Minerals in India- Key Strategies in the 12th Five Year Plan
MINERAL WEALTH AND MINING– Mineral assets play a direct role in the growth and prosperity and hence substantial investments is essential for exploration of these assets through different agencies having the requisite skills– India having 2.4% of the global area, sustains 17.5% (Census-2011) of the world population.– Our per capita consumption of minerals and its products is one of the lowest in the world.
• India has vast mineral potential but insufficient exploration technology.• The demand for various metals and minerals will grow 4-5 times over the next 15 years (9- 11% growth per annum).• The aspiration of the mining sector in the GDP is to increase from the current contribution of 2.3% to around 7-8% over the next 20 years.• The mining sector needs to play a major role if India has to realize the potential growth of 9% per annum in the coming years.
Key Objectives Under the TwelfthPlan• The mining sector is strategically very important for India. The key goals that need to be met for this space are:• Raw material security: for all the user industries• Enhanced co-production of by-product metals for technology metals and energy critical metals• Ensuring sustainability of the environment
Key RecommendationsA. Strengthening of Institutions• Equip and position public agencies like the Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited, Directorates of States and other organisations to conduct detailed exploration at the State’s expense to enable the State Government to adopt a bidding route for exploration to a larger extent.• Position GSI to emphasise on geospatial and multi- disciplinary work for the benefit of science, society and the nation.• An overarching mechanism to provide policy direction for geosciences is a must.
B. Encouraging R&D and Technology Development• Engage IBM to drive process of giving special focus in select areas of mining.• Strengthen the Mineral Process Laboratories of IBM and other research organisations must before the development of processes for beneficiation, elemental analysis of ores.• Inspire concessionaires to undertake deposit-specific process R&D.
C. Institutional Mechanism• Develop an institutional mechanism for the direct lab scale research to commercialisation for the production of materials of high purity,• Reorient focus of organisations like Non- Ferrous Technology Development Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research• Development and Design Centre on process R&D for Technology and Energy Critical Metals.
• Creation of Infrastructure• Skill Development• Ensuring Full and Productive Coverage of Survey and Exploration• A Database of Mineral Resources Needs to be Developed• Ensuring Availability of Financial Resources• Policy Changes in Line with the Overall Strategy
Ensuring Environmental Sustainability of Mining• Promote a scientific and efficient process of small scale mining of small deposits• Regulations related to safeguarding the ecology must be ensured and their compliance strengthened.• A cluster approach must be adopted with a single lease model for multiple small deposits within a defined area• Undertake all mining undertaken within the parameters of a comprehensive Sustainable Development Framework• Under such a framework, no mining lease should be granted without a proper mining plan including an approved environment• management plan.• For this purpose, the IBM must acquire the expertise to approve Environment Management Plans and conduct• Environmental Impact Assessments. Thus, the IBM should be able to position itself as the internal environmental regulator as well as the official mining regulator for the sector.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA Baseline Geoscience Data GenerationMain ActivitiesA. GROUND SURVEYS Systematic Geological Mapping (GM) Specialized Thematic Mapping (STM) Geochemical Mapping (GCM) Geophysical Mapping (GPM)B. REMOTE SENSING AND AERIAL SURVEYS Geomorphological Survey Hyperspectral Survey Airborne Mineral Survey Photogeology and Remote SensingC. MARINE AND COASTAL SURVEY Marine Survey Coastal Survey Marine Geotechnics
Strategy (XIIth Plan) Adaptation of the state-of-the-art technology toexplore deep seated / concealed deposits. Intensive search for new mineral findings based onbaseline data generated by GSI and other agencies. Complete NGCM and National Aeromagnetics andHSM of OGP by end of XII Plan and rest of the countryby end of XIII Plan. Intensive search on priority basis for minerals inwhich the country is deficient or scarce. The strategy requires application of differentadvance techniques for regional and detailedexploration.
Strategy for XII Plan1. Thrust for quality data generation by infusing technology Field laptop or table PC, GPS, GSI portal accessibility, digital toposheets with facility for data capture using wireless network mobile mapping van with portable generator. GPM High precision gravimeter and total field magnetometer. Geomorphological mapping- acquiring new generation satellite data preparation of DEM for lineament detection. Hyperspectral survey- procurement of softwares, space and airborne hyperion data with spectral range- seek help from USGS and Australian source through World bank. Acquisition of advance filtering image processing technics for enhansment of magnetic and radiometric data collected in high accuracy sensors from aeromag survey.2. Integrated thematic mapping is proposed. Surface mapping with multi disciplinary inputs. Undertaking GPM over the NGCM covered areas obtaining complimentary gravity and magnetic data. Digital overlay of multidisciplinary data for 3D modeling to locate concealed/ deep seated ore bodies.
