Piedmont soils class

3,408 views
3,073 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,408
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
29
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
90
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Soils of the Piedmont Queens University of Charlotte Goals for this chapter : Investigate the processes of deformation and metamorphism, and the resulting rocks and structures Understand the plate-tectonic settings of deformation and metamorphism Observe how structures and metamorphic rocks are expressed in the landscape Headings in notes : MEDIA Name of file and information about what is on the media file (generally accessed via the media link in the lower right corner of slide, if present) INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS Instructions that the instructor can give to students OBSERVATIONS What students might see during an observation exercise EXPLANATION Additional aspects that can be explained by the instructor EXERCISE Instructions to students about possible in-class exercise NOTES Miscellaneous notes Note on PowerPoint Animations The PowerPoint files are set up so that text and figures appear sequentially on slides. As a cue to the instructor, the figure number goes away when the next click will advance the presentation to the next slide. If the figure number is still showing, another click will reveal something else on that slide (or hide the figure number for slides with no animated text).
  • Soils of the Piedmont Queens University of Charlotte Goals for this chapter : Investigate the processes of deformation and metamorphism, and the resulting rocks and structures Understand the plate-tectonic settings of deformation and metamorphism Observe how structures and metamorphic rocks are expressed in the landscape Headings in notes : MEDIA Name of file and information about what is on the media file (generally accessed via the media link in the lower right corner of slide, if present) INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS Instructions that the instructor can give to students OBSERVATIONS What students might see during an observation exercise EXPLANATION Additional aspects that can be explained by the instructor EXERCISE Instructions to students about possible in-class exercise NOTES Miscellaneous notes Note on PowerPoint Animations The PowerPoint files are set up so that text and figures appear sequentially on slides. As a cue to the instructor, the figure number goes away when the next click will advance the presentation to the next slide. If the figure number is still showing, another click will reveal something else on that slide (or hide the figure number for slides with no animated text).
  • Soils of the Piedmont Queens University of Charlotte
  • Soils of the Piedmont Queens University of Charlotte
  • Soils of the Piedmont Queens University of Charlotte Goals for this chapter : Investigate the processes of deformation and metamorphism, and the resulting rocks and structures Understand the plate-tectonic settings of deformation and metamorphism Observe how structures and metamorphic rocks are expressed in the landscape Headings in notes : MEDIA Name of file and information about what is on the media file (generally accessed via the media link in the lower right corner of slide, if present) INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS Instructions that the instructor can give to students OBSERVATIONS What students might see during an observation exercise EXPLANATION Additional aspects that can be explained by the instructor EXERCISE Instructions to students about possible in-class exercise NOTES Miscellaneous notes Note on PowerPoint Animations The PowerPoint files are set up so that text and figures appear sequentially on slides. As a cue to the instructor, the figure number goes away when the next click will advance the presentation to the next slide. If the figure number is still showing, another click will reveal something else on that slide (or hide the figure number for slides with no animated text).
  • Piedmont soils class

    1. 1. Soils of The Piedmont Dr. Greg Pillar Queens University of Charlotte
    2. 2. Geologic History of the Carolinas and the Piedmont
    3. 4. 750 - 540 MYA Supercontinent of Rodinia (Grenville Orogeny)
    4. 5. 550 MYA Iapetus
    5. 6. 500 MYA Parts of Asia North America Parts of Europe
    6. 7. 500 MYA Taconic Orogeny Piedmont Terrane
