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Drinkwater Final Key

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A presentation we made for the RIVER21 project.

A presentation we made for the RIVER21 project.

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • Groupwork Case River 21, made by: Bram Van Keer & Kristof Blockx from the University Of Antwerp, Lucie Drapvril from the University Of Lille and Pieterjan Criel from the University Of Ghent.
  • Our objectif is to focus on the Albert Channel in relation with drinking water and Climate Change. A brief overview is given of the presentation.

  • Facts & figures about the Albert Channel
    Official opening 1940, but because the WO II it was economical used in 1946.
    First modernisation started at 1966, mainly widening and deepening the channel and heightening the bridges. At the moment there are a few bottlenecks, first to narrow bridges, second to narrow channel at Wijnegem and third bridges that are too low for the EU standards (9,10m). Maybe deepen the channel to 6 meters so coast ships can use the Channel.
    Goal was to decrease the time travel, in the past inland shipping had to go by the Kempisch Channels, with the building of the Albert Channel the time went from 16 to 5 – 8 days
  • Main uses are navigation, process water for industry, drinking water and irrigation for agricultural practice. There also other functions not mentioned like, recreation and tourism.
    Pact is the “Afvoer verdrag Maas” and is a treaty between Flanders, Walloon and The Netherlandts.
  • With a flow in the Meuse between 100 to 60 m³/s, the Albert Channel. If the water flow is lower at approximately 60 to 30 m³/s, the Meuse get always a minimum of 10 m³/s. If there is a drought the water can gets under 30 m³/s than the water flow equally divided over the three parties. If there is a critical danger there has to be a negotiation between the parties. The three parties are: Juliana Channel (The Netherlands), Meuse (the Netherlands, the Walloon and Flanders) and Albert Channel (Flanders).
    Therefore there ‘s a need for good treaties between the parties, to secure the supply of water.
  • Drinkwater supplies
    In the province of Antwerp there are 25 regions with 300 wells supplying 64.000.000 m³ drinking water. And surface water pumping supplying the province of Antwerp.

  • In Flanders there is 340.000.000 m³ produced and 450.000.000 m³ used. So there is a missing gap of 110.000.000 m³ drinking water, that is being filled up by drinking water from abroad, Walloon, The Netherlands and France.
  • In extreme drought years there is a trend that there is more use of water. Between 2006 and 2007 the water prices have been changed and this you can see in the water use that declined in 2007.

  • From De Kempen Formation to van diest formation, these layers are permeable because of their sandy composition. That means that there is a lot of infiltration in this northeastern area. There is a good interaction between the surface and the groundwater.
    The Van Berchem formation contain the aquifere.
    Groundwater supply are located in the Neogene layer.
    The other formations are impermeable.
    Concerning the geological age, the more we go to the northsea, the youger the sediments are.
  • From De Kempen Formation to van diest formation, these layers are permeable because of their sandy composition. That means that there is a lot of infiltration in this northeastern area. There is a good interaction between the surface and the groundwater.
    The Van Berchem formation contain the aquifere.
    Groundwater supply are located in the Neogene layer.
    The other formations are impermeable.
    Concerning the geological age, the more we go to the northsea, the youger the sediments are.
  • From De Kempen Formation to van diest formation, these layers are permeable because of their sandy composition. That means that there is a lot of infiltration in this northeastern area. There is a good interaction between the surface and the groundwater.
    The Van Berchem formation contain the aquifere.
    Groundwater supply are located in the Neogene layer.
    The other formations are impermeable.
    Concerning the geological age, the more we go to the northsea, the youger the sediments are.
  • 1st aquifere is present in the Berchem formation.
    Covered by the Lillo formation.
    The 2nd aquifer e is present in Merksplas formation also called middle formation.
    Above this layer we hgave the Kempen formation.