Thrust Areas (XII Plan)GSI to complete geophysical and geochemical mapping expeditiouslyThe Geomorphological and Lineament Mapping (GMM) on 1:50,000Complete National Geochemical mapping (NGCM) of the ObviousGeological Potential (OGP) areas by end of 12th Plan and rest ofcountry of 13th Plan.Hyper Spectral Mapping (HSM) in OGP areas on 1:50,000 scale byend of 12th Plan.National Aeromagnetic Surveys by the GSI in comprehensive andsystematic manner for OGP by end of 12th Plan and rest of thecountry (including off-shore) by end of 13th Plan.Exploration for deep-seated mineral deposits through moderntechnology infusion.
Thrust Areas (XII Plan)Prepare and implement project to enable 1:50 K geological,geophysical, and geochemical maps to be made available thruinternet in GIS platform in line with international practice.Special attention for exploration for strategic, scarce and deficitminerals to reduce imports.Create National Geophysical Data Repository and National CoreRepository, to assist entrepreneurs to take-up exploration. GSI to procure another Ocean Going Research Vessel (OGRV); Geo-technical Vessel (GTV) and Coastal Launches for offshore and coastalgeoscience work. Create and enhance capacity offshore / Coastal geoscience includingCoastal geomorphology and beach sand / tidal deposit resources.
Systematic Geological Mapping (GM) Major part of country is systematically mapped on 1:50,000 scale. It has brought out 5.71 lakh sq km of OGP areas. Priority during XII Plan is to undertake 2400 km2 in Manipur and Nagaland.
Specialized Thematic Mapping (STM)Geological mapping on 1:25,000 scale on special themes toresolve problems in establishing stratigraphy and tectonics,to bring our crustal evolution, to understand metallogenesis,to study geological processes and to prognosticate areas forfuture exploration.By the end of XI Plan an area of about 1,66,000 sq km hasbeen covered under this programme. A target of 80,000 km2is planned for XII Plan covering the areas in OGP (almost allmineral belts spread over cratons like Dharwar, Bastar,Singbum, Bundalkhand).Studies on Deccan trap, Biostratigraphic studies in Siwaliks,lithostratigraphy in NER, Proterozoic granitoids study inSikkim, phases of granitic activity in Aravalli fold belt,Mesozoic –Tertiary study in Jaisalmer and coastal dynamicstudy in Kuchch.Studies in Eastern Ghat Mobile belt, Pakhals and in SouthernGranulite Terrain.
Geochemical Mapping It picks up anomalies and provides information of elementalconcentrations in the areas mapped. It has significant application in the domains of mineral search(concealed deposits), and societal relevance in agriculture, study ofenvironmental degradation and hazards, and human health aspects(water pollution, mining waste pollution) The GSI initiated programme in FSP 2001-02 targeting to cover8.13 lakh sq.km encompassing OGP and contiguous areas andcompleted about 3.15 lakh sq.km till January 2013. In XII plan it isenvisaged to cover 2.83 lakh sq.km in OGP areas.
Geophysical MappingGPM picks up gravity & magnetic signals of surfaceand subsurface rock formations of the earth’s crust.It has significant application in the delineation ofbasement configuration, concealed structures andlithological variations, through which concealedmineral deposits can be targeted.GSI initiated Geophysical Mapping, since FSP 2002-03.Density of data is one station per 2.5 sq.km.Till XI Plan 1.66 lakh km2 is covered and during XIIPlan 2.23 lakh sq.km is targeted in OGP area.
National Aeromagnetic mapping programme• It is taken up for aeromagnetic (Total field) survey on uniform scale at national level as joint endeavour with AMD, NGRI, ONGC, DGH and Oil India.• Aim to produce seamless aeromagnetic map.• 10 fixed wing planes are to be deployed by outsourcing.• It is targeted to cover 22,70,000 sq.km in XII plan. Hyperspectral survey• Remote sensing technique using airborne hyperspectral is used as a tool for mineral exploration by locating hydrothermal alteration zones.• HT altered rocks with secondary minerals have signatures in various spectral bands.• Started in XI Plan the programme will continue in XII Plan also with proposal to create a terrain wise spectral library for all OGP areas.• It is proposed to equip centres with spectroradiometer, data processing software and hyperspectral RS data. Geomorphological and lineament mapping• National mission was initiated on 1:50,000 scale in XI plan collaboration with DoS by outsourcing through 32 partners institutes under the control of NRSC. 600 sheets are completed by quality checking.• In XII Plan 4,400 toposheets will be quality checked (Pre and post field).
