Ethics and Social Media

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Presentation by Tarang Jain, PT, DPT, CEEAA, PhD Candidate, University of Kansas Medical Center

Presentation by Tarang Jain, PT, DPT, CEEAA, PhD Candidate, University of Kansas Medical Center

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  • 1. Ethics and Social MediaTarang Kumar Jain, PT, DPT, CEEAA
  • 2. Objectives2  Define social media/networking & its purpose.  Discuss the types of social media and list the statistics associated with various social media platforms.  Identify the ethical and legal issues associated with social media use.  Associate the ethical decision making analysis in relation to using social media.  Discuss considerations for developing a social media strategy for PT clinics.  Finally, identify social media dos and donts/steps for safer social networking.
  • 3. Social Media3  “Social” – refers to instinctual needs humans have to connect with other humans  “Media” – what we use to make connections with other humans  “Social Media” – how we can use technology effectively to reach out & connect with other humans, create a relationship, build trust  Media used for social interaction  2 way communication - interactive dialogue  Moving from monologue (one to many) to dialogue (many to many)  Changing people from content readers into contributors and
  • 4. Social Media Landscape4
  • 5. Social Networking5  “Its the way the 21st century communicates today.”  A social network service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on building & reflecting social relations among people who share interests &/or activities  Essentially consists of a representation of each user (profile), social links, & other services  Most are web based; interact through internet, email, instant messaging(chatting), or phone applications  Social networking accounts for 22% of all time spent online in the U.S.
  • 6. Relationships between Social Media and Networking6 SOCIAL MEDIA SOCIAL NETWORKING  Social media is disseminated through  A focus on building social interaction social relationships  Based on user among people participation and user-generated  Building online content communities  A shift in how people  Interactive discover, share, and communication among read news and participants information
  • 7. Why Social Media/Networking Matters for Physical Therapists?7  Become a better clinician  Contribute to the body of physiotherapy knowledge  Make professional connections  Influence healthcare conversations  Get educated  Promote better health among the public  Sell your services  Peer review research
  • 8. Popular Social Media Platforms8
  • 9. Facebook9
  • 10. Twitter10
  • 11. Linkedin11
  • 12. Google+12
  • 13. Ethical and Legal Issues13  Despite the range of positive uses of social media for both individual PT‟s and the profession as a whole, there are also a number of ethical and legal issues associated with its use  Social media sites, with user created content, are vehicles to share professional and private information  The concern with the rapid increase in rates of use is that knowledge regarding the potential dangers implicit in this digital behavior is not growing at the same speed  The increased rate of casual use couples with a lack of knowledge regarding the functionality of social media and platforms, begs for more uniform education on managing digital dangers.
  • 14. Ethical Issues14  Physical Therapists should be mindful that social media activity can blur the boundaries between personal & professional lives  The line separating freedom of speech and inappropriate posting may be unclear.  Applicable ethical principles relevant to clinical care & social media:  Patient – Clinician Relationship  Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy – HIPPA, FERPA  Maintaining Confidentiality  Self-presentation (Implications of the nature and scope of information available online)
  • 15. Ethical issues continued…15  Ethical questions can be categorized according to 5 primary criteria:  Who is viewing the social media information?  How is the social media information accessed?  For what purpose is the social information used?  What are the criteria one uses for making judgments about social media information, and  What is the nature of “relationships” in social media
  • 16. Legal Issues16  Corporate use vs. Employee use of social media  Some unlawful activities that may be associated with use of social media  Freedom of speech  Search and seizure issues  Copyright infringement and other intellectual property rights  Breach of individual publicity and privacy rights  Obscene or defamatory content/statements  Several legal risks associated with employee use of social media  Claims of discrimination, disparate treatment of employees, hostile work environment, defamation claims, and
  • 17. Digital Natives vs. Digital17 Immigrants DIGITAL NATIVES DIGITAL IMMIGRANTS  Students  Teachers  Fast  Slow  Young  Old  Future  Past, or „legacy‟  Multi-tasking  Logical, serial thinking  Images  Texts  Playful  Serious  Inductive learning  Deductive learning  Digital  Analogue  Action  Knowledge  Constant connection  Isolation  The applicability of ethical guidelines might be very different for digital natives and digital immigrants.
