Science in the K to 12 Merle C. Tan, PhD Science Education Specialist and Convenor for ScienceNational Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development University of the Philippines email@example.com
Some Background InformationAbout Learners in Basic Education
Performance in the National Achievement TestsSubject 2004 2005 2007 2008Science 36.8% 39.49 % 51.58 % 57.90%Math 46.2% 50.7 % 60.29% 63.89%
Performance in International Assessment Studies (e.g., Trends in Math and Science Study-TIMSS) Science 1995 1999 2003Grade 4 23rd (25)Grade 7 41st (42)Grade 8 36th (38) 42nd (45)Note: UP NISMED managed the TIMSS: cultural adaptation, test administration, checking of items, analysis of results, and writing the report
TIMSS 1999 Micro Analysis (UP NISMED, 2003) Factual Knowledge Conceptual Understanding100 100 75 75 50 50 25 25 0 NS LS Envi ES Chem Phys 0 NS LS Envi ES Chem Phys 100 Reasoning & 100 Analysis 75 75 Mastery Mastery Near Mastery 50 Near Mastery 50 No Mastery No Mastery 25 25 0 NS LS Envi ES Chem Phys 0 NS LS Envi ES Chem Phys
Percent Correct Responses for Earth Science Topics (TIMSS 2003, Grade 8) ) Topic Cognitive Test Percent Domain Format Correct Overall*Time temperature table RA MC 33 (73)True statement of mountain age CU MC 13 (30)Changes in river shape or speed RA MC 33 (52)Appearance of Jupiter and Moon CU CR 39 (65)Location of jungle on RA MC 24 (46)temperature/elevation diagramPosition of Moon during solar CU CR 44 (53)eclipseRA (Reasoning & Analysis); CU (Conceptual Understanding); MC (Multiple choice);CR (Constructed –response); Numbers in parentheses (3rd column) is the internationalaverage
Reasons given for the poor performance in TIMSS* Students who took the TIMSS test NOT familiar with the format of the test items Have NOT taken Biology, Chemistry, and Physics NOT exposed to inquiry-based instruction. Have NOT developed higher level thinking Have NOT retained or mastered concepts and skills due to ‘jumping’ sequence of topics in different grade levels NOT exposed to questions that show connections across science topics or across disciplines Have poor communication and comprehension skills; most constructed-response items were not answered. NOT familiar with literacy-based assessment* Based on interviews with teachers and principals and NISMEDobservations during school visits
Comparing Science in the BEC and in K to12: Addressing the Concerns Entry in the early grades Sequence of learning Breadth and depth of content Approaches to teaching & learning Classroom assessment
Entry in Early Grades BEC K to 12Science is NOT a Science is still NOT a separate subject in Kseparate subject in to Gr2Grades 1 & 2Science content and Science content and process skills areprocess skills are integrated in Mother Tongue, Filipinointegrated in English and English, Math, Health, Music & Art, AP and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, Edukasyon sa Pagpapalakas ng KatawanScience is separate Science is separate subject in G1 & G2 insubject in G1 & G2 in special science ES, some private schoolsspecial science ES, and University lab schoolssome private schoolsand University labschools
Sequence of Learning BEC K to 12For G3-6: Topics from various Spiral progression; Contentbranches of science are revolves around four sciencerevisited in each grade disciplines, one each per(People, Animals, Plants, grading period with horizontalMaterials, Energy, Earth, and vertical integrationSun, Moon, & Solar System)For HS-Y1: Integrated No need to wait for Y2, Y3 andScience (Biology, Chemistry, Y4 to learn concepts and theirPhysics, Earth Sciences, applications in Biology,Environmental Science) Chemistry & Physics,For HS-Y2-4: One branch of respectively.science in each year level(Biology, Chemistry andPhysics, respectively)
Breadth and Depth of Content BEC K to 12Wide range of topics from Decongested and incrementalelementary to secondary school deliverybut superficial treatment Concepts in every grade level are based on their cognitive level demand, or if they are prerequisite to another concept, and if possible, have applications to real life.Some topics in elementary are Topics are revisited torepeated in high school, almost determine prior knowledge;at the same depth; Some key reduced overlaplearning areas are not covered;some prerequisites are notintroducedMany topics in HS 1-4 are for Integrated content enablescollege bound; Discipline based learners to exploredoes not enable students to boundaries and connections
Approaches to Teaching & Learning BEC K to 12Recipe or confirmatory type of Varied inquiry-based activities;activities; Science investigations guided to semi-structured toare not explicit, Not inquiry based open-ended investigationsReal-life applications of concepts More real-life applications ofare minimal concepts ; Connections across science topics are emphasizedConnections across science topicsare NOT emphasizedMathematics skills needed for Mathematics skills needed toscience are NOT provided at learn science are integratedappropriate gradesICT integration is NOT explicit. Varied ICT tools are used; Appropriate and indigenous technology are utilized
