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Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level
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Wine Sensory Seminar - intermediate level

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Powerpoint accompanying 3-hour wine sensory seminar for the Road Scholar program in Lake County, California.

Powerpoint accompanying 3-hour wine sensory seminar for the Road Scholar program in Lake County, California.

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  • 4 vinotypes – Sweet tasters are the most sensitive, hating tannin and alcohol needing sugar to balance acid. Hypersensitive – needsbalnce, low alcohol. Sensitive – tend to be wine geeks, somms, etc., like old world. Tolerant tasters are the big alcohol, oaky types.
  • Imagine a chicken nugget – crisp/moist, salty, sweet, savoury, herbal, spongey, then add BBQ sauce.Cinnamon and Lamb association, cultural variations. At the least, people with large vocabularies are more fun to talk to.Language is a tool for describing but also the tool for thinking about. Winemakers talk about texture and structure, not fruit. While the memory of smells is very accurate, the language link may be weak. This is the animal part of the brain.Split between recognition and articulation of aromas. Smooth is a particularly conflicted descriptor – happy phenolics for one are harsh for another. Wine professionals tend to think that they clearly know what consumers want and they are communicating it… Have them pick zinfandel traits from the wheel
  • Color can be misleading, some faults enhance color.Nebbiolo and Sangiovese huge but light. Alicante dark but flat.Don’t over value color. Don’t let color prejudice you. Let it be part of the total picture and clues if you are tasting blind. Madeira was used to toast the declaration of independence.Lots of products are sold to increase color for winemakers
  • It onc equated to ripeness as being thicker, which in the old days was “better”
  • You as the consumer may need to choose if unfined/unfiltered is important to you.Tartrate stability in whites for the “broken glass” look, very inefficient.Protein haze and bentonite is normal – insures heat stability.
  • Olfactory epithelia covered with microscopic cilia – part of the limbic system of memory.Olfactoryfatigue is adaptation, two minutes is a good delay between smells.We have cells that produce proteins that bind to specific odorants and then translate into electrical signals, which the limbic system then “matches” with references in the brain.The limbic system is the emotional memory.The adaptation phenomenon involves the central nervous system as well, which is part of the taste bud sensitivity.Imagine experiencing a new smell – can be pretty dramatic
  • Woman have the child-safety biological theory of better olfaction.Wine glasses make a surprisingly huge difference. Flavor wheel.
  • Primary, secondary and tertiary (in barrel) aromas. Winemaking choices. Chocolate stimulates different parts of brain when inhaled through nose and through mouth retronasally.
  • Exhale trick for assessing alcohol.
  • Different molecular structures for tannins that create different sensations.25 types of bitter – some in upper respiratory tractAcids/sour are not all equal
  • Sugar balance is a huge issue in modern Bevmo wines. There is always some sugar left. Balance. 1 teaspoon sugar = 4 gramsSerious wines used to be sweet
  • Acid is a core quality in wine. More obvious in whites, more hidden in reds but still just as important. Acid is part of what makes wine special. Because wine has so many tactile qualities it can be lost in the mix. Acid is hard to talk about though, and sensitivity varies.Peaches, pears, raspberry, strawberry similar acidity to red wines
  • Taste Steel Cab Franc.
  • the term "tannin" by extension is widely applied to any large polyphenolic compound containing sufficient hydroxyls and other suitable groups (such as carboxyls) to form strong complexes with proteins and other macromolecules. Originally from oak trees. Taste CabernetTheory of birds eating seeds and tannin loss with ripeness
  • Which of the three white wines has the most viscosity or body?
  • Talk about dealcoholization – and about people’s talk about high alcohol. Nebbiolo is always high, Rhone and Languedoc. TatsePrimitivo but do not finish
  • Balance is one of the areas where you the consumer will need to try to establish a profile for yourself. If unfined and unfiltered is important,
  • Taste Eruption
  • Taste wine #4 and wine #5
  • As a chef, salad pairings are scary. Some spice can be good. Sweet and sour must be balanced close to the same point as the wine. Use salt creatively to soften tannin.