    7. 8. 370 MYA Avalonia Parts of Asia North America and Parts of Europe Africa and South Amer. (Gondwana)
    8. 9. 370 – 400 MYA Acadian Orogeny
    9. 10. 300 - 330 MYA Alleghenian Orogeny
    10. 11. 280 MYA Supercontinent of Pangaea North America Appalachian Mtns. South America. Africa. Tethys Sea Africa, Antarctica, Australia North America
    11. 12. 150 MYA South America Parts of Europe and Asia North America Africa India, Australia and Antarctica
    12. 16. Geologic Belts: Areas with similar rock types and geologic history Brevard Fault (blue ridge escarpment) Inner Piedmont Belt: most deformed/metamorphosed portion of the Piedmont, rocks are about 500 – 700 myo Rocks Gneiss and Schist with (younger) granitic intrusions
    13. 17. Kings Mountain Belt: moderately deformed and metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks about 400 – 500 myo Rocks Schistt, marble phyllite, quartzite gneiss monadnocks
    14. 18. Charlotte Belt: consists mostly of igneous rocks, 300-500 myo Rocks Granite, diorite, gabbro
    15. 19. Carolina Slate Belt: consists of heated and deformed volcanic and sedimentary rocks (gondwana terranes) Rocks slate, gneiss metamudstone
    16. 20. Triassic basins: the basins are filled with sedimentary rocks about 190-200 mya. Rocks conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone
    17. 21. Coastal Plain: wedge of marine sedimentary rocks that thickens as you move toward the east Orangeburg scarp (fall zone) (2 myo) Suffolk scarp (125,000 y)
    18. 22. Soil Formation Thrive
    19. 23. Soil Forming Factors - Rock Cycle
    20. 24. Where does this material come from?. Physical weathering Soil Weathering Temperature Water Ice Wind http://creechm.no-ip.com
    21. 27. Where does this material come from?. Chemical Weathering Soil Weathering Hydrolysis Dissolution Hydration Oxidation - Reduction
    22. 28. Fe +2 Reduced Iron Fe +3 Oxidized Iron
    23. 29. Where does this material come from?. Biological Weathering Soil Weathering
    24. 30. Blue Ridge Mountains Piedmont Plateau Costal Plain Soil Forming Factors – NC Bedrock
    25. 32. Parent Material - Residual
    26. 33. <ul><li>Loess - wind blown silt (.05 - .002mm diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>Sand - dune sand - wind blown sand (eolian sand) </li></ul>Parent Material - Wind http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=15536
    27. 34. Parent Material - Water http://sis.agr.gc.ca Lacustrine
    28. 35. Parent Material - Water Alluvium
    29. 36. Parent Material - Water Marine
    30. 37. Parent Material - Ice Colluvium http://lh3.ggpht.com
    31. 38. Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    32. 39. Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    33. 40. Cecil Sandy Loam State Soil of North Carolina Soil Taxonomy
    34. 41. Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    35. 42. Soil Forming Factors - Biology http://www.sowap.org http://www.gardenmandy.com
    36. 43. Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    37. 44. summit shoulder backslope footslope toeslope Soil Forming Factors – Topography Well drained moderately well drained Imperfectly drained poorly drained very poorly drained
    38. 45. O (organic horizon) A (surface horizon) B (subsurface horizon), zone of illuviation C (resembles parent material) R (bedrock) E (subsurface horizon), zone of eluviation Soil Horizons
    39. 46. Soil Forming Factors – Time Youth = Juvenile = A C A B C Mature = A E Bt C Adult A E Bt1 Bt2 Old Age “ Senile” A E Btqm Bqm
    40. 47. Soil Horizons – Mineral Horizons
    41. 48. Thrive Soil and Water Science Soil Physical Properties
    42. 49. <ul><li>Did you know ?????? </li></ul>Soil Color Variation
    43. 50. Why the color? Hematite: red Goethite: yellowish brown Ferrihydrite: reddish brown Calcite: off white http://www.pitt.edu Quartz: white Organic matter: black http://www.organicgardeninfo.com http://www.mii.org http://www.msstate.edu http://www.cs.cmu.edu http://www.beg.utexas.edu
    44. 51. Soil Color – Variation by Geography Red soils: Southeast US
    45. 52. Soil Color – Variation by Geography Brown/black soils: Midwest
    46. 53. Soil Separates and Texture http://school.discoveryeducation.com
    47. 54. <ul><li>Soil texture is the single most important physical property of the soil. Knowing the soil texture alone will provide information about: </li></ul><ul><li>1) water flow potential, </li></ul><ul><li>2) water holding capacity, </li></ul><ul><li>3) fertility potential, </li></ul><ul><li>4) fate of organic and inorganic contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>5) suitability for many urban uses like bearing capacity </li></ul>Soil Separates and Texture
