F22 analysis


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F22 analysis

  1. 1. F22 analysis
  2. 2. Mismanagement● Costs grew, orders were reduced: – 1986 – 750 planes – 1991 – 648 – 1993 – 442 – 1997 – 339 – 2003 – 279 – 2005 – 178
  3. 3. Mismanagement● Lt Gen Daniel Darnell estimated that USAF will be short of it 2250 fighters requirement by 800 aircraft in 2024● “fly before you buy” policy abandoned – bugs discovered and hastily patched up during production – or not patched up at all
  4. 4. Costs● In 2011, F22s flyaway cost 250 million USD● Unit procurement cost 411 million USD● Operating cost – 61 000 USD per hour● F15C flyaway cost 100 million USD, operating cost 30 000 USD per hour● F16 flyaway cost 60 million USD, operating cost 5 000 USD per hour● F22 electronics not federated – upgrade requres replacement of entire electronics suite
  5. 5. F22 numbers● Too few – more stress on single airframe, degrades faster, more maintenance required, impact on training● Only 50 planes avaliable for Pacific theatre, 50 for European theatre, 80 for home defense – insignificant numbers in any possible war against China● Only 130 F22s are combat-coded● In 2009, unit avaliability 60%● 180 F22s bought can generate 60 combat sorties / day – F16s bought for same cost – 1480 sorties
  6. 6. 1000 F16 900 F16 800 700 600 500 F15 F15 F15 F16 F22 400 300 200 F22 F22 100 0 Number Total sorties Number of planes Number of sorties flown For same cost
  7. 7. Effects of training● US commander in Gulf War: “Had we exchanged equipment with the enemy, result would have been same.”● In 70s and 80s, instructors in F5s whipped studensts who flew F14, F15 and F4
  8. 8. BVR vs WVR combat● BVR (beyond visual range) combat cannot be relied on – Low probability of kill – between 7 and 8 % – Iraqi and Serbian planes had no ECM or radar; did not manouver – Forces turn off radar and IFF to avoid being tracked● WVR combat – Probability of kill 15% for IR missiles, 31% for gun – Allows visual identification of target
  9. 9. Effects of numbers● Lanchester square criteria – Per-unit combat effectiveness of outnumbered side must be square of outnumbering sides numerical advantage just for outnumbered side to break even – In WW2, USAF had quantitative advantage; in both Gulf wars and in Operation Allied Force, USAF had both qualitative and quantitative edge
  10. 10. F22s shortcomings● 26 % increase in weight lead to thrust-to-weight ratio and wing loading inferior to that of F15C; promised increase in manouverability not achieved● Fuel fraction decreased from 0,36 to 0,28 – insufficient persistence● Supersonic cruise ability worse than that of F15● Very large – very visible in visual, infrared and acoustic spectrum● Radar can be sensed by advanced RWRs – imprudent to rely on it as main battlefield sensor
  11. 11. F22 shortcomings● No passive sensors that can detect non-radiating enemy fighter● Weapons held in bays / covered by doors due to stealth requrements – unable to perform quick shots
  12. 12. Anti-stealth● UHF radars display continual increase in capacities● Long wavelength (VHF) radar can easily detect any stealth fighter due to their dimensions creating resonance; stealth coatings ineffective for reasons of physics● IRST – can detect fighters from distances of 50+ km; missile launch can be detected from 90 km● Passive radar – forces VLO fighter to rely on IRST or risk being detected by using its own radar
  13. 13. Anti-stealth● LIDAR – Light Detection And Ranging – can detect particles from exhaust at distance of beyond 100 km● Background scanning – stealth fighter shows as a hole in data in front of background being scanned● Multistatic radar – emitter and receiver not in same place● Over-the-horizon radar
  14. 14. Anti-stealth● Acoustic detection● LPI radar uses narrow spread of frequencies; can be detected by spread-spectrum RWR
  15. 15. Exercises● Exercises featuring F22 with F15s have been set-up to play on F22s strengths – F22s always Blue force; Red force not allowed to use radar detectors, IRST, anti-radiation missiles; BVR missiles assigned wishfully high probability of kill
  16. 16. Link to full article● Link