  • Groundwater is an important part of the albert channel area that’s why it is important to study the consequences of climate change on this water supply area.
    The effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Grote-Nete catchment is modeled with 3 scenarios formulated in 2100.
    The 1st scenario: Greenhouse scenario also called wet scenario result in more precipitations.
    The 2nd scenario: Cold scenario is expected when the climate change is induced by a sudden change in the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation resulting in cooling the ocean and the atmosphere.
    The last scenario: dry scenario represents climate scenario where temperature and precipitation changes are uncoupled while the relationship between temperature and evapotranspiration is preserved.

  • Groundwater is an important part of the albert channel area that’s why it is important to study the consequences of climate change on this water supply area.
    The effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Grote-Nete catchment is modeled with 3 scenarios formulated in 2100.
    The 1st scenario: Greenhouse scenario also called wet scenario result in more precipitations.
    The 2nd scenario: Cold scenario is expected when the climate change is induced by a sudden change in the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation resulting in cooling the ocean and the atmosphere.
    The last scenario: dry scenario represents climate scenario where temperature and precipitation changes are uncoupled while the relationship between temperature and evapotranspiration is preserved.

  • Groundwater is an important part of the albert channel area that’s why it is important to study the consequences of climate change on this water supply area.
    The effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Grote-Nete catchment is modeled with 3 scenarios formulated in 2100.
    The 1st scenario: Greenhouse scenario also called wet scenario result in more precipitations.
    The 2nd scenario: Cold scenario is expected when the climate change is induced by a sudden change in the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation resulting in cooling the ocean and the atmosphere.
    The last scenario: dry scenario represents climate scenario where temperature and precipitation changes are uncoupled while the relationship between temperature and evapotranspiration is preserved.

  • Groundwater is an important part of the albert channel area that’s why it is important to study the consequences of climate change on this water supply area.
    The effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Grote-Nete catchment is modeled with 3 scenarios formulated in 2100.
    The 1st scenario: Greenhouse scenario also called wet scenario result in more precipitations.
    The 2nd scenario: Cold scenario is expected when the climate change is induced by a sudden change in the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation resulting in cooling the ocean and the atmosphere.
    The last scenario: dry scenario represents climate scenario where temperature and precipitation changes are uncoupled while the relationship between temperature and evapotranspiration is preserved.

  • In case of wet scenario we see that the rise in groundwater level is associated with an increase in groundwater discharge.
    Almost all additionnal discharge happened near the river and wetlands. Moreover new wetlands are created.
    Concerning the dry scenario, we noticed a decrease in discharge areas relative to the present. We also see an increase in evapotranspiration and a decrease in recharge and surface run off.
  • In case of wet scenario we see that the rise in groundwater level is associated with an increase in groundwater discharge.
    Almost all additionnal discharge happened near the river and wetlands. Moreover new wetlands are created.
    Concerning the dry scenario, we noticed a decrease in discharge areas relative to the present. We also see an increase in evapotranspiration and a decrease in recharge and surface run off.

  • these are some statements from a discussion in the flemish parliament. We reflected these statements to a future climate change and we don’t think that these are good measures to sustain our drinking water.

    They placed pumps on the Albert Channel (because there were periods (2003) when the discharge of the meuse was not sufficient). These pumps only sustain navigation. If the water gets brackish you’ll pump back brackish water.

    They use the pumps also as green energy production, but those dry periods will increase. (so less energy production)

    We think there is or there definitely will be a problem with salinity. In 2003 there was already a indicator rise of salt in liege. If the sea level rises the channel will become brackish from both sides.
  • We expect a general temperature rise, this will mean that there will be more evapotranspiration, less discharge in the rivers. Predictions for the precipitation; it will be sort or less the same (year average) but we think that our winters will wetter and summer drier. We should store this water (in winter) to use it in summer.
  • General trends are clearly visible: rainy periods during the winter and dryer during the summer, so the loads will be bigger in the winter. When the global warming keeps occurring the peaks will increase in winter and the droughts will be become longer in summer. The critical number of 100 m³/s is not often reached yet, from this moment of the discharge of the Meuse in the Albert Channel is strictly regulated by the “Afvoerverdrag “ between the Netherlands and Flanders.
  • This graph is showing the discharge in the dry year of 2003, due to the global warming we can expect more years like 2003. During this year the first critical level of 100 m³/s is reached 9 months. But the extreme level of 30m³/s is also reached during 3 months. This means that there will be a discharge lower than 10 m³/s.

