid farm jobs to bet-growth in employment opportunities. ter paid, more productive manufacturing and ser- vices sectors. Simultaneously, we should improve22.46. As more skilled people coming back to the the working conditions for women to improvelabor force after completing their education and their work participation rates, and focus on greater
    • 138 Twelfth Five Year Plan TABLE 22.18 Sectoral EMPLOYMENTS (in million): Twelfth Plan ScenarioYear Agriculture Mining and Manufacturing Utilities Construction Trade, Finance, Community, Total Quarrying Transport, Banking, Personal and Hotels, and Real Estate, Social Services so on and so on2011–12 242.4 2.8 51.0 1.4 51.1 71.2 10.9 37.7 468.62011–12 Farm Non Farm 242.4 226.12016–17 226.0 3.1 63.5 1.4 75.8 78.2 15.4 39.0 502.42016–17 Farm Non Farm 226.0 276.4 Projected Share of Employment (in per cent)2011–12 51.74 0.60 10.88 0.29 10.90 15.20 2.33 8.06 100.002016–17 44.99 0.61 12.65 0.28 15.09 15.57 3.06 7.77 100.00organised sector jobs that will meet the aspirations be adopted to ensure sustained expansion of employ-of the rising number of educated and skilled youth in ment opportunities in these areas.the country. Simplifying Regulatory FrameworkCHALLENGES FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY 22.50. The multiplicity of labour laws administered both by the Central and the State governments areExpanding Employment Opportunities not conducive for the congenial development of22.48. The employment elasticity of the manufac- the factory sector. The 84 per cent of the unorgan-turing sector has witnessed a decline in spite of ised sector is outside the purview of the labourincrease in the gross value added in the sector. The laws, while the 16 per cent organised sector is over-usual structural transformation associated with high burdened with regulatory interference at all levels.growth does not seem to have happened in India and There is need to simplify labour laws both at themore people continued to be employed in agricul- Centre and the State level. In particular the followingture and other forms of informal employment. The actions need to be taken on an urgent basis:Twelfth Plan hopes to make the manufacturing sec-tor a genuine engine of growth, which could gener- I. To ensure speedy resolution of industrial dis-ate 100 million work opportunities by 2022. The putes, particularly the collective disputes whichemployment contribution of labour intensive manu- have a bearing on law and order, the Districtfacturing, namely textile and garments, leather and Collector or the Sub-Divisional Magistrate mayfootwear, gems and jewelry, food processing indus- be appointed as Conciliatory Officers under thetries and so on can be greatly enhanced provided the Industrial disputes Act, 1947.Government puts supportive policies in place. Some II. A comprehensive social security must be putof these are mentioned in the sub-section below. into place for workers in the organised sector, which provides for pension, medical insurance22.49. Incentives will have to be improved for and unemployment benefits that are seamlesslyexpanding employment in the organised sector. transferable across employers in all sectors of theServices like information technology, finance and economy. Suitable provisions need to be madebanking, tourism, trade and transport are going to be for workers in the unorganised sector, wheremajor generators of employment in the Twelfth Plan their own contributions can be supplemented byperiod and beyond. Sector specific strategies need to some support from the Government.
    • Employment and Skill Development 139III. To generate greater overall employment, at least availability of requisite number of skilled persons. labour intensive manufacturing industries like This challenge needs to be addressed at the All India textiles and garments, leather and footwear, as well as the State level in a mission mode manner, gems and jewelry, food processing and so on as otherwise the benefits of demographic dividend must be permitted to adjust its labour force, in would be lost. The skill enhancement also leads to response to fluctuations in demand. The focus increased wages for the people and a positive growth should on promoting labour market flexibility outcome for the economy at large. without compromising fairness to labour. 22.54. The employment challenges as reflected aboveAddressing the Problems of Specific needs to be addressed so as to meet the faster andCategories inclusive growth agenda for the Twelfth Plan. Skill22.51. NSS data shows that female employment development should, therefore, occupy centre-stagehas declined both in rural areas and urban areas in in any employment strategy for the Twelfth Plan.recent years. This is a major concern and needs to Section II will discuss the current status of skillbe addressed during the Twelfth Plan period. While development in India, the challenges emerging fromthis could be partly due to improved enrolment of thereon and the road map for skilling the requitegirls and young women in secondary and higher manpower so as to reap the demographic dividendeducation, the effect of increasing household income on one hand and enhance the employability of theon female work participation rates is also being felt. labour force for inclusive growth on the other.As household incomes rise and budget constraintsrelax, women weigh the trade-offs between available SKILL DEVELOPMENT: THE CHALLENGEemployment opportunity and home making more 22.55. Skill development is critical for achievingcarefully. The only way to slow down the declining faster, sustainable and inclusive growth on the onefemale work participation rate is to make the work hand and for providing decent employment oppor-environment more conducive to women, and pro- tunities to the growing young population on thevide for the genuine needs of home-making and other. The demographic window of opportunitychild care. available to India would make India the skill capi- tal of world. India would be in position to meet the22.52. Unemployment among educated people is requirement of technically trained manpower notgoing to be a major issue during the Twelfth Plan only for its growing economy but also of the agingperiod. India is one of the few countries which have advanced economies of the world. Hon’ble Primeeducated unemployed in large numbers. The majorreason is the dearth of vocational and technical Minister has rightly indicated that young populationeducation leading to skill mismatch in the job mar- is an asset only if it is educated, skilled and finds pro-ket. Similarly, the issue of promoting employment ductive employment. If this happens then our dreamopportunities for minorities, SC/ST and disabled of realising India’s potential to grow at 10 per cent orpeople assumes greater importance, and employ- more per annum for a substantial period of time canment oriented education needs to be provided in a become a reality. Boston Consultancy Group’s studymanner that ensures the needs of the vulnerable sec- in 2007 had clearly indicated that by 2020 whiletions of the society are taken care of. India will have surplus of 56 million working people, the rest of the world will encounter a shortage of 47Bridging the Skill Gap million working people. However, skilling this large22.53. There is need for skilling and reskilling the per- and growing young population from an exceed-sons entering the labour force to harness the demo- ingly small base would be a big challenge for India.graphic dividend that India enjoys. While the The skill strategy for the Twelfth Plan would have toenrolment in technical higher education has grown, accordingly model for these skill challenges in termsthe employers continue to complain about non of outreach, quality, systemic/institutional setups,
