World BiomesFollow along with your note packet to add/modify any notes you took as you           read the chapter.
Tropical                                                                  Rainforest                                      ...
Tropical                                                    Rainforest                                                   A...
Bougainvillea    Tropical Rainforest    Plant adaptations   Sunlight is a major limiting factor   Plants grow in layers ...
Silvery Gibbon                                           Tropical                                           Rainforest    ...
Threats to the Tropical         Rainforest Humans strip the rainforests  for uses including logging and  cattle ranching....
http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tbdf/tbdf.html      Temperate Deciduous ForestsLocation: found in t...
http://www.cotf .edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/taiga.html                Temperate Deciduous Forests                  ...
Lady Fern                                                        Temperate Deciduous forest                               ...
Bald Eagle      Temperate Deciduous             Forest                 Animal Adaptations                             Los...
Threats to Temperate Deciduous             ForestsMany forests are  cleared to  provide housing  for humans.Careful use of...
Taigaaka Northern Coniferous Forest or Boreal Forest            Location: Found              only in Northern             ...
Taiga Abiotic factors Winters are long  and cold Averages 100 in/yr  precipitation—  mostly snow Soil poor in  nutrient...
Taiga Plant adaptations                                        Balsam Fir                 Fireweed     Coniferous (needle...
Moose                                                                          Animal                                     ...
Threats to the Taiga                           Mining operations can                             irreparably damage       ...
Savannas (Tropical Grasslands)                             Contain the greatest number of grazing animals on Earth.Locatio...
Tropical Savanna Abiotic Factors         Rainy and dry season        25-150 in/yr precipitationFire plays a large role in ...
Whistling                                                           Thorn                                                 ...
Chacma Baboon   Zebras       Tropical Savanna              Animal AdaptationsAdapt for short rainy  season—migrate as     ...
Threats to the Tropical              Savanna Invasive species Changes in fire management                                ...
SteppeDry, cold, grasslands                                Location: Found in                                  Russia and ...
Steppe Abiotic Factors                         <50 in/year precipitation      www.wsu.eduMountains often play a role  in c...
Plant adaptations of the Steppe most abundant are plants called Bunch grasses,fine bladed grasses that grow in clumps top...
Adaptations of Steppe Animals                                                        Mongolian Gerbil    Many migrate, hi...
Threats to the Steppe              Overgrazing…nomadic tribes               have started to spend more time              ...
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/steppe.htm         Prairie and Steppe:          Grassland areas 50-75 cm/yr Characterist...
Prairie Plant AdaptationsSod-forming grasses thatwon’t dry out or blowaway in wind.                                       ...
Prairie Animal Adaptations                    Many adaptations to survive                    extremes                     ...
Grasslandshttp://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/grasslands.htm
Chaparral  Location: Primarily in    coastal areas with    Mediterranean    climates. About 300    N and S of the    equat...
Chaparral—Abiotic Factors Climate: hot, dry  summers, mild, wet  winters. Slight  variations in seasonal  temperatures…NI...
Chaparral—Plant           Adaptations              Blue OakMostly low-lying shrubs  and small trees.Many plants have leath...
Chaparral—Animal              Adaptations                   Camouflage—to avoid                     predationAardwolf     ...
Threats to the Chaparral              Human development—                very desirable climate                for humans t...
Desert                Ecosystems Location:  Depending  on type of  desert, you  will find  them in  various  locations.
Desert      Abiotic      factors <10 in/yr of  rain Little to no  topsoil due to  high winds. Minerals not  deep in soi...
Barrel Cactus                Desert Plant                 Adaptations:                   Spines                   Succul...
Bob Cat                   Desert Animal Adaptations:Armadillo Lizard          Get water from food                       ...
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_biomes.htm                                 Threats to the Desert Residential develop...
TundraLocation:  Found  north of  the Arctic  Circle http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tundra/t undra ...
Tundra Abiotic Factors   <25 in/year   Temp rarely higher than 100C   Permafrost layer   Short growing season         ...
Reindeer lichenTundra Plant Adaptations  Growing close to the ground  Having shallow roots to absorb the  limited water ...
PerennialsWoody shrubs                                                                               Heaths Examples of Tu...
snowy owl               Arctic fox                          Small ears                          Insulation, thick         ...