  • This table shows the gross need and the net needs of water of the Albert Channel in 2002. The pumps that were installed in 2006 guarantee that there should be enough water for inland shipping. In the actual situation the number of drink water supply is already risen towards 5m³/s this means that the total net needed is 10,99 m³/s a number that is not available when the situation of 2003 will occur more often.

  • Climate changes will influence the salinity in the Albert Channel. In Summer Salinity will increase due less precipitation which will lead to a smaller discharge. (green arrow) those peaks will be larger.


    When the sea level raises the salinity gradient will reach further from the mouth, upstream (the big red arrow)


    This means that pumping back water will not be adequate, you need the freshwater to flush out the salinity. You’ll just pump brackish water into the channel !!!
  • This is a flow diagram. We have problems from climate change en overconsumption. If the water gets brackish we will have problems for agriculture, drinking water ecosystem and groundwater. If the salinity gradient rises you’ll get more brackish exfiltration.
  • This is a flow diagram. We have problems from climate change en overconsumption. If the water gets brackish we will have problems for agriculture, drinking water ecosystem and groundwater. If the salinity gradient rises you’ll get more brackish exfiltration.
  • When groundwater is pumped up the groundwater levels will decrease, last years they have decreased significantly so future supplies can become problematic. A technique often used abroad (for example in Australia and the United States). A second well is created to inject water into the groundwater tables when there are floods or there is a rainy season. When this water is polluted or has a high salinity a purification plant can be created before the injection well. During dry seasons the restored water can be pumped up again.

  • The system has a lot of advantages on different fields. Economical benefits are that the installation of a system as this requires less investments than big storage basin on the surface. Environmental, the water is gathered during rainy seasons so all the water that is supplied will be used. And groundwater levels won’t lower that fast, they even can restore. Ecosystems, the restoration of the groundwater levels will guarantee that the whole region is supplied with groundwater so sensitive ecosystems have more chance to survive.
  • Storage basins exist already and can be quite useful but we don’t prefer this solution. The basins require a huge amount of space (high cost for creating) they also have a high chance of being polluted due to birds or other animals or by human being.
  • A way to hold back salt water in the groundwater. We can use Recharge Wells. (Principle, pump freshwater in the caost) The freshwater will form a ridge in the soil and holdback the saltwater.(http://www.solinst.com/Res/papers/101C4Salt.html) this is already successfully used. First you make some surface mapping of an aquifer, so we can determine the flow of the groundwater (to see if it’s the right direction).
    Recharge wells, recharge basins and barrier wells have proven to be very useful in maintaining the proper equilibrium between pumping and groundwater recharge. Therefore, proper groundwater monitoring techniques and groundwater management, combined with groundwater conservation are needed to keep saltwater intrusion under control.


  • We can see a trend that the average use per person is decreasing but the population is growing and also the demand of water is increasing. As showed in previous slides in dry and warm years the demand increased enormous. Some possible solutions are stimulating people to use less water. we can doing this by educational programs. Such programs must be organized at all levels, in basic schools to change their behavior and for adults to make them aware they are playing with their children’s future. Another solution could be increasing the drink water prices . but in Belgium we already have one of the highest prices in the world.




