Connectors

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  • bat ayaw ma copy!
    nakakainisxz naman kaiLangan ko pa namang
    magreport bukasxz!

    hahaissxzt! poor di pa rin nakatuLong!
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  • Mª Pilar Pendón Cañedo
  • Connectors

    1. 1. CONNECTORS OPPOSITION, ADDITION, CAUSE / EFFECT, CONDITION
    2. 2. OPPOSITION <ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Although, despite the fact that </li></ul><ul><li>However, nevertheless </li></ul><ul><li>Despite, in spite of </li></ul><ul><li>Nonetheless. </li></ul><ul><li>I broke my leg.  However , I still feel great.  </li></ul><ul><li>I broke my leg.  Nevertheless , I feel great.  </li></ul><ul><li>I broke my leg.  Nonetheless , I feel great.   </li></ul><ul><li>Although I broke my leg, I feel great. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though I broke my leg, I feel great. </li></ul><ul><li>Though I broke my leg, I feel great. </li></ul><ul><li>I feel great despite the fact that I broke my leg. </li></ul><ul><li>I feel great in spite of the fact that I broke my leg. </li></ul>
    3. 3. ADDITION (I) <ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, additionally, furthermore, moreover, also </li></ul><ul><li>Not only...but also </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to, along with, as well as </li></ul><ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places </li></ul><ul><li>to do research.  In addition , it has hundreds of the most respected </li></ul><ul><li>magazines and journals in the world </li></ul><ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places </li></ul><ul><li>to do research.  Moreover , it has hundreds of the most respected </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines and journals in the world. </li></ul>
    4. 4. ADDITION (II) <ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best </li></ul><ul><li>places to do research.  Furthermore , it has hundreds of the </li></ul><ul><li>most respected magazines and journals in the world.   </li></ul><ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best </li></ul><ul><li>places to do research.  It also has hundreds of the most respected </li></ul><ul><li>magazines and journals in the world.   </li></ul><ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best </li></ul><ul><li>places to do research.  It has hundreds of the most respected </li></ul><ul><li>magazines and journals in the world as well. </li></ul>
    5. 5. ADDITION (III) <ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best </li></ul><ul><li>places to do research.  It has hundreds of the most respected </li></ul><ul><li>magazines and journals in the world, too . </li></ul><ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best </li></ul><ul><li>places to do research.  Additionally , it has hundreds of the </li></ul><ul><li>most respected magazines and journals in the world.   </li></ul><ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places t o </li></ul><ul><li>do research, and it has hundreds of the most </li></ul><ul><li>respected magazines and journals in the world.   </li></ul>
    6. 6. ADDITION (IV) <ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is not only one </li></ul><ul><li>of the best places to do research  but also has hundreds of the most </li></ul><ul><li>respected magazines and journals in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places to </li></ul><ul><li>do research.  Besides that , it has hundreds of the most respected </li></ul><ul><li>magazines and journals in the world. </li></ul>
    7. 7. CAUSE/EFFECT <ul><li>For (cause), so (effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Because, since </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, as a result, consequently </li></ul><ul><li>Because of, due to, as a result of </li></ul>
    8. 8. CONDITION <ul><li>If, unless, only if, even if </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise </li></ul>
    9. 9. SOME PRACTICE ON ADDITION <ul><li>1- Rewrite the following sentences with the connectors and words we learned in this lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>My professor is an extremely fascinating person.  She tells some of the most interesting </li></ul><ul><li>stories I have ever heard.   </li></ul><ul><li>1.)  Additionally, </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2.)  In addition, </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3.)  Too </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4.)  Also </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>5.)  Furthermore, </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul>
    10. 10. SOME PRACTICE (II) <ul><li>6.)  Besides that, </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>7.) And </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>8.)  Moreover, </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>9.)  As well </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>10.)  Not only...but also </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul>
