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Transitions In Hydraulic Engngineering
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Transitions In Hydraulic Engngineering


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Contribution of Delta Works in NL to hydraulic developments

Contribution of Delta Works in NL to hydraulic developments

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  • 1. Transitions in Hydraulic EngineeringImpact of the Delta Works on the RecentDevelopments in Hydraulic Engineering Krystian W. Pilarczyk (former) Rijkswaterstaat Hydraulic Engineering Institute, Delft
  • 2. Transitions in Hydraulic Engineering Content: • Introduction • (brief) History of Netherlands in coping floods • Delta Works overview • Impact of Delta Works on recent developments in hydraulic engineering • Conclusions- erosion – scour - closures – bottom protection – revetments – filters – geotextiles
  • 3. Introduction The Netherlands Low-lying countryWith dikes "God created the world, and the Dutch createdWithout dikes the Netherlands"
  • 4. Dutch History "God created the world, and the Dutch created the Netherlands" Flood protection in The Netherlands through the centuries
  • 5. Dutch history(MSL)
  • 6. Watersystem & Rainfall problems in NL Storage Storage Storage land River Sea Polder water water water "God created the world, and the Dutch created the Netherlands."
  • 7. Zeeland about 1500
  • 8. Turning point: Disaster 1953 Dike breaches and inundation
  • 9. Why is flood defenceimportant ? Flood events: flood event damage victims Sea 1953 ƒ 1.500 106 1835 Meuse 1993 ƒ 250 106 ---- 6 Rhine 1995 ƒ 500 10 ---- Meuse 1995 ƒ 165 106 ---- Rainfall 1998 ƒ 1.100 106 ---- Road and Hydraulic Engineering Devision, Delft 1 US $=2 fWe can not avoid the floodsbut we can/must minimize theconsequences(victims, economical damage)High safety standards needed
  • 10. 1997From Disaster 1953 (open)Eastern Scheldt barrier Western Scheldt to Delta Works Antwerp Deltaplan
  • 11. Closure Techniques Dike wheel Scour hole Caisson-closureCable-line(also during the 1st stageEastern Scheldt closure) scour Bottom protection
  • 12. From Closed to Open Eastern Scheldt Project Environment & Ecology 1973 start discussion on environmental issues !974 stop execution full closure 1976 decision Open Storm Surge Barrier
  • 13. Storm-surge barrier Eastern Scheldt Final
  • 14. From the past to the presentEasternScheldt Zierikzee Rotterdam City rights 1248 Vlissingen Zierikzee Eastern Scheldt View from the Expo Center Vlissingen Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier
  • 15. Techniques Overview of the Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrierscour – bottom protection – foundation –superstructure – high tolerance requirements
  • 16. Techniques
  • 17. TechniquesFrom traditional to modern
  • 18. Modern Techniques
  • 19. TechniquesStorm-surge barrier Rotterdam (1997)
  • 20. Transition into integrated/multidisciplinary approach Transitions in hydraulic engineering Impact Delta Works Soil –Water – Structure interactions but also Environment Environmental Impact Assessment
  • 21. Transition from deterministic to probabilistic approachDesign Philosophy & Methodology Failure or inundation Risk <Typ naam hier> Loading <Typ titel hier> Resistance <Typ naam hier> <Typ naam hier> <Typ naam hier> <Typ titel hier> <Typ titel hier> <Typ titel hier> Failure modes & Failure tree
  • 22. Transition from traditional to Closure by dumpedmodern techniques method (rock, blocks, bags) Closing using cable-line techniques• Gradual closures – Horizontal – Vertical Principles of closure techniques• Sand closures – Pipe discharged – Dumped• Sudden closures – Caissons
  • 23. Transition to innovative techniques Sand Closures
  • 24. Techniques & problemsGrevelingen Dam and sluice(Siphon) High salinity DensityLow salinity current High salinity and erosion Low salinity
  • 25. Scour and Bottom protection600m
  • 26. Scour and Bottom protection Eastern Scheldt Barrier
  • 27. Research as design tool Scour research Scour prediction
  • 28. Scourresearch Prototype tests Brouwersdam Discharge sluice
  • 29. Scourprototype results underminingPrediction instability of upper slope- still a problem
  • 30. Flow slides Flow slide (Zeeland)schematic viewof a flow-slide After flow-slide Before flow-slide
  • 31. Liquefaction and flow slide in sandmaximum 200m Average slope Shear failure 30 m after flo w s lide in sand maximum 50 m average slopeclay 30 mloose sand after flow slide with cla y on top
  • 32. Scour & bottomprotection design rules
  • 33. Transition in design techniques of revetments Revetments Riprap/rubble mound structures From Hudson: Hs/∆Dn50 = (KD cotα)1/3 0.2 Hs = 6.2 0.18 ⎛ S ⎞ -0.5 Into Van der Meer: P ⎜ ⎟ ξm ∆ Dn 50 ⎝ N⎠
  • 34. From riprap into pitched stone/blocks BlockRevetments Internal erosion
  • 35. Bank To RotterdamProtectionBasic researchModel testsPrototype tests Also PIANC guidelinesApplication To Antwerp
  • 36. environmental TechniquesSalt-fresh water separation
  • 37. Transition in filter design: from extension of design criteria for filtersgeometrically closed into load-based designGranular Filters Various test facilities
  • 38. Filters From granular filters into geotextiles and composite filters ; from geometrically open to hydrodynamically sandtight (based on loading)geotextiles
  • 39. FiltersPossible extension of designcriteria for filters
  • 40. Some other aspects • Geosynthetics • Geosystems • Waste & Alternative materials • Technology Transfer
  • 41. Disseminationof knowledge Validation
  • 42. Knowledge development: Laboratory testsSimulation of the flow through adikeTesting grass cover as revetment gap Delta flume
  • 43. Transition into Alternative Techniques Sand and clay bags closure Granular filters from brick material
  • 44. Conclusions Large projects (like Delta Works) need usually some specific solutions. It stimulates new research andinnovation, which contribute strongly to new developments in hydraulic & coastal engineering A systematic & comprehensiveapproach must be taken to solve stream & shoreline problems
  • 45. Knowledge is Knowledge cyclesalways going ahead We are always in Transition
  • 46. Thank you foryour attention Further information:
  • 47. I wish you a pleasant stay in the Netherlands
  • 48. The, (english, downloads)