  • Transcript

    • 1. Drinking water Actual situation and possible threats for the future. 1
    • 2. Focus on the Albert Channel Index • Introduction and use of the channel • Drinking water supplies • Possible threats now and in the future • Solutions towards the futures 2
    • 3. Introduction Albert Channel • Opening 1946 • modernizing 1966 • Length: 129,5 km • Width: standard 86 m • Liege to Antwerp • Crosses: Meuse basin, Demer basin, Nete basin, Lower Scheldt basin • Purpose: replacing the Kempish channels • Concrete walls instead wood or iron 3
    • 4. Uses of the Albert Channel Pact with the Netherlands Used for: • Inland shipping • Process water • Drinking water • Irrigation Industry 4
    • 5. Afvoerverdrag Meuse • Antwerp 17/01/1995 • Regulating discharge of river Meuse into different channels • Signed by Flemish Government and the Dutch Government Discharge Between 100 m³/s and 60 m³/s Max 25 m³/s Common Meuse gets min 10 Between 60 m³/s and 30 m³/s m³/s Lower than 30 m³/s Similar partition over 3 entities 5
    • 6. Drinking water supplies Drinking water Captation of production by surface water to captation of produce drinking groundwater water (AWW) (PIDPA) 6
    • 7. Drinking water supplies • A great part of the drinking water comes from abroad – Annual production: 340 million m³ – Annual use : 450 million m³ • Most used production sources is surface water: – Surface water also comes from abroad • Meuse river comes from Walloon and France 7
    • 8. Evolution in surface water captation Extreme dry Extreme warm year weather Reorganizing water prices in Flanders 8
    • 9. Lithostratigraphic map of the province of Antwerp Quaternary Tertiary 9
    • 10. Lithostratigraphic map of the province of Antwerp Quaternary Tertiary 9
    • 11. Lithostratigraphic map of the province of Antwerp Quaternary Tertiary 9
    • 12. Lithostratigraphic map of the province of Antwerp Quaternary Tertiary 9
    • 13. Hydrogeological structure North South 10
    • 14. Different types of climate scenarios Description of climate scenarios Climate scenario changes for 2100 11
    • 15. Different types of climate scenarios Description of climate scenarios Climate scenario changes for 2100 11
    • 16. Different types of climate scenarios Description of climate scenarios Climate scenario changes for 2100 11
    • 17. Different types of climate scenarios Description of climate scenarios Climate scenario changes for 2100 11
    • 18. Effects of climate change on the groundwater system • wet high scenario: groundwater levels increase by as much as 79 cm, which could affect the distribution and species richness of meadows • cold scenario (NATCC): drier winters and wetter summers relative to the present • Dry scenario: situation of groundwater levels are expected to decrease by an average of 52 cm 12
    • 19. a a Annual recharge changes relative to the Annual groundwater depth changes for: a wet high present for: a wet high scenario and b dry scenario scenario and b dry scenario 13
    • 20. Changes in discharge area 14
    • 21. Threats of the channel Industrial discharge in tributaries Global Warming: Draining into channel Sea level rise Global Warming: More droughts 15
    • 22. Some statements about these problems On the Albert Chanel are pumps installed that can pump water back in the Chanel by drought. Reflection! If the water becomes brackish the pump will not maintain drinking water. You need fresh water to flush out salinity In periods of normal rainfall the pumps are not necessary and can be used as green energy production. Reflection! In 2003 there were already periods when there was not sufficient water. The frequency of these periods in the future will increase due climate change In 2008 thereʼs no problem with salinity. This is monitored by NV de Scheepvaart. Reflection! But there will be problems! And from both sides. Salinity increase in the Scheldt River and the Meuse River. source: NV de Scheepvaart, AWW, Commissie Openbarewerken 16
    • 23. Climate change influence on temperature and precipitation We’re on the edge Predictions tell us that in our climate the seasons will be more intense! More rain in winter. Drought in summer Use the water from the wet winters source: Department mobility and public works We expect a general There will be more 17 temperature increase evapotranspiration
