Lisa M. Murray, MS Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training
INJURY PREVENTION Fitness is critical for performance and injury prevention Improper conditioning is a major cause in sports related injuries What are the areas of concern?
Periodization in Training and Conditioning Periodization Achieve peak performance Decrease injuries and overtraining Program that spans various cycles/seasons Modify program relative to one’s needs
Year Round Training Cycle Complete training cycle Seasonal approach based on preseason, in-season, and off-season Changes in intensity, volume, specificity of training occur in order to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition Broken into periods or phases (lasting weeks or months)
Periods or Phases of Training Transition period: Follows last competition (early off-season) Unstructured (escape rigors of training) Preparatory period: Off-season Hypertropy/endurance phase (Low intensity with high volume) Allows for development of endurance base Lasts several weeks to 2 months Strength Phase Power Phase (High intensity/ pre-season)
Periods or Phases of Training Preparatory period (continued) Strength Phase Intensity and volume increase to moderate levels Power Phase (High intensity/ pre-season) Volume is decreased to allow adequate recovery Competition period: May last a < week or several months for seasonal sports High intensity, low volume, skill training sessions May incorporate weekly training cycles (1-7 days) Designed to ensure peak on days of competition
Cross Training Training with substitutions of alternative activities Useful in transition and preparatory periods Adds variety to training regimen Should be discontinued prior to preseason as it is not sport-specific
Principles of Conditioning and Training Warm-up/Cool-down Motivation Overload and SAID principle Consistency/routine Progression Intensity Specificity Individuality Relaxation/Minimize Stress Safety
WARM UP Precaution against unnecessary musculoskeletal injury and soreness May enhance certain aspects of performance Benefits of dynamic sport specific warm up?
WARM UP Prepares body physiologically for physical work Stimulates cardiorespiratory system, enhancing circulation and blood flow to muscles Increases metabolic processes, core temperature, and muscle elasticity
Cool-down Essential component of workout Bring body back to resting state 5-10 minutes in duration Often ignored Decreased muscle soreness following training if time used to stretch
Why is it important to have good flexibility? What is flexibility? Ability to move a joint(s) smoothly through a full range of motion (ROM) Originally believed that decreased ROM results in: Decreased performance capabilities Uncoordinated/awkward movements Predisposes athlete to injury
FLEXIBILITY Originally believed that decreased ROM results in: Decreased performance capabilities Uncoordinated/awkward movements Predisposes athlete to injury
Range of Motion(ROM) Active range of motion = dynamic flexibility Ability to move a joint with little resistance Passive range of motion = static flexibility Motion of joint to end points without muscle contraction Goal must be to be able to move through unrestricted range Special Considerations for additional stretch encountered during activity
Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles Joints are capable of multiple movements Examples: Quadriceps will extend knee with contraction Hamstrings will stretch during extension
AGONIST VS. ANTAGONIST Quads (muscle producing movement) referred to as agonist Muscle undergoing stretch referred to as antagonist Agonist and antagonist work together to produce smooth coordinated movements
Stretching Techniques Dynamic Static What are the advantages and disadvantages?
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Used by physical therapists for neuromuscular paralysis Patterns of relaxation-contraction Considered by many the best method to improve flexibility Involves alternating contraction and relaxation of both agonists and antagonists
Shoulder Towel Stretch Exercise
William’s Flexion Exercises
Assessment of Flexibility Various devices have been designed to accommodate joint sizes and complexities of movement Goniometer most widely used device Can also utilize the following tests: Trunk hip flexion test Trunk extension test Shoulder extension test
Is there a relationship between strength and flexibility? STRENGTH AND FLEXIBILITY… Co-exist! Strength training provides ability to develop dynamic flexibility through full range of motion Develop more powerful and coordinated movements