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Module 5 b training and development

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  • 1. CREATIVE TRAINING TECHNIQUES Presented by: MARIA THERESA P. PELONES,DM Professor MODULE 5C
  • 2. OBJECTIVES: 1. Definition of Training Design 2. Procedures of Training Design 3. Types of Training Techniques 4. Evaluation Techniques
  • 3. What is Training Design  A training design is a blueprint for a training event or experience. It is a detailed plan for what you will do, why you will be doing it , and the best ways to reach your training objectives. This document offers eight-step model for designing an effective training event that meets the needs of participants and trainers alike. This model includes the following eight steps.
  • 4. The first step to designing a training is to become clear about what your training needs to accomplish. For some trainings your purpose and audience will be clear- determined by funders or well-established professional development needs. At other times you may need to sort through and prioritize a spectrum of training needs before determining a training focus. One you have a clear sense of training purpose and target audience, write it down, then use this description to promote your program to prospective participants. STEP 1: Define purpose of the training and target audience
  • 5. STEP 2: Determine participants’ needs. The specific needs of training participants will influence the development of learning objectives and guide the choice of activities and training strategies. The more you know about participants, the greater the likelihood you will design a training event that will be meaningful to them. There are several ways to find out about the needs and expectations of training participants: Have all participants complete a brief, written survey as part of their registration packet. This will allow you to collect general information from all participants. Survey a random sample of registrants by phone. This will allow you to collect detailed information from a few participants. Review evaluation and feedback forms from past-related training events. Participants’ Information that is needed. 1. current roles and responsibilities 2. previous training on the same topic 3. reasons for attendance 4. specific needs and expectations for the event NOTE: Conduct the needs assessment early enough to use the information that you collect in designing the training.
  • 6. After assessing the needs and expectations of the participants, you are ready to define the goals and objectives for the training. Clearly defined goals and objectives provide criteria for 1. clarifying expected outcomes 2. outlining training content 3. planning specific training activities 4. selecting/ developing materials 5. designing evaluation procedures 6. communicating program intent to the training participants and others ( such as program administrators and supervisors) 7. ensuring that training is realistic and appropriate for the purpose intended. A training goal should be broad, spelling out who will be affected and what will change as a result of the training. Example: To increase knowledge of HIV/AIDS among health educators in the Philippines. Objectives are more precise, specifying a path for achieving the program goal(s). They should state as specifically as possible the after-training result that you are trying to achieve, including what will change, who will change, under what conditions, and to what extent. Example: By the end of the training, participants will be able to identify three ways that HIV is transmitted. When developing your objectives, ask yourself what you want participants to know, say and be able to do after leaving the training, and/or what actions you’d like them to take. Then follow these steps, adapted from Jeary and Gerold’s Training Other People to Train: A workshop on Training Adult Learners(1999) 1. List the ways you would like the training to benefit participants – desired outcome. 2. participants want practical, usable knowledge. 3. Check your objectives from the perspective of the training participants. Will this objective meet their needs? Will it help you meet the training goal(s)? 4. Set training priorities. Rank objectives according to their importance, recognizing that you may not be able to address all of them during one training session. NOTE: Remember to develop both overall objectives (for the entire training session) and separate objectives for each segment an/or day of the training workshop. Present the objectives to the participants at the start of each STEP 3: Define training goals and objectives
  • 7. Objectives are more precise, specifying a path for achieving the program goal(s). They should state as specifically as possible the after-training result that you are trying to achieve, including what will change, who will change, under what conditions, and to what extent. Example: By the end of the training, participants will be able to identify three ways that HIV is transmitted. When developing your objectives, ask yourself what you want participants to know, say and be able to do after leaving the training, and/or what actions you’d like them to take. Then follow these steps, adapted from Jeary and Gerold’s Training Other People to Train: A workshop on Training Adult Learners(1999) 1. List the ways you would like the training to benefit participants – desired outcome. 2. participants want practical, usable knowledge. 3. Check your objectives from the perspective of the training participants. Will this objective meet their needs? Will it help you meet the training goal(s)? 4. Set training priorities. Rank objectives according to their importance, recognizing that you may not be able to address all of them during one training session. NOTE: Remember to develop both overall objectives (for the entire training session) and separate objectives for each segment an/or day of the training workshop. Present the objectives to the participants at the start of each segment and/or day. Having a clear direction helps to frame the segment and/or day. STEP 3: Define training goals and objectives
