Risk in the use of silver nanoparticles on humain

757 views

Published on

still people use toxic Silver in wound dressing!

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
757
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
21
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Risk in the use of silver nanoparticles on humain

  1. 1. RISK IN THE USE OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON HUMAIN: SILVER TOXICITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON HEALTH PIERRE BASMAJI CENTRE FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BIOTECHNOLOGY - INNOVATECS , 9 ST JULY 1312, SP 13560-042 SAO CARLOS –BRAZIL Nanomaterials have many potential benefits to society with their development and deployment in science, engineering and technology. Its benefits however, need to be taken into account considering the potential risks to the public health and to the environment. Nanotechnology a nanoparticle is defined as a small object or particle that behaves as a whole unit in terms of transport and properties. Nanotechnology takes advantage of the fact that when a solid material becomes too small, increasing its specific surface area, which leads to an increase in surface reactivity and is related quantum effects. The physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be very different from those of the same material as a larger mass. Nanomaterials (such as nanotubes and nanorods) and Nanoparticles are particles that have at least one dimension in the range 1 to 100nm. Nanoparticles are classified only on the basis of its size and may or may not exhibit size-related properties that differ significantly from those observed in bulk materials (ASTM 2006; Buzea et al, 2007). Due to the properties of nanoscale silver, nanosilver is now used in an increasing number of consumer products and medicaldevices, medicines, etc Nanomaterials are nanoparticles that have special physicochemical properties as a result of their small size (Buzea et al, 2007) . Silver has been known to be an antibacterial, antifungal and a powerful antiviral agent . But in recent years, the use of silver as a biocide solution, suspension and especially in the form of nano-particles has experienced a dramatic revival. Due to the properties of silver in nanolevels , nanosilver is currently used in an increasing number of consumer products and medicines . The remarkably strong antimicrobial activity is a major reason for the recent increase in the development of products containing nanosilver. Examples of consumer products containing nanosilver include food packaging, food supplements, textiles, electronics, appliances, cosmetics, medical devices, disinfectants, water sprays , environmental materials , etc . There is a need for the development of methods for measuring the nanosilver concentration, size, shape, surface charge, the crystal structure, and surface chemistry transformations. Some important questions to answer : Nanosilver is toxic? What are the mechanisms of toxicity?
  2. 2. Which conditions those occur in the mechanisms? There is evidence that silver and nanosilver in particular, is toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms, a variety of mammalian cells in vitro and can be harmful to human health. While undoubtedly nanosilver and silver have useful applications in the medical field (for example, as coatings for medical devices such as wound healing or for the Victims of severe burns), their use may need to be strictly controlled. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem in the world and indiscriminate use of biocidal silver in countless consumer products is not only unnecessary but may further increase bacterial resistance to a dangerous level (Mühling et al . , 2009). There are preliminary indications that in the form of nanoparticles, the toxicity of ionic silver increases or that the nanoparticles can exert their own toxicity. Nano silver can dissociate to form silver ions in the presence of moisture. It is Also possible that nanoparticles of silver ions from shielding such interactions by delivering silver ions to the membranes which are free of organisms or cells. In this case, anaccentuation of the health risks would be expected apart from being associated with a similar mass of silver itself. The most common health effects associated with chronic exposure to silver are apermanent gray or blue-gray discoloration of the skin (argyria; .1 and Figure 2) and other organs (ATSDR, 1990; Drake & Hazelwood 2005;. White et al, 2003 . Lower level of exposure also results in the silver to be deposited on the skin and other parts of body such as liver, brain, muscle and kidneys and may cause changes in blood cells (Fung and Bowen, 1996; Venugopal & Luckey, 1978). Exposure to high levels of silver in the air can result in breathing problems, lung and throat irritation and stomach pain. Skin contact with silver can cause mild allergic reactions including rash, swelling and inflammation in some people.
  3. 3. Figure 1 : Systemic argyria of the skin by drinking colloidal silver (underside) when compared with normal pigmentation (upper side) (Wadhera & Fung , 2010) .