Threats to the Tundra                   One of the                    most                    fragile                    b...
Freshwater Ecosystems•      Salinity <0.5 ppt.•      Lake are the deepest of fresh water systems•      Lakes are fed by un...
Ponds                           Microscopic Animals                             and Algae•   Sun can reach bottom•   Fed b...
Lakes and ponds—Abiotic FactorsLittoral  zone: nutrient rich area found close to shore   www.dnr.wi.govBenthic zone: botto...
Lakes and ponds:             Plants and Animals             Adaptations• Plants are floating  algae and plants  along shor...
Threats to lakes and ponds                          All water                           systems                           ...
Marsh           http://mbgnet.mobot.org/fresh/wetlands/                                                     Uses:         ...
Marsh—Plant     adaptations• Very shallow with  land occasionally  exposed• Saturated soil• Low oxygen in water  and soil•...
Swamp/BogsLocation: Found on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams
Swamps/Bogs AbioticfactorsLand soaked because of poor drainageDecay is slow - Soil is acidicSwampsLarge trees/shrubsAdapte...
Threats to Wetlandswww.kathimitchell.com                                         Previous backfilling                     ...
RiversAt headwaters, usually cold and highly oxygenated. As it flows, it will broaden out, warm up and this completely cha...
River: Plant and Animal                    Adaptations                            Will vary based                         ...
Threats to Rivers                            Dams alter theIndustry uses                flow of the  water to             ...
Estuaries http://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/sandy/    • Fresh and salt water      meet
Plant and Animal Adaptations of                      Estuaries                                  Very productive           ...
Threats to Estuaries Many ports are  found on  estuaries—pollution Human population  pers-erf.org                 www.da...
Coral Reefs•   Close to equator•   Consistent water temperature•   Shallow water•   Low in Nutrients
Animal adaptations of    the Coral Reef               • Breeding area for                 many fish               http://m...
Threats to the Coral ReefsTemperature is important,          Human intrusion (scuba diving)  too hot or too cold and      ...
Oceanshttp://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/sandy/
Ocean Abiotic factorsOpen ocean is one of Covers nearly the least productive ¾ of the areas on earth, too  Earth’s little ...
Ocean Plant adaptationsPlants are micro and macroscopicHave floating plants (kelp shown here)                     http://w...
Ocean Animal Adaptations                              Zooplankton—                               sea’s smallest           ...
Threats to the OceansWhile the oceans are              Overfishing vast, they               and some are               fis...
Polar EcosystemsCan be considered marine ecosystems                     www.awi-bremerhaven.de since the base of food chai...
Arctic vs. AntarcticArctic         Antarctic Relatively     Penguins live shallow, lots  here—only continent of nutrients ...
Threats to the Polar Ecosystems  Reserves of minerals   draw humans to   these fragile   ecosystems.  The main threat to  ...
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Biome presentation

  1. 1. World BiomesFollow along with your note packet to add/modify any notes you took as you read the chapter.
  2. 2. Tropical Rainforest Location: Found near equator…little variation in temperatures. No distinct seasonal changes.Earths most complex land biome http://www.cotf .edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/
  3. 3. Tropical Rainforest Abiotic factors  high biodiversity and biomass  both hot and moist;  ideal for bacteria and other microorganisms; they quickly decompose matter on the forest floor allowing nutrients to be recycled.  <1 cm of topsoil  About 100 in/yr of rainfallhttp://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysfl
  4. 4. Bougainvillea Tropical Rainforest Plant adaptations Sunlight is a major limiting factor Plants grow in layers (canopy receives most light) Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients Little sun reaches the floor Bangul Bamboo
  5. 5. Silvery Gibbon Tropical Rainforest AnimalWagler’s pit viper Adaptations Many symbiotic Many animals are relationships specialists and require special habitat Live in different components to survive levels of canopy Camouflage is common Slender Loris http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rnfrst_animal_page.htm
  6. 6. Threats to the Tropical Rainforest Humans strip the rainforests for uses including logging and cattle ranching. In addition to the plants and animals that are displaced by this destruction, entire civilizations of people are also without a home. You can help by promoting http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rnfrst_animal_page.htm sustainable use of the rainforests’ products
  7. 7. http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tbdf/tbdf.html Temperate Deciduous ForestsLocation: found in temperate zone (about 480 North lat) Much of the human population lives in this biome
  8. 8. http://www.cotf .edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/taiga.html Temperate Deciduous Forests Abiotic Factors Characterized by an  Soils: Deep soil layers, abundance of deciduous rich in nutrients (leaf bearing) trees  Precipitation: 30–100 in/yrCharacterized by 4 seasons in all forms (snow, rain, hail, fog, etc.)