  • 8.  Most trainings are divided into three key segments:  1. Introduction – It established a positive learning environment. Opening activities should stimulate interest and enthusiasm about the training, reduce anxiety among participants, and build community It’s important to build some content into introductory activities, so that participants experience these activities as meaningful. Nonetheless, the development of group rapport can’t be rushed, so make sure to allow time for participants to become comfortable with one another.  2. Learning Component- This is the body of the program. During this part of the program, participants engage in activities designed to accomplish the training objectives. Concepts and ideas are taught and explored, attitudes are examined, resources are shared and teaching strategies and skills are demonstrated, practiced, and discussed. To be most effective, activities should actively involve participants in acquiring knowledge or practicing skills.  Wrap-up and evaluation segment – This segment should help bridge the gap between training and implementation and promote a positive feeling of closure. It is your opportunity to “ pull it all together”: highlight essential learnings, summarize central concepts and themes, and describe next steps. Participants should also have an opportunity to ask questions, discuss concerns, provide feedback to trainers. Finally, it is helpful to review the group’s expectations and identify resources to help satisfy those that have not been met.( Keep in mind that multi-day training events will need a brief introduction component and wrap-up component each day). •STEP 4: Outline training content
  • 9. 1. Block out the time schedule into large chunks. Fill in known elements- such as meals and breaks- followed by specific activities. Finally, assign a designated amount of time to each activity. 2. Start with simple concepts and proceed to ones that are more complex. 3. Proceed from topics that are less” threatening” to ones that may be more sensitive in nature. 4. Schedule activities which require the greatest concentration during times when people will be focused and energetic – such as first thing in the morning- and interactive sessions during low energy times- such as right after lunch. 5. Give yourself- and the participants – a break! Build into your training design at least one 10-15 minutes break in the morning and afternoon. Provide enough time for lunch. 6. During a multi-day event, allow time at the beginning of each day to introduce the day’s events, bridge one day to the next, discuss comments or questions, and to provide closure to the day’s activities. 7. Schedule 8-10 minutes at the end each day for feedback, announcements, and to provide closure to the day’s activities. 8. Review your plan with critical eye. You may need to reduce the number of objectives you plan to address if your really want learning to take place. 9. Be Flexible! Although your design is detailed, you may encounter detours along the way. The best training design not only accomplished the objectives of the training, but also meets the emergent needs of the participants. NOTE: Remember! Always return your stated objectives and outcomes to guide program content and remind you of your purpose. It’s easy to go astray! •RULES IN TRAINING OUTLINES:
  • 10.  Developing a training design consists of organizing learning activities so that outcomes indentified by your objectives are achieved. Each activity should have an introduction, a main segment, and a wrap-up segment, paralleling the overall structure of the training session. During the introduction, provide a brief description of the purpose and content of the activity and develop a connection between the activity and the one that preceeded it. Make sure that activities flow logically form one to the next. As you develop activities, select training strategies that are most likely to help you meet your objective. Keep in mind that people learn in a variety of ways: some learn best by listening, others by reading, and most by doing. An effective training design incorporates a variety of training strategies. Taking into account:  participant learning style  principles of adult learning  group size  prior experience and/or education level or participants  type of skill or information to be presented  trainer’s style  NOTE: Some strategies that promote active learning include brainstorming, games, mini- lectures, small group work, cooperative group work, simulations, role-playing and case studies. STEP 5: Develop Instructional activities
  • 11. 1. Do we know that this activity is effective? 2. Have we used it before? Are we comfortable with this technique? Do we have the expertise to use it effectively? 3. Does the activity require prior knowledge or skills on the part of the participants? 4. Will we have the time, space, and resources needed to accomplish the activity? 5. Will the activity encourage learning without confusing participants? Make sure that each activity includes wrap-up component that brings closure by reviewing concepts, answering questions, and discussing applications. As part of your major themes emerged? Or What is your response to …? Finally decide on the amount of time you need to carry out each activity and to achieve your objectives. It’s better to drop an objective than to rush through activities and frustrate participants or make yourself work at an unreasonable pace. Remember that you will also need to develop resource materials to support these activities. These includes handouts, case studies, bibliographies or questionnaires. Leave adequate time to draft the materials, obtain feedback and make necessary revisions. Deciding What activities to use:
  • 12. STEP 6: Prepare the written training design  Create a written document that provides a detailed plan of the training session, including your goals and objectives; the sequence of specific learning activities and time allotted to each; directions and key points to cover during each activity; and the trainer who will be responsible for the activity.  Consider the skill, expertise ,training style, and confort level of each of the trainers in making designation. Also consider identifying specific trainers who will take the lead in “ fleshing our” different sections of the training and creating the necessary supporting materials.  Use your written training design to stay on track during the training event, make mid-course corrections, and document training details.
