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Intro to soils cms 11

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  • Virigin Prairie, Kansas (Big Bluestem), Dry Land Khanasser Valley, Syria, Reclaimed Fields, Keita District, Niger
  • Terra Pretta soils – topsoil built up with charcoal, food refuse, other wasts We are using, coopting or destroying 40% of the estimated 100 billion tons of organic matter each year Constraints on the Expansion of the Global Food Supply by Henry W. Kindall and David Pimentel
  • Transcript

    • 1. Thrive CMS Piedmont Soils and Streams Introduction to Soils
    • 2.
      • What is soil?
      “ Soil, like air, like water is a natural resource that we must protect in order to have a future on planet earth” -- Dr. Terry Cooper – University of Minnesota “ The Nation that destroys its soil, destroys itself” -- Franklin D. Roosevelt Soil is not Dirt !!!!! Introduction to Soil Science
    • 3. The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that has been subjected to and shows effects of genetic and environmental factors:
      • What is soil?
      • climate (water, wind, temperature)
      • biology (macro- and microorganisms, plants)
      • relief (topography)
      • parent material (rocks/minerals)
      • time
      Solid earth material that can be removed without blasting Introduction to Soil Science
    • 4.
      • Supports rooted plant life:
      • Physical processes
      • Chemical processes
      • Biological processes
      • Regulating water and solute flow
      • Filtering, buffering, degrading, immobilizing, and detoxifying
      • Storing and cycling of nutrients
      • Land-use planning – providing support for structures
      Soil Function
    • 5.
      • Soil is composed of sand, silt, clay, and decomposed organic matter.
      Water ( ~25%) Air ( ~25%) Mineral ( ~45%) Natural Organic Matter ( ~5%) Soil Formation
    • 6. Soil Forming Factors - Rock Cycle
    • 7.  
    • 8.  
    • 9. Parent Material - Residual
    • 10.
      • Loess - wind blown silt (.05 - .002mm diameter)
      • Sand - dune sand - wind blown sand (eolian sand)
      Parent Material - Wind http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=15536
    • 11. Parent Material - Water http://sis.agr.gc.ca Lacustrine
    • 12. Parent Material - Water Alluvium
    • 13. Parent Material - Water Marine
    • 14. Parent Material - Ice Colluvium http://lh3.ggpht.com
    • 15. The 8 most common elements in Earth’s crust (by mass): 46.6% Oxygen (O) 3.6% Calcium (Ca) 27.7% Silica (Si) 2.8% Sodium (Na) 8.1% Aluminum (Al) 2.6% Potassium (K) 5.0% Iron (Fe) 2.1% Magnesium (Mg) Relative abundance of the chemical elements in Earth’s upper continental crust Rock-forming elements Rare earth elements Rarest “metals” Major industrial Metals in bold Precious metals in italic
    • 16. Where does this material come from?. Physical weathering Soil Weathering Temperature Water Ice Wind http://creechm.no-ip.com
    • 17.  
    • 18.  
    • 19. Where does this material come from?. Chemical Weathering Soil Weathering Hydrolysis Dissolution Hydration Oxidation - Reduction
    • 20. Fe +2 Reduced Iron Fe +3 Oxidized Iron
    • 21. Where does this material come from?. Biological Weathering Soil Weathering
    • 22. Soil Forming Factors – NC Bedrock
    • 23. Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    • 24. Ultisols Oxisols Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    • 25. Histosols Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    • 26. Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    • 27. Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    • 28. Soil Forming Factors - Biology http://www.sowap.org http://www.gardenmandy.com
    • 29. Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    • 30. B. Liang, Cornell University Bruno Glaser Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    • 31. Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    • 32. Soil Forming Factors – Topography
    • 33. summit shoulder backslope footslope toeslope Soil Forming Factors – Topography Well drained moderately well drained Imperfectly drained poorly drained very poorly drained
    • 34. Drainage Classes (depth to water table) Well Drained Somewhat Poorly Poorly Drained Drained gray colors below A gray mottles in brown B mottles > 4 feet Mod.well Dr. gray mottles
    • 35. Soil Forming Factors – Topography & Aspect
      • Direction the slope faces –
      • Important when slope is
      • > 10%.
      • North Slope
      • colder
      • less evaporation
      • more leaching
      • = more development
      • South Slope
      • warmer
      • more evaporation
      • less leaching
      • = less development
    • 36. Soil Components http://school.discoveryeducation.com Q: What did the shy pebble say to the big rock? A. Do you think I’ll ever be a little boulder?
    • 37. Thien, 1979
    • 38. Fine Texture - Clay https://www.soils.org/lessons
    • 39. Course Texture - Sand https://www.soils.org/lessons
    • 40. Soil Texture The relative portions of sand, silt, and clay-sized particles Sand: 2.0 – 0.05 mm Silt: 0.05 – 0.002 mm Clay: < 0.002 mm
    • 41. Sand + Silt + Clay = 100% Texture = LOAM 40 % Sand 40 % Silt 20 % Clay
    • 42. Why the color? Hematite: red Goethite: yellowish brown Ferrihydrite: reddish brown Calcite: off white http://www.pitt.edu Quartz: white Organic matter: black http://www.organicgardeninfo.com http://www.mii.org http://www.msstate.edu http://www.cs.cmu.edu http://www.beg.utexas.edu
    • 43. Soil Color Variation
    • 44. A horizon: organic coatings B horizon: Iron coatings C horizon: little coating Soil Color by Horizon http://nesoil.com
    • 45. Soil Color – Variation by Geography Red soils: Southeast US
    • 46. Soil Color – Variation by Geography Brown/black soils: Midwest
    • 47.  
    • 48. http://www.scienceclarified.com Soil Color – Variation by Geography White (gypsum) sands: New Mexico