  9. 9. Lady Fern Temperate Deciduous forest Plant adaptations More diversity in the deciduous forest vs. the coniferous forest due to increased sunlight.White Birch Trees adapt to varied climate byBirchhttp://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_ page.htm becoming dormant in winter Deciduous forests grow in layers Geulder Rose More sunlight reaches the ground compared to a rainforest so you will find more ground dwelling plants.
  10. 10. Bald Eagle Temperate Deciduous Forest Animal Adaptations  Lose Winter Coat  Adapt to many seasonsLeast Weasel  Eat from different layers of the forestFat Dormouse http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_animal_page.htm
  11. 11. Threats to Temperate Deciduous ForestsMany forests are cleared to provide housing for humans.Careful use of the resource can provide a renewable http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tbdf/tbdf.html system if we don’t take too much habitat away.
  12. 12. Taigaaka Northern Coniferous Forest or Boreal Forest Location: Found only in Northern Hemisphere
  13. 13. Taiga Abiotic factors Winters are long and cold Averages 100 in/yr precipitation— mostly snow Soil poor in nutrients and very acidic Growing season is http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/modules/ ecosystems_biomes/biomes_northern_forest.html very short
  14. 14. Taiga Plant adaptations Balsam Fir Fireweed Coniferous (needle-bearing) trees are abundant Roots long to anchor trees Needles long, thin and waxy Low sunlight and poor soil keeps plants from growing on forest floorhttp://www.inchinapinch.com/hab_pgs/terres/coniferous/plants.htm
  15. 15. Moose Animal Adaptations of the Taiga Adapt for cold winters Burrow, hibernate, warm coat, insulation, etc.http://www.inchinapinch.com/hab_pgs/terres/coniferous/animals.htm Great Grey Owl
  16. 16. Threats to the Taiga Mining operations can irreparably damage this fragile ecosystem. Pollution left behind can also put animals and plants at risk. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/taiga.h
  17. 17. Savannas (Tropical Grasslands) Contain the greatest number of grazing animals on Earth.Location: Found in the tropics…near equator Amount of precipitation supports tall grasses but only occasional trees.The word savanna stems from an Amerind term for plainshttp://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSE S/ GEOG235 /bio mes/savanna/savanna.htm l
  18. 18. Tropical Savanna Abiotic Factors Rainy and dry season 25-150 in/yr precipitationFire plays a large role in this ecosystem http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/savannah.html
  19. 19. Whistling Thorn Tropical Savanna Umbrella Thorn Acacia Plant Adaptations  Grows in Tufts  Resistance to Drought  Many plants have thorns and Kangaroos Paws sharp leaves to protect against predation. Baobabhttp://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna_plant_page.htm
  20. 20. Chacma Baboon Zebras Tropical Savanna Animal AdaptationsAdapt for short rainy season—migrate as Reproduce during rainy necessary season—ensures moreLimited food leads to young survive vertical feeding http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna_animal_page.htm
  21. 21. Threats to the Tropical Savanna Invasive species Changes in fire management Elephant  Because of their low elevation, some savannas are threatened by minor rises in sea level associated with global climate change Koala http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna_animal_page.htm
  22. 22. SteppeDry, cold, grasslands Location: Found in Russia and the Ukraine http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/steppe.htm
  23. 23. Steppe Abiotic Factors <50 in/year precipitation www.wsu.eduMountains often play a role in climate characteristics www.plasmacy.de
  24. 24. Plant adaptations of the Steppe most abundant are plants called Bunch grasses,fine bladed grasses that grow in clumps topreserve water Tumbleweed http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/steppe_plant_page.htm Sweet Vernal
  25. 25. Adaptations of Steppe Animals Mongolian Gerbil  Many migrate, hibernate or burrow during extremes in temp and precipitationSaiga Antelope Gazelle herd http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/steppe_animal_page.htm
  26. 26. Threats to the Steppe  Overgrazing…nomadic tribes have started to spend more time in one location,  Infrastructure development (roads, buildings, etc)Lynx  Unmanaged hunting and poaching is destroying herds of animals Corsac foxMilk vetch http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/steppe.h