  • 13. STEP 7: Prepare participant evaluation form (s) The purpose of evaluation is to determine the extent to which the training achieved its objectives and to identify what adjustments, if any, need to be made to the training design or follow-up process. Some issues to address through the evaluation form: Did the participants acquire the knowledge and skills that the training was supposed to provide? Were the trainers knowledgeable about the training content? Were the activities interesting and effective? Was the training format appropriate? Is more training on this or related topics needed to support participants in their work? During a multi-day training, have participants complete an evaluation form at the end of each day and a summary evaluation feedback immediately and, if necessary, modify the training agenda for the remainder of the training
  • 14. STEP 7: Prepare participant evaluation form (s)  The purpose of evaluation is to determine the extent to which the training achieved its objectives and to identify what adjustments, if any, need to be made to the training design or follow-up process. Some issues to address through the evaluation form:  Did the participants acquire the knowledge and skills that the training was supposed to provide?  Were the trainers knowledgeable about the training content?  Were the activities interesting and effective?  Was the training format appropriate?  Is more training on this or related topics needed to support participants in their work?  During a multi-day training, have participants complete an evaluation form at the end of each day and a summary evaluation feedback immediately and, if necessary, modify the training agenda for the remainder of the training
  • 15. STEP 8: Determine follow-up Activities for the event.  Without follow-up, the benefits of training may quickly be forgotten or never used. Follow –up activities provide the continued support and feedback necessary for the successful implementation of new ideas and practices. To be effective, follow-up activities should be planned as you develop your training design, and should include a range of opportunities for participants to reflect on both the content to what they learned during the training and the process of implementation. some follow-up strategies which have been shown to improve the adoption of new training practices include:  Newsletters and Web site posting  Peer observation and coaching , in which individuals observe one another performing a newly acquired skill, then meet to discuss and reflect on their observations;  Mentoring, in which individuals receive on site, personal support and technical assistance from someone with experience in the method being learned.  Study groups, in which individuals meets regularly to support one another during the implementation of a new idea or practice,  Booster sessions, in which training participants are brought together tow or three months after the training event to reinforce the knowledge and skills acquired during the training and  On going communication between the participants and trainers via phone or electronic mail.  Keep in mind that some follow-up activities require more resources than others, but may increase the likelihood that significant learning will occur. Professional development includes a broad spectrum of ongoing activities designed to enhance the professional knowledge, skills and attitudes of educators so that they might in turn improve the learning of others. Training events can be effective ways to share ideas and information with large groups of educators, particularly when supplemented by well thought out follow-up activities. However, the success of these events depends on well-developed and executed training design.  Each of these steps can be applied to a variety of training formats, including face-to-face, online- , interactive and satellite-based trainings. 
  • 16. TYPES OF TRAINING TECHNIQUE
  • 17. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 1. LECTURE A speech by the instructor with very limited discussion •Clear and direct method of presentation •Good if there are more than 20 trainees •Materials can be provided to trainees in advance to help in their preparation •Trainer has control over time •Cost effective •There are no discussion, it is easy to forget •Sometimes it is not effective •Requires high level of speaking ability •Requires high level of quick understanding by trainees. 2.SENSITIVIT Y MEETING (Laboratory Meeting) Use for organizational development. Creating situations and examining the participant’s reactions and behavior, then having feedback about behavior. Group members exchange thoughts and feelings in unstructured ways. •Helps individuals to find the reasons for their behavior (self- insight) •Helps individuals to know the effects of their behavior on others. •Creates more group interaction. •People may not like information about their behavior, especially if it is negative. •May lead to conflict and anger within the group. •May not be related or transferable to job.
  • 18. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 3. GROUP DISCUSSION A speech by the instructor with a lot of participation (question or comments) from the listeners •Good if the participants are in small groups. •Each participants has an opportunity to present own ideas. •More ideas are generated. •Sometimes discussions get away from the subjects. •Some group leaders or instructors do not know how to guide discussions. •Sometimes one strong individual can dominate others 4. ROLE PLAYING Creating realistic situation and having trainees assume parts of specific personalities in the situation. Their actions are based on the roles assigned to them. Emphasis is not on problem solving but skill development •Good if the situation is similar to the actual work situation. •Trainees receive feedback that gives them confidence. •Good for interpersonal skills. •Teachers individuals how to act in real situation. •Trainees are not actors. •Trainees sometimes are not serious. •Some situations cannot be implemented in role playing •Uncontrolled role playing may not leas to any desirable results. •If is very similar to actual life, it may produce adverse effect.