    • 140 Twelfth Five Year Plancurrent status of skill development efforts and vari- realisation of full potential of the demographic divi-ous economic policies proposed in the Twelfth Plan. dend depends on generation of adequate decent non-farm employment opportunities and up grada-22.56. Structural shifts in the economy in terms tion of skills of existing as well as new entrants to theof increase in contribution of secondary and ter- workforce.ritory sectors to GDP and demographic dividendhave implications for skills development strategy. The Level of Education of the LabourIndiawill have about 63 per cent of its population Forcein the working age group by 2022. China’s demo- 22.58. As per the 66th round of NSS (Table 22.19)graphic dividend would start tapering off by 2015, the general education level of over 50 per cent ofbut India would continue to enjoy it till 2040. India India’s labour force in the age group 15–59 remainsneeds to provide skills and training to its young extremely low. Of the total labour force of 431 mil-workforce if this window of opportunity is not to be lion on UPSS basis about 29 per cent are not evenlost. However, the availability of demographic divi- literate and another about 24 per cent were havingdend varies across the country with wide variation in education up to primary level. Of the balance, aboutNorthern and Southern states. While the Northern 29 per cent had education level up to secondarystates would have young population the southern which included 17.6 per cent with middle level edu-states have already started aging. It emerges from cation. Only about 17 per cent have higher levels ofthe Annexure 22.4 that the Dependency ratio in UP education (including higher secondary, diploma/cer-and Bihar at 1.05 and 1.08 respectively is lower than tificate, graduates, and higher than graduation).the dependency ratio in Tamil Nadu and Kerala at1.74 and 1.79 respectively. This is also lower than the 22.59. As indicated earlier in the chapter the growthdependency ratio at All India Level at 1.33. is expected to lead to transition of labour out of agri- culture into industry and services sectors. However,22.57. The rise in the share of the working-age the low education levels of the labour force, espe-population would lead to increase in demand for cially those engaged in agriculture would makedecent employment opportunities. However, the transition to non-farm sector difficult except as low TABLE 22.19 General Education Level of Labour Force (PS+SS) in the Age Group 15–59 Numbers Share in Labour Force in Age Share in Labour Force (mn.) Group 15–59 per cent (470.1 million) per cent Not literate 125.65 29.14 26.73 Literate without formal schooling 2.12 0.49 0.45 Below primary + Primary 102.38 23.74 21.78 Middle 76.08 17.64 16.18 Secondary 52.39 12.15 11.14 Higher secondary 29.19 6.77 6.21 Diploma/certificate course 6.02 1.40 1.28 Graduate 28.01 6.49 5.96 Graduate and above 9.40 2.18 2.00 Total 431.23 100.00 91.73Source: NSS 66th Round 2009–10.
    • Employment and Skill Development 141paid laborers in the construction industry. In other vocational training. The proportion of workers whowords, there is need to ensure basic skill, that is, at received vocational training was the highest in theleast functional literacy and numeracy among the services sector (33 per cent), followed by manu-labour force. facturing (31 per cent), agriculture (27 per cent), and non-manufacturing and allied activities (9 perThe Share of Vocationally Trained in the cent). But the important thing is that vast majorityLabour Force of workers received non-formal vocational training.22.60. As per the 66th Round of NSS (2009–10), the The proportion of workers with non-formal voca-vocationally trained in the age group 15–59 in the tional training was the highest in agriculture and itlabour force are around 10 per cent of the Labour was primarily in the form of hereditary transfer ofForce in that age group. The absolute number of knowledge. In the non-agricultural sector, the non-those who are receiving formal vocational training is formal vocational training was in the form of on the1.9 mn in 2009–10. An additional 9 mn in the labour job learning. Dependence on non-formal vocationalforce have already received vocational training for- training to such an extent highlights the grosslymally. Finally, an additional 32.7 mn have received inadequate system of vocational training that cur-non-formal vocational training. Thus, the total num- rently exists in the country. What is remarkable isber of those received or receiving vocational training that there is little difference between manufacturingin the labour force (15–59) was 43 mn in 2009–10. and agriculture in the share of those with vocational training who only received non-formal training: 86Educational Qualification and Vocational per cent in agriculture and 91.7 per cent in manufac-Training of Workers turing.). Only in services is the share of those infor-22.61. A look at the profile of workers in by eco- mal training much lower at 56 per cent. Please refernomic sectors in Table 22.20 indicates that the pro- to Table 22.21.portion of illiterate workers is highest in agricultureand allied activities (about 40 per cent), followed by THE SKILL TARGETS FOR TWELFTH PLANthe non-manufacturing sector (33 per cent). 22.63. During the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17), 50 million non-farm employment opportunities are22.62. Overall 10 per cent of the workforce in the proposed to be created and at least equivalent num-age group of 15–59 years received some form of ber of people would be provided skill certification. TABLE 22.20 Estimated Number of Workers (PS+SS in the age group of 15–59) by Level of Education by Sector (millions), 2009–10 Agriculture and Allied Manufacture Non-Manufacture Service Total Not Literate 87.36 9.56 14.42 13.65 124.99 Literate without formal schooling 1.23 0.25 0.21 0.42 2.11 Below primary + Primary 57.62 12.69 12.47 18.32 101.10 Middle 36.20 10.27 8.67 18.98 74.12 Secondary 21.30 7.02 4.27 18.21 50.79 Higher secondary 10.36 3.21 1.45 12.43 27.45 Diploma/certificate course 0.58 1.16 0.53 3.12 5.39 Graduate 3.84 3.01 1.25 17.82 25.93 Graduate and above 0.74 0.73 0.24 7.00 8.70 Total 219.23 47.90 43.50 109.96 420.59Source: Computed from NSS (66th Round), 2009–10.