  • Modern findings – tomato sauce and red wine don’t work, add acid and salt (umami problem). Extra acid and salt will usually smooth a wine out that is clashing.
  • Sherry – Fino and manzanilla lightest (15%) and dark ones are oxidized and higher alcohol (Oloroso). Sherries are fermented dry and sweetness is added back during aging, unlike port. Fortified wines – Muscats, When Magellan sailed around the world he spent more Sherry for the trip than on weapons. Sercial and Verelho (TintaNegra Mole)Estufagem process for madeira (slow cooking)
  • If a county is used, 85% of the grapes must be from that vintage. If an AVA is used, 95% must be used. Quite strict.Estate bottled – 100% of grapes
  • Transcript

    • 1. Wine Sensory Seminar Pietro Buttitta Road Scholars Lake County, California October 2013
    • 2. Introduction • Know and grow your stylistic preferences, and us that knowledge to investigate outside of the box • We are born with different sensitivities but we all can train and refine how we process our experiences with food or wine • Part of the fun is where and how the wine was grown and made – context is important • Talking about wine should be fun, and like any new language, it takes a little practice • Soft, fruity and oakywines are a relatively new thing – very sweet or very acidic was normal
    • 3. The 4 vinotypes • Sweet – most sensitive to alcohol, acid and tannin. Need sugar to balance. 21% of women, 7% of men • Hypersensitive – largest group at 37%. Foodies. Tend toward lighter, elegant side. Balance is key • Sensitive – Go with the flow, adventurous types. 25%. Complexity is key and can enjoy a wide variety of styles • Tolerant – 32% of men, 16% of women. Bigger, louder, stronger preference. Like spirits. “Iron palate”
    • 4. Some basics tasting principles • Your first sniff is the best, so get into a focused and clear mental state in which you feel ready to taste • Think of tasting as a circle – start with a clear experience, pick it apart and analyze the components, then return to the integrated whole picture • Do some memory work, attaching profiles to the wine from that place. If it makes an impression, you will likely remember it. If not, it is just a beverage • Wine changes also, so be patient and observe • Mechanics – get comfortable spitting, rinsing with water
    • 5. Talking about tasting wine • French system based on analog descriptors, it can be a little foofy – think of it as describing food • Languageworksboth ways; shaping what we experience internally and how we communicate it • Increasing your wine vocabulary will increase your tasting accuity and allow more nuances to arise • The flavor wheel is a good tool to get started and become comfortable with descriptors
    • 6. Looking at wine • Visual Components Color – it is important, but not too important Age – whites will get darker, reds get lighter Color Density – varietal, barrel, winemaking Clarity – a component of integrity Mouthfeel– perceiving texture and viscosity Sediment – not necessarily a bad thing
    • 7. Appearance
    • 8. Appearance • A word about “legs” or “tears” and wine Does not indicate quality, though it did indicate ripeness Alcohol, evaporation and surface tension Viscosity and sweetness
    • 9. Appearance • Most reds clarify themselves, so a hazy red usually has a problem. Nearly all whites are highly filtered and stabilized, so it is rare • Sediment can be tartrate crystals or pigments in older wine in either case, don’t worry
    • 10. Smell • Primal, complicated brain/nose interaction, 10,000 smells and the 20/80 rule • Use your retronasal slurping skills • Caution – the nose adapts fast and needs time to reset! • The first sniff isyourbest!