    48. 56. Thien, 1979
    49. 57. Fine Texture - Clay https://www.soils.org/lessons
    50. 58. Course Texture - Sand https://www.soils.org/lessons
    51. 59. Sand + Silt + Clay = 100% Texture = LOAM 40 % Sand 40 % Silt 20 % Clay
    52. 60. <ul><li>Soil compressibility (soil weight/bulk density): soils tendency to consolidate or decrease in volume, compact </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk density = weight of soil / volume </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk density of common surface soils (A horizon) = 1.1 – 1.4 g/cm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk density of common subsurface soils (B-C horizons) = 1.3 – 1.7 g/cm 3 </li></ul>Bulk Density and Soil Strength
    53. 61. Bulk Density Soil Texture Bulk Density (g/cubic cm) Wt (lbs / cubic ft) % Porosity Sand 1.6 100 40 Sandy Loam 1.5 94 43 Loam 1.4 87 47 Silt Loam 1.3 81 50 Clay Loam 1.2 75 55 Clay 1.1 69 58
    54. 62. <ul><li>Soil strength: soil’s ability to resist deformation, function of cohesive and frictional forces between soil particles </li></ul>Soil Structure
    55. 63. <ul><li>Bearing capacity: ability of soil to withstand a load </li></ul><ul><li>Based on soil texture </li></ul><ul><li>Soil stabilization – any method to prevent soil from moving under a load </li></ul><ul><li>Soil compaction – increase the density, increase the stability (soil moisture critical) </li></ul>Bulk Density and Soil Strength
    56. 64. Bulk Density and Soil Strength
    57. 66. Thrive Soil and Water Science Soil Water
    58. 67. Soil Water Water Soil A horizon - Air Dry
    59. 68. Adhesion Cohesion Soil Water – Adhesion / Cohesion
    60. 69. Adhesion Cohesion Gravitational Soil Water - Gravitational
    61. 70. Soil Water
    62. 71. WATER Water Soil A horizon - Air Dry
    63. 72. Water Loam Sand Water Loam Sand t 1 t 2 t3 t4
    64. 73. Water loam clay Soil Water
    65. 74. Plant Available Water
    66. 75. Thrive Soil and Water Science Soil Chemistry & Fertility with material provided by Dr. Terry Cooper, University of Minnesota
    67. 76. Two soil cores Bottom of core contains filter paper and cheese cloth Soil Chemistry
    68. 77. Two unknown chemicals Chemical #1 Chemical #2 Chemicals passed through soil cores Leachate collected below Soil Chemistry
    69. 78. What happened to the original liquids? What does a change or no change in color mean? To what extent did the soil contribute to this change? <ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul>Soil Chemistry
    70. 79. Cation Anion Water Soil solution Adsorbed cations and water exchange sites The sum total of the exchangeable cations that can be adsorbed by inorganic and organic soil components. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Soil Chemistry - CEC Clay or Organic Matter
    71. 80. Al +3 > Ca +2 > Mg +2 > K + = NH 4 + > Na + Strength of Adsorption Soil Chemistry - CEC Ca +2 Al +3 H + K + Mg +2 NO 3 - Cl - SO 4 -2
    72. 81. Soil Chemistry - CEC
    73. 82. <ul><li>A high CEC value (>25) is a good indicator that a soil has a high clay and/organic matter content and can hold a lot of cations. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil with a low CEC value (<5) is a good indication that a soil is sandy with little or no organic matter that cannot hold many cations. </li></ul>Soil Chemistry - CEC
    74. 83. Chlorophenol red Methylene blue Soil Chemistry - CEC 9-30 CR - MB +
    75. 84. <ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul>MB + MB + MB + MB + MB + 9-31 CR - CR - CR - CR - MB + MB + MB + MB + MB +
    76. 85. <ul><li>Nutrients become available through organic matter decomposition, chemical weathering of minerals, airborne additions, and fertilizers. </li></ul>Soil Fertility
    77. 86. Atmosphere N 2 (trace NOx) 3,870,000,000 Soil Organic Matter – NH 3 (115,000) Water 570,000 Sediments and Sedimentary rocks Numbers in boxes are in teragrams (Tg=10 12 g) Numbers by arrows represent carbon flow annually (Tg/yr) between pools Runoff (36) (NH 4 ) (NO 2 -- ) (NO 3 -- ) Nitrification Vegetation Fixation (lighting – 3) (biological – 100) Denitrification (<200) Emissions (NOx - 20) (NH 4 ) (NO 3 -- ) (NH 3 ) Producers Consumers Decomposers
