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1Conversations with Adolescents:  What Adults Sayand What Teens Hear        Presented at Annual Conference of         Cent...
What Adults Say“Teenagers think they are invincible.”  What do teens think when they hear that?
“When adults say, ‘Teenagers think         they are invincible’with that sly, stupid smile on their faces, they dontknow h...
What Adults Say“When I was a boy of fourteen, my fatherwas so ignorant I could hardly stand to havethe old man around. But...
What Do Teens Think           When Adults Say …-  When I was a boy of fourteen …-  When I was your age …- I understand wha...
Teenagers are Different: 3-D Effect in Adolescent Health Care•  Development: Dramatic biological unfolding; shifts insocia...
Development: Biological Changes•  Sexual development: physical appearance,   sexual arousal, sexual behavior•  Physical gr...
Cognitive and Social Development•  Established capacity for abstract thought•  Intellectual discovery•  Emotional complexi...
Development and Identity•  Transitions from a childhood sense of identity   that was greatly influenced by others   (paren...
Engaging Youth about Identity:               What Matters?•  Identity exploration – Who am I, what are my   guiding values...
Brain Development and Risk Taking•  Logical, abstract thought is reasonably   developed by mid-teens*•  Other functions th...
Dependency•  For minors, adults are in charge.   Until they’re not.•  Legal, educational, financial decisions•  Health car...
Diagnosis•  Diagnostic criteria may not be sensitive to   developmental differences and patterns•  May lead to misleading ...
Adolescent Development: Health Concerns     •  Sexuality. relationships. birth control.                   pregnancy. stds....
Youth and Young Adult MortalityTop 3 causes of death, ages 15-24•  Accidents (predominantly motor vehicle)•  Homicide•  Su...
There is a lot to talk about!   So how do adults communicate health      information to and about teens?•  Mostly, through...
Engaging Teens in the Conversation•  Parents and other adults still matter and still   need pertinent health information a...
CDC for Teens•     CDC engages teens on vaccines:•  “Learn more so that you can talk to your   parents and your doctor abo...
What Do Teens Think?•  When CDC says “Learn more so that you   can talk to your parents and your doctor   about the vaccin...
Warning Shots?•  Empowerment immediately followed by:         “Preteen and teen vaccines      4 shots (preventing 6 diseas...
Adolescent Themes and Patterns•  Increased recognition of adult/parent   imperfections and inconsistencies•  Increased rel...
Adolescent Themes and Patterns•  Short-term planning, foreshortened sense of   time•  Intellectual discovery•  Expansion o...
Connecting to Teens•  Choose topics that are important to teens and   tie into developmental themes•  Share data from othe...
Connecting to Teens:          Motivational Interviewing•  Motivational Interviewing   Miller and Rollnick   http://www.mot...
Connecting to Teens:       Motivational Interviewing Style•  Helps teens look at risks, harm, or concerns   related to som...
Developmental - Generational               Interactions•  Teens rapidly master new technology•  Teens - and their mentors,...
Communication Strategies•  Use of story, personal narratives about teen   discovery, exploration•  Use of peer stories and...
Communication Strategies•  Create an interactive dialogue of evidence-   based data and adolescent’s experience•  High int...
Communication Strategies•  Video games as teaching tools•  Popular, engaging, interesting to teens•  Require mastery of sk...
Conversations with Adolescents:                 Examples•  Online interactive simulation training:   helping educators tal...
Conversations with Adolescents:                       Examples•  Florida Military Family Peer Support Program   Peer guide...
Online Interactive Role Play•  Example: Kognito.com/demos•  Interactive role-play simulations•  How to engage, support and...
34  SOS Signs of Suicide DVD,Teens discuss peers and suicide
Teens Discuss Their Feelings About        Military Deployment of a Parent•  Nervous, worried, afraid – not knowing if or  ...
Teens Discuss Their Feelings About             Military Deployment of a Parent•  Conflicted (multiple and changing emotion...