    • 142 Twelfth Five Year Plan TABLE 22.21 Distribution of Formally and Informally Vocationally Trained Workers (PS+SS in the age group of 15–59) Within Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors (%) in 2009–10 Agriculture and Allied Manufacture Non-Manufacture Service Total Receiving formal vocational training 18.7 16.6 5.5 59.2 100 Received vocational training: Formal 7.8 19.8 8.1 64.4 100 Received vocational training non-formal, 31.9 35.0 11.0 39.7 100 of which: Received vocational training non-formal: 56.9 26.3 4.1 12.6 100 Hereditary Received vocational training non-formal: 26.4 33.5 9.2 30.8 100 Self-learning Received vocational training non-formal: 11.1 45.1 14.5 29.3 100 Learning on the Job Received vocational training non-formal: 22.0 33.6 7.0 37.4 100 others Total 26.8 31.4 8.7 33.1 100Source: Computed from NSS (66th Round), 2009–10.The existing training capacity in the country is 4.5 improving the quality with emphasis on employ-million. It needs to be more than doubled to achieve ment outcomes. The government has, therefore, putthe target. in place a governance structure for implementation of skill initiatives at highest level and the policy forAN OVERVIEW OF THE ELEVENTH PLAN providing an enabling environment and framework22.64. The Eleventh Five Year Plan while focus- to address the challenges of skill development.ing on utilisation of the human resources for eco-nomic growth, recognised that skill building is not National Skill Development Policy, 2009a static process and that individual’s skills needs 22.65. The National Skill Development Policy for-to be upgraded continuously for workforce to mulated in 2009 envisions empowering all indi-remain relevant and employable. To realise this viduals through improved skills, knowledge, andCoordinated Action on Skill Development was initi- nationally and internationally recognised qualifica-ated in 2008 which provides for a three tier gover- tion to gain access to decent employment and ensurenance structure, namely Prime Minister’s Council India’s competitiveness in the global market. Theon Skill Development as apex body for policy direc- Key Features of the Policy for addressing the chal-tion to be supported by National Skill Development lenges in the skill space are given in Box 22.2.Coordination Board (NSDCB) in Planning Commis-sion for coordinating and synergising the efforts of Expansion of Training Capacity—Industrialthe various central ministries that are involved in the Training Institutes MES (VTPs) andskill development and National Skill Development PolytechnicsCorporation for catalysing private sector efforts in 22.66. The training infrastructure in terms of Gov-the skill development. During the Eleventh Plan most ernment Industrial Training institutes as well asof the states have set up state skill development mis- Industrial Training Centers run by private sectorsions for focused and synergised approach for scal- saw a significant increase to reach a level of 9447ing up of skill efforts in respective states. A National in the Eleventh Plan from about 5114 in the begin-Policy on Skill Development was also formulated in ning of the Plan. The seating capacity also increased2009 which focuses on policy coherence, inclusivity, to 13.35 lakhs from 7.42 lakhs in 2007. However, the
    • Employment and Skill Development 143 Box 22.2 Skill Policy for Promoting India’s Competitiveness in the Global Market Objectives • Expanding the outreach by adopting established and innovative approaches to ensure equitable access to training to all irrespective of any gender, regional, social and sectoral divide. • Promoting greater and active involvement of all stakeholders including social partners and forging a strong, symbiotic, private-public partnership in skill development. • Develop a high-quality demand driven skilled workforce/entrepreneur relevant to current and emerging employment market needs. • Enable the establishment of flexible delivery mechanisms that respond to the characteristics of a wide range of needs of stakeholders. • Enable effective coordination between different ministries, the Centre and the States and public and private providers. • Creating institutional mechanism for reaserch, development, quality assurance, examination and certification, affiliation and accreditation and coordination of skill development across the country. Coverage The National Skill Policy aims at promoting the following forms of delivery of skills: institution-based skill development including ITIs/Private ITIs/vocational schools/technical schools/polytechnics/professional colleges; learning initiatives of sectoral skill development organised by different ministries/departments; formal and informal apprenticeships and other types of training by enterprises; training for self-employment/entrepreneurial development; adult learning, retraining of retired or retiring employees and lifelong learning; non-formal training including training by civil society organisations; and e-learning, web-based learning and distance learning. Finance All stakeholders, the Government both at Centre and States, the enterprise—public and private, and the direct beneficiary— the individual, would share the burden of mobilising financial or in-kind resources for skill development.geographic distribution of ITIs/ITCs is remained Training Providers (VTPs) registered and more thanskewed with South and West accounting for 67 per 13.53 lakh persons have been trained/tested up tocent of private and government ITIs catering to 51 31.3.2012.per cent of the population with 60 per cent of seat-ing capacity and North and East accounted for 33 22.68. In addition the quality of training at ITIsper cent of ITIs catering to 49 per cent of popula- has been improved through up gradation andtion with 40 per cent of seating capacity. Even within creation of Centers of Excellence by introducingeach zone, there are significant state-wise variations. multi-skilling courses. This is done under public- private-partnership in the form of Institute Man-22.67. With the objective of expanding the out- agement Committees (IMCs) with representativesreach of the training facilities to school dropouts/ from industries, government, and academic organi-and recognising need for prior learning of workers sations who play a major in terms of providing prac-in the unorganised sector, ‘Modular Employable tical training and identification of emerging skillSkills (MES)’ programme has been initiated by demands in the local industry. An interest free loanMinistry of Labour and Employment wherein short is provided to the IMC with 10 year moratorium andduration courses are provided to prospective train- repayable in annual equal instalments over 20 yearees using both government and private infrastruc- period. The evaluation of such training institutesture. 1402 modules covering more than 60 sectors indicates improvement in physical infrastructure.have been developed, 36 Assessing Bodies empan- However, the shortage of quality trainers remainselled for conducting assessment, 6951 Vocational a cause of concern which needs to be addressed
    • 144 Twelfth Five Year Planurgently by up grading facilities at Model Industrial Undertakings and Departments. It is done throughTraining Institutes (MITIs) and also by capacity six Regional Directorates of Apprenticeship Trainingenhancement for Training of Trainers under DGET. located at Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Faridabad. It covers 15–18 year olds,22.69. The Courses in Polytechnics have been who have completed at least eight years of schooling.diversified to address skilled manpower demand Department of Secondary Education in the Ministryof the service sector besides conventional subjects. of Human Resource Development is respon-Women’s polytechnics continued to offer courses in sible for implementation of the Act in respect ofgarment technology, beauty culture, textile design Graduate, Technician and Technician (Vocational)with modern techniques. The number of polytech- Apprentices. This is done through four Boards ofnics have increased to 1914 during the year 2009–10. Apprenticeship Training located at Kanpur, Kolkata,In addition under the Coordinated Action on Mumbai and Chennai and is targeted at 19 to 22 yearSkill Development Ministry of Human Resource olds who are certificate or diploma or degree hold-Development has taken initiatives to set up 300 poly- ers in engineering and management. The schemetechnics through PPP by the State Governments/ has a focus on manufacturing or non-manufacturingUnion Territories in consultation with CII, FICCI, industry and within that also only the organised sec-ASSOCHAM and PHD chamber of Commerce and tor leaving the unorganised sector completely depen-400 additional Polytechnics by the private sector. dent on informal system of apprenticeship. The progress under the scheme is given in Table 22.22.22.70. For an effective vocational education sys-tem, it is not only necessary to increase the training Vocationalisation of School Educationcapacity, but also maintain a minimum standard 22.72. The vocational education was started inof training. For a mandatory accreditation system, schools in 1985 but the progress under the schemeappropriate institutional structure has to be cre- remained very slow as in the beginning of theated. The details about the increase in the capacities, Eleventh Plan only 3 per cent were enrolled inaccreditation bodies for technical education and for Vocational courses at the secondary level. Theuniversities and so on is given in Education chapter. Department of Secondary Education has revamped its existing scheme of Vocationalisation of SecondaryApprenticeship Training Scheme (ATS) School Education in 2011 which envisages strength-22.71. The Apprentice Training Scheme is imple- ening of 10000 existing secondary schools withmented by Ministries of Labour and Employment vocational stream and establishment of 100 newand Human Resource Development under the vocational schools through State Governments. TheApprentices Act, 1961. About 254 groups of indus- scheme envisages provision of assistance to runtries are covered under the Act and about 27000 500 vocational schools under PPP mode. There is aestablishments engage apprentices. DGE&T is provision for in-service training of 7 days for 2000responsible for implementation of the Act in respect existing vocational education teachers and induc-of Trade Apprentices in the Central Government tion training of 30 days for 1000 new vocational TABLE 22.22 Apprentices in India (Under the Apprenticeship Training Act, 1961) Trade Apprentices (Mole) Graduate, Technician and Technician (Vocational) Apprentices (MHRD) Year Seat Available Seat Utilised Per Cent Seat Available Seat Utilised Per Cent in Lakhs in Lakhs Utilised in Lakhs in Lakhs Utilised Upto March 2011 3.37 2.21 65.57 1.02 0.65 63.74Source: Ministry of Labour and Employment.
