Piping Technology & Products acquired U.S. Bellows in nineteen-ninety-seven (1997) during a major plant expansion of two-hundred thousand square feet (200,000 sq. ft.) After the plant expansion, PT&P had a total of four-hundred and fifty thousand square feet (450,000 sq. ft.) of covered shop space on a thirty-five (35) acre property. We now have a over seven-hundred (700) employees and are conveniently located near the port of Houston in Texas.
U.S. Bellows is a manufacturer of different types of Expansion Joints for a wide variety of applications.
There are many materials used for bellows, but the most commonly used material is 304 stainless steel, which is our standard material. The bellows is the flexible element of an expansion joint. The convoluted portion of an expansion joint is designed to flex when thermal movements occur in the piping system. The number of convolutions depends upon the amount of movement the bellows must accommodate or the force that must be used to accomplish the deflection.
(Top-Left) Axial Movement refers to the change in dimensional length of the bellows parallel to the centerline of the expansion joint (Top-Right) Lateral Movement refers to displacement of the bellows perpendicular to the centerline of the expansion joint (in any plane) (Bottom-Left) Angular Movement refers to bending on the centerline and halfway between the ends of the bellows (Bottom-Right) Torsional Movement refers to twisting one end of the bellows with respect to the other end, about the bellows centerline
Deflections are resulted from changes in temperature and predictable variations of the system. Most Deflections are repeated numerous times during the life of the piping system. Repetitions can also occur as a result of repetitive mechanical movements and vibrations. Each time a deflection occurs it is a CYCLE. The number of cycles is important to assure the proper design of the expansion joint. Deflections result in stresses, and they must be kept as low as possible to avoid premature fatigue failures Stress is reduced by reducing the thickness of the convolutions The ideal combination of thickness for pressure and thinness for flexibility is the design issue for our engineers
All bellows have critical pressure at which they become unstable, the critical pressure at which the instability occurs is a direct function of the diameter and spring rate, and an inverse function of the length. If the bellows is bent, or angulated, the centerline can begin to move away from the center of curvature.
Protective Covers: Protect the bellows element during shipping, plant construction and during maintenance activities. U.S. Bellows offers standard carbon steel removable covers sized to permit free flexing of the expansion joint. Internal Liners: Extends the life of metallic expansion joints Protects the convolutions from direct flow impingement, which can cause erosion & flow-induced vibration. Standard U.S. Bellows liners are fabricated from 300 Series stainless steel; however other materials are available, such as Inconel six-two-five (625) and Inconel six-hundred (600)..
A purge connector is injected clear gas or liquid that periodically or continuously blows collected material out. Purge connectors are used for systems where sediments collect between the outside of the internal liner and the inside of the bellows element.
Limit rods are utilized when desiring to limit the axial expansion or compression They provide freedom of movement over a determined range and are designed to prevent bellows over-extension while restraining the full pressure thrust of the system.
The single expansion joint is a bellows element with end connections that allows movement in any direction or plane. However, the piping must be guided in the same direction of the movement This is the least expensive type available
The universal expansion joint consists of two bellows separated by a pipe section or spool. This allows the unit to accept large amounts of lateral deflection. The amount of lateral deflection capability can be adjusted by changing the length of the center spool.
(From Left to Right) Sixty-six inch (66 &quot; ) Stainless Steel Tied Universal Expansion Joint Twelve inch (12 &quot; ) Tied Universal Expansion Joint with Stainless Steel Flanges Thirty-two inch (32 &quot; ) Universal Expansion Joint and three inch (3 &quot; ) Single Expansion Joints
Contains hinges or pivots which allow the unit to bend in a single plane Designed to restrict axial deflection (either in extension or compression) Typically designed to accept full pressure thrust
Accepts bending or angulation in two planes Contains two sets of hinge pins or pivots over each bellows with the axis of each set perpendicular to the other Each set of pins is connected to the central gimbal box
Consists of three bellows – two In-line bellows on each side and one balancing bellows in the center Typically used when axial & lateral deflections exist and anchoring is impractical for structural or economical reasons In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint is a solution to difficult design problems
These joints are used when there is a change of direction in the piping system Generally used to handle a large amount of lateral movement and a moderate amount of axial movement The pressure thrust is contained within the tie rods of these expansion joints
Here are additional pictures of pressure balanced elbow expansion joints. The pressure balanced design does not exert pressure thrust on the equipment in the piping system. Pictured on the right is one of two expansion joints we refurbished during a power plant outage. The first fifty-four inch (54 &quot; ) outside diameter expansion joint leaked from a crack in the bellows causing an unscheduled power plant outage. This particular expansion joint was fabricated for a high pressure turbine crossover piping for steam service of ninety-seven (97) PSIG at six-hundred and thirty-four degrees Fahrenheit (634°F). The twenty-seven foot long (27 ' ), twenty-seven thousand pound (27,000 lb.) expansion joint was refurbished in less than four (4) weeks. This was made possible by utilizing dedicated employees working overtime six (6) days a week. The tree-two-one (321) stainless steel bellows and carbon steel root rings were replaced. The outside cover bolts were removed and new bolts were installed. The second expansion joint was also for a high pressure turbine that was replaced during a planned outage. This expansion joint came in on October thirtieth, two-thousand and six (10-30-2006) and was ready to ship November twentieth, two-thousand and six (11-20-2006). Overall length and center line to center line length were maintained to ensure easy installation. Both expansion joints were dye penetrant tested and hydro-tested at one-hundred and forty-six (146) PSIG.