Sharing Health Data with Youth:     Traumatic Stress Survey ItemsLast year, we surveyed 120 students inthe 10th grade at (...
Engaging teens about stressors       experienced by other teensCan you guess what percentage ofteens reported being harass...
Final Thoughts•  Respect adolescent experiences, insights and   interests regarding their health concerns•  Illustrative p...
Final Thoughts•  Recognize strengths: abstract thinking,   exploration of ideas; sensitivity to social and   emotional cue...
contact information   William O. Donnelly, Ph.D.Donnelly Community Psychology, LTD 429 W. College Avenue, PO Box 105      ...
William O. Donnelly - Conversations with adolescents
William O. Donnelly - Conversations with adolescents
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Transcript of "William O. Donnelly - Conversations with adolescents"

  1. 1. 1Conversations with Adolescents: What Adults Sayand What Teens Hear Presented at Annual Conference of Center for Health Literacy Plain Talk in Complex Times 2012 September 7, 2012 Arlington, VA William O. Donnelly, Ph.D. Donnelly Community Psychology Adjunct Clinical Faculty, Psychology Department Bowling Green State University,
  2. 2. What Adults Say“Teenagers think they are invincible.” What do teens think when they hear that?
  3. 3. “When adults say, ‘Teenagers think they are invincible’with that sly, stupid smile on their faces, they dontknow how right they are. We need never behopeless, because we can never be irreparablybroken. We think that we are invincible becausewe are. We cannot be born, and we cannot die.Like all energy, we can only change shapes andsizes and manifestations. They forget that whenthey get old. They get scared of losing and failing.” - John Green, Looking for Alaska
  4. 4. What Adults Say“When I was a boy of fourteen, my fatherwas so ignorant I could hardly stand to havethe old man around. But when I got to betwenty-one, I was astonished by how muchhed learned in seven years.” - Mark Twain
  5. 5. What Do Teens Think When Adults Say …-  When I was a boy of fourteen …-  When I was your age …- I understand what it’s like to be your age.I was a teenager myself.
  6. 6. Teenagers are Different: 3-D Effect in Adolescent Health Care•  Development: Dramatic biological unfolding; shifts insocial supports and social influences• Dependency: Parents, guardians, adults make health caredecisions and provide resources (or don’t) until … independence• Diagnosis: Diagnostic criteria developed on adult samplesare sometimes misapplied to youth
  7. 7. Development: Biological Changes•  Sexual development: physical appearance, sexual arousal, sexual behavior•  Physical growth: size, strength, speed, sound changes in coordination•  Implications/complications for physical and emotional health
  8. 8. Cognitive and Social Development•  Established capacity for abstract thought•  Intellectual discovery•  Emotional complexity, intensity, variability•  Moral reasoning. Re-evaluation of values, new ideals•  Social Development – Peers. Mentors. Peers.
  9. 9. Development and Identity•  Transitions from a childhood sense of identity that was greatly influenced by others (parents, family members and community) and was relatively unquestioned•  Evolves into a teenager’s exploration of personal and group identity, sense of belonging, and purpose
  10. 10. Engaging Youth about Identity: What Matters?•  Identity exploration – Who am I, what are my guiding values, beliefs? How am I unique?•  Social identity and affiliation – who are my peers, where do I belong, what kind of relationships do I want, how do I develop those relationships?•  Purpose – What are we here for? What am I here for?
  11. 11. Brain Development and Risk Taking•  Logical, abstract thought is reasonably developed by mid-teens*•  Other functions that affect risk-taking decisions are still under development* ▫  Emotional regulation ▫  Impulse control ▫  Delay of gratification* Steinberg, L. (2004). Risk Taking in Adolescence: New Perspectives From Brain and BehavioralScience. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 55-59.
  12. 12. Dependency•  For minors, adults are in charge. Until they’re not.•  Legal, educational, financial decisions•  Health care decisions•  Housing, food, clothing•  For young adults, transition from this is typically abrupt, incomplete, challenging.
