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Biome presentation


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  • 1. World BiomesFollow along with your note packet to add/modify any notes you took as you read the chapter.
  • 2. Tropical Rainforest Location: Found near equator…little variation in temperatures. No distinct seasonal changes.Earths most complex land biome http://www.cotf .edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/
  • 3. Tropical Rainforest Abiotic factors  high biodiversity and biomass  both hot and moist;  ideal for bacteria and other microorganisms; they quickly decompose matter on the forest floor allowing nutrients to be recycled.  <1 cm of topsoil  About 100 in/yr of rainfall
  • 4. Bougainvillea Tropical Rainforest Plant adaptations Sunlight is a major limiting factor Plants grow in layers (canopy receives most light) Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients Little sun reaches the floor Bangul Bamboo
  • 5. Silvery Gibbon Tropical Rainforest AnimalWagler’s pit viper Adaptations Many symbiotic Many animals are relationships specialists and require special habitat Live in different components to survive levels of canopy Camouflage is common Slender Loris
  • 6. Threats to the Tropical Rainforest Humans strip the rainforests for uses including logging and cattle ranching. In addition to the plants and animals that are displaced by this destruction, entire civilizations of people are also without a home. You can help by promoting sustainable use of the rainforests’ products
  • 7. Temperate Deciduous ForestsLocation: found in temperate zone (about 480 North lat) Much of the human population lives in this biome
  • 8. http://www.cotf .edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/taiga.html Temperate Deciduous Forests Abiotic Factors Characterized by an  Soils: Deep soil layers, abundance of deciduous rich in nutrients (leaf bearing) trees  Precipitation: 30–100 in/yrCharacterized by 4 seasons in all forms (snow, rain, hail, fog, etc.)
  • 9. Lady Fern Temperate Deciduous forest Plant adaptations More diversity in the deciduous forest vs. the coniferous forest due to increased sunlight.White Birch Trees adapt to varied climate byBirch page.htm becoming dormant in winter Deciduous forests grow in layers Geulder Rose More sunlight reaches the ground compared to a rainforest so you will find more ground dwelling plants.
  • 10. Bald Eagle Temperate Deciduous Forest Animal Adaptations  Lose Winter Coat  Adapt to many seasonsLeast Weasel  Eat from different layers of the forestFat Dormouse
  • 11. Threats to Temperate Deciduous ForestsMany forests are cleared to provide housing for humans.Careful use of the resource can provide a renewable system if we don’t take too much habitat away.
  • 12. Taigaaka Northern Coniferous Forest or Boreal Forest Location: Found only in Northern Hemisphere
  • 13. Taiga Abiotic factors Winters are long and cold Averages 100 in/yr precipitation— mostly snow Soil poor in nutrients and very acidic Growing season is ecosystems_biomes/biomes_northern_forest.html very short
  • 14. Taiga Plant adaptations Balsam Fir Fireweed Coniferous (needle-bearing) trees are abundant Roots long to anchor trees Needles long, thin and waxy Low sunlight and poor soil keeps plants from growing on forest floor
  • 15. Moose Animal Adaptations of the Taiga Adapt for cold winters Burrow, hibernate, warm coat, insulation, etc. Great Grey Owl
  • 16. Threats to the Taiga Mining operations can irreparably damage this fragile ecosystem. Pollution left behind can also put animals and plants at risk.
