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Berlinwall

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Transcript

  • 1. THE BERLIN WALL By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHistory.co.uk
  • 2. Another Cold War crisis
    • Background
    • East – West rivalry
    • Berlin divided – contrast the two halves.
    WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as infection in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
  • 3. Focus on refugees from East Germany or East Berlin to West
    • 1949-129,245
    • 1951- 165,648
    • 1953- 331,390
    • 1955- 252,870
    • 1957- 261,622
    • 1959- 143,917
    • 1961- 207,026
    • 1962- 21,356
    • 1963- 42,632
    • 1964- 41,876
  • 4. What they wanted
    • The West
    • Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany
    • To see a united, democratic Germany
    • The East
    • Maintain control over E Germany
    • Make the West recognise it as an independent state
    • Stop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany
  • 5. 1958-Soviet demands
    • West should:
    • Recognise GDR
    • Withdraw troops from West Berlin
    • Hand their access routes over to the East German government
    • Khrushchev bluffed that he would hand East Berlin over to the GDR. West refused and Khrushchev backed down.
  • 6. Events of 1961
    • June-Vienna Summit
    • Khrushchev pressured new American President John F Kennedy
    • Demanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refused
    • July – Western powers reject Khrushchev’s Vienna demands
    • July 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a day
    • July 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending
  • 7. Events cont’d
    • 13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocks
    • All of West Berlin encircled apart from access points
    • This was against the Four Power agreement reached in Paris on 20 June 1949.
  • 8. Did Kennedy really mind the wall? He had protected West Berlin and he never promised to protect East Berlin?
  • 9. Results
    • Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War
    • Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West-between 1961 and 1989, 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall
  • 10.  
  • 11. Results cont’d
    • Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war.
    • Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed?
    • 1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘ Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speech
    • Khrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from Berlin
    • LINK: CNN - Cold War-The Wall