OUT Institutional Policy Workshop Open University of Tanzania 12th January, 2009
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OUT Institutional Policy Workshop Open University of Tanzania 12th January, 2009

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Educational resources for use by educators and learners, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. New licensing frameworks remove copying / adaptation restrictions OER hold ...

Educational resources for use by educators and learners, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. New licensing frameworks remove copying / adaptation restrictions OER hold potential for reducing the cost of accessing educational materials

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  • As some of you may know, OER Africa was officially launched in February 2008, and is headquartered in Nairobi, under the auspices of the South Institute for Distance Education. The project seeks to play a key role in driving in the development and use of Open Educational Resources on the continent. Seed funding from the Hewlett Foundation has been provided to support African academics in the use of OER in support of the continent’s higher education systems.
  • Accordingly, OER Africa has been established in the firm belief that OER does indeed have a tremendous potential to positively influence the development and capacity of Africa’s higher education systems and institutions. In establishing OER Africa, we are also clear of the very real possibility that the potential of this movement might bypass Africa if a concerted effort is not made to include African academics in this global movement.
  • Our premise, therefore is threefold: to help ensure that the power of OER is harnessed by Africans for Africans. to build collaborative networks across the continent and thereby facilitate the aggregation of information and expertise that produces knowledge; to targetiour intervention at both an individual, and an inter-institutional level, so as to encourage, and promote African communities of practice for OER that support the entire process of educational design - not merely the use of content authored elsewhere. All of this can be summed up in our Vision and Mission statements
  • CATHERINE Our Vision Our vision is one of vibrant, sustainable African higher education institutions that play a critical role in building and sustaining African societies and economies, by producing the continent’s future intellectual leaders through free and open development and sharing of common intellectual capital.
  • CATHERINE Our Mission (1) OER Africa ’s mission is to establish vibrant networks of African OER practitioners by connecting like-minded academics from across the continent to develop, share, and adapt OER to meet the higher education needs of African societies.
  • Our Mission (2) ... We believe that by creating and sustaining human networks of collaboration – face-to-face and online – OER Africa will enable African academics to harness the power of OER, develop their capacity, and become integrated into the emerging global OER networks as active participants rather than passive consumers.
  • Given our understanding of the concepts and principles of the OER movement and our rationale for setting up OER Africa, we hope to make the following specific contributions to higher education on the continent: Enhance institutional capacity in higher education, to design, develop and deliver quality higher education programmes and materials; Advocate collaborative creation and sharing of intellectual capital as a mechanism to improve quality and long-term cost-effectiveness;
  • Other contributions which OER Africa intends to make to higher education on the continent include: Providing access to an online platform that facilitates this collaboration in OER development and sharing – both for Africa and across the world, and as importantly, face-to-face and online training in how to use the site and customise a space that responds to your specific needs; Finally, in the next session, you will hear from Prof. Mbwette about one of the ways in which we are working with African institutions of higher education – specifically member institutions of the African Council for Distance Education, to facilitate the re-development and reinvention of curricula and course materials of exceptional quality and direct contextual relevance, thereby producing world class graduates.
  • The concept of OER describes educational resources that are freely available for use by educators and learners, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. OER are supported by a new spectrum of licensing frameworks that provide an alternative to copyright, which is often expensive and prohibitive in terms of use. These alternative licenses govern how OERs are used and make various provision for users to adapt the resources or simply to copy them – at no cost – except of course those accrued directly by a user who wishes to make copies or distribute them!