Classroom Assessment BEC K to 12Mainly paper and pencil tests; Varied assessment formats used:more on selected- response selected- response (SR) andtype; constructed-response type constructed-response (CR) types;rare rubrics provided for CR questionsUse of rubrics not common,giving rise to inconsistent andsubjective evaluationMany competencies are not Suggested assessment alignedaligned with assessment; Some with competenciescompetencies are high level butassessments are mainly recallFocus on summative Results of formative test are usedassessment rather than to improve instruction;formative assessment (A4L) suggestions on how to do these are in the TG
Science in the K to 12: Vision, Philosophy & Curriculum Components
Core Science Standard (for the entire K to 12)The learner demonstrates understanding of basicscience concepts, applies science process skills, andexhibits scientific attitudes and values to solveproblems critically, innovate beneficial products,protect the environment and conserve resources forsustainability, enhance the integrity and wellness ofpeople, and make informed and unbiased decisionsabout social issues that involve science andtechnology.This understanding will lead to learner’smanifestation of respect for life and the environment,bearing in mind that Earth is our ONLY HOME.
Curriculum ComponentsComponent 1: Inquiry Skills Asking questions about the natural world (materials, events, phenomena, and experiences) Designing and conducting investigations using appropriate procedure, materials, tools, and equipment Employing different strategies to obtain information from different sources Communicating results of investigations using appropriate presentation tools
Basic Science Integrated Higher Order Processes Skills Thinking Skills FormulatingObserving hypothesisAsking Fair testing Critical thinkingquestions - Identifying Creative thinkingMeasuring variables Problem solvingClassifying - Controlling Decision makingInferring variablesFinding patterns Collecting and (Real-life context)Predicting organizing dataCommunicating Interpreting data Making conclusions Scientific Inquiry Skills STE Literacy Skills
Component 2: Content and Connections Living Things & Force, Motion and Their Environment Energy Characteristics Movement Structure and Effects of Force Function Forms of Energy and Processes Transformation Science Interactions Content (G1-10) Matter Earth and Space Diversity of Surroundings: Land, materials Properties Water, Air, and Structure Weather and Climate Changes Solar system InteractionsSequence may vary from grade to grade. Ensure horizontalintegration of topics across grading periods.
Component 3: Scientific Attitudes and Values Intellectual honesty Objectivity Perseverance Active listening Assuming responsibility Taking initiative Independent learning Analyzing and evaluating information, procedures, and claims. Making decisions based on sound judgment and logical reasoning.
Key Stage Standards End of G3 End of G6The learner should have The learner should have developedacquired healthful habits the essential skills of scientificand developed curiosity inquiry – designing simpleabout self and their investigations, using appropriateenvironment using basic procedure, materials and tools toprocess skills of observing, gather evidence, observing patterns,communicating, determining relationships,drawingcomparing, classifying, conclusions based on evidence, andmeasuring, inferring and communicating ideas in varied wayspredicting. This curiosity to make meaning of the observationswill help learners value and/or changes that occur in thescience as an important environment. The content and skillstool in helping them learned will be applied to maintaincontinue to explore their good health, ensure the protectionnatural and physical and improvement of the environment,environment. and practice safety measures.
Key Stage Standards End of G10 End of G12The learner should have developed The learner should have gained skillsscientific, technological and environmental in obtaining scientific andliteracy so that “they will not be isolated technological information from variedfrom the society where they live, will not be sources about global issues that haveoverwhelmed by change, and can make impact on the country. They shouldrational choices on issues confronting have acquired attitudes that will allowthem” (UNESCO, 1993). Having been them to innovate and/or createexposed to scientific investigations related products useful to the community orto real-life, they recognize that the central country. They should be able tofeature of an investigation is that if one process information to get relevantvariable is changed (while controlling all data for a problem at hand. Inothers), the effect of the change on another addition, learners should have madevariable is measured. The context of the plans related to their interests andinvestigation can be problems at the local expertise, considering the needs ofor national level to allow them to their community and the country — tocommunicate with students in other parts pursue either employment,of the Philippines or even from other entrepreneurship, orcountries using appropriate technology.