    78. 87. Water 90,000 Sediments and Sedimentary rocks (4,000,000,000) Numbers in boxes are in teragrams (Tg=10 12 g) Numbers by arrows represent phosphorus flow annually (Tg/yr) between pools Erosion, Pollution, Runoff (21) Decomposition Soil (200,000) Vegetation (3,000) Biotic Cycling (1,110) Producers Consumers Decomposers Weathering Of Rock (10,000) Mining (12) Uptake NO Atmospheric Component Phosphorus Cycling
    79. 88. Soil Chemistry – Soil pH
    80. 89. 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 Strongly Acid Strongly Alkaline Medium Acid Slightly Acid Very Slightly Acid Very Slightly Alkaline Slightly Alkaline Medium Alkaline NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASSIUM SULFUR CALCIUM MAGNESIUM IRON BORON COPPER AND ZINC MOLYBDENUM FUNGI MANGANESE BACTERIA AND ACTINOMYCETES
    81. 90. <ul><li>Active Acidity - due to the H+ ion activity in the soil solution at any given time </li></ul><ul><li>Reserve Acidity (on sites)- represented by the H+ and Al3+ that are easily exchanged by other cations (positively charged ion) </li></ul><ul><li>H H H H H+ H+ </li></ul><ul><li>H Ca++ H+ </li></ul><ul><li>Mg Mg++ H+ </li></ul><ul><li>Ca Ca++ H+ H+ </li></ul><ul><li>H H H Na </li></ul>soil <ul><ul><ul><li>Reserve Acidity Active Acidity -Soil solution </li></ul></ul></ul>Soil Chemistry – Soil pH
    82. 91. <ul><li>Al3+ + H20 ----> Al(OH)++ + H+ </li></ul><ul><li>Al(OH)++ + H2O ---> Al(OH) 2 + + H+ </li></ul><ul><li>Al(OH) 2 + + H20 ---> Al(OH) 3 + H+ </li></ul>Soil Chemistry – Sources of Acidity <ul><li>Hydrogen and aluminum cations are responsible for soil acidity </li></ul><ul><li>Above pH 6 – hydrogen is the main source of H+ </li></ul><ul><li>Below pH 6 – aluminum is the main source of H+ </li></ul>
    83. 92. Water Sediments and Sedimentary rocks Runoff Nitrification (NH 4 ) (NO 3 -- ) (NH 3 ) Producers Consumers Decomposers <ul><li>NH4+ + 2O2 ---> NO3- + H2O + 2 H+ </li></ul>
    84. 93. Thrive Soil and Water Science Soil Biological Processes – Soil Organic Matter
    85. 94. Water ( ~25%) Air ( ~25%) Mineral ( ~45%) Natural Organic Matter ( ~5%) Soil Organic Matter
    86. 95. Surface Horizon(s) Sub-surface Horizon(s) High organic matter content Low organic matter content <ul><li>Organic matter composition: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen (H) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur (S) </li></ul>~ 50% ~ 30 - 40% ~ 4 – 5% ~ 0.5 - 4% ~ 0.3 - 1 % Paul & Clark, 1996 Soil Organic Matter
    87. 96. Soil Organic Matter - Composition
    88. 97. Soil Organic Matter
    89. 98. Stable Organic Matter - Humus
    90. 99. Hargrove & Luxmoore, 2006 Plant residue + O 2 Enzymatic oxidation + H 2 O CO 2 + Energy (microbial) + Humus Enzymatic oxidation Humus (organic matter) Humus (organic matter) Oxidation CO 2 Soil Organic Matter
    91. 100. <ul><li>Plant material is transformed from one organic compound to another mainly by organisms in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms create by-products, wastes, and cell tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds released as waste by one organisms can often be used as food by another </li></ul>Decomposing Soil Organic Matter
    92. 101. <ul><li>SOM is labile* -it can decline rapidly if the soil environment changes and renewable - it can be replenished by inputs of organic material to the soil. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Labile = Constantly or readily undergoing chemical, physical, or biological change or breakdown; unstable . </li></ul></ul>Soil Organic Matter
    93. 102. Maintaining Soil Organic Matter Added Organic Residue Added Organic Residue Nutrient Release (NH 4 + , NO 3 - , PO 4 - , SO 4 - ) humification Immobilization (assimilation) mineralization heat CO 2 Decomposers bacteria fungi
    94. 103. Plant residue + O 2 Enzymatic oxidation + H 2 O CO 2 + Energy (microbial) + Humus (organic matter) Dry matter ( ~25%) Water ( ~75%) <ul><ul><li>sugars, starches, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- crude proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- hemicellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- lignins, fats, waxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rapid decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slow decomposition </li></ul></ul>Plant residue Brady & Weil, 1997 Maintaining Soil Organic Matter
    95. 104. Soil Health and Soil Quality
    96. 105. Soil Aggregates and Aggregate Stability

    ×