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Baroque
 

Baroque

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trabajo de barroco en inglés

trabajo de barroco en inglés

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    Baroque Baroque Document Transcript

    • Pablo Marín Vera 4ºB
    • Baroque is an artistic style that was born in Italy and was spread to allEurope, it has a special importance in Spain and Spanish American. Theterm Baroque is used to describe the art, sculpture, architecture and musicin the period between the years 1600 to 1750. It is also defined as theperiod between the end of Renaissance and the beginning of Neoclassicism,although between Renaissance and Baroque it was interspersed anothergreat stylistics stage called Mannerism. Besides, at the end of Baroquecame up another interesting stage, Rococo, connected to Baroque but in anextreme way, with a lot of interest and care on the characteristics of theperiod.The word Baroque comes from the Portuguese, and means “fake jewellery”or “irregular pearl”. The term refers to something impure, a deception, anda caprice of the nature and the extravagance of the thought.During Baroque, the European Catholic Church needed to react against alarge number of revolutionary cultural movements that caused a newscience and religion dissident inside the dominant Catholicism: THEPROTESTANT REFORMATION.It was the aesthetic expression of the Counter-Reformation. On one handthe Protestant Church constructed buildings for the pray in a sobriety wayand without decoration, on the other hand The Catholic Church use thebaroque’s grandiosity and complexity.Considering the last point, most of the Baroque’s characteristics weredetermined by Religion. The Catholic Church was one of the most importantand more influent sponsors, trying to stop the quick diffusion ofProtestantism and reflect on his works a clear propagation of faith. Thismeans that the most represented subject was Religion.Baroque’s characteristics were: • Sense of movement, with energy and tension. • Strong contrasts in light, shadows and colours. • Spirituality is often presented in baroque art. 2
    • • Realism is another integral feature on it. • Use of perspective and volumes. • The use of the stylistic characteristic known as “clarooscuro”.During Baroque a large quantity of art was created. It was important atliterature, painting, architecture, music, dance and sculpture. However, Iam going to centre in the last one, SCULPTURE.BAROQUE’S SCULPTURE • It have a decorative sense, it isn’t a sculpture to be seen in isolation but yes as part of a group. It Is omnipresent in baroque art: squares, fountains,facades,altarpieces… • Naturalist:exalted expressions. • Use of a large variety of materials: marble, bronze, alabaster, polychrome wood, gold, silver… • It captures very good the moment that Christianity lives: time of mystics, saints, ecstasy ( eyes closed, mouth open…) Themes and types : Religious. Mythological, funeral and portraits scultures.It had especial importance in Italy, Spain and France.1-Baroque Sculture in ItalyPrincipal characteristics: Naturalism (it is hoped to represent things asthey are, so you usually represent feelings). Dynamism (movement has a lotof importance). Illuminated contrasts (used in order to represent thequality of the objects).The used materials in the Italy’s Baroque sculpture are, preferably, bronzeand marble.Most of the treated themes are religious, although there are alsomythological and funeral ones and portraits.The principal representative was Bernini, who emphasized in architectureas in sculpture. He was to the Baroque as Michelangelo to Renaissance.Characteristics: • Deep naturalism. 3
    • • Search of texture qualities, in skin as in clothes. • Movement is the protagonist. • Impassioned gesture and dramatic attitude.Examples: • Mithological Themes: Apolo y Dafne / David*Divine love Themes: * Urban themes: Fuente de los Cuatro Ríos Extasis de Santa Teresa. * Funeral Themes: Papa Urbano’s VII Tomb. 4
    • * Portraits: Constanza Buanorelli2- Baroque Sculpture in Spain • Religious themes are predominant on it. Religious images are made to be the object of the popular devotion. • Realism. Hairpieces, such as, real hair, real crowns, crystal eyes and tears, are used in order to represent a clear realism. In some cases sculptures are wearing real luxurious clothes. • Employ of the polychrome wood as the excellent material. • The most important sponsors were in first place The Church and then the Courts. It hardly exist official statuary, we can only cite the equestrian statues of Philip III (Mayor Square in Madrid) and Philip IV ( at the East Square). Neither of them were constructed in Spain. • The works decorated altarpieces and were shown during the holy week. • A decline is produced in the funeral sculpture. • The general characteristics are a feeling of movement, energy, tension, asymmetric composition with predominance of the diagonals 5
    • and the foreshortening, strong contrasts of light and shadows that enhanced the scenographic effects and the naturalism. • Figures are represented of individualized form, with their own personality. The artists search the interior feelings representation, the passions reflected on the characters’ faces.We can talk of two clear great schools:The Castilian SchoolCentred in Valladolid and Madrid, it presents an exaggerated and patheticrealism, full of pain and blood, with a deep dynamism and very expressivefaces.The most known sculptor was Gregorio Fernández, creator of iconographictypes with a great success: reclining or crucified Christs, Pietás, andBlessed Virgins.Characteristics: Great pathos and an excessive naturalism that wasachieved through hairpieces such as crystal tears, hairs, injures or dropsof blood.Works: The Mayor Altarpiece at Plasencia Cathedral and Christ’s Baptism. 6