    • 24. Meuse water • Meuse is a rainfilled river • Average 280 m³/s at start of the Albert Channel 18
    • 25. Waterdischarge in Liege 2003 19
    • 26. Water needed in the Albert Channel Now already 5 20
    • 27. Salinity gradient in the Albert Channel Summer Winter Location Albert Channel source: P. Meire • Climate changes will influence the salinity in the Albert Channel. In Summer Salinity will increase due less precipitation which will lead to a smaller discharge. • When the sea level rises the salinity gradient will reach further from the mouth, upstream • This means that pumping back water will not be adequate, you need the freshwater to flush out the salinity. Youʼll just pump brackish water into the channel 21
    • 28. Climate Change Over consumption 1 Sea level rise 2 Temperature rise 3 more intense seasons Salinity gradient moves More Evapotranspiration Drought in summer upstream Wet in winter Smaller discharge of freshwater Brackish exfiltration Salinity gradient moves upstream Problems for agriculture, drinking water, ecosystems and groundwater! 22
    • 29. Climate Change Over consumption 1 Sea level rise 2 Temperature rise 3 more intense seasons Salinity gradient moves More Evapotranspiration Drought in summer upstream Smaller discharge of Wet in winter ! freshwater Brackish store this water exfiltration Salinity gradient moves upstream Problems for agriculture, drinking water, ecosystems and groundwater! 22
    • 30. Climate Change Over consumption 1 Sea level rise 2 Temperature rise 3 more intense seasons Salinity gradient moves More Evapotranspiration Drought in summer upstream Smaller discharge of Wet in winter ! freshwater Brackish store this water exfiltration Salinity gradient moves • Groundwater upstream • Artificial basins • Aquifers • ... Problems for agriculture, drinking water, ecosystems and groundwater! 22
    • 31. Aquifer Storage Recovery A: Original situation, groundwater levels decrease B: In a wet year water is injected through a second well C: During dry years the extra reserves can be pumped up 23
    • 32. Aquifer Storage Recovery Advantages: Social and economical benefits • Less infrastructure is needed Environmental benefits • Water is gathered during rainy periods Ecosystem maintenance • Restoring aquifers can guarantee the water supply for sensitive ecosystems 24
    • 33. Storage basins Not preferable due to: • High cost to maintenance and acquire • Massive land use • Chance of pollution due to birds or other animals 25
    • 34. Recharge Wells to prevent salt water intrusion this way you can keep your production wells close by the coast. This has also advantages for agriculture groundwater ridge
    • 35. Stimulating a decrease of water use • Water use per person is decreased (from 135 l/d pp to 123 l/d) • Population growth is increased Water demand is still rising Possible solutions • Education of people • Rising the waterprices 27
    • 36. Stimulating a decrease of water use • Water use per person is decreased (from 135 l/d pp to 123 l/d) • Population growth is increased Water demand is still rising Possible solutions • Education of people • Rising the waterprices 27
    • 37. Conclusion • Climate change: drought & floods – Salinity – Water & drinking water supply issues – Navigation • Water storage solutions – Aquifer storage – Storage basins – Recharge wells – Raise groundwater levels • Long Term Vision 28
    • 38. Bibliography • www.isc-cie.be • www.wetten.overheid.nl • www.pidpa.be • www.aww.be • www.nvdescheepvaart.be • www.milieuboot.be • www.cipm-icbm.be • www.vmm.be • www.waterloket.be • J. Baetens, T. Scheltjens, P. Meire, et al, Omgaan met watertekorten in het Albertkanaal en de Kempische kanalen, www.watertijdschrift.be • S.T Woldeamlak, O Batelaan, F De Smedt, Effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium • http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/asr/asr-home.html • R David Pyne, Jonatan B Howard, 2004, Desalination / Aquifer Storage Recovery: a cost effective combination for Corpus Cristi (Texas), Desalination 14 p 363 – 367 • www.riwa-maas.org • Sfwater.org • www.kmi.be • http://www.solinst.com/Res/papers/101C4Salt.html 29
    • 39. The End Questions ? Bram Van Keer Kristof Blockx Lucie Dapvril Pieterjan Criel 30