Intro to soils cms 11

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  • Virigin Prairie, Kansas (Big Bluestem), Dry Land Khanasser Valley, Syria, Reclaimed Fields, Keita District, Niger
  • Terra Pretta soils – topsoil built up with charcoal, food refuse, other wasts We are using, coopting or destroying 40% of the estimated 100 billion tons of organic matter each year Constraints on the Expansion of the Global Food Supply by Henry W. Kindall and David Pimentel
  • Intro to soils cms 11

    1. 1. Thrive CMS Piedmont Soils and Streams Introduction to Soils
    2. 2. <ul><li>What is soil? </li></ul>“ Soil, like air, like water is a natural resource that we must protect in order to have a future on planet earth” -- Dr. Terry Cooper – University of Minnesota “ The Nation that destroys its soil, destroys itself” -- Franklin D. Roosevelt Soil is not Dirt !!!!! Introduction to Soil Science
    3. 3. The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that has been subjected to and shows effects of genetic and environmental factors: <ul><li>What is soil? </li></ul><ul><li>climate (water, wind, temperature) </li></ul><ul><li>biology (macro- and microorganisms, plants) </li></ul><ul><li>relief (topography) </li></ul><ul><li>parent material (rocks/minerals) </li></ul><ul><li>time </li></ul>Solid earth material that can be removed without blasting Introduction to Soil Science
    4. 4. <ul><li>Supports rooted plant life: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Biological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating water and solute flow </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering, buffering, degrading, immobilizing, and detoxifying </li></ul><ul><li>Storing and cycling of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Land-use planning – providing support for structures </li></ul>Soil Function
    5. 5. <ul><li>Soil is composed of sand, silt, clay, and decomposed organic matter. </li></ul>Water ( ~25%) Air ( ~25%) Mineral ( ~45%) Natural Organic Matter ( ~5%) Soil Formation
    6. 6. Soil Forming Factors - Rock Cycle
    7. 9. Parent Material - Residual
    8. 10. <ul><li>Loess - wind blown silt (.05 - .002mm diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>Sand - dune sand - wind blown sand (eolian sand) </li></ul>Parent Material - Wind http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=15536
    9. 11. Parent Material - Water http://sis.agr.gc.ca Lacustrine
    10. 12. Parent Material - Water Alluvium
    11. 13. Parent Material - Water Marine
    12. 14. Parent Material - Ice Colluvium http://lh3.ggpht.com
    13. 15. The 8 most common elements in Earth’s crust (by mass): 46.6% Oxygen (O) 3.6% Calcium (Ca) 27.7% Silica (Si) 2.8% Sodium (Na) 8.1% Aluminum (Al) 2.6% Potassium (K) 5.0% Iron (Fe) 2.1% Magnesium (Mg) Relative abundance of the chemical elements in Earth’s upper continental crust Rock-forming elements Rare earth elements Rarest “metals” Major industrial Metals in bold Precious metals in italic
    14. 16. Where does this material come from?. Physical weathering Soil Weathering Temperature Water Ice Wind http://creechm.no-ip.com
    15. 19. Where does this material come from?. Chemical Weathering Soil Weathering Hydrolysis Dissolution Hydration Oxidation - Reduction
    16. 20. Fe +2 Reduced Iron Fe +3 Oxidized Iron
    17. 21. Where does this material come from?. Biological Weathering Soil Weathering
    18. 22. Soil Forming Factors – NC Bedrock
    19. 23. Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    20. 24. Ultisols Oxisols Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    21. 25. Histosols Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    22. 26. Soil Forming Factors - Climate
    23. 27. Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    24. 28. Soil Forming Factors - Biology http://www.sowap.org http://www.gardenmandy.com
    25. 29. Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    26. 30. B. Liang, Cornell University Bruno Glaser Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    27. 31. Soil Forming Factors - Biology
    28. 32. Soil Forming Factors – Topography
    29. 33. summit shoulder backslope footslope toeslope Soil Forming Factors – Topography Well drained moderately well drained Imperfectly drained poorly drained very poorly drained
    30. 34. Drainage Classes (depth to water table) Well Drained Somewhat Poorly Poorly Drained Drained gray colors below A gray mottles in brown B mottles > 4 feet Mod.well Dr. gray mottles
    31. 35. Soil Forming Factors – Topography & Aspect <ul><li>Direction the slope faces – </li></ul><ul><li>Important when slope is </li></ul><ul><li>> 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>North Slope </li></ul><ul><li>colder </li></ul><ul><li>less evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>more leaching </li></ul><ul><li>= more development </li></ul><ul><li>South Slope </li></ul><ul><li>warmer </li></ul><ul><li>more evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>less leaching </li></ul><ul><li>= less development </li></ul>
    32. 36. Soil Components http://school.discoveryeducation.com Q: What did the shy pebble say to the big rock? A. Do you think I’ll ever be a little boulder?
    33. 37. Thien, 1979
    34. 38. Fine Texture - Clay https://www.soils.org/lessons
    35. 39. Course Texture - Sand https://www.soils.org/lessons
    36. 40. Soil Texture The relative portions of sand, silt, and clay-sized particles Sand: 2.0 – 0.05 mm Silt: 0.05 – 0.002 mm Clay: < 0.002 mm
    37. 41. Sand + Silt + Clay = 100% Texture = LOAM 40 % Sand 40 % Silt 20 % Clay
    38. 42. Why the color? Hematite: red Goethite: yellowish brown Ferrihydrite: reddish brown Calcite: off white http://www.pitt.edu Quartz: white Organic matter: black http://www.organicgardeninfo.com http://www.mii.org http://www.msstate.edu http://www.cs.cmu.edu http://www.beg.utexas.edu
    39. 43. Soil Color Variation
    40. 44. A horizon: organic coatings B horizon: Iron coatings C horizon: little coating Soil Color by Horizon http://nesoil.com
    41. 45. Soil Color – Variation by Geography Red soils: Southeast US
    42. 46. Soil Color – Variation by Geography Brown/black soils: Midwest
    43. 48. http://www.scienceclarified.com Soil Color – Variation by Geography White (gypsum) sands: New Mexico

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