  4. 4. Figure 2 Paul Karason Blue Men Even though silver is generally not available in high enough concentrations to pose a risk to human health and the environment ; nanosilver in contrast has physical and surface properties that could pose a threat to human and environmental health (Lee et al, 2007). Due to the different physico-chemical properties and biological activities of nanosilver when compared with normal metal , it cannot be excluded that the increase in reactivity of nanosilver (due to the large surface area) leads to increased toxicity due to the activity of the silver ions released very easily by the nanoparticles. Some nanoparticles can penetrate the lungs or skin and enter the circulatory and lymphatic systems of humans and animals, reaching the tissues and organs of the body and potentially disrupting cellular processes , cause diseased cells and cause disease. Silver nanoparticles were found in blood of patients suffering from the diseases of the blood and in the colon of patients with colon cancer (Gatti, 2004; Gatti et al, 2004). Silver is known to have a lethal effect on bacteria but the same property that makes it an antibacterial makes it toxic to human cells as well . The silver concentration that is lethal to the bacterium is also lethal to both keratinocytes and fibroblasts (Poon & Burd, 2004). In vitro studies have shown that nanosilver effects reproduction & development and has an effect on DNA, among others. A recent survey of 12nm silver nanoparticles in highly purified zebra - fish showed that the early development of fish embryos was affected (Lee et al, 2007). Silver nanoparticles have the potential to cause chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage and are capable of inducing proliferation arrest in cell lines of zebra -fish (Asharani et al . 2007). In addition, toxicity studies were performed in mammalian species have shown that silver nanoparticles are able to enter cells and cause cellular damage (Hussain et al, 2005; Ji et al, 2007). The toxicity of nanosilver causes oxidative stress induction or cell dysfunction) or a mixture of both (El- Ansary & Al - Daihan, 2009; Oberdörster et al, 2005b). The nanoparticles were found to be distributed to the colon, lung, bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph after intravenous injection (Hagens et al. , 2007). Distribution in the human body is usually followed by a fast clearance from the systemic circulation predominantly by the action of the liver and spleen macrophages (Moghimi et al, 2005) to causegastrointestinal problems. Some systems of nanoparticles may accumulate in the liver during first-pass metabolism (El- Ansary Daihan & al, 2009; Oberdörster et al, 2005a).
  5. 5. A case study was published regarding liver enzymes after topical use of nanosilver preparation for a young burn victim (Trop et al, 2006). Six days after treatment, the patient developed blue-gray discoloration on lips (argyia). Respiratory Tract Toxicity: Human exposure to inhalation of environmental particle including nanosilver, may have adverse effects on health (Buzea et al, 2007 effects; Dockery, 2005; Donaldson et al, 2004; Lippmann et al, 2003; Shah, 2007; Vermylen et al 2005).Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases can result when inhaled particles interfere with the normal function of bodily systems (Peters et al, 1997, 2001 and 2005). Dermal Toxicity: Although based on nanosilver , dressings and surgical sutures have received approval for clinical application ; it is important to make a good control of infection of the wound, it's skin toxicity . And that is still a topic of concern. Despite clinical and laboratory studies confirm the biocompatibility of dermal dressings based nanosilver, several other researchers demonstrated cytotoxicity of these materials (Chen et al , 2006 & El- El- Ansary Daihan 2009; Limbach et al, 2007; Muangman et al, 2006. Oberdörster et al, 2005b. Supp et al, 2005; Wright et al, 2002). Shovel-Ledinek et al. (2006). Acticoat ® is a dressing consists of a polyethylene mesh coated with nanosilver (average size 15 nm). There is one case of silver poisoning after the use of Acticoat ® for the treatment of severe burns to the legs (Trop et al, 2006. Wijnhoven et al, 2009). On day 6 of post-injury, the patient developed a grayish color in the treated area, complained of being tired and had no appetite. On the day 7, silver levels in urine and blood were found to be elevated (28 and 107 mg/kg, respectively). Kidney toxicity : Kim et al. (2008 ) reported