  • 17. Savannas (Tropical Grasslands) Contain the greatest number of grazing animals on Earth.Location: Found in the tropics…near equator Amount of precipitation supports tall grasses but only occasional trees.The word savanna stems from an Amerind term for plains S/ GEOG235 /bio mes/savanna/savanna.htm l
  • 18. Tropical Savanna Abiotic Factors Rainy and dry season 25-150 in/yr precipitationFire plays a large role in this ecosystem
  • 19. Whistling Thorn Tropical Savanna Umbrella Thorn Acacia Plant Adaptations  Grows in Tufts  Resistance to Drought  Many plants have thorns and Kangaroos Paws sharp leaves to protect against predation. Baobab
  • 20. Chacma Baboon Zebras Tropical Savanna Animal AdaptationsAdapt for short rainy season—migrate as Reproduce during rainy necessary season—ensures moreLimited food leads to young survive vertical feeding
  • 21. Threats to the Tropical Savanna Invasive species Changes in fire management Elephant  Because of their low elevation, some savannas are threatened by minor rises in sea level associated with global climate change Koala
  • 22. SteppeDry, cold, grasslands Location: Found in Russia and the Ukraine
  • 23. Steppe Abiotic Factors <50 in/year precipitation www.wsu.eduMountains often play a role in climate characteristics
  • 24. Plant adaptations of the Steppe most abundant are plants called Bunch grasses,fine bladed grasses that grow in clumps topreserve water Tumbleweed Sweet Vernal
  • 25. Adaptations of Steppe Animals Mongolian Gerbil  Many migrate, hibernate or burrow during extremes in temp and precipitationSaiga Antelope Gazelle herd
  • 26. Threats to the Steppe  Overgrazing…nomadic tribes have started to spend more time in one location,  Infrastructure development (roads, buildings, etc)Lynx  Unmanaged hunting and poaching is destroying herds of animals Corsac foxMilk vetch
  • 27. Prairie and Steppe: Grassland areas 50-75 cm/yr Characteristic high Winds
  • 28. Prairie Plant AdaptationsSod-forming grasses thatwon’t dry out or blowaway in wind. Fleabane Buffalo Grass
  • 29. Prairie Animal Adaptations Many adaptations to survive extremes BobcatGeoffrey’s cat Prairie dog animal_page.htm
  • 30. Grasslands
  • 31. Chaparral Location: Primarily in coastal areas with Mediterranean climates. About 300 N and S of the equator.
  • 32. Chaparral—Abiotic Factors Climate: hot, dry summers, mild, wet winters. Slight variations in seasonal temperatures…NICE! California Chaparral biomes.htm Mediterranean Chaparral
  • 33. Chaparral—Plant Adaptations Blue OakMostly low-lying shrubs and small trees.Many plants have leathery leaves to resist water lossMany plant species have oils in leaves to help them resist fire…the fire will take out ―weaker‖ plants that don’t belong. Fairy Duster
  • 34. Chaparral—Animal Adaptations Camouflage—to avoid predationAardwolf Many animals will change their diet as the season changes. Puma
  • 35. Threats to the Chaparral Human development— very desirable climate for humans to live.Grey Fox Wild GoatKing Protea
  • 36. Desert Ecosystems Location: Depending on type of desert, you will find them in various locations.
  • 37. Desert Abiotic factors <10 in/yr of rain Little to no topsoil due to high winds. Minerals not deep in soil. While there are many types of Too dry for deserts, they all share one decay characteristic: They are the /taiga.html driest places on Earth!
  • 38. Barrel Cactus Desert Plant Adaptations:  Spines  Succulents  Thick, waxy cuticle  Shallow, broad roots Joshua Tree Ocotollio
  • 39. Bob Cat Desert Animal Adaptations:Armadillo Lizard  Get water from food  Thick outer coat  Burrow during day  Large ears  Smaller animals = less surface area
  • 40. Threats to the Desert Residential development Off road recreational activities destroy habitat for plants and animals. Some plants are removed by collectors, endangering the population. Dry Desert Sonoran Desert
  • 41. TundraLocation: Found north of the Arctic Circle undra .html
  • 42. Tundra Abiotic Factors <25 in/year Temp rarely higher than 100C Permafrost layer Short growing season
  • 43. Reindeer lichenTundra Plant Adaptations Growing close to the ground Having shallow roots to absorb the limited water resources. Trees grow less than 1 m high!cottongrass
  • 44. PerennialsWoody shrubs Heaths Examples of Tundra Plants
  • 45. snowy owl Arctic fox Small ears Insulation, thick coat Tundra Animal AdaptationsMany visitors, migrationFew predatorsLittle Competition Grizzly Bear
  • 46. Threats to the Tundra One of the most fragile biomes onTufted Saxifrage the planet Polar BearOil drilling is The tundra is proposed slow to in Alaska recover from and other damage.