    • 11. Smell • We are born with relatively equal senses, but generally women have a better sense of smell • We may not be born with equal sensitivity, but we can train the brain portion to improve • Taste declines with age, but… • Mental ability to identify and remember smells can increase with age
    • 12. Smell • How intense is it? Varietal, age and winemaking style dependent • Oak can have ahugeinfluence • Aroma is primary, like cherry and apple, bouquet is secondary and comes with age like truffle, leather and good mushroom • Cleanliness – don’t fear funk, but assess quality • More on defects later… • Taste Brassfield
    • 13. Palate/Taste • Tasting combines aroma with tactile sensation • Mechanics: small amount, aerate, swish wine around mouth, spit or don’t, concentrate through the exhale and carefully observe the finish • All things being equal, the longer thepleasurablefinish, combined with balance, the better the wine is • Describing the tactile aspects of wine can be more contentious than aroma descriptors • A trick for assessing alcohol level
    • 14. Palate/Taste • Taste buds regenerate every ten days • Gustatory cells translate chemicals into electrical signals to the brain • Ignore the old tongue map – you taste everything everywhere, though it can be clustered in areas • Texture and weight is sensed in several ways in addition to actual taste bud sensations. Tannic wine can be felt on gums without taste buds • Mouth damage can really skew tasting
    • 15. Palate/Taste • • • • • • • • • Sweetness/dryness Acidity Tannin Astringency Oak Alcohol Viscosity/body Balance assessment Finish
    • 16. Palate/Taste - sweetness • Sweetness – sugar is an important tool, adds weight, balances acid, moderates tannin, holds onto aromatic molecules, but fruitiness is not sweetness though sweetness holds onto fruit • Champagne and Riesling styles are the best example of sugar/acid balancing act
    • 17. Palate/Taste – sweet versus sour • Champagne styles based on added sugar (dosage) • Brut Nature = no added sugar and under 3 grams/litre of residual sugars (less than 1 teaspoon) • Extra-Brut = between 0 and 6 g/litre of residual sugars • Brut = less than 12 g/litre of residual sugars • Extra sec (or Extra Dry) = between 12 & 17 g/litre of residual sugars • Sec (or Dry) = between 17 & 32 g/litre of residual sugars • Demi-Sec = between 32 & 50 g/litre of residual sugars • Doux = more than 50 g/litre of residual sugars
    • 18. Palate/Taste- acidity • Acidity – often the defining characteristic between “Old World” and “New World” wines • Acidity + Tannin = astringency (tactile dryness) • Acidity is the backbone of white wines • Acidity is extremely important in pairing food with wine (more on this later)
    • 19. Palate/Taste- oak • Oak is an incredibly complicated and loaded subject that bridges smell and taste sensation • Oak ads to the nose and mouthfeel as body and complexity, spice, smoothness, etc. • Oak can cover up or diminish flavors, such as pyrazinesor underripeness and it helps set color • Use oaked wine strategically when pairing • When it comes to winemaking and consumer tastes, oak is the elephant in the room • Taste Chardonnay
    • 20. Palate/Taste - tannin • Tannin – that drying, fuzzy, chalky sensation you get from aspirin, many seeds, strong tea or coffee • Comes from tanning leather, strong affinity for proteins in saliva. They are part of all the “good stuff” in grapes • Tannin is present in both skins and seeds of grapes, skin thickness does not dictate tannin level • Oxygen softens tannins, so decanting or aerating your wine ifit is too tannic • Tannin is part of the beauty of in red wine pairing
    • 21. Palate/Taste –mouthfeel/texture • Body is a general assessment with multiple inputs like acid, tannin, oak etc. • But, bigger/smoother is not necessarily better. Sometimes the body assessment is a value judgement. Do you want Pinot like syrup or Cabernet like water? • Grape variety, tannin profile, acid, and lots of winemaking choices result in body, and a ton of legal additives • Taste Cabernet Franc
    • 22. Palate/Taste - astringency • Astringency is a composite sensory phenomenon, tannin + acid, usually in red wine. A lot is bad, a little can be good and lively • White wines can be astringent too, usually high acid + high phenolic content • Human saliva production can vary 10-fold, which indicates variation in taste experience and astringency/tannin and acid perception • It is the longest-lasting sensation and builds up over time but without adaptation • Taste Sangiovese