    • Employment and Skill Development 145education teachers. 250 competency based modules the national Occupational Standards for differentare proposed to be developed for each individual levels of jobs in their respective sectors, formulatevocational course. The revision in curriculum is certification and accreditation norms, strive to cre-mandatory once in three years to ensure that the ate knowledge repository on current requirement ofcurriculum is guided by needs of the industry. A skill development in the industry, assess the supplyseparate vocational cell has been established within of skilled workers, identify the demand and supplythe Central Board of Secondary Education. There gap in each sector, and identify trends and futureis also provision for assistance to reputed NGOs to requirements.run short duration innovative vocational educa-tion programmes. All the components and activities Training Programme for the Poor andwould be guided by the National Skills Qualifications VulnerableFramework (NQF). 22.76. Ministry of Rural Development has launched schemes for empowering young people from poor22.73. The approach so far has been to create stand- and the weaker sections of the society by impartingalone vocational education facilities. The need of the skills and providing gainful employment includ-hour is that secondary schools in every panchayat ing ‘Special Projects for Placement Linked Skillcan be used for vocational training outside the school Development of Rural BPL Youth’ under Swarnahours. A formal system of vocational education cer- Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY-SP) andtification needs to be evolved to certify students and RUDSETI for setting up a dedicated Skills devel-youths to acquire skills through this method. This opment infrastructure in each district in the coun-would require adequate and suitable infrastructure try aimed towards entrepreneurial development.to impart the vocational training. The SGSY has been restructured and called NRLM/ Aajeevika which focusses on harnessing the innatePromoting Public Private Partnerships capabilities of the poor and complements them with22.74. The Eleventh Plan has seen a paradigm shift capacities (information, knowledge, skills, tools,in skill development strategy wherein Public Private finance and collectivisation) to participate in thePartnership model has been encouraged in the skill growing economy of the country. Ministry has alsodevelopment. Besides involving private sector in initiated Himayat a placement linked skill develop-upgrading the capacity in the existing institutions ment scheme for youth from Jammu and Kashmir.both at the ITI and Polytechnic level, an institutional Himayat scheme will cover 1 lakh youth from J&Kstructure in the form of National Skill Development in the next 5 years and will be implemented throughCorporation (NSDC) has been put in place to competent training providers, from the private sec-catalyse the private sector efforts. The NSDC pro- tor and non-profit Organisations. The training pro-vides soft loans to the private partners for undertak- viders for placement linked skill training will giveing skill activity. NSDC works in around 365 districts a 75 per cent placement guarantee for the trainedin 28 states and 2 Union Territories in both organ- youth. Placement for youth will be provided all overised as well unorganised sectors. NSDC along with the country, within J&K and outside. Under SEE J&Kits partners have trained over 1.8 lakh people in the Scheme, different training strategies will be used foryear 2011–12 with an aggregate placement record of diverse groups of youth—school dropouts, dropoutsaround 79 per cent. of XII class level, and those who have had college education. Ministry has also initiated Parvaaz—a22.75. To bring together all stakeholders, namely pilot programme on ‘Comprehensive Skills andindustry, training providers and the academia. Education Program for Rural BPL Minority Youth’NSDC has been catalysing the setting up of indus- with the objective of mainstream the minority BPLtry led Sectoral Skill Councils (SSCs) for identified youth of the country by empowering them with edu-priority sectors. Till March 2012, 11 such SSCs have cation, skills and employment. This would help inbeen set up. These. SSCs are expected to lay down bridging social divide.