  27. 27. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/steppe.htm Prairie and Steppe: Grassland areas 50-75 cm/yr Characteristic high Winds
  28. 28. Prairie Plant AdaptationsSod-forming grasses thatwon’t dry out or blowaway in wind. Fleabane http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/prairie_plants_page.htm Buffalo Grass
  29. 29. Prairie Animal Adaptations Many adaptations to survive extremes BobcatGeoffrey’s cat Prairie dog http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/pampas_ animal_page.htm
  30. 30. Grasslandshttp://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/grasslands.htm
  31. 31. Chaparral Location: Primarily in coastal areas with Mediterranean climates. About 300 N and S of the equator.http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/chaparral.htm
  32. 32. Chaparral—Abiotic Factors Climate: hot, dry summers, mild, wet winters. Slight variations in seasonal temperatures…NICE! California Chaparral http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_ biomes.htm Mediterranean Chaparral
  33. 33. Chaparral—Plant Adaptations Blue OakMostly low-lying shrubs and small trees.Many plants have leathery leaves to resist water lossMany plant species have oils in leaves to help them resist fire…the fire will take out ―weaker‖ plants that don’t belong. Fairy Duster
  34. 34. Chaparral—Animal Adaptations Camouflage—to avoid predationAardwolf Many animals will change their diet as the season changes. Puma
  35. 35. Threats to the Chaparral Human development— very desirable climate for humans to live.Grey Fox Wild GoatKing Protea
  36. 36. Desert Ecosystems Location: Depending on type of desert, you will find them in various locations.
  37. 37. Desert Abiotic factors <10 in/yr of rain Little to no topsoil due to high winds. Minerals not deep in soil. While there are many types of Too dry for deserts, they all share one decay characteristic: They are thehttp://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr /taiga.html driest places on Earth!
  38. 38. Barrel Cactus Desert Plant Adaptations:  Spines  Succulents  Thick, waxy cuticle  Shallow, broad roots Joshua Tree http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/desert_plant_page.htm Ocotollio
  39. 39. Bob Cat Desert Animal Adaptations:Armadillo Lizard  Get water from food  Thick outer coat  Burrow during day  Large ears  Smaller animals = less surface area http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/desert_animal_page.htmJavelina
  40. 40. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_biomes.htm Threats to the Desert Residential development Off road recreational activities destroy habitat for plants and animals. Some plants are removed by collectors, endangering the population. Dry Desert Sonoran Desert
  41. 41. TundraLocation: Found north of the Arctic Circle http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tundra/t undra .html
  42. 42. Tundra Abiotic Factors <25 in/year Temp rarely higher than 100C Permafrost layer Short growing season http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/taiga.html
  43. 43. Reindeer lichenTundra Plant Adaptations Growing close to the ground Having shallow roots to absorb the limited water resources. Trees grow less than 1 m high!cottongrass
  44. 44. PerennialsWoody shrubs Heaths Examples of Tundra Plants http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tundra/tundra.html
  45. 45. snowy owl Arctic fox Small ears Insulation, thick coat Tundra Animal AdaptationsMany visitors, migrationFew predatorsLittle Competition Grizzly Bear
  46. 46. Threats to the Tundra One of the most fragile biomes onTufted Saxifrage the planet Polar BearOil drilling is The tundra is proposed slow to in Alaska recover from and other damage.
  47. 47. Freshwater Ecosystems• Salinity <0.5 ppt.• Lake are the deepest of fresh water systems• Lakes are fed by underground aquifer or stream• Ponds are fed by rainfall and may be seasonalhttp://mbgnet.mobot.org/fresh/
  48. 48. Ponds Microscopic Animals and Algae• Sun can reach bottom• Fed by rainfall• May be seasonal• Algae and plants throughout
  49. 49. Lakes and ponds—Abiotic FactorsLittoral zone: nutrient rich area found close to shore www.dnr.wi.govBenthic zone: bottom of the lake where no sunlight can www.uwsp.edu reach.