  • 18. Ethical Concerns andRecommendations18 Challenge Recommendation Managing your identity • Perform “electronic self-audits” to monitor your online presence and professional image • Maximize online privacy settings for personal profiles and social networking sites • Develop “dual citizenship” online with separate professional (public) and personal (private) networking profiles • Develop a professional biography for patients and others to preferentially find when using search engines Using social media in a • Understand that all posted content should be considered public professional manner and permanent • Encourage online behavior of PT‟s, PTA‟s, aids, and office staff to mirror the standards of behavior maintained in the clinic • Refrain from posting potentially identifiable vignettes online unless you obtain patient consent Communicating with • Preferentially use secure messaging for electronic communication patients electronically with patients or, where not available, provide informed consent for and professionally e-mail • Avoid direct communication with patients via third-party platforms (e.g., Facebook, Twitter)
  • 19. Ethical Decision Making19 Framework  Get the Facts  What are the relevant facts of the case? What facts are not known? Can I learn more about the situation? Do I know enough to make a decision?  What individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? Are some concerns more important? Why? What‟s the usual and customary action? What are legal implications regarding this issues?  What are the options for acting? Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? What is their belief/value system? Have I identified creative options?
  • 20. Ethical Decision Making20 Framework…  Recognize an Ethical Issue  Could this situation be damaging to someone or to some group? Is there any barrier keeping one from doing what they know is right? Does this decision involve a choice between a good and bad alternative, or perhaps between two "goods" or between two "bads"?  Could the situation be labeled as ethical distress, ethical dilemma or locus of authority challenge?  Is this issue about more than what is legal or what is most efficient? If so, how?
  • 21. Ethical Decision Making21 Framework…  Use Ethics Theories or Approaches to Analyze the Problem(s)  Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm? (The Utilitarian Approach)  Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake? (The Rights Approach)  Which option treats people equally or proportionately? (The Justice Approach)  Which option best serves the community as a whole, not just some members? (The Common Good Approach)  Which option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be? (The Virtue Approach)  What principles of personal, professional, and global ethics are at stake?
  • 22. Ethical Decision Making22 Framework…  Evaluate Alternative Actions  What are the alternative actions that could be done? What are the constraints in performing a specific action(s)?  Determine what are the ethical issues bearing including consequences (economic, psychosocial, social, legal- administrative, and clinical) on the possible alternative course of action?  What‟s the benefit/risk ratio for each alternative? Are there any non-ethical considerations like rules that automatically invalidate alternatives?  Benefits outweigh risks, then consider option  Risks outweigh the benefits, then reject option  Considering all these approaches, which option best addresses the situation?
  • 23. Ethical Decision Making23 Framework…  ACT  How can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders?  Evaluate the Process and Outcome  How did my decision turn out and what do the people involved have to say about the decision?  What were the most challenging aspects? How did this situation compare with others encountered/heard about?  What have I learned from this specific situation?
  • 24. Developing Social Media24 Strategy  Determine the purpose of social media campaign and marketing strategy.  Research your audience and the most appropriate social media channels to reach to them.  Set up your accounts and determine the best tools to manage those accounts.  Develop Social Media Policy and feel free to provide the policy to your patients/clients  Example of Keely Kolmes, Psy.D.  “My Private Practice Social Media Policy” http://www.drkkolmes.com/docs/socmed.pdf
  • 25. Social Media Strategy…25  Broadcast messages that resonates most with your audience and relay offline campaigns on the internet  Train internal staff on your clinic‟s social media policy and how to manage those accounts using the tools.  Develop metrics and institute tracking devices to gauge success (return on investment – time, money).  Determine how to deliver promotional content and campaigns through the channels.  Monitor changes in social media technology, channels, and tools and make adjustments