    • 146 Twelfth Five Year PlanSkill Development in the Unorganised/ ISSUES AND PRIORITIES FOR THEInformal Sector TWELFTH PLAN22.77. As per 66th NSSO round 2009–2010, 84 per 22.80. There is an urgent need to mainstream skillcent of the total workforce was in the in the unorgan- formation in the formal education system and at theised sector and 92 per cent of in informal employ- same time innovative approaches for the skill cre-ment (Table 22.5). The sector is heterogeneous which ation outside the formal education system. Althoughcut across all economic activities in rural and urban the Coordinated Action on Skill Development hasareas. It contributes about 60 per cent of the GDP. brought about a paradigm shift in addressing theThe unorganised sector is dominated by workers in issues of relevance in skill development, the gaps inmicro enterprises, unpaid family members, casual the skill development are to be identified so as tolabourers, home based workers, migrant labourers, achieve the objectives in terms of quantity, quality,out of school youth and in need of skills, farmers and outreach and mobility while building on the founda-artisans in rural areas. These groups form a bottom tion. The workforce not only needs to be trained toof skill pyramid who have low skills, poor productiv- meet the requirement of all sectors and all kinds ofity and low income. jobs but also linking them to job opportunities and market realities. This would facilitate transformation22.78. The skill profile among this labour force in of young population into a productive workforceyoung group is distressing. The key issues of skill engaged in economic activities and not unproductivedevelopment in unorganised sector include inad- activity. Some of the areas that merit attention are:equacy of current training programme to meet therequirement of large workforce in the informal sec- • Since over 90 per cent of India’s labour force istor. The formal training system because of its entry engaged in the non-formal sector, the most impor-requirement and urban buyers needs does not offer tant challenge would be to reach out to this sec-skills to people with limited education and when it tor. An approach would need to be worked out todoes, it is not appropriate to those in the rural non- cater to the skilling needs of this very large sectionfarm sectors. Most workers continue to learn on the of workforce. Innovative approaches of work-job informally at their place of work from other low ing through grass-root level organisations such asskilled qualified people. The Modular Employable panchayati raj bodies would need to be considered.Skill Programme of the Ministry of Labour; STEP • Putting in place a National Skills Qualificationof Women and Child Development; Himayat, Framework which lays down different level ofParvaaz and NRLM of Ministry Rural Development; skills required by industry, which allows multipleCommunity Polytechnic Development Programme points of entry and exit, which recognises priorof Human Resource Development and Programmes learning, and which allows for mobility acrossof the Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enter- different levels, as well as between vocational andprises Ministry are some of the programmes that are technical training on the one hand, and generalbenefitting this segment of the workforce. However, education on the other.given the scale of the problem much more needs to • To put in place a permanent institutional frame-be done in terms of up scaling the training capacities; work, entrusted with the requisite authority andrecognition of prior learning, functional literacy and resources, and which is responsible solely for skillso on. development in the country. • Students belonging to the economically weaker22.79. Besides these initiatives, sectoral ministries of sections need to be supported in terms of accessTextiles, Woman and Child Development, Tourism, to bank loans on soft terms that are linked to theirHealth and Family welfare, Agriculture, MSME, placement as is the case in the higher educationUrban Development and so on have also initiated loans.large number of programmes to address the training • To increase the training capacity in the country byrequirement of their sectors and groups. adopting myriad approaches—such as facilitating
    • Employment and Skill Development 147 capacity creation in public private partnerships and in sectors which have been identified to offer as being done by NSDC, allowing available gov- skill gaps. ernment infrastructure to be used for training • Making Skills aspirational among youth, through by both the public and private sector, running advocacy campaigns aimed at social change. training institutions in multiple shifts, increas- These efforts would be complemented by neces- ing the number of trainers by adding to Teachers’ sary changes in the regulatory framework to make Training capacity in the country, and by making it it economically rewarding for persons to become attractive for qualified persons to opt for becom- skilled—such as through providing sufficient dif- ing trainers. As part of this approach, the possi- ferential in the minimum wages for unskilled, bility of using the infrastructure, equipment and semi-skilled and skilled workers. manpower of sick public sector units would also be explored. 22.81. The aim should be to increase the percent-• Further building on the potential of the Modular age of the workforce which has received formal skills Employable Skill Programme by ensuring that through vocational education and training from combination of modules sufficient to guarantee 10.0 per cent at present to 25.0 per cent by the end employability are delivered to the trainees intro- of the Twelfth Plan. This would mean substantial ducing more course modules and strengthening increase in the skill training capacity in the next five of assessment and certification systems for quick years. delivery.• Developing a cogent and sustainable approach 22.82. The approach to the Twelfth Five Year Plan has identified Priority sectors for employment gen- to provide for industry participation in skill eration and skill development (see Box 22.3 below). development, particularly in the field of develop- ing course content which is aligned to industry 22.83. The key challenges/areas requiring attention requirements. Similarly, accreditation and certifi- are discussed below. cation standards to be developed with industry’s active participation through the medium of Sector Quality, Quantity, Equity and Systemic Skill Councils. Reforms• Developing the Labour Market Information 22.84. The priorities/challenges in Skill Development System for real time information on sectoral basis and Training as indicated in the foregoing para- to help trainees and make training relevant. graphs can be grouped under the following: (i) qual-• Making necessary changes to the regulatory frame- ity and relevance, (ii) quantity, (iii) expansion of work governing the employment of apprentices so outreach and equity, and (iv) systemic reforms. that this avenue is able to contribute significantly to the skill development effort in the country. To Quality Issues achieve this, industry needs to be made an active 22.85. Quality Issues: Quality and relevance of skill partner, and a collaborative approach with indus- development are key to India’s global competitive- try would be adopted. Such an approach would ness as well as improving an individual’s access to permit using the potential offered by MSME units decent employment. To increase the relevance with also. Through the use of policy and other tools, future labour market including promotion of self- to encourage the creation of training capacity in employment, soft skills and entrepreneurship skills a manner that dovetails with the population and need to be made integral parts of skill development. sectoral requirements. The current lop-sided geo- graphical distribution of training facilities and 22.86. Mismatch in demand and supply: The second the concentration of training facilities in only a major issue in skill development is mismatch between few sectors would be corrected so that training the demand and supply of skills. The problem has capacity is created in the areas of high population arisen due to supply driven skill delivery system.
    • 148 Twelfth Five Year Plan Box 22.3 Priority Sectors Identified in the Twelfth Plan Sectors that will create large employment; Textiles and Garments, Leather and Footwear, Gems and Jewellery, Food Processing Industries, Handlooms and Handicrafts. Sectors that will deepen technology capabilities in Manufacturing: Machine Tools, IT Hardware and Electronics. Sectors that will provide Strategic Security: Telecommunications equipment, Aerospace Shipping, Defence Equipment, Manufacturing Technology Sectors for Energy Security: Solar Energy, Clean Coal Technologies, Nuclear power generation, Capital equipment for India’s Infrastructure Growth: Heavy electrical equipment, Heavy transport, earth moving and mining equipment Sectors where India has competitive advantage: Automotive Sectors, Pharmaceutical and Medical Equipment, Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Sector: The base for the Manufacturing Sector—employment and enterprise generation Source: Draft Approach Paper from Twelfth Five Year Plan.Presently the labour market is facing a strange situ- skill gaps, preparation of Skill Development Plansation, where on the one hand, an employer does not and establishment of well-structured sector specificget manpower with requisite skills and on the other, Labour Market Information System to assist plan-millions of job seekers do not get employment. Such ning and delivery of training.a mismatch compromises potential economic devel-opment. This requires: Quantity Issues 22.88. Limited capacity: The first major roadblock• Establishing a mechanism for providing access to in expanding the outreach is our limited capacity information on skill inventory and skill map on to absorb all those joining the Labour Market. As real time basis. per Twelfth Plan projections about 25 million new• National Qualification Framework to ensure entrants would join the labour force in the next both vertical and horizontal mobility and clarity 5 years. of career choices, options and acceptability of the qualifications. 