Pictured above are externally pressurized joints designed in various sizes for NASA. These expansion joints are fabricated from 304 stainless steel bellows and 300 lb. carbon steel flanges. They incorporate internal guide rings that serve as limit stops in the case of anchor failure. The picture to the right are externally pressurized expansion joints designed for 150 PSIG and 350 F for a steam plant.
Pictured to the left is a Toroidal Bellows Expansion Joint. This particular one has a ninety-two inch (92 &quot; ) inside diameter and designed for four-hundred (400) PSIG and five-hundred degrees Fahrenheit (500 °F). Toroidal convolution consists of a circular tube (or totus) wrapped around weld ends or pipe ends having a gap at the I.D. to permit axial stroke. Most Toroidal bellows are hydraulically formed which requires high pressure while the rest are free formed, similar to blowing up a balloon. Here on the right is a fourteen inch (14&quot;) diameter Clamshell bellows designed for one-hundred and fifty (150) PSIG and one-hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit (150°F).
This expansion joint consists of two ply testable Inconel 625 LCF packed bellows, tie rods, insulation bags, slotted hinges and liner seals. It is lined with a four inch (4 &quot; ) thick refractory lining. We completed fabrication of this expansion joint within six weeks to meet the quick-turn schedule of our customer.
This is one of the featured products from on our “Product of the Week Archive Section” on our website at www.usbellows.com ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U.S. Bellows designed and fabricated four (4) thick wall flanged and flued head expansion joints from a one-forth inch (¼ &quot; ) thick ASTM A516 grade seventy (70) carbon steel plate. Two have a seventy-eight inch (78 &quot; ) inside diameter and a one-hundred and ten inch (110 &quot;) outside diameter The other two have a thirty-six inch (36 &quot;) inside diameter and a sixty-eight inch (68 &quot;) outside diameter These expansion joints were cold formed and heat treated to customer requirements. The external surface was painted with one coat of shop primer. The weld ends are beveled, and drainage plugs were installed in the crest of the bellows. The bellows long weld seams were 100% dye penetrant and 100% x-ray tested.
These are fifty-four inch (54 &quot; ) pressure-balanced elbow, turbine crossover expansion joints. U.S. Bellows refurbished two of these expansion joints for a power generation plant with a quick turn-around during outages. 1.) The first refurbished expansion joint leaked from a crack in the bellows causing an unscheduled power plant outage. This particular expansion joint was fabricated for a high pressure turbine crossover piping for steam service of ninety-seven (97) PSIG at six-hundred and thirty-four degrees Fahrenheit (634°F.) The twenty-seven foot long (27 ') , twenty-seven thousand pound (27,000 lb.) expansion joint was refurbished in less than four (4) weeks. This was made possible by utilizing dedicated employees working overtime six (6) days a week. The 321 stainless steel bellows and carbon steel root rings were replaced. The outside cover bolts were removed and new bolts were installed. 2.) The second expansion joint was also for a high pressure turbine that was replaced during a planned outage. This expansion joint came in on October thirtieth, two-thousand-six (Oct. 30, 2006) and was ready to ship November twentieth, two-thousand-six (Nov. 20, 2006.) Overall length and center line to center line length were maintained to ensure easy installation. Both expansion joints were dye penetrant tested and hydro-tested at one-forty-six (146) PSIG.