gender differences in the accumulation of silver nanoparticles in rat kidneys. In a study by Kim et al. ( 2009), the tissue distribution of silver nanoparticles showed a dose-dependent accumulation of silver in all tissues examined, including the testis, kidney, liver, brain, lungs and blood. The gender difference in the accumulation of silver was observed in the kidneys, with a largest concentration in female and male kidneys compared after subacute exposure of silver nanoparticles through inhalation or oral ingestion. Silver nanoparticles were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of interstitial cells in the inner medulla of kidney. Conclusions on nanosilver toxicity: Silver nanoparticles are used because of the antibacterial activity of silver. It has been suggested that the main mechanism of action is the death of cells due to uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (Holt & Bard, 2005) or inducing the formation of free radicals (Kim et al, 2007). Interference with the respiratory chain, cytochrome c levels, and/or components of microbial electrons transport system has also been reported (Muangman et al, 2006). Interactions with membrane bound enzymes and thiol groups of proteins that may result in compromised integrity of the cell wall have been postulated (Bragg & Rainnie, 1974, Lok et al, 2006. Silver, 2003; Wijnhoven et al,
  6. 6. 2007;et Zeiri. al, 2004). It has also been suggested that the silver ions bind to DNA and can cause DNA strand breaks in DNA replication and (ATSDR, 1990. Russell & Hugo 1994 toxicity of silver nanoparticles is mainly determined in vitro with particles ranging in size from 1-100nm. potential target organs for nanosilver toxicity may involve the liver, kidneys and the immune system. Accumulation and histopathological effects were observed in the liver of mice systemically exposed to silver nanoparticles 10-15 nm (Ji et al, 2007), whereas an effect on the liver enzymes was observed in a study of the case of human dermal exposure to an average particle size of the same (Trop et al, 2006). More studies are needed to better characterize the risk of the use of silver nanoparticles on humans . References 1. ASTM E2456 - Standard . 2006. Standard terminology Relating to Nnaotechnology . ASTM International, West Conshohocken , PA , 2006 DOI : 10.1520/E2456-06 . 2. ATSDR . Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry . 1990. Toxicological profile for silver . Atlanta , GA : U.S. Department of Health and Human Services , Public Health Service , Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ( TP - 9024 ) . 3. Buzea , C. , Pacheco , Î.I. , Robbie , K. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles : Sources and toxicity , Biointerphases , 2 ( 4) : MR17 , MR71 , 2007. 4. Mühling , M. , Bradford , A. , Readman , JW , Somerfield , PJ , Handy , RD An investigation into the effects of silver nanoparticles on antibiotic resistance of naturally occurring bacteria in an estuarine sediment , Marine Environ . Res 2009 , 68 (5) :278283 . 5. P. L. Drake , Hazelwood K. J. 2005. Exposure - related health effects of silver and silver compounds : A review. Ann . Occup . Hyg . , 49:575-585 . 6. White , JML , Powell AM , Brady , K. , Russell - Jones , R. 2003. Severe generalized argryia secondary ingestion of colloidal silver protein . Clin. Experim . Dermatol. , 28:354-256 . 7. Fung , M. C. , Bowen , D. L. 1996. Silver products for medical indication : Risk benefit assessment . Clin. Toxicol . 34:119-126 . 8. Venugopal , B. , Luckey , T.D.1978 . Metal toxicity in mammals . In: Chemical toxicology of metals and metalloids , Venugopal , B. , Luckey , TD (Eds.), New York: Academic Press. pp. 32-36. 9. Wadhera , A. , Fung , M.http://dermatology.cdlib.org/111/case_reports/argyria/c11.jpg 10. Lee HJ , Yeo , S.Y. , Jeong , S. H. 2003. Antibacterial effect of nanosized silver colloidal solution on textile fabrics , J. Mater . Sci , 38:2199-2204 . 11. Lee , K. J. , Lee , Y. , Shim , I. , Joung , J. , Oh , Y.S. Direct synthesis and bonding origins of monolayer - protected silver nanocrystals from silver nitrate through in situ ligand exchange. J. Colloid Inter . Sci 2006 , 304, 92-97 . 12. Lee , KJ , Lee , Y. , Shim , I. , Jun , BH , Cho , HJ , Joung , J. Large- scale synthesis of polymer -stabilized silver nanoparticles . Sol St. Phen . 2007 , 124-126 , 1189-1192 . 13. Lee , KJ , Nallathamby , PD , Browning , LM , Osgood , CJ , Xu , XN 2007. In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos , Am Chem . Soc 1 (2) :133 -143 .