Marine & Coastal Survey Division :Deep Sea Sector: EEZ and beyond With the advent of state of art new vessel - close grid seabedmapping is programmed with multibeam bathymetry, multi-channelseismic, magnetic, gravity, side scan, deep core sampling, dredge, heatprobe etc. within EEZ. The multibeam swath bathymetric survey within the EEZ to beundertaken jointly by GSI and MoES under an MoU. Search for sulphide mineralization in the Andaman Sea within EEZand in the Indian Ocean. Search for phosphate rich sediments, lime mud, ferromanganeseencrustations, etc within EEZ. Geochemical scan for thermogenic hydrocarbons, high resolutionsurvey for gas hydrate occurrences within EEZ. Selection of favourable sites for OTEC and fresh water generationfrom sea water. Survey for cobalt rich encrustations and polymetallic nodules inselected sectors near spreading centres of Indian Ocean.
Shallow Water Sector: Continental shelf Seabed mapping of the remaining area of Territorial Waters. Multibeam swath bathymetric survey of TW and outer continental shelfto be undertaken jointly by GSI and MoES under a MoU. Resource evaluation of offshore relict silica sand Search/ assessment of placer mineral resources in the inner shelfregion and preparation of 3-D models of placer deposits Generation of Site specific geotechnical data of seabed and sub-seabedfor developmental activities like ports, harbours etc. Geotechnical survey for oil field development, drilling platforms, layingof pipelines and cables etc. Studies of near shore areas for understanding coastal processes and therelated dynamics. Studies of seabed morphology; study for Archaeological finding.Coastal surveys: Placer Mineral resource evaluation in the beach sand and sand dunes. Coastal erosion studies – identify and demarcate areas. Environmental impact studies of coastal areas. Morphology and evolution of sand bars / spits, coastal lagoons.
OFFSHORE CAPABILITIESExisting Vessels 1. R.V. Samudra Manthan (Deep Sea) 2. R.V. Samudra Kaustubh (Coastal) 3. R.V. Samudra Shaudhikama (Coastal)New Ocean Going Vessel (Under Construction) 1. Samudra RatnakarNew Proposals 1. Geotechnical Drilling Vessel 2. Coastal launches
SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK IN DEEP WATER SECTOR• Comprehensive topographic mapping of EEZ as part of NMP-2008• Mapping of remaining part of the seabed within EEZ of India and multi channel seismic surveys along with deep sampling within the EEZ for the preparation of seabed map within EEZ of India on 1:500,000 scale• Mapping of additional EEZ area of about 1.07 million sq. km. under Legal Continental shelf• Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys, search for sulphide mineralisation and other types of studies on tectonic set-up of Andaman Sea.
• High resolution surveys for phosphate rich sediments, lime mud deposits, ferromanganese encrustations, ocean environment in potential offshore blocks• Strategic studies of seabed morphology; geochemical scan for thermogenic hydrocarbons, high resolution survey in potential areas of gas hydrates accumulation; surveys for selection of sites for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system development• Search for cobalt rich encrustation; polymetallic nodules in selected sectors of Indian Ocean.
Airborne Geophysical Surveys Acquisition of airborne geophysical data Processing of airborne data Interpretation of airborne geophysical dataPhoto Geology and Remote SensingProcurement and interpretation of satellite dataInterpretation of remote sensing and geological data Preparation of different Thematic Maps on 1:50,000 scale Integration of Remote Sensing, Geological & airborne geophysical data. Identification of Target blocks for detailed ground evaluation by RegionsHyperspectral MappingBuilding up of a spectral library of various rocks/minerals from knownmineralised zones and integrate with similar other datasets to build up amassive and comprehensive spectral library of native rocks/minerals.National Geomorphological & Lineament Mapping[NGL]Evaluating the quality of the final maps prepared by various work centres underNRSC
DIFFERENT PARTS OF INDIA TO BE COVERED UNDERNAGMP