  50. 50. Lakes and ponds: Plants and Animals Adaptations• Plants are floating algae and plants along shoreline• Animals live in or near water
  51. 51. Threats to lakes and ponds All water systems are being polluted and degraded by human www.aquaticbiomes.gov impact
  52. 52. Marsh http://mbgnet.mobot.org/fresh/wetlands/ Uses:  Animal/plant homes  Carbon ―sink‖  Water rechargeTypes: Brackish and areas, freshwater removing pollutants
  53. 53. Marsh—Plant adaptations• Very shallow with land occasionally exposed• Saturated soil• Low oxygen in water and soil• Emergent plants Heron http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_biomes.htm
  54. 54. Swamp/BogsLocation: Found on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams
  55. 55. Swamps/Bogs AbioticfactorsLand soaked because of poor drainageDecay is slow - Soil is acidicSwampsLarge trees/shrubsAdapted to muddy soils Bogs - sphagnum moss is dominant http://mbgnet.mobot.org/fresh/wetlands/
  56. 56. Threats to Wetlandswww.kathimitchell.com Previous backfilling and clearing for farmland or development has been a concern. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/bi ome/aquatic.html
  57. 57. RiversAt headwaters, usually cold and highly oxygenated. As it flows, it will broaden out, warm up and this completely changes the
  58. 58. River: Plant and Animal Adaptations Will vary based on where in the river they are…at thewww.3d-screensaver- downloads.com headwaters, organisms need to hang on! www.cs.dartmouth.edu
  59. 59. Threats to Rivers Dams alter theIndustry uses flow of the water to water dispose of waste productsRunoff from homes and other places causes changes in www.nwk.usace.army.mil
  60. 60. Estuaries http://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/sandy/ • Fresh and salt water meet
  61. 61. Plant and Animal Adaptations of Estuaries Very productive biome because it receives lots of light and nutrientsManatee and goos Often used as e nursery for young www.lookoutnow.com & www.visualparadox.com
  62. 62. Threats to Estuaries Many ports are found on estuaries—pollution Human population pers-erf.org www.davenewbould.co.uk
  63. 63. Coral Reefs• Close to equator• Consistent water temperature• Shallow water• Low in Nutrients
  64. 64. Animal adaptations of the Coral Reef • Breeding area for many fish http://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/coral/
  65. 65. Threats to the Coral ReefsTemperature is important, Human intrusion (scuba diving) too hot or too cold and is damaging if you the animals can’t live touch/step on the reef there to create limestone Pollution is also a concern. www.calacademy.org
  66. 66. Oceanshttp://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/sandy/
  67. 67. Ocean Abiotic factorsOpen ocean is one of Covers nearly the least productive ¾ of the areas on earth, too Earth’s little sunlight to surface. support plant growth http://www.worldbiomes.com/bio mes_aquatic.htm
  68. 68. Ocean Plant adaptationsPlants are micro and macroscopicHave floating plants (kelp shown here) http://www.calstatela.edu/faculty/eviau/edit557/oceans/norma/onfrm.htm
  69. 69. Ocean Animal Adaptations Zooplankton— sea’s smallest Hammerhead herbivores Deep ocean animals feed on detritus— floating debris in the Lion fish water column. http://www.kidzworld.com/site/p1951.htm
  70. 70. Threats to the OceansWhile the oceans are Overfishing vast, they and some are fishing becoming methods are more destroying polluted fishing http://www.worldbiomes.com/biomes_aquatic.htm grounds.
  71. 71. Polar EcosystemsCan be considered marine ecosystems www.awi-bremerhaven.de since the base of food chain is phytoplankton www.defenders.org
  72. 72. Arctic vs. AntarcticArctic Antarctic Relatively Penguins live shallow, lots here—only continent of nutrients not used by humans for large (exc. Research) variety of animals in food web, People, seals and polar nmml.afsc.noaa.gov
  73. 73. Threats to the Polar Ecosystems Reserves of minerals draw humans to these fragile ecosystems. The main threat to wildlife has been the increase in tourism—garbage newt.phys.unsw.edu.a left behind u
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