The Approach: Spiral ProgressionThe scope and sequence of the content are developedcarefully from one grade level to the next. Conceptsand skills are revisited at each grade level withincreasing depth.New concepts are built on pupils’ prior knowledge andskills to allow gradual mastery from one grade level tothe next.WHY SPIRAL PROGRESSION?
INTEGRATED CONTENT OF TIMSS TEST Content Domain Percentage Percentage Correct Correct Answers Answers International PhilippinesLife Sciences 43 30Chemistry 45 30Physics 40 24Earth Sciences 46 32Environmental 38 25Sciences
SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF DEVELOPED OR HIGH PERFORMING COUNTRIES• Basic education cycle: min 12 years, max 14 years (compulsory up to G9, for some G10)• Inquiry-based and learner-centred• Spiral progression; emphasis on depth rather than breadth• Emphasis on connections across topics and disciplines; developing literacy Integrated rather than discipline-based, at least up to Grade 9 International tests have integrated questions * Australia (2 states) Brunei, England, Japan, Singapore, New Zealand, USA (3 states)
Living Things and Their Environment(Parts & Function, Processes, Interactions) G3 G4 G5 G6External parts: Major internal Organ systems: Interactions amonghumans, plants organs: stomach, respiratory (path of organ systemsand animals heart, bones and air); circulatory (flow (respiratory and muscles; care of blood); digestive circulatory; digestive (path of food); and circulatory; nervous, muscular digestive and and skeletal (path of excretory) message from sense organs to brain then muscle Growth and and bones; Care for development: organ systems human, animals plants (includes life Reproduction in cycle of some plants, animals, animals) humansNeeds of Plant and animal Diversity of plants andhumans, plants adaptations animalsand animals Feeding relationships (biotic)
Living Things and Their Environment G7 G8 G9 G10Levels of Processes Chemical Removal oforganizations in (nutrients as raw changes in food wastes,organisms; materials for as it undergoes detoxification,populations, energy, growth and digestion maintenance ofcommunities maintenance) glucose balanceecosystems Digestive (kidneys, liver ) Nutrient deficiency enzymesPlant and animal cell; Effects of harmful HomeostasisMulti-cellular and uni- substances Transfer of (balance incellular organisms nutrients & gases nature)(Biodiversity-useful in cells (osmosisand harmful & diffusion)organisms)Interrelationships Flow of energy in Decomposition Carrying capacityamong organisms & an ecosystem and nutrientthe physical Impact of human cyclingenvironment activities on ecosystems
Force, Motion and Energy G3 G4 G5 G6How objects Why objects Factors affecting Quantifying motion ofmove move (include movement of objects: objects use of magnets) mass , shape, and Measuring tools force; Types of force to report acting on objects movementNatural and Uses of sound, Behaviour of light How light interacts withartificial light, electricity when it strikes an the variety of opticalsources of object devicessound, light, Echo Forms of energy and Frictionheat, their properties Effect of heat onelectricity Materials that Heat transfer: different materials block, absorb, or conduction, radiation Simple machines;Safety transmit light; convection Kinetic and potentialmeasures shadows Good & poor energywhen exposed conductors of heat Moving air and waterto heat, light, Open & closed as source of electricity;sound circuits saving electrical Electromagnets energy; energy-efficient devices
Force, Motion and Energy G7 G8 G9 G10Uniform motion Accelerated & Projectile & Effects of force on(distance and circular motion gravitational motion balance anddisplacement; stabilityspeed and velocity) Three Laws of Laws of motion Conservation ofTechnologies that Energy anduse motion Natural Momentum Electromagneticdetectors phenomena (quantitative waves; governed by laws measurements) electromagnetic of motion inductionEnergy transfer; Energy Properties of soundforms of energy transformation and light Social and environmental impacts of ways of generating electricity Uses of radiation and their impact
Matter (Properties, Structure, & Changes) G3 G4 G5 G6Properties of Grouping materials Characteristics andSLG (e.g., based on properties uses of mixturesweight, shape, other than as SLGvolume) Solvent & solute; Proper handling of ways of dissolvingMaterials that materials; recycling solids fastermake up a materialsparticular solid Changes that Types of changes Separating mixturesand liquid materials undergo that materials when exposed to undergo Formation of colloids;Materials can different conditions colloids in real lifeexist in SLG Storing materialsdepending on Useful and harmful based onthe temperature changes (e.g., in properties water); making water safe for Importance of human use. reading labels of products
Matter G7 G8 G9 G10Diversity of Particulate nature Chemical bonding: Gas laws andMaterials of matter vis-a -vis metallic, ionic and their properties of SLG covalent applicationsSolutions;Concentrations Atomic structure; Chemical ChemicalAcids and atoms & formulas of ionic reactions (types,bases; molecules & covalent factors affectingnatural compounds rates of chemicalindicators Periodic Table: formed by the first reactions)Substances and (arrangement of 20 elementsmixtures elements; Applications inElements and predicting The mole concept biological andcompounds chemical and its industrialMetals & behaviour of an applications processesnonmetals element; affecting life and technological and Common carbon the environment industrial compounds and applications and their uses Biomolecules impact )