  7. 7. 14. Lee , KJ , Park , JT , Goh , JH , Kim , JH Synthesis of amphiphilic graft copolymer and its brush use the template film for the preparation of silver nanoparticles . J. Polym . Sci A. 2008, 46 , 3911-3918 . 15. Gatti , AM Biocompatibility of micro -and nano - particles in the colon . Part II , Biomaterials 25 , 385-392 , 2004. 16. Gatti AM , Montanari , S. , Monari , E. , Gambarelli , A. , Capitani , F. , Parisini , B. Detection of micro -and nano - sized biocompatible particles in the blood . J. Mater . Sci : Mater . Med 15 (4) , 469-472 , 2004. 17. Poon , V.K. , Burd , A. 2004. In vitro cytotoxity of silver : Implication for clinical wound care . Burns 30:140-147 . 18. Asharani , P.V. , Nair , G. , Zhiyuan , H. , Manoor . P., Valiyaveettil , S. 2007. Potential health impacts of silver nanoparticles . Abstracts of Papers , 234th ACS National Meeting , Boston , MA , USA , August 19-23, 2007. pp : TOXI - 099 . 19. Braydich - Stolle , L. , Hussain , S. , Schlager , J. J. , Hofmann , M. C. In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian germline stem cells . Toxicol . Sci , 2005, 88, 412-419 . 20. Ji , JH , Jung , JH , Kim , SS , Yoon , JU , Park , JD , Choi , BS , Chung , YH , Kwon , IH , Jeong , J. , Han , BS , Shin , JH , Sung , JH , Song , KS , Yu , IJ 2007. 21. El - Ansary , A. , Al - Daihan , S. On the toxicity of therapeutically used nanoparticles : An overview , J. Toxicol . , Volume 2009 , 9 pages . doi : 10.1155/2009/754810 22. Oberdörster , G. , Oberdörster , E. Oberdörster , J. , 2005a . Nanotoxicology : an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles . Environ. Health Perspect . 113 (7) , 823-839 . 23. Oberdörster , G. , Maynard , A. , Donaldson , K. , Castranova , V. , Fitzpatrick , J. , Ausman , K. , Carter , J. , Karn , B. , Kreyling , W. , Lai , D. , Olin , S. , Monteiro - Riviere , N. , Warheit , D. , Yang , H. 2005b . Principles for Characterizing the potential human health effects from exposure to nanomaterials : elements of a screening strategy . Particle Fibre Toxicol . , 2:8-43 . 24. Oberdörster , G. , Sharp , Z. , Atudorei , V. , Elder , A. , Gelein , R. , Kreyling , W. , Cox , 25. C. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain , Inhalation Toxicol . 16 (67) , 437-445 , 2004. 26. Oberdörster , G. , Stone , V. , Donaldson , K. Toxicology of nanoparticles : a historical perspective . Nanotoxicology 1 : 2-25 , 2007. 27. Hagens , WI , Oomen , AG , de Jong , WH , Cassee , FR , Sips , AJAM What do we (need to) know about the kinetic properties of nanoparticles in the body ? , Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology , vol . 49 , no. 3 , p. 217-229 , 2007. 28. Moghimi , SM , Hunter , AC , Murray , JC Nanomedicine : current status and future prospects, FASEB Journal, vol . 19 , no. 3 , p. 311-330 , 2005. 29. Trop , M. , Novak , M. , Rodl , S. , Hellbom , B. , Kroell , W. Goessler , W. 2006. Silver coated dressing Acticoat casued raised liver enzymes and argyria -like symptoms in burn patient . J. Trauma 60 , 648-652 . 30. Dockery , DW , Luttmann - Gibson , H. , Rich , DQ , Link , MS , Mittleman , MA , Gold , DR , Koutrakis , P., Schwartz , JD , Verrier , RL Association of air pollution with Increased incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias recorded by implanted cardioverter defillibrators , Environ . Health Perspect . , 113 ( 6) , 670 to 674.2005 . 31. Donaldson , K. , Stone , V. , Tran , C. , Kreyling , W. , Borm , PJA Nanotoxicology , Occup . Environ. Med 61 (9) :727-728 , 2004.