22.89. Shortage of Trainers: Training of trainers is• Building skills training as a mainstream and a key component of the skill development. There is inclusive programme to be promoted by creat- an acute shortage of trainers not only in the existing ing a formal arrangement among the three key trades but also in the proposed new trades. There is stakeholders in the delivery process: Government, an urgent need for improving the quality and size Industry and Skills providers. of trainer resource. Skill up-gradation of trainers,• Focus on International Collaborations to have their quality assurance, and improvement of their better understanding of the fast changing skills status in society are important to improve the qual- demands and provide skills solutions that trans- ity of training. It is the pedagogical expertise of the pose the models and practices and Reverse trans- trainer which ensures that the learner gets a whole- fer the best practices from India to world. some experience, understands the standards and is fully equipped to apply the concepts learnt during22.87. Industry participation and Setting up of Sector his employment. The Training of Trainers henceSkills Council: In order to make the skill develop- becomes a major challenge. As per the NSDC reportment system relevant and driven by labour market on Education sector there is an incremental require-signals, it is necessary to increase participation of ment of 8664000 teachers and trainers between 2008industries through Sector Skill Councils. Functions and 2022. This fund support should not only allowof SSCs could include inter alia, identification of the State Governments to retain the trainers for the
    • Employment and Skill Development 149schools and other institutions but also invite par- vocational training setups and so on can stream rel-ticipation of many more people into the training evant information on a common ICT platform andindustry. benefit there from.Expansion of Outreach and Equity 22.93. Testing Bodies: The number of Industrial22.90. India’s large geographical territory comprising Training Institutes (ITIs) and Polytechnics haveof 638365 villages, 4378 towns in 35 states/UTs and increased significantly over the past years. Also,640 districts with difficult terrain and varying socio- with the introduction of modular pattern of train-economic conditions make the implementation of ing, the number of examinations conducted hasstandardised skill-training a huge challenge. 11 most also increased. All these activities have increasedpopulous States like Bihar, (with a population greater the volume of the work involved, resulting in delaythan that of Germany), Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, in certification. The successful trainees have to waitChattisgarh comprising of 80 per cent of India’s pop- for months to obtain the certificates. The assessmentulation with little access to skills trainingneed to be and certification bodies could be separated for facili-taken up on priority... About 90 per cent of the 15–59 tating early employment outcomes.year olds have had no vocational training. Of the10 per cent who received vocational training, only LEARNING FROM OTHER COUNTRIES2 per cent received formal vocational training. 22.94. As noted above, skill devlopment and voca-Therefore, access to skills programmes is a major tional education is a critical area of concern in thechallenge. Moreover, many emerging fields are com- Indian context. As far as enrolment in vocationaling up for which vocational training is needed (such education and training courses is concerned, Indiaas Nano Technology, Green Initiatives, and so on) has net enrolment of 3.5 million per year, as com- pared to 90 million in China and 11 million in US.so as to maintain relevance with recent changes. India can learn from the strengths of the vocationalThe need is to implement the customised training education and training systems of other countries,depending on the geographical differences, capaci- namely aactive participation of industry and employ-ties of the local people and requirement of the indus- ers to map current and future skill needs; sharing oftry. Providing opportunities of skill development to work benches by the Industry; creation of asset bankall sections of society irrespective of any economic, of infrastructure to be used both by the private andsocial, regional, gender, spatial and sectoral divide is the public sector; capacity to effectively train its largenecessary to achieve faster and inclusive growth and young population in Apprenticeship programmefor development of a just and equitable society. through use of MSME clusters; Training of Trainers including testing and certification of vocationalSystemic Reforms teachers may be adopted; Incentives for Industry22.91. National Skills Qualifications Framework: in terms of tax exemptions in lieu of training andCurrently there is no system in place which provides extensive use of ICT.a framework to whole skill development and trainingsphere. There are no standards set in many areas cre- LEARNING FROM DIFFERENT STATESating problems for all the stakeholders. It is therefore INITIATIVESneeded to implement and run NSQF effectively. 22.95. The skill development has been a priority area for government at the State level as well. The22.92. Labour Market Information System: Dynamic States are implementing Central as well as their ownand relevant inputs are important for taking schemes which take into account the State issues.informed decisions. Presently, there is no system Some of the good practices in terms of Skill Voucher,where the stakeholders of employment and training, multi skill development centres, addressing needs ofnamely Government, Industry, Job seekers, private non literates and dropouts and so on are addressing
    • 150 Twelfth Five Year Plandifferent challenges, namely expanding outreach, Permanent Institutional Structure for Drivingimproving quality, ensuring mobility and flexibility the Skill Development Agendacan be replicated and scaled up to address the issues 22.98. There is need for an overarching institutionalat national level. The key learning’s from different structure that has the authority and responsibilityStates best practices are: to coordinate the skill development activities of all the other agencies engaged in the same—both at the1. Emphasis on outcome and not infrastructure. central and state levels, and to also engage with non-2. Government should ensure level playing field for government players, including the corporate and private providers vis a vis public institutions. NGO sectors. Accordingly, setting up of a National3. Provide flexible schedule and multi skilling at Skill Development Authority is being considered. own time. The proposed Authority may discharge the functions4. Success through innovation in training and outlined in Box 22.5. development.5. Continuous linkage with industry. National Skill Qualification Frame work6. Encourage Public Private Partnerships. (NSQF)7. Enhance choice for trainees. 22.99. The national policy on skill development8. Create awareness among the prospective trainee mandates the necessity of qualification framework and employers. to address inter-alia the issues of the fragmentation in the skill system both at the central and the stateA ROADMAP FOR THE TWELFTH FIVE level; lack of uniformity in nomenclature of courses,YEAR PLAN duration, curriculum design, content and examina-22.96. It emerges from above that at present there is tion system of various TVET courses alongwith rec-low penetration of vocational education and train- ognition of prior learning; easy entry and Exit foring in India and skills are yet to become aspirational students between vocational and general educationamong the youth. In order to realise the vision of stream as well as to progression in vocational educa-the PM Council on Skill Development the need of tion like in the general education and facilitate mobil- ity between programmes and institutions across thethe hour is to formulate appropriate policies and country. The system of multi-entry and multi-exitProgrammes that lead to scaling up of skill efforts will enable students to acquire some skills after fin-improve quality and relevance of vocational educa- ishing compulsory general schooling, then enter thetion through active industry involvement; Promote labour market and gain some work experience andPublec Private Partnership in skill development; return to the Vocational Education and Trainingfacilitae mobility bewteen gweneral and vocational system to continue their vocational education/train-stream; and craetion of credible certification and ing. The system would facilitate credit accumulationassessment system with industry participation. The and transfer which would convert all forms of learn-success of skill initiatives depends on creation of ing in higher certificate/diploma and degree. It wouldawareness among youth and adequate availbility of be particularly beneficial for relatively poor students,financial resources. since it would enable them to continue in either the vocational education stream of the secondary system22.97. In order to address the issues relating to quan- or the ITI system, rather than dropping out from thetity and quality improvement; expansion of outreach educational or vocational training space altogether.and equity and systemic and institutional reformsa time bound action plan in terms of well-defined 22.100. It would facilitate the training system toimplementation and operational strategies with be in sync with Industry demand and recognitionfocus on the delivery of the skill is the need of the of prior learning. The certification of prior learnthour. The key strategies that need to be follow are skills would improve the employability and raisegiven in the Box 22.4. the income and also dignity of such skilled workers.