U.S. Bellows designed and fabricated two tied universal expansion joints for a pipe carrying sulfur dioxide. It is designed to carry hot gas that can be as high as one-thousand-twenty-two degrees Fahrenheit (1022°F). The expansion joint pictured has an inside diameter of sixty-six inches (66 &quot; ) and an overall length of seventy-two inches (72 &quot; ). The design movements are four inches (4 &quot; ) lateral and four-point-five inches (4.5 &quot; ) axial compression. The bellows’ material is Inconel 825 with carbon steel weld ends. The bellows and pipe longitudinal weld seams were one-hundred percent (100%) x-rayed prior to a five (5) PSIG air test and then dye penetrant examined.
We specialize in Performance Assurance Product Testing…
We offer an emergency service for those rush orders. Just visit our website and click on emergency at the top-right corner U.S. Bellows received this eight inch (8 &quot;) diameter single expansion joint in the morning as an emergency order. We refurbished it by adding new 321 stainless steel bellows and limit rods. We sandblasted and repainted it for protection. The expansion joint was then shipped back to the customer the very same day.
We keep a large inventory of stock bellows for emergency quick-turn requests Our stock bellows range from one inch (1 &quot;) diameter to twenty-four inch (24 &quot;) diameter We can quickly assemble a variety of expansion joints available in three pressure values: eighty-five (85) PSIG, one-hundred and fifty (150) PSIG and three-hundred (300) PSIG
The pictures here show a Finite Element Analysis of a gimbal expansion joint. The first picture shows the use of FEA to design the joint. This second picture shows the expansion joint after completion while still in our shop and the third picture is of the gimbal joint after installation. Under the FEA umbrella, there are also special stress and/or thermal problem analysis, Pro/E for 3D part design, and ANSYS for mesh generation-plus-analysis-plus-the result analysis. We also conduct: Piping, pipe support and structural design Three-D modeling technology Structural analysis Pipe stress analysis (ANSYS)
Our website is the place to find technical information, including Technical Bulletins on Fatigue Testing, Heat Exchanger Shell Bellows, Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints and High Temperature Furnace Seal Bags. Please visit www.pipingtech.com after this Webinars “Question and Answers Session” is over.
PT&P is a diverse manufacturer of a wide variety of high-quality, competitively priced engineered products. PT&P has focused experience in supplying pipe supports and expansion joints to petrochemical plants, chemical plants and power generation plants around the world. PT&P for all your engineering needs…
U.S. Bellows Expansion Joint Presentation
Piping Technology & Products, Inc.
Introduction <ul><li>PT&P acquired U.S. Bellows in 1997 during a major plant expansion of 200,000 sq. ft. </li></ul>
Applications ▪ Research & Development ▪ Refinery ▪ Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Service ▪ HVAC Building Heating & Cooling Systems ▪ Furnace Sealing Bags ▪ Geothermal Power Plants ▪ Marine Piping & Exhaust ▪ Environmental Applications ▪ Kilns ▪ Steam Distribution ▪ Heavy Metal ▪ Solid Waste Incineration ▪ U.S. Navy ▪ Gas Turbines ▪ Truck Exhaust ▪ Waste Water Treatment ▪ FCC Units ▪ District Energy ▪ Aerospace Turbo Engine Exhaust ▪ Municipal Water Districts ▪ Heat Exchangers ▪ Power ▪ Pulp & Paper ▪ Stationary Engine Exhaust ▪ Chemical & Petrochemical ▪ Fossil Fuel Power Plant
Types of Movement Torsional Movement Angular Movement Lateral Movement Axial Movement
Cyclic Deflections & Cycle Life Cycle Test on a 12 " diameter A240-321SS Bellows with 8 convolutions. The bellows has met the EMJA cycle life calculation of 1,000 cycles and failed in the root of the convolutions at 1,285 cycles. Temperature Change Repetitive Mechanical Movements Vibrations Stresses
Expansion Joint Failure <ul><li>Common Bellows Material Failures </li></ul>Failure Mode Typical Source Stress Corrosion Chlorides (austenitic stainless steels) Caustics, High Temp. Sulfurous Gas (nickel alloys) Fatigue Vibration Carbide Precipitation Unstabilized Materials at High Temperatures Squirm & Rupture Over Pressurization * Squirm is the phenomena whereby the centerline of a straight bellows develops a sideways or lateral bow.