  • A second question is WHY the concept of OER is so potentially powerful for education in Africa? This access, at low or no cost , to the means of producing educational resources allows educators to develop their capacity and in producing educational materials as well as the skills and competences necessary to integrate these new resources into high quality learning programmes. The principle of allowing adaptation of materials also allows l earners to be active participants in educational processes – they can now learn by doing and creating, not just by passively reading and absorbing. In short, OER has the potential to build capacity in African education systems, of both learners and educators.
  • The next logical question would then be, how do we capture this potential for education in Africa? This is the issue we shall be interrogating over the next hour and a half – how the potential of OER, so powerful as to have influenced what can now be described as a full fledged OER Movement, can be liberated for the benefit of Higher education in Africa. We at OER Africa believe that collaborative partnerships of people working in communities of practice that focus on the Creation, Organization, Dissemination, and Use of OER, is a powerful means of turning this potential to the benefit of Africa’s HE systems.
  • NEIL
  • Like Open Educational Resources, New Licensing frameworks emanated as a logical consequence of a clear need felt by many educators and non-educators alike, to share their work with others, without insisting that these others incur huge costs. Whilst retaining the right to be recognised as the creators of their own work. The Creative Commons or CC licensing approach was developed by Professor of Law, Larry Lessig of Stanford University in 2001. This is the most developed of several alternative licensing framework is the Creative Commons. Prof. Lessig borrowed from the concept of the commons – an open space in most traditional European villages – where any villager could graze their cattle or simply enjoy the tranquillity of this commonly held land. As one of the most comprehensive licensing frameworks, CC licenses are most often used for OER work.
  • Creative Commons provides free, easy-to-use legal tools that give everyone from individual creators to major companies and institutions a simple, standardized way to pre-clear copyrights to their creative work. CC Licences take account of different copyright laws in different countries or jurisdictions and also allow for different language versions. Four basic conditions underlie this licensing framework: [read slide]
  • The creator or author of a work can choose any one of the following four conditions to license their work. You can choose Attribution Share-Alike
  • Non-commercial and finally, no derivative works, OR You can mix and match them to suit your particular needs [The aspect of CC licensing that is most controversial is the non-commercia l (NC) clause. There are several reasons for this, including at the most basic level, what ‘non-commercial’ in fact means. Since CC licences are a new phenomenon within copyright law, little previous case history exists to assist in interpreting this clause. ]
  • In the absence of a stipulated license , copyright restrictions automatically apply; an inherent challenge of copy-right is that whilst it automatically protects the rights of an author to be recognised as the owner-originator of their intellectual property, it also automatically prohibits the re-use or adaptation of works – even if the author had wished or intended to share their work with others. CC licenses let people easily change their copyright terms from the default of “all rights reserved” to “some rights reserved.” Creative Commons licenses apply on top of copyright, so you can modify your copyright terms to best suit your needs.
  • If someone wishes to ensure that their IP is recognised AND that it can be shared by others, they can access the Creative Commons site and make use of a licence generator . This license generator suggests the most appropriate licence based on a user’s response to specific questions regarding how their work can be used. There are six main license combinations: [see this slide and next]
  • If you’ve created something and want people to know that you’re happy to have them share, use, and build upon your work, CC’s legal infrastructure gives you flexibility (for example, you can choose to only pre-clear non-commercial uses) and protects the people who use your work (so that they don’t have to worry about copyright infringement,; If you’re an artist, student, educator, scientist, or other creator looking for content that you can freely and legally use, there are many millions of works — from scientific and academic content to songs and videos— that you can use under the terms of the CC copyright licenses.