Earth and Space (Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy) G3 G4 G5 G6Immediate Soil & water as Processes that Other processessurroundings; resources: types change that changelandforms, & characteristics surroundings: surroundingsbodies of water of soil for plant weathering & soil (earthquakes &in the growth; sources erosion volcaniccommunity & of water, using eruptions)their water wisely,Importance water as habitat, the water cycleTypes of weather What makes up Weather Weather(sunny, rainy, the weather disturbances patternswindy, & (includes use of (typhoons: effects, (collecting,combinations) simple changes in the recording and equipment to weather, storm interpreting measure weather warning signals, data) components) preparing Seasons in the emergency plan Philippines with family)
Earth and Space G7 G8 G9 G10The Philippine archipelago: Earthquakes and Volcanoes and Platelocating places on Earth using faults; intensity and heat inside the tectonicscoordinate system-latitude magnitude Earth (location ofand longitude; location of the Understanding Climate: factors earthquakePhilippines with respect to the typhoons (PAR, that affect climate epicenters;continents and oceans of the development , why in a certain area location ofworld and major landforms Phil is prone to (latitude, distance volcanoes)and bodies of water in the typhoons; effect of from the sea,Philippines: effects on bodies of water and presence ofweather; resources in Phil landforms on mountain range)and its relation to its location typhoons, disaster Climaticin the ring of fire; conservation preparedness ) phenomena thatLayers of the atmosphere; occur on a globalhow energy of the Sun enters Other members of level (globalthe atmosphere; greenhouse the solar system warming, El Nino)effect; circulation in the (characteristics of Constellations inatmosphere in relation to land comets, meteors relation to theand sea breeze, monsoons, asteroids); beliefs revolution of EarthITZC) and practices around the SunEclipses; beliefs and practices
Earth and Space G3 G4 G5 G6Objects in The Sun as Moon & Stars Motion of thethe sky; main source Earth (usingeffects on of light and Pattern in the models to showhuman heat; effects changes of the how day andactivities on human shape of the night occurs, activities & Moon in relation connection growth of to length of a between Earth’s plants month; beliefs rotation and Changes in and practices length of a day; position of connection of Sun (where it Characteristics of revolution of rises and stars in terms of Earth and length sets) brightness and of a year) color; groups of Solar system stars (comparison of eight planets)
Focus on Grade 7 (for June 2012 Implementation) Science Theme Coverage AreasChemistry Diversity of Solutions; Concentrations Materials Acids and bases; Natural indicators Substances and mixtures Elements and compoundsLife Diversity Levels of organizations in organismsSciences Among and - Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems Beyond - Plant and animal cells Organisms: - Diversity of organisms - multicellular Levels of and unicellar; useful and harmful Organization - Modes of reproduction Levels of organizations in ecosystems - Organisms, Populations, Communities, Ecosystems - Interrelationships among organisms & with the physical environmentNote: Environmental context integrated in every science
Science Theme Coverage Areas Coverage of Grade 7Physics Motion & Uniform motion: distance and displacement; Energy speed and velocity Technologies that use motion detectors Energy transfer- light, sound, heat and electricityEarth The Locating places on Earth using coordinateSciences Philippine system-latitude and longitude; location of the Archipelago Philippines with respect to the continents and oceans of the world and major landforms and bodies of water in the Philippines: effects on weather; Resources in the Philippines: their relation to its location in the ring of fire; Conservation; Layers of the atmosphere; how energy of the Sun enters the atmosphere; greenhouse effect; circulation in the atmosphere in relation to land & sea breeze, monsoons, ITZC; Eclipses; beliefs and practices Note: Environmental context integrated all science areas
At the end of Grade 1, learners will use their senses to locate and describe the external parts of their body; identify external parts of animals and plants tell the shape, color, texture, taste, and size of things around them; describe similarities and differences, given two objectsdifferentiate sounds produced by animals, vehicles cars, and musical instrumentsillustrate how things movedescribe the weather and what to do in different situationsuse appropriate terms or vocabulary to describe these features; collect, sort, count, draw, take things apart, or make something out of the things.practice health habits (e.g., washing hands properly, choosing nutritious food) and safety measures (e.g., helping clean or packing away toys.ask questions and give simple answer/ descriptions to probing questions.