    11. 11. SOME PRACTICE ON OPPOSITION. <ul><li>For each of the following, put the 2 sentences together by using the </li></ul><ul><li>word or phrase in the parentheses.  You may have to change some </li></ul><ul><li>words. 1.  I fell down the stairs.  I am okay.  (however) 2.  In the early 1900's, the buffalo were almost extinct.  The buffalo population is now thriving.  (in spite of) 3.  Robin worked 14 hours a day for that company.  She was fired.  (nevertheless) 4.  The king travelled all over the country greeting everyone he met.  The citizens hated him.  (despite the fact that) 5.  I worked on my car all day.  It doesn't run.  (even though) </li></ul>
    12. 12. SOME PRACTICE II <ul><li>6.  Beth studied French since she was in high school.  She can't speak a word of French.  (although) </li></ul><ul><li>7.  Johnny sent his girlfriend a dozen roses and a diamond ring.  She doesn't want to marry him.  (nonetheless) </li></ul><ul><li>8.  Bobby and Susan spent the whole summer travelling in Europe.  They didn't spend a lot of money. (in spite of the fact that) </li></ul><ul><li>9.  I jumped out of an airplane, and the parachute didn't open.  I didn't even break a bone.  (though) </li></ul><ul><li>10.  I cut my finger very deeply.  I didn't need any stitches.  (despite) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Parallel structures <ul><li>There are a number of situations which </li></ul><ul><li>require you to use parallel structure. They </li></ul><ul><li>are: </li></ul><ul><li>Both X and Y . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Not X but Y </li></ul><ul><li>Not only X but also Y . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Neither X nor Y . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Either X or Y . . .  </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Remember the rule of parallel structure: the </li></ul><ul><li>words in the list must be the same </li></ul><ul><li>grammatical form.  In this situation, the X </li></ul><ul><li>and Y must be the same grammatical </li></ul><ul><li>form.  </li></ul>
    15. 15. When using these constructions, the X and Y must be the same grammatical forms:  both nouns, both infinitives, both prepositional phrases, both gerunds, or both clauses. You must either stay home or go with us . Either you must stay home or go with us . You can join either the army or the navy. Either you can join the army or the navy. This car is not only fast but also safe . This car is not only fast but also it is safe to drive . We are not for war but for peace . We are not for war but peace In counselling, I think both talking and listening are important. In counselling, I think both talking and to listen are important. CORRECT I NCORRECT
    16. 16. <ul><li>Read the following sentences.  If the sentence is correct, don't </li></ul><ul><li>change anything.  If the sentence is incorrect, find the parallel </li></ul><ul><li>structure problem and fix it. </li></ul><ul><li>1. The factory workers were ready, able, and were quite determined to do a great job. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The computer network is safer, stronger, and more secure.  </li></ul><ul><li>3.  We cannot be worried or terrified of difficulties in life.  </li></ul><ul><li>4.  The actor taught his student how to read, how to stand, how to cry, and to talk with fans.  </li></ul><ul><li>5.  The requirements for a chemistry degree are not as strict as a medical degree. </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>6.  Either you can join the army or the navy. </li></ul><ul><li>7.  The reorganization of the company is neither simple nor it will be cheap.   </li></ul><ul><li>8.  When I was in high school, I learned piano and how to play the guitar. </li></ul><ul><li>9.  Fred supports the idea because, first, its simplicity; second, it is unique. </li></ul><ul><li>10.  They are either our friends or they are not. </li></ul>
    18. 18. ANSWERS <ul><li>The factory workers were ready, able, and determined to do a great job. </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot be worried about or terrified of the difficulties in life.  </li></ul><ul><li>The actor taught his student how to read, how to stand, how to cry, and how to </li></ul><ul><li>talk with fans.  </li></ul><ul><li>The requirements for a chemistry degree are not as strict as the requirements </li></ul><ul><li>for a medical degree. </li></ul><ul><li>You can join either the army or the navy. </li></ul><ul><li>When I was in high school, I learned how to play the piano and guitar. </li></ul><ul><li>Fred supports the idea because, first, it is simple; second, it is unique. </li></ul><ul><li>They are either our friends or our enemies. </li></ul>

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