    • 23. Palate/Taste - alcohol • Alcohol has conflicting attributes: it is warming and cooling, thick and thin, and sensitivity to it is highly variable • High alcohol wines tend to extract more oak from barrels, and balance can be difficult • Wines from warm climates have more sugar and more alcohol, not necessarily a bad thing • Knowing your sensitivity level is helpful here
    • 24. Palate/Taste - balance • Very much a judgment call, balance is balance of sweetness, alcohol, acid, fruit and tannin for you • Some grapes produce wine that may be considered unbalanced if we do not understand their nature: Tannat, Petit Sirah, Sangiovese, Nebbiolo, etc. Their balance point looks different so varietal is important • Knowing your own taste helps here, but new grape varietals can surprise you with their own unique balance points • Taste Syrah
    • 25. Blending • Some areas blend – Bordeaux, Rhone, Veneto, Portugal, Rioja • Some don’t – Burgundy, Barolo, Brunello, Ribera del Duero • Each has advantages and disadvantages • Very hard to make generalizations about quality, more about paradigms and tradition • There is a lot of silent blending though…
    • 26. Wine flaws and faults • • • • “Corked” wine - musty, dank, lacking aroma Volatile acidity – vinegar (can smell sweet) Ethyl acetate - nail polish remover Brett - horsey, sweaty, barnyard, band-aid (can be confused with corked easily) • H2S – rotten egg, sewerish some flaws like Brett and VA can enhance complexity at low levels
    • 27. Corked wine • Corked wine is the most important defect to detect. You can return corked bottles to the store. It is (usually) not the winery’s fault if the bottle is corked • TCA actually overwhelms and anesthetizes your sensory bulb, so the first sniff is the best at detecting it as you adapt quickly • Look for a damp basement, wet newspaper, moldy smell, and the wine will be lacking fruit and taste very flat. The texture is all that remains • Saran wrap trick
    • 28. Food and wine pairing • When in doubt, keep it regional and balance the weight of wine with the weight of food - match (duck and Cahors, truffle and Barolo) - weight (oaky Chardonnay with butter sauce) - flavor keys (smokey Syrah with grilled food) - acid levels (tomato and Chianti) - reflect a key element - Bubbles. When in doubt, bubbles.
    • 29. Food and wine pairing • Troublemakers: - Acidic salad dressings, lemon juice - Spicy/chili hot exacerbates alcohol perception - Sweetness gets messy, desserts should be slightly less sweet than dessert wines, many sweet sauces (Teriyaki, BBQ, the Panda) will overpower a red wine - Bitter (radicchio) + bitter wine = bitter - Losing a delicate wine or an aged bottle - Umami can make wine bitter or metallic
    • 30. Food and wine pairing • • • • • • • More advanced: Counterpoint is beautiful when it works Can’t like flavors nullify each other? Acidity is your friend and work horse, in the wine and in matching food to the wine Sometimes, pair the sauce, not the protein Temperature – ice cream numbs taste buds, heat can bring out tannin Sometimes rosé is your best friend Always think about adaptation when pairing
    • 31. Food and wine pairing – special wines • Port – typically a cheese plate wine, tremendous values can still be found • Sherry and Madeira – very versatile styles (Fino, Manzanilla for sherry, Sercial and Verdelho for Madeira) range from dry to sweet, can be very food friendly and interesting • Late harvest and fortified dessert wines – produced all over the world, often take place of a dessert or best with simple fruit or pastry • Amarone – like Cabernet on steroids, let it shine
    • 32. Winemaker Tricks • All legal in California: adding water or acid, removing water or alcohol, adding concentrate • Additives during fermentation: enzymes, yeast products, yeast food, tannins, oak, micro-ox • Aging: fining products (milk, egg, gelatin) or removing some defects by crossflow filtration, oak, ml bacteria • Additives at bottling: grape concentrate, DMDC, gum arabic, tannin, polysaccharides, oak products
    • 33. Reading a French wine label
    • 34. Reading a domestic wine label
    • 35. How to read a wine label • Appellation: when a county appellation is used “Lake County” 75% of the grapes must be from that place • When an AVA is used “Red Hills” 85% is the minimum – it is a tighter designation • If the label states “California” then 100% of the grapes are Californians of some sort • Vintages are more important in some places than in others, even here the last couple of years • Labels will tell you were the grapes grew, not necessarily what parent company made the wine

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