At the end of Grade 2, learners will use their senses to compare two or more objects and using two or more properties sort things in different ways and give a reason for doing so describe the kind of weather or certain events in the home or school and express how these are affecting them. do simple measurements of length tell why some things around them are important decide if what they do is safe or dangerous; give suggestions on how to prevent accidents at home practice electricity, water, and paper conservation help take care of pets or of plants tell short stories about what they do, what they have seen, or what they feel.
At the end of Grade 3, learners willdescribe the functions of the different external parts of the body and things that make up their surroundings -- - rocks and soil, plants and animals, the Sun, Moon and stars.learn that things may be solid, liquid or gas while others may give off light, heat and sound.observe changes in the conditions of their surroundingsThese will lead learners to become more curious about their surroundings, appreciate nature, and practice health and safety measures.
At the end of Grade 4, learners willinvestigate materials that do not decay and use this knowledge to help minimize waste at home, school, and in the community; investigate changes in the properties of materials when these are subjected to different conditionsdescribe the internal parts of the body and their functions in order to practice ways to maintain good health; classify plants and animals according to where they live and observe interactions among living things and their environment; infer that plants and animals have traits that help them survive in their environment.investigate which type of soil is best for certain plants and infer the importance of water in daily activities; learn about what makes up weather and apply their knowledge of weather conditions in making decisions for the day; infer the importance of the Suninvestigate the effects of push or pull on the size, shape, and movement of an object
At the end of Grade 5, learners willinvestigate whether materials are safe and useful based on their properties; infer that new materials may form when there are changes in properties.develop healthful and hygienic practices related to the reproductive system after describing changes that accompany puberty; compare different modes of reproduction among plant and animal groups and conduct an investigation on pollination. make decisions about the preservation of estuaries and intertidal zones.recognize that different materials react differently with heat, light, and sound and relate these abilities of materials to their specific uses.describe the changes that earth materials undergo; learn about the effects of typhoons and make emergency plans with their families in preparation for typhoons; observe patterns in the natural events by observing the appearance of the Moon
At the end of Grade 6, learners willexplain how the different organ systems work together; classify plants based on reproductive structures and animals based on the presence or lack of backbone; design and conduct an investigation on plant propagation; learn about larger ecosystems such as rainforests, coral reefs, and mangrove swamps.recognize that when mixed together, materials do not form new ones thus these materials may be recovered using different separation techniques; prepare useful mixtures such as food, drinks and herbal medicines.describe what happens during earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and demonstrate what to do when they occur; infer that the weather follows a pattern in the course of a year; learn about the solar system, with emphasis on the motions of the Earth as prerequisite to the study of seasons in another grade level.illustrate how friction and gravity affect how people and objects move; discover that heat, light, sound, electricity, and motion studied earlier are forms of energy and these undergo transformation
At the end of Grade 7, learners will recognize the system of classification of matter through semi-guided investigations but emphasizing fair testing map out how living things are organized into different levels: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms describe levels of organization beyond organisms- populations, communities , ecosystems; expands the concept of biodiversity describe the motion of objects in terms of distance and speed and represent this in tables, graphs, charts, and equations; investigate how various forms of energy travel through different media describe what makes up the Philippines as a whole and the resources found in the archipelago; explain the occurrence of breezes, monsoons, and ITCZ and how these weather systems affect people; demonstrate how eclipses occur to dispel superstitious beliefs
At the end of Grade 8, learners willrecognize reproduction as a process of cell division resulting in growth of organisms; deal deeper into the process of digestion studied in the lower grades giving emphasis on proper nutrition for overall wellness; participate in activities that will protect and conserve economically important species used for food.explain the behavior of matter in terms of the particles it is made of; recognize that ingredients in food and medical products are made up of these particles and are absorbed by the body in the form of ions.explain how active faults generate earthquakes and how tropical cyclones originate from warm ocean waters; learn about the other members of the solar systeminvestigate the effects of some factors on the motion of an object based on the Laws of Motion; differentiate the concept of work as used in science and in layman’s language; investigate factors that affect the transfer of energy such as the molecular structure of the medium and temperature difference.