  • 47. Freshwater Ecosystems• Salinity <0.5 ppt.• Lake are the deepest of fresh water systems• Lakes are fed by underground aquifer or stream• Ponds are fed by rainfall and may be seasonal
  • 48. Ponds Microscopic Animals and Algae• Sun can reach bottom• Fed by rainfall• May be seasonal• Algae and plants throughout
  • 49. Lakes and ponds—Abiotic FactorsLittoral zone: nutrient rich area found close to shore www.dnr.wi.govBenthic zone: bottom of the lake where no sunlight can reach.
  • 50. Lakes and ponds: Plants and Animals Adaptations• Plants are floating algae and plants along shoreline• Animals live in or near water
  • 51. Threats to lakes and ponds All water systems are being polluted and degraded by human impact
  • 52. Marsh Uses:  Animal/plant homes  Carbon ―sink‖  Water rechargeTypes: Brackish and areas, freshwater removing pollutants
  • 53. Marsh—Plant adaptations• Very shallow with land occasionally exposed• Saturated soil• Low oxygen in water and soil• Emergent plants Heron
  • 54. Swamp/BogsLocation: Found on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams
  • 55. Swamps/Bogs AbioticfactorsLand soaked because of poor drainageDecay is slow - Soil is acidicSwampsLarge trees/shrubsAdapted to muddy soils Bogs - sphagnum moss is dominant
  • 56. Threats to Previous backfilling and clearing for farmland or development has been a concern. ome/aquatic.html
  • 57. RiversAt headwaters, usually cold and highly oxygenated. As it flows, it will broaden out, warm up and this completely changes the
  • 58. River: Plant and Animal Adaptations Will vary based on where in the river they are…at thewww.3d-screensaver- headwaters, organisms need to hang on!
  • 59. Threats to Rivers Dams alter theIndustry uses flow of the water to water dispose of waste productsRunoff from homes and other places causes changes in
  • 60. Estuaries • Fresh and salt water meet
  • 61. Plant and Animal Adaptations of Estuaries Very productive biome because it receives lots of light and nutrientsManatee and goos Often used as e nursery for young &
  • 62. Threats to Estuaries Many ports are found on estuaries—pollution Human population
  • 63. Coral Reefs• Close to equator• Consistent water temperature• Shallow water• Low in Nutrients
  • 64. Animal adaptations of the Coral Reef • Breeding area for many fish
  • 65. Threats to the Coral ReefsTemperature is important, Human intrusion (scuba diving) too hot or too cold and is damaging if you the animals can’t live touch/step on the reef there to create limestone Pollution is also a concern.
  • 66. Oceans
  • 67. Ocean Abiotic factorsOpen ocean is one of Covers nearly the least productive ¾ of the areas on earth, too Earth’s little sunlight to surface. support plant growth mes_aquatic.htm
  • 68. Ocean Plant adaptationsPlants are micro and macroscopicHave floating plants (kelp shown here)
  • 69. Ocean Animal Adaptations Zooplankton— sea’s smallest Hammerhead herbivores Deep ocean animals feed on detritus— floating debris in the Lion fish water column.
  • 70. Threats to the OceansWhile the oceans are Overfishing vast, they and some are fishing becoming methods are more destroying polluted fishing grounds.
  • 71. Polar EcosystemsCan be considered marine ecosystems since the base of food chain is phytoplankton
  • 72. Arctic vs. AntarcticArctic Antarctic Relatively Penguins live shallow, lots here—only continent of nutrients not used by humans for large (exc. Research) variety of animals in food web, People, seals and polar
  • 73. Threats to the Polar Ecosystems Reserves of minerals draw humans to these fragile ecosystems. The main threat to wildlife has been the increase in tourism—garbage left behind u