  8. 8. 32. Lippmann , M. Effects of fiber characteristics on lung deposition , retention , and disease , Environ . Health Perspect . 88, 311-317 , 1990. 33. Shah CP Public Health and preventive medicine in Canada , University of Toronto Press , Toronto , Canada . 2007. 34. Vermylen , J. Nemmar , A. Nemery , B., Hoylaerts , F. Ambient air pollution and acute myocardial infarction , J. Thromb . Haemost . 3 , 1955-1961 , 2005. 35. Peters , A. Particulate matter and heart disease : evidence from epidemiological studies , Toxicol . Appl. Pharmacol . , 207 ( Suppl 2 ) , S477 - S482 , 2005. 36. Chen , HW , Su , SF , Chien , CT , Lin , WH , Yu , SL , Chou , CC , Chen , JJ , Yang , PC Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce emphysema -like lung injury in mice , The FASEB Journal, vol . 20 , no. 13 , p. 2393-2395 , 2006. 37. Chen , J. , Tan , M. , Nemmar , A. , Song , W. , Dong , M. , Zhang , G. , Li , Y. Quantification of extrapulmonary translocation of intratracheal - instilled particles in vivo in rats : effect of lipopolysaccharide , Toxicol 2006 , 222 (3) :195-201 . . 38. Supp , AP , Neely , AN, Supp , DM , Warden , GD , Boyce , ST Evaluation of cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Acticoat ® burn dressing for management of microbial contamination in cultured skin substitutes grafted to athymic mice , Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation , vol . 26 , no. 3 , p. 238-246 , 2005. 39. Wright , JB , Lam , K. , Buret AG , Olson , ME , Burrell , RE 2002. Early healing events in a porcine model contaminated wounds : effects of nanocrystalline silver on matrix metalloproteinases , cell apoptosis , and healing . Wound Repair Regen . 10 , 141-151 . 40. Paddle - Ledinek , JE , Nasa , Z. , Cleland , HJ Effect of different wound dressings on cell viability and proliferation , Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , vol . 117, supplement 7 , p. 110S - 118S , 2006. 41. Final Report dated 07/15/2010178 42. Wijnhoven , SWP , Peijnenburg , WJGM , Herberts , CA , Hagens , WI , Oomen , AG , Heugens , EHW , Roszek , B. , Bisschops , J. , Gosens , I. , van Meent , D. , Dekkers , S. , de Jong , WH , van Zijverden , M. , Sips , AJAM , Geertsma , RE Nanosilver - a review of available data and knowledge gaps in human and environmental risk assessment , Nanotoxicology 2009 , 3 ( 2 ) : 109-138 . 43. Kim , W.-Y. , K., Kim , J., Park JD, Ryu, HY, Yu, IJ Histological Study of Gender Differences in Accumulation of Silver Nanoparticles in Kidneys of Fischer 344 Rats . J. Toxicol . Environ. Health, Part A. 72 : 21-22 , 2009 , 1279-1284 . 44. Kim , Y. S. , Kim , J. S. , Cho , H. S. , Rha , D. S. , Kim , J. M., Park, J. D., Choi , B. S. , Lim , R. , Chang , H. K. , Chung , Y. H. , Kwon , I. H. , Jeong , J. , Han , B. S. , Yu, I. J. Oral Twenty - eight-day toxicity , genotoxicity , and gender - related tissue distribution of silver nanoparticles in Sprague - Dawley rats . Inhalation Toxicol . 2008 , 20 , 575-583 . 45. Holt, K. B. , Bard , A. J. 2005. Interaction of silver ( I) ions with the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli : An electrochemical and scanning electrochemical microscopy study of the antimicrobial mechanism of micromolar Ag + . Biochemistry 44, 1321413223 . 46. Muangman , P., Chuntrasakul , C. , Silthram , S. , Suvanchote , S. , Benjathanung , R. , Kittidacha , S. , Rueksomtawin , S. Comparison of efficacy of 1 % silver sulfadiazine and Acticoat ™ for treatment of partial- thickness burn wounds , Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand , vol . 89 , no. 7 , p. 953-958 , 2006. 47. Bragg, P. D. , Rainnie , D.J. 1974. The effect of silver ions on the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli . Can. J. Microbiol. 20 , 883-889 .
  9. 9. 48. Lok , C.-N. Ho , C.-M. , Chen , R. , He, Q.-Y. , Yu , W.-Y. , Sun , H. , Tam , PK - H . , Chiu , J.-F. , Che , C.-M. 2006. Proteomic analysis of the mode of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles . J. Proteome Res 5, 916-924 . 49. Zeiri , I. , Bronk , BV , Shabtai , Y. , Eichler , J. , Efrima , S. 2004. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy as a tool for probing specific biochemical components in bacteria . Appl. Spectroscopy 58, 33-40 .

×