    • Employment and Skill Development 151 Box 22.4 Strategies for Expanding and Scaling up the Skill Development in Twelfth Plan Implementation Strategies: • Expanding outreach to bridge all divides; • Improving quality through better infrastructure, new machines and technology and trainers; • Defining standards for outcome driven training programme and regular monitoring; • introducing flexibility by adopting global standards and dynamic processes to suit the requirement of both national and international users; • Developing strong partnerships between all stake holders, encouraging private partners through incentives; • creating enabling environment and Monitoring the training Programme to achieve outcomes. Operational Strategies: • Replicability and scalability; Strengthening existing centers; • Linking training with Outcome; • Affordability across economic levels; • Stress on Inclusivity and Technology and innovation; • Flexibility in course content; Qualification standards; Quality trainers; and • Focus on delivery. Box 22.5 Major Functions of Proposed National Skill Development Authority 1. To launch a National Skill Development Mission to, inter alia, skill 8 crore including at least 3 crore persons by proposed Authority during the Twelfth Plan through appropriate strategies, including support to State Governments/State Skill Missions, and for active engagement with the private sector, NGOs and so on. 2. To lay down strategies, financing and governance models to expedite skill development activities and coordinate standards of skill development working in close coordination with regulators concerned like NCVT, AICTE, Sector Skill Councils, and so on. 3. To assist Central Ministries in enhancing their skill development capacities. 4. To act as a nodal agency for guiding State Skill Development Missions and providing funds to them to increase level of skill development activities. 5. To act as the nodal agency for the launch and operations of National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) and keeping the NSQF constantly updated and ensuring its implementation of the same. 6. To monitor, evaluate and analyse the outcomes of various schemes and programmes relating to skill development through a technology-enabled national monitoring system, and suggest/initiate mid-course corrections, additions and closure of parts or whole of any particular programme/scheme. 7. Promote greater use of Technology in the area of Skill Development. 8. To oversee the advocacy campaign to ensure that aspirational aspect and enrolment in skill development programmes continue to rise. 9. To advise as well as take required measures in various matters related to skill development like training of trainers, apprenticeship training, assessment, accreditation, certification systems and national occupational standards and so on. 10. Discharge any other functions and assume any other responsibility related to skill development as may be assigned to it by the Government of India. 11. Overseeing and supporting the on-going skill development efforts of Central and State/UTs Ministries and Departments and ensure that the estimated training target of 8 crore during the Twelfth Plan is achieved.The assessment of competency and certification will and certification. To conclude, the NSQF wouldenable informally trained workers currently in the addressthe issue of mobilityboth verticle and hori-workforce to either continue to acquire further cer- zontal by establishing the equivalence in generaltificates by entering the VET system, or alternatively, and vocational education; reflect the labour marketreturning to the labour market with such recognition requirement for skill training through involvement
    • 152 Twelfth Five Year Planof industry in curriculum development, certification f) Replication of successful models,and so on; encourage multi entry and multi exit and g) Provision of mobile training vans for larger outrecognition of prior learning. reach, h) Each MSME cluster can act a centre for appren-Skilling Workers in the Unorganised/Informal ticeship training,Sector i) Developing an eco-system for improvement in22.101. As indicated in para 19.77 84 per cent of the the success rate of training in self-employmentworkers are employed in the unorganised sector and or job employment through the process of92 per cent are engaged in informal employment. Train—Loan-Link—Support,Although different Ministries/Departments have j) Developing a pool of certified trainers with ade-taken initiatives however, the scale of problem in the quate technical competency, andheterogeneous sector dominated by workers in the k) Developing a transparent system for conduct ofmicro enterprises, unpaid family members, farmers, the programmes, registration of participants andartisans, out of school youths, casual, migrant and so on and putting it in the public domain.home based workers is huge and requires more con-certed effort to improve their skills. It is estimated Fostering Public Private Partnershipsthat there are about 7000 clusters in the country of 22.103. Governments have taken number of stepswhich more than 6000 are classified as micro enter- to catalyse the involvement of private sector in theprise clusters and around 650 are manufacturing skill development efforts which range from settingclusters. The skill up gradation can be undertaken in up of institutional framework of NSDC, setting upclusters which are providing informal employment. Industrial Management Committees for up gra-The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium enter- dation of infrastructure, adoption of institutes byprises is operating schemes to develop such clusters industrial houses and so on. However, given the scaleto become globally competitive as well as to develop of the challenge to train 500 million skilled man-entrepreneurs. There is need to adopt the district power by 2022, there is need for greater participationlevel programme with the clusters. The skill devel- on the part of private sector both in terms of tech-opment in the unorganised sectors requires more. nology transfer and actual training both trainees andThere are 2.6 crore MSMEs in the country which are trainers. This may involve extension of financial sup-providing employment to 6 crore persons and man- port to the private industrial training institutions inufacture more than 6000 products. It contributes modernisation of their infrastructure and expansion.about 45 per cent of the total manufacturing output, The industries need to be involved in curriculum40 per cent share in the exports and contributes 8 per design to make it more relevant and also in assess-cent to the GDP. ment and certification. Permitting the private sector to use the unutilised/under-utilised capacity created22.102. To promote skill development in unorgan- within the government system would be anotherised sector following issues need to be addressed: cost-effective way to foster the PPP approach. The NGOs can be effective partner for reaching out effec-a) To upscale the training capacities from the pres- tively in the remote and difficult areas. ent capacity of trainingb) Skill up-gradation and certification, Strengthening and Revamping thec) Recognition of prior learning, Institutional Structured) Spreading skill development activities through- 22.104. The introduction of skill framework would out the country, particularly in the backward require re- engineering of existing institutions and areas and the areas affected by extremism and the building of new ones. There is need for a perma- reach the weaker sections of the society through nent institutional structure as indicated in Para 19.98 setting up of Skill Development Centres (SDCs), which can act as focal point for coordinating thee) Provision of literacy and basic education, efforts of different Central Ministries/Departments