OUT Institutional Policy Workshop Open University of Tanzania 12th January, 2009 OUT Institutional Policy Workshop Open University of Tanzania 12th January, 2009 Presentation Transcript

  • OER AfricaAn introduction to Open EducationalResources OUT Institutional Policy Workshop Open University of Tanzania 12th January, 2009 CC 3.0 BY –SA
  • Who we are OER Africa is an innovative new project, headquartered in Nairobi, under the auspices of SAIDE. Established to play a leading role in driving the development and use of OER in Africa. Seed funding from the William & Flora Hewlett Foundation to harness African experts and expertise to deploy OER to the benefit of Africa’s higher education systems. OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 2
  • Why do we exist? OER Africa believes that OER can positively support development and capacity of higher education systems and institutions across Africa OER Africa is concerned that if the concept and practice of OER evolves predominantly outside and for Africa – we will not be able to liberate its potentialJanuary 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 3
  • What is the OER Africapremise? To ensure that the power of OER is harnessed by Africans for Africans by building collaborative networks across the continent. To facilitate the aggregation of information and human expertise that produces knowledge There is a need to establish, encourage, and promote African communities of practice for OER that support the entire process of educational design, not simply use of external contentJanuary 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 4
  • A Vision for Higher Education inAfrica: Vibrant, sustainable African higher education institutions that play a critical role in building and sustaining African societies and economies, by producing the continent’s future intellectual leaders through free and open development and sharing of common intellectual capitalJanuary 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 5
  • Our Mission to establish vibrant networks of African OER practitioners by connecting like-minded academics from across the continent to develop, share, and adapt OER to meet the higher education needs of African societies.January 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 6
  • Value Proposition By creating and sustaining human networks of collaboration, face-to-face and online – OER Africa will enable African academics to harness the power of OER, develop their capacity, and become integrated into the emerging global OER networks as active participants rather than passive consumers.January 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 7
  • A proposed approach:• Work together to enhance higher education institutional capacity to design, develop, and deliver quality higher education programmes and materials;• Advocate the merits of collaboratively creating and sharing intellectual capital in higher education as a mechanism to improve quality and enhance long-term cost-effectiveness;January 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 8
  • Approach (cont’d)• Establish an online platform that facilitates African collaboration in OER development and sharing, while inter-connecting this platform with the many OER communities emerging globally [www.oerafrica.org] ;• Facilitate the re-development and reinvention of African higher education programme curricula and course materials in order to ensure that higher education programmes on the continent are of exceptional quality and direct contextual relevance, producing world class graduates.January 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 9
  • INTRODUCING OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESJanuary 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 10
  • Why Open EducationalResources?Concept:Concept Educational resources for use by educators and learners, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. New licensing frameworks remove copying / adaptation restrictions OER hold potential for reducing the cost of accessing educational materials. OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 11
  • What Potential Lies in OER? Access to the means of production enables development of educators’ competence in producing educational materials Access to instructional design necessary to integrate such materials into high quality programmes of learning. Principle of allowing adaptation of materials enables learners to be active participants in educational processes OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 12
  • How do we Capture thisPotential? Through the potential of a collaborative partnership of people... working in communities of practice focussed on the four main elements of the OER evolutionary process: Creation, Organization, Dissemination and Use. Use OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 13
  • Dispelling Some Myths Content = education Good content will overcome institutional capacity constraints OER should be a process of voluntarism OER will make education cheaper in the short- term Openness automatically equates with quality OER is about e-learning OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 14
  • INTRODUCING CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSINGJanuary 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 15
  • What is the most commonly usedAlternative License Framework? Most developed alterative licensing approach is that developed by Larry Lessig of Stanford University in 2001, called Creative Commons (CC). CC licences most often used for OER work and provide various options. The CC approach provides user-friendly open licences for digital materials and so avoids the automatically applied copyright restrictions. OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 16
  • How do CC Licenses Work?CC licences are based on four specific conditions:  attribution,  share alike,  non-commercial and  no derivative works OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 17
  • What are the CC LicenseConditions? (1) Creators choose a set of conditions they wish to apply to their work.  Attribution Share Alike You let others copy, You allow others to distribute, display, and distribute derivative perform your copyrighted works only under a work — and derivative license identical to the works based upon it — license that governs your but only if they give credit work. the way you request.Policy and OER Workshop OUTJanuary 12, 2009 18
  • What are the CC LicenseConditions? (2)Non-commercial  No DerivativeYou let others copy, Worksdistribute, display, and You let others copy,perform your work — and distribute, display, andderivative works based upon perform only verbatimit — but for non-commercial copies of your work, notpurposes only. derivative works based upon it. http://creative commons .org OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 19
  • How do CC Licenses ProtectIntellectual Property?All CC Licenses assert the author’s right overcopyright and the granting of copyright freedomsand require licensees to: Obtain permission should they wish to use the resource in a manner that has been restricted; Keep the copyright notice intact on all copies of the work; Publish the licence with the work or include a link to the licence from any copies of the work; Not change the licence terms in anyway; Not use technology or other means to restrict other licences’ lawful use of the work. OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 20
  • What are the various CC Licenses? Based on your choices, CC will suggest a license. formulation that clearly indicates how other people may use your work. Attribution (By) Attribution — Share Alike Attribution — No DerivativesJanuary 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 21http://creative commons .org
  • What are the various CC Licenses? . Attribution — Non-Commercial Attribution — Non-Commercial — Share Alike Attribution — Non-Commercial — No Derivatives OUT Policy and OER Workshop January 12, 2009 22http://creative commons .org
  • What can Creative CommonsDo for Me? CC licenses give you flexibility  e.g. you can choose to only pre-clear non-commercial uses or to combine several license conditions CC Licenses protect the people who use your work  As long as they abide by the terms you have specified, they don’t have to worry about copyright infringement. Relevant content is available to you under various CC Licenses  If you are looking for content that you can freely and legally use, there is a giant pool of CC-licensed creativity available to you.OUT Policy and OER WorkshopJanuary 12, 2009 23
  • Q & AJanuary 12, 2009 OUT Policy and OER Workshop 24
  • Thank youCatherine Ngugi Neil ButcherProject Director OER Strategistcatherine.ngugi@gmail.com neilshel@icon.co.za CC 3.0 BY –SA