  13. 13. Diagnosis•  Diagnostic criteria may not be sensitive to developmental differences and patterns•  May lead to misleading diagnostic labeling and inappropriate treatment of adolescent concerns•  May be culturally tone deaf to adolescents
  14. 14. Adolescent Development: Health Concerns •  Sexuality. relationships. birth control. pregnancy. stds.•  Physical appearance. acne. tanning. weight. eating disorders. fitness. exercise. •  Depression. suicide. anxiety. stress. alcohol and substance use. tobacco. •  Traumatic stress. exposure to violence. family conflict. family mental illness.•  How to seek, access, and pay for health care
  15. 15. Youth and Young Adult MortalityTop 3 causes of death, ages 15-24•  Accidents (predominantly motor vehicle)•  Homicide•  Suicide - Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  16. 16. There is a lot to talk about! So how do adults communicate health information to and about teens?•  Mostly, through conversations with other adults•  Health care communication addressed to adolescent health issues is typically designed for adults (parents, teachers, health care providers)
  17. 17. Engaging Teens in the Conversation•  Parents and other adults still matter and still need pertinent health information as they make decisions for or consult to youth•  But engaging teens in the conversation about their health and well-being is not only appropriate, it is a developmental fit•  The most helpful communications will respect teen concerns and abilities
  18. 18. CDC for Teens•  CDC engages teens on vaccines:•  “Learn more so that you can talk to your parents and your doctor about the vaccines you need and the diseases they prevent.”•  Strategy: empower teens to protect themselves from cancer
  19. 19. What Do Teens Think?•  When CDC says “Learn more so that you can talk to your parents and your doctor about the vaccines you need and the diseases they prevent”, do teens feel empowered?•  May depend on whether they trust that the CDC website provides truthful, accurate, evidence-based information.
  20. 20. Warning Shots?•  Empowerment immediately followed by: “Preteen and teen vaccines 4 shots (preventing 6 diseases): Meningoococcal, tetanus, diptheria, pertussis, human papillomavirus and influenza” (to be followed by field-testing with youth) http:// www.cdc.gov/vaccines/who/teens/for-preteens-teens.html
  21. 21. Adolescent Themes and Patterns•  Increased recognition of adult/parent imperfections and inconsistencies•  Increased reliance on peers for guidance•  Increased openness to changing personal beliefs, values, behavior•  Desire for respect and autonomy•  Risk taking, feelings of invulnerability
  22. 22. Adolescent Themes and Patterns•  Short-term planning, foreshortened sense of time•  Intellectual discovery•  Expansion of cultural influences ▫  (music, art, politics)•  Idealism•  Search for new heroes and heroines, mentors
  23. 23. Connecting to Teens•  Choose topics that are important to teens and tie into developmental themes•  Share data from other teens, including risk data. Share all sides of the story.•  Provide interactive option for teen to share opinions/thoughts/questions•  Feature teen/young adult commentaries and personal stories on the topic
  24. 24. Connecting to Teens: Motivational Interviewing•  Motivational Interviewing Miller and Rollnick http://www.motivationalinterview.net•  Method developed initially related to helping individuals appraise benefits and risks related to their personal substance use behavior•  Helps adolescents identify areas of behavior or functioning that are of concern to them
  25. 25. Connecting to Teens: Motivational Interviewing Style•  Helps teens look at risks, harm, or concerns related to some behaviors or situations while acknowledging potential benefits or interest or rewards of the situation•  Non-confrontational questioning•  Exploration and factual, objective use of data
  26. 26. Developmental - Generational Interactions•  Teens rapidly master new technology•  Teens - and their mentors, yesterday’s teens - facile with smart phones, social media, video games•  Communication styles established during adolescence become generational traits•  Reinforced by culture and brain wiring
  27. 27. Communication Strategies•  Use of story, personal narratives about teen discovery, exploration•  Use of peer stories and data•  Use of slightly older mentors•  Stories of self-discovery•  Integration of stories and scientific data
  28. 28. Communication Strategies•  Create an interactive dialogue of evidence- based data and adolescent’s experience•  High interest, interactive visual materials•  Provide information about resources•  Limit advice. Encourage reflection.