    • Employment and Skill Development 153and state governments in the field of skill devel- the centre (Generated on-line by TTC system) to theopment. The proposed new Authority would be candidate, printing of trade certificate by NBTTCresponsible for policy formulation, assisting the skill and sending the same by courier in a pre-defineddevelopment mission in capacity enhancement and service level agreement with a logistics partner andpromoting NGOs and Private sector involvement in Provision of an electronic certificate and giving legalthe skill development. sanctity to it.22.105. Another critical set of new institutions that Expanding the Out Reach to Under-servedhave to be built are the Sector Skill Councils. For Areas and North Eastern States through PPPidentifying skills availability and for scaling up skill 22.108. There is need to set up ITIs and Skill develop-development efforts in different sectors. The Sector ment centers in the under-served Blocks of the coun-Skill Councils can act as a crucial means to promote try. MOLE is proposing to set up these institutionsindustry ownership and acceptance of skill devel- under PPP mode in the Kaushal Vikas Yojana. Theopment standards. The role of existing institutions scheme when implemented would create 1500 ITIssuch as the National Council of Vocational Training and 5000 Skill Development Centers in the country.(NCVT, currently part of the MoLE’s Directorate- This would take skill development to the doorstepGeneral of Employment and Training); the establish- of the rural population. Skill Development Centersment of new Regional Directorates of Apprenticeship would provide training on short term modular basisTraining; expanding capacity for instructor training; course certification system. In addition women skilland so on, need to be reviewed. development would also be promoted through open- ing of new Regional vocational Training Institutes22.106. The National Skill Development Policy has which would enable them to earn decent employ-envisaged re-engineering of National Council of ment and gain economic independence. There is alsoVocational Training (NCVT) to play a greater role need to set up training institutes in SC/ST, minorityin the field of skill development. Presently NCVT is and weaker section of the society dominated areas tothe apex advisory body looking after various func- facilitate their participation in the skill developmenttions like trade testing and certification, prescribing for enhancing their employability.standards in respect of syllabi and so on for trainingprovided by the ITI’s Government and Private, The 22.109. Youth from low-income families in ruralNCVT needs to be given autonomy with its own sec- and semi-urban areas are unable to access vocationalretariat through a bill in the parliament. The minis- training as they cannot afford to pay the fees nor-try of Labour and Employment has already initiated mally charged by training institutes located primar-a process to this effect in the Eleventh Plan. ily in urban centres. The existing framework, in both public and private sectors, currently provides formal22.107. In addition there is need to have additional skill development opportunities to about 1.4 millionTrade Testing Capacity an independent—National persons annually, which is far less than the projectedBoard of Trade Testing, to avoid inordinate delay requirement. Since the current policy and regulatoryin issuance of certificates to the students for speedy framework will not be able to attract the requiredemployment. This centre needs to be independ- investment into this sector, there is an urgent needent of the delivery system making assessment more to create an enabling framework that would attractrelevant, transparent and swift. The center would private participation through Public Private Partner-design and conduct all India Trade Tests; after evalu- ship (PPP).ation entered the results into the centralised ‘TradeTesting Certification’ system which would be devel- 22.110. As part of the Government’s initiative tooped by the NBTTC and accessible through intranet/ augment the programmes for skill development, theVPN based internet by each centre. The NBTTC Prime Minister had announced setting up of 1500 ITIswould ensure issuance of provisional certificate by through Public Private Partnership (PPP) during the
    • 154 Twelfth Five Year PlanEleventh Plan. The scheme could not be launched in would be a serious bottleneck in enhancing skillthe Eleventh Plan and it is now proposed to take up development target. To address this problem, the3000 ITIs during the Twelfth Plan in blocks which facilities of Model ITIs are proposed to be upgraded.are unserved, that is, no government approved ITT This initiative would add further capacity to bridgeis operating in such blocks. For this purpose, the the gap between the demand and the existing infra-Central Government has prepared a scheme for pri- structure in place. The output from such an initia-vate participation in ITIs under the Kaushal Vikas tive would be 1200 trained instructors per year at theYojana (KVY). The objective of the scheme is to set rate of 300 trained instructors/MITI every year. As ofup 3000 ITIs through (PPP) for skill development of now there are 4 MITI. There is need for a setting upabout 30 lakh youth, of which 15 lakh would be from of dedicated trainers skill institute.socially and economically disadvantaged categories. 22.114. In addition the industry may be involved in22.111. This scheme aims at optimising on the training the trainers. This can be done through vari-respective strengths of the public and private sector ous fellowship programmes, industry exposure toentities engaged in skill development. Mobilising the faculty to match the emerging needs of the economy,requisite investments, setting up first-rate ITIs, ensur- flexible teaching and cross movement of faculty toing efficiency in operations and management, and industry and industry personnel to institutions toenabling post-training employment will be the pri- enhance quality of teaching learning process; activemary responsibilities of private sector entities while participation of industry in training programmesthe Government will provide the enabling frame- conducted in ITIs and other technical institutions;work and the requisite financial support especially encouraging employment of retired trained man-in respect of students from socially and economically power from the defense forces, employ skilled work-less privileged families. The proposed model would ers from the industry and also retired instructors. Inaccelerate this much needed skill development pro- addition there is need to strengthen the capacities ofgramme and not only provide gainful opportunities the line ministries and institutes involved in curricu-to a large number of aspiring youth, but also meet the lum development.growing deficit of skilled personnel. Reforming the Apprenticeship System22.112. There is need to enhance the training 22.115. The Apprenticeship system is in need ofinfrastructure in the North East also to enhance major reform in terms of enhancement in bothemployability and competencies and promotion physical and human infrastructure. There is a needof self-employment and entrepreneurship amongst to develop a centralised institutional mechanism atyouth. The existing programmes of MoLE and the RDATs and a matching Web Portal at the dis-DONER needs to be strengthened. Ministry of trict/state/national level with transparency in theLabour and employment proposes to initiate process of filing applications for apprentice training.schemes to cater to these requirement. The web-based Portal would enable the employers to publish their trade-wise requirements of apprenticesTraining of Trainers and facilitate Apprentices to apply online. These22.113. The demand for trained instructors is huge processes may be facilitated by the LMIS. The MoLEas compared with the capacity of instructor train- is proposing the Amendment in the Apprenticeshiping of DGE&T field institutes. Presently, the gross Act, 1961. The norms relating to engagement ofrequirement of instructors is 79000. The additional skilled workers as apprentices under the Apprentice-requirement of instructor per annum is about 20000 ship Act 1961 need to be made flexible. The stipendwhereas the present instructor training capacity of paid may be enhanced linked to minimum wages forabout 2000 per annum which is inadequate to meet the trade at the state level. Industry should be free tothe demand. There is huge gap and in many insti- pay higher stipend to apprentices if it feels so. Giventutes there are 60 to 70 per cent vacancies which the need to train larger numbers as apprentices for
    • Employme