At the end of Grade 9, learners will expand their knowledge of body systems with focus on the respiratory and circulatory systems to promote overall health.; learn about some technologies that will introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals. explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged; recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may arise from such rearrangements. identify volcanoes in the community or region and distinguish between active and inactive ones.; explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped for human use.; learn about climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale; explain why certain constellations can be seen only at certain times of the year. predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.
At the end of Grade 10, learners will complete the study of the entire organism with their deeper study of the excretory and reproductive systems; explain in greater detail how genetic information is passed from parents to offspring and how diversity of species increases the probability of adaptation and survival in changing environments. recognize the importance of controlling the conditions under which a phenomenon or reaction occurs; recognize that cells and tissues of the human body are made up of water, a few kinds of ions, and biomolecules and that these biomolecules may also be found in the food they eat. show that volcanoes and earthquakes occur in the same places in the world and that these are related to plate boundaries; demonstrate ways to ensure safety and reduce damage during earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. investigate factors that affect the balance and stability of an object to enable them to practice appropriate positions and movements to achieve efficiency and safety such as in sports and dancing; analyze situations where energy is harnessed for human use whereby heat is released affecting the physical and biological components of the environment.
Suggested Core Content in G11 and G12 G11 G12 Life Sciences (with Physical Sciences (with Biotechnology) Technology) (Systems Thinking (Systems Thinking e.g., Watersheds; The e.g., Energy Development, Coconut Industry Climate Change and related issues Suggested Specialization in G11 and G12 G11 G12Genetics ThermodynamicsBiochemistry Materials ScienceA Science Team is working on Specialization subjects to align withCHED’s college readiness and TESDA’s work readiness standards
Summary: The Spiral Progression and Integrated Science in K to 12 Avoids the major disjunctions between stages of schooling; provides the basis for continuity and consistency; Compartmentalization inhibit transfer of learning across topics; students who exit school early do not have the basic functioning skills across requisite areas of science (University of Melbourne, Curriculum Comparison Study, 2011) Allows learners to learn Science topics and skills appropriate to their developmental/cognitive stages; Shows the interrelatedness of Science topics with each other and their connections across topics; Strengthens retention and mastery of topics and skills; Enables DepED to benchmark Filipino students with their counterparts in other countries.
In addition, the Science Curriculum will Help nonmajors teach science with confidence because topics are revisited to deepen their content mastery; Allows flexibility in sequencing of content in every quarter; encourages team teaching and other support mechanism Address the lack of science equipment because alternative procedures are provided, student activities use micro scale chemicals and equipment easily available Help teachers address misconceptions
Science shows in the K to 12 the place of science and Curriculum technology in everyday activities the link between science and technology, including indigenous technologyis integration/connections within science and across learner-centered disciplines inquiry-based how science content and research-based processes are intertwined decongested spiral progression
Documents Reviewed BEC- DepEd, 2002 & 2006, Teach Less, Learn More (2010) BSE,2010) Science Curriculum Curriculum Comparison Framework for Basic Report, SEAMEO INNOTECH Education. DOST SEI, UP Curriculum Comparison NISMED, DepED, Professional Report, Univ. of Melbourne Teachers Association Current Challenges in Basic Raising the Bar for Science Education (2010) UNESCO Teachers (2010) Curriculum Paris Framework for Science Teacher Education. DOST SEI, UP Policy Issues in SME (2007), NISMED, DepED, Professional ICASE-UNESCO Teachers Associations Science and Mathematics TIMSS Report: 1999 & 2003; Curriculum Framework of Math Advanced, 2008 Australia, Brunei , England, Japan, Singapore, New Scientific, Technological, and Zealand, and USA Environmental Literacy Study (2005), UP NISMED DESD Documents And many more CVIF Manual (Bernido’s )