  • 19. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 5. Case Study A written narrative description of a real situation, issue or incident that a manager faced in a particular organization Trainees are required to propose a suitable solution or make appropriate decision. •Cases can be very interesting. •Much group discussion and interaction about many solutions, since there is nor absolute solution. •Develops trainees abilities in effective communication and active participation •Develops trainees ability to figure out various factors that influence their decision building. •Develops trainees ability to make proper decision in real life situation (Transfer of learning) •A slow method of training. •Often difficult to select the appropriate case for the specific training situation. •Requires high level of skills both trainees and trainer as the discussion can become boring. •Can create frustration on part of trainees, especially if they fail to arrive at a specific solution.
  • 20. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 6. Management Games •Giving the trainees information about the organization and its environment, then dividing into teams. •Each team is required to make an operational decision and then evaluate its decision. •Develops practical experience for the trainees, •Helps in transferring knowledge and in applying administrative thoughts. •Helps to evaluate and correct the trainees behavior. •Often it is difficult to study the result of each team’s decision. •Some team may not take it seriously •May be at slow process 7. Simulation Exercise •Same as management games, except a computer is used to input information and analyze the team decisions. •Results of trainees action are evaluated and discussed. •Same as management games •Same as management games. •Costly •Difficult to simulate a very complex system
  • 21. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 8. Wilderness Training •Several managers meet out of the workplace and live in cabins or tents for up to several days. They test their survival skills and learn about their own potentials (for creativity, cooperation, etc) • People learn their limitations and capabilities •Very costly •May not be transferable 9. In-basket training •Creates the same type of situations trainees face in daily work. •Trainees observed on how they arrange the situations and their actions regarding them. •Effective for corrective action or reinforcement. •Widely used in assessment centers for measuring supervisory potential. •Tendency to be or become overly simplistic.
  • 22. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 10. Incident Process (Problem Solving) •Simple variation of the case study method. •The basic elements are given to the trainee, who then asks the instructor for the most sufficient information that will help him or her in making a decision. •The instructor will give only the requested information •Has immediate feedback from the instructor •Develops supervisory skills in fact seeking and decision making. •Requires high degree of instruction skills in forming answer.
  • 23. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 11.Vestibule training •Setting up a training areas very similar to the work area in equipment •Procedures and environment, but separated from the actual one so trainees can learn without affecting the production schedule. •Used for training typist, tellers and the like •Fast away to train employees. •Trainees can get the most from this method •Very expensive 12.Apprentic eship training •Trainee works under guidance of skilled licensed instructor and receives lower pay than licensed workers • More chance for trainees to apply what they have learned. •Trainees get exposure to both the organization and the job. •Takes a long time.
  • 24. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 13. Internship Training •According to agreement individuals in these program earn while they learn, but at a lower rate than if they worked full time. •More chance for trainees to apply what they have learned. •Trainees get exposure to both the organization and the job. •Takes a long time 14. Projects •Similar to group discussion method. •Trainees analyze data and reach conclusions together •Helps trainees to know more about the subject. •Requires instructor’s time to ensure the group is going in the right direction. 15.Multiple Management •Lower and middle level managers participate formally with top management in planning and administration •Helps top management to identify top management candidates. •Enhances employees’ participation in the organization.
  • 25. METHOD DEFINITION STRENGTH WEAKNESSES 16. Videotape and movies Recording and producing certain events or situations with clear descriptions in order to cover certain subjects. Can be shown many times, then reviewed and discussed to help trainees understand more fully. • Tapes can be played many times to ensure individual’s understanding. •Many events and discussions can be put on one tape. •Because time length is known presentation and follow-up can be scheduled. •Recording and producing has to be done by professionals to get good quality.
  • 26. LEVEL OF TRAINING EVALUATIONS (by Kirkpatrick)
  • 27. 1. Participants reactions ( Reactions) Throughout training , each traineer formulates opinions and attitudes abote the overall effectiveness of the program. Perhaps the trainee is favorably inclined toward the content of the program but thinks that the trainee is too cold or too impersonal. At this level of evaluation, the trainee normally completes a questionnaire about the adequacy of training facilities, the skills of the trainer, the quality of the program content, and the relevance of training techniques. After the questionnaires are tabulated and reviewed, the program’s quality is judged on the basis of overall responses. it is highly subjective, and the training administrators must ensure that the participants are not respondins favorably simply because they enjoyed the program or instruction.