    • Andalusian SchoolIt is spread along Seville, Granada and Malaga. The realism is not soexaggerated, searching the beauty without refusing the spiritual content.The realism is idealized, predominate the serenity and the beautiful andequilibrated images with a soft model.Martinez Montañes was the creator of the Seville’s School. His productionwas almost all of it religious. He represents a calm baroque, so his worksshow calmness and balance. His Blessed Virgins and Christs are morehumanize than the ones of G.Fernandez.Works: Clemency Christ, Altarpiece of Santiponce with Saint Jeronimo,The Adoration of the Shepherds. 7
    • Juan de Mesa became was the disciple of Montañés, he developed a verypersonal style in which he mix the balance and the pathos, for example;Suffering Christ.The crucifix is the most frequent theme in his production, overcoat,Christ’s images before the death.The zenith of his dramatic quality is in the Great Power Jesus, situated inSeville 8
    • Alonso Cano is the principal representative of the Andalusian School inGranada, he is characterize by the classicism, clemency and gentleness, likeit shows The Blessed Virgin of Granada.He was a complete artist, painter, sculptor, and architect. His productionpasses along three moments at Seville, at Madrid and at Granada.At Seville he produces the Altarpiece of the Church of Our Lady of Olivaof Lebrija.For the Granada´s Cathedral, he makes a Blessed Virgin.Pedro de Mena was his disciple.He was the great master of the sculpture inGranada, and he was collaborator of AlonsoCano. He likes the stillness, centring theattention in the head and in the hands. Heruns away from the pain exaltation. Faces areslightly stylized, his figures are usuallylanguid and contemplative. 9
    • Two of his best statues are Saint Francisco in theCathedral in Toledo, and Penitent Magdalena inMadrid. The last one is a juvenile figure, full ofanguish. It holds with strength with the left hand acrucifix, and with the right hand she touches herheart. The point with most expressivity is on theface that shows a very high suffering and proclaimsher self-controlled emotion of a remorse.The sculpture in Murcia : Francisco SalzilloPrincipally author of Holy Week sculptures, complex groups more thanisolated figures, that in a sequence way tell Christ’s Passion to thefaithful. In his work it is possible to appreciate clear Italian influences,overcoat in his classic balance, and it is evident the fashion rococo inEurope during the 18th century. The Prayer in the Garden. The Prendimiento3- Baroque Sculpture in France.The 17th French sculpture, like architecture, has above all an official andcourteous character, in which prevailed the exaltation of the sovereign andthe great architects of the French monarchy. The religious work went intothe background and was replaced by portraits, statues and memorials toperpetuate the work of the sovereign and the main figures of France 10
    • during Baroque. In addition, the palace architecture flourishing required ofsculpture numerous commissions for interior decoration and the immenseparks and gardens surrounding the main buildings. Its main representativesare Girardon François, Antoine Coysevox, and above all, Pierre Puget.Apolo atendido por las ninfas, of François Girardon Portrait of Luis XIV, de Antoine Coysevox Milón of Crotona, of Pierre PugetCONCLUSSIONThe Baroque Art, and more precisely Baroque Sculpture was born in Italyand then spread through Europe between 1600 and 1750. It had specialimportance in Spanish territories.Most of the works made during this period express movement, and all ofthem have a very clear realism. One of his main sponsors is the CatholicChurch because they wanted to stop the Protestant Reformation, and dueto that most of Baroque art represents Religious themes and acts. 11
    • It could be distinguish between three great cultural countries duringBaroque, Italy, Spain and France. In Italy the main representative wasBernini, who was also known in Architecture, he represent a deepnaturalism, are well-known Bernini’s works such as David, and Fount of thefour rivers.In Spain, the most treated theme is the religion. The most sculptures areto decorate the altarpiece and Holy Week images. You could distinguish twoclear schools: *Castilian School: Main representative Gregorio Fernández.Exaggerated naturalism and a great pathos are its characteristics. Mainworks: Christ Baptism, Mayor Altarpiece in Plasenza. *Andalusian School: Representatives such as MartinezMontañés in Seville, Alonso Cano in Granada. The main characteristic are:idealized realism however not too exaggerated, formal beauty, andequilibrated balance.Francisco Solzillo in Murcia also had great importance.And the last one is Baroque Sculpture in France. Its main representativesare François Girardon, Antoine Coysevox and Pierre Puget. Religion was notso important, and monarchy became in the destination of art, monarchswere represented in Portraits or Statues. Sculptures were made in interiorsettings or in parks and gardens.BIBLIOGRAPHY • Wikipedia • www.arteguias.com/esculturabarroca • http://almez.pntic.mec.es/~jmac0005/Bach_Arte/barroco/escultura _barroca1.htm • http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/scultpurePlastic/Sculptu reHistory/BaroqueSculpture/BaroquePeriodArt/BaroquePeriodArt.ht m • http://www.contraclave.org/hdelarte/Historia 12
    • INDEX • Baroque Art………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 • Baroque Sculpture in Italy……………………………………………………………………… 2 • Baroque Sculpture in Spain………………………………………………………………………4 Castilian………………………………………………………………………5 Andalusian………………………………………………………………… 6 Murcian……………………………………………………………………… 9 • Baroque Sculpture in France………………………………………………………… 9 • Conclussion ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10 • Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………. 11 13