Accessories <ul><li>Purge Connector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for systems where sediments collect between outside of the internal liner and the inside of the bellows element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injected clear gas or liquid periodically or continuously blows collected material out </li></ul></ul>
Types of Expansion Joints Tied Universal Expansion Joint Tied Universal Expansion Joint with Stainless Steel Flanges Universal Expansion Joint Single Expansion Joints
Types of Expansion Joints <ul><li>Hinged Expansion Joint </li></ul>Two 43” hinged expansion joints with 5” thick refractory lining, manufactured to be part of FCC stand-pipes in a synfuels plant
Types of Expansion Joints <ul><li>Gimbal Expansion Joint </li></ul>55 " O.D. Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint for an FCC Unit. The expansion joint is equipped with floating rings and Inco 625 LCF bellows.
Types of Expansion Joints <ul><li>In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint </li></ul>24 " In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints designed for 175 PSIG and 610 F for a petrochemical plant in Venezuela
Types of Expansion Joints <ul><li>Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joint </li></ul>Pressure Balanced Elbow Expansion Joints designed for 150 PSIG and 450 F for a 42 " steam line
Types of Expansion Joints <ul><li>Externally Pressurized Expansion Joint </li></ul>* Pressure is applied externally to the bellows * Ability to absorb large mounts of axial travel
Types of Expansion Joints <ul><li>Stable at high pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs small amounts of movement </li></ul>Clamshell Bellows Expansion Joint Toroidal Bellows Expansion Joint (Omega Bellows Expansion Joint)
Types of Expansion Joint <ul><li>Refractory Lined Expansion Joint </li></ul>44 " Universal Refractory Lined Expansion Joint designed for 30 PSIG and 1400 F 36 " Double Hinged Expansion Joint designed for 50 PSIG and 1000 F 70 " Tied Universal Expansion Joint designed for 51 PSIG and 1460 F
80" Diameter, FCU, Expansion Joint in Fab Shop Types of Expansion Joint
Types of Expansion Joints 108 " Diameter Thick Wall Expansion Joint (with 2 convolutions) 71" x 143" Round Corner Regular Expansion Joint for an oil refinery in India 78 " I.D. x 100" O.D. Thick Wall Expansion Joint Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint 240" x 80" and 157" x 65" Rectangular Expansion Joint Thick Wall Metallic Expansion Joint
Types of Expansion Joints 30 " Slip Type Expansion Joint (Designed for hydrocarbon flaring system ) 21 ' x 14 ' I.D. Fabric Expansion Joint (Power plant in Puerto Rico) 30 " Diameter Rubber Expansion Joint (EPDM reinforced tube & cover, telescoping linear and A516-70 flanges) 59 " Diameter Neoprene Expansion Joint (Carbon Steel Angle flanges and Stainless Steel Clamp Rings) Rubber Expansion Joint Fabric Expansion Joint Slip Type Expansion Joint
Fabric Expansion Joints High-Temp 23 ¼ " I.D. Fabric Expansion Joint Stitching the fabric belt on the 1 st layer 128 " x 229 " Rectangular Fabric Expansion Joint (Includes a Three Layer Belt)
Project Experience Thick Wall Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joint
Value-added Services Burst Test <ul><li>Hydrostatic Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Particle </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasonic </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle Test </li></ul><ul><li>Burst Test </li></ul><ul><li>Helium Leak Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid Penetrant </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Radiography Test </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Material </li></ul><ul><li>Identification (PMI) Test </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Rate Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue Testing </li></ul>Dye Penetration Testing Performance Assurance Program
Value-added Services <ul><li>Performance Assurance Program </li></ul>Hydro Test Cycle Test
Value-added Services <ul><li>24x7 Field Services </li></ul><ul><li>Installation guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Field survey and inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Problem resolution and repair </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement expansion joints for any quick-turn or emergency situation </li></ul><ul><li>Available 24x7 to fulfill any emergency/quick-turn requirement that might arise </li></ul>
Value-added Services Friday, 5:30pm Saturday Sunday 24x7 Emergency/Quick-turn Services for a 48" dia expansion joint 24x7 Web-based Emergency Services
Emergency Response Same-Day Emergency Service on an 8 " Single Expansion Joint
Technical Capabilities <ul><li>Engineering and Design </li></ul><ul><li>PDS Collaboration + “Catalog” of supports </li></ul>Finite Element Analysis of a Gimbal Expansion Joint
Technical Information <ul><li>www.pipingtech.com </li></ul>Fatigue Testing Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints Heat Exchanger Shell Bellows High Temp Furnace Seal Bag
Conclusion <ul><li>U.S. Bellows is a diverse manufacturer of a wide variety of high-quality, competitively priced expansion joints </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Bellows has focused experience in supplying expansion joints to petrochemical plants, chemical plants and power generation plants around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Bellows for all your expansion joint needs… </li></ul>