  • 28. 2. Participants learning ( Learning) Learning is often assessed by testing a trainee both before and after a program. It is easily conducted if tests are readily available to measure learning, but the absence of valid tests makes such evaluation difficult to administer. It is difficult to create a test to measure many behavioral skills, such as communication skills, interpersonal relations and leadership skills. test the trainees to determine whether they learned the principles, skills and facts they were supposed to learn.
  • 29. 1. Change in participants behavior (Behavior) Participants are expected to learn a skill or body of knowledge that results in a positive change in job behavior. Learning time management technique is very useful in this activity. Important question on this level is that Whether learning was transferred from training to the job?
  • 30. 1. Impact of program on organizational effectiveness (Results) What organizational goals were affected? What final results were achieved in terms of the training objectives ? Did the number of customer complaints about tne employees drop? But the desired result was not achieve, then the final analysis, the training has not achieve its goals. If so the problems may lie in the training program. Remebmber that the results may be inadequate because the problm was not amenable to training in the first place. Training is expected to result in a more effective organization. This level examines the impact of training on organizational goals of productivity, quality and job satisfaction, as well as decreased turnover, accidents and grievances. Although this level of evaluation is appealing in both theoretical and practical terms, it is nor always possible or relevant to do, It is difficult to connect acquired skills directly to organizational goals, the administrators must implement a less sophisticated evaluation strategy that is one of the other levels.
  • 31. EVALUATION TECHNIQUES
  • 32. Evaluation  To evaluate means to determine the value or worth of something  i.e. >outcome of a training program  >training program itself  >instructional materials used  >delivery or the overall goals that the training intended to achieve
  • 33.  Continuous improvement is the essence of evaluation.  Evaluation helps to; Refine and improves programs Depend largely on feedback or information solicited which helps us see where we are and what direction we should take. Enables us to make better decisions to constantly improve then quality and impact of our programs
  • 34. The Continuous Improvement Cycle Continuous Improvement Cycle Planning Evaluation Type:Needs Assessment Development Evaluation Type: Formative Implementation Evaluation Type: Summative Follow-Up Evaluation Type: Impact & Transfer
  • 35. Need Assessment This type of evaluation is conducted before developing a training program to ensure that the program meets the needs of participants
  • 36. Summative Evaluation After the program has been completed, this is carried out to see if the objectives were met and if the program was effective and if it should be used again.
  • 37. Impact Assessment This type of evaluation is conducted at a later stage and can help determine whether or not, in the longer term, the program had an impact on the participants’ work. We use this to see if transfer occurred.
  • 38. Questionnaire: a series of written questions to gather information  Advantages:  Ability to contact a large number of people  Can be anonymous  Yields a large amount of information at a relatively low cost  Does not require trained interviewers  Disadvantages  Requires very clear questions and very clear instructions  Return rate tends to be low, unless there is a real incentive for participants to complete questionnaire
  • 39. Interview/ conversation: informal talk or planned series of questions with selected individuals  Advantages:  Interviewer gets clarification of unclear answers or statements  he/she can note non- verbal behaviour associated with various responses  Disadvantages:  Requires certain skills of the interviewer  Interviewer may end up with biased information  Time-consuming  expensive
  • 40. Focus Group: discussion session with a group of selected individuals around a topic  Advantages:  Helps ensure acceptance from key individuals  Provides different perspectives at the same time  Interactions among individuals and non- verbal behavior can be observed  Disadvantages:  Difficult to coordinate the schedules of key individuals  Sometimes difficult to obtain a common vision from the different perspectives
  • 41. Existing Records: reliable documents available for public consultation  Advantages:  Information already exists  Can provide valuable information on demographics and/ or indications of change  e.g. health records  Disadvantages:  Records may not be available  Information may not answer the evaluation questions directly
  • 42. Observation: observer records information without interfering  Advantages:  Possible to observe in natural, everyday setting  Participant responses are not influenced by pre- determined questions  Disadvantages:  Difficult to record all information sometimes difficult to draw conclusions  Presence of observer can intimidate
  • 43. Reflection: regular practice of noting events, behaviours and reflecting critically  Advantages:  Record of best practices and mistakes that can be looked back upon  Provides a means for improving skills through critical thinking  Requires only yourself  Disadvantages:  Sometimes difficult to criticize  Necessitates diligence, regularit y
  • 44. Formative Evaluation As the program is taking shape, formative evaluation is done to make sure the program is on the right track. This evaluation informs decisions about the ways to design the program.