  29. 29. Communication Strategies•  Video games as teaching tools•  Popular, engaging, interesting to teens•  Require mastery of skills and information•  Levels of skills, leading to mastery•  Immediate and intermediate reinforcement
  30. 30. Conversations with Adolescents: Examples•  Online interactive simulation training: helping educators talk with teens about psychological distress. ▫  www.kognito.com•  Classroom delivery: program helps teens help peers find help for mental health problems. SOS Signs of Suicide Prevention Program ▫  www.mentalhealthscreening.org/programs/youth- prevention-programs/sos/
  31. 31. Conversations with Adolescents: Examples•  Florida Military Family Peer Support Program Peer guides use interview quotations from youth for peer, family, and provider training about the mental health needs of military families. (Citation, slide 36)•  Coping 10.1. Adolescent stories, role plays and vignettes highlight classroom curriculum for tenth graders about understanding and coping with traumatic stress.•  Donnelly, W.O., Dubow, E.F., Zbur, S., Hassan, S., Veits, G., Hayman, J., Bradbury, S., Reinemann, L., Ghoul, A. and Bonadio, A. (2012). Coping 10.1: A Psychoeducational Curriculum to Help High Schoolers Handle Traumatic Stress. Unpublished Manuscript. Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH.
  32. 32. Online Interactive Role Play•  Example: Kognito.com/demos•  Interactive role-play simulations•  How to engage, support and refer adolescents experiencing psychological distress, including thoughts of suicide•  For educators (how to talk with students)•  For college students
  33. 33. 34 SOS Signs of Suicide DVD,Teens discuss peers and suicide
  34. 34. Teens Discuss Their Feelings About Military Deployment of a Parent•  Nervous, worried, afraid – not knowing if or when they would see the parent   I  was  angry  at  everybody.  I m  like  a  big  daddy s   girl,  so  I  was  really  sad  he  was  going  away.  And  I   was  scared  something  bad  might  happen  to  him.  
  35. 35. Teens Discuss Their Feelings About Military Deployment of a Parent•  Conflicted (multiple and changing emotions)•  Well  I  was  kind  of  happy  that  he  was  going  away  because   then  I  wouldn t  have  somebody  who s  always  ge=ng  mad   about  something  that  I  would  do  wrong.  But  then  I  was  sad   because  he  might  not  come  back.  I  might  never  see  him   again.    •  Granzow, E., La Greca, A.M., Hershman A.L., Prinstein, M., Sevin, S. and Coyle, A. (2011). North  Florida  Military  Family  Peer  Guide.  Coral  Gables,  7-­‐Dippity,  Inc.  
  36. 36. Sharing Health Data with Youth: Traumatic Stress Survey ItemsLast year, we surveyed 120 students inthe 10th grade at (your) High School oncommon stressor. They told us a lotabout their experiences dealing withstressful situations, including somethat were really troubling to them.
  37. 37. Engaging teens about stressors experienced by other teensCan you guess what percentage ofteens reported being harassed becauseof skin color, religion, sexualorientation, appearance or where theirfamily was from?
  38. 38. Final Thoughts•  Respect adolescent experiences, insights and interests regarding their health concerns•  Illustrative peer and mentor narratives. Stories.•  Tie information to adolescent developmental concerns. Use dialogue, interactive gaming.
  39. 39. Final Thoughts•  Recognize strengths: abstract thinking, exploration of ideas; sensitivity to social and emotional cues•  Accept that emotional regulation and impulse control, especially related to risk-taking, are works in progress•  Motivational interviewing style encourages reflection, more thoughtful appraisal of risks
  40. 40. contact information William O. Donnelly, Ph.D.Donnelly Community Psychology, LTD 429 W. College Avenue, PO Box 105 Pemberville, OH 43450-0105 billd@bgsu.edu (419) 287-7073
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