  • 26. Do‟s and Donts for social26 networking  Do’s  Use privacy settings to safeguard personal information and content  Maintain appropriate professional boundaries  Create and maintain separate personal and professional online identities  Bring unprofessional content to the attention of a colleague or appropriate authorities  Be aware of effects on reputation with patients and colleagues and the impact on the profession
  • 27. Do‟s and Donts for social27 networking…  Don’ts  Do not post identifiable patient information online  Do not present yourself as an official representative of or spokesperson for a place of employment.  Do not display vulgar language  Do not display language, photographs, or videos that imply disrespect for any individual or group because of age, race, gender, ethnicity, or sexual orientation.  Be cautious about presentation of content that may reasonably be interpreted as condoning irresponsible use of alcohol/substance abuse  Do not post potentially inflammatory or unflattering material on another individual‟s website for e.g. – “wall” on Facebook
  • 28. 28 “We‟re living at a time when attention is the new currency. Those who insert themselves into as many channels as possible look set to capture the most value.” Pete Cashmore, Founder of mashable.com
  • 29. References29  American Physical Therapy Association. 2011. Succeeding and protecting yourself in social media. Available at http://www.apta.org/SocialMedia/Tips/Succeeding/. Accessed June 4, 2012.  Association of Corporate Counsel. The risks of social media usage in the workplace. 2010. Available at http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=48457319-7f27-44a9-98bf-d0a93e1bbb36. Accessed June 5, 2012.  Association of Corporate Counsel. Workplace challenges associated with employees‟ social media use. Legal Resources. 2010. Available at http://www.acc.com/legalresources/quickcounsel/wcawesmu.cfm. Accessed July 5, 2012.  Australian Physiotherapy Association. 2011. How social media can enhance your career.  Avari J. Safe social networking. Forbes. Available at http://www.forbes.com/2010/03/17/forbes-india-safe-social-networking.html. Accessed July 5, 2012.  Brill, D. Social Networking: Facing the facts. Medical Observer. Available at http://www.medicalobserver.com.au/news/social- networking-facing-the-facts. Accessed July 4, 2012.  Computer ethics-computer ethics in the workplace. Net Industries. 2011. Available at http://ecommerce.hostip.info/pages/243/Computer-Ethics-COMPUTER-ETHICS-IN-WORKPLACE.html. Accessed June 8, 2012.  Facebook. Facebook glossary. 2011. Available at http://www.facebook.com/help/glossary. Accessed June 10, 2012.  Facebook. Statistics. 2011. Available at http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics. Accessed July 5, 2012.  Gagnon, K. Professional development in 140 characters or less: Using social media to network, learn and collaborate. Presented at: 3rd Annual MidWest Student Conclave. Kansas City, KS: 2011.  Lagu T, Greysen SR. Physician, monitor thyself: professionalism and accountability in the use of social media. The Journal of clinical ethics. 2011;22(2):187-90. Epub 2011/08/16.  LinkedIn. About us. LinkedIn Facts Center. 2011. Available at http://press.linkedin.com/about. Accessed June 5, 2012.  LinkedIn. Get the most from your professional network. What is LinkedIn. 2011. Available at http://www.linkedin.com/static?key=what_is_linkedin&trk=hb_what. Accessed July 6, 2012.  Merriam Webster. Social media. 2012. Available at http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/social%20media. Accessed July 5, 2012.  Microsoft. Practice cyberethics. Safety & Security Center. 2011. Available at http://www.microsoft.com/security/online- privacy/cyberethics-practice.aspx. Accessed June 5, 2012.
  • 30. References30  Ogg E. Twitter CEO: We have 100M active users. GigaOM. 2011. Available at http://gigaom.com/2011/09/08/twitter-ceo-we-have- 100m-active-users/. Accessed June 19, 2012.  Practical Law Company. Checklist: Employee use of social media. Available at http://us.practicallaw.com/2-504-2169. Accessed July 7, 2012.  Quist N. Social media and interpersonal relationships: for better or worse? The Journal of clinical ethics. 2011;22(2):191-3. Epub 2011/08/16.  Schaffer N. What is LinkedIn and why should you join. WindMill Networking. 2009. Available at http://windmillnetworking.com/2009/08/26/what-is-linkedin-and-why-should-you-join/. Accessed June 20, 2012.  Shore R, Halsey J, Shah K, Crigger BJ, Douglas SP. Report of the AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: professionalism in the use of social media. The Journal of clinical ethics. 2011;22(2):165-72. Epub 2011/08/16.  Social Media Vistor Growth. Available at http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Accessed July 6, 2012  Snyder L. Online professionalism: social media, social contracts, trust, and medicine. The Journal of clinical ethics. 2011;22(2):173- 5. Epub 2011/08/16.  Thompson LA, Black EW. Nonclinical use of online social networking sites: new and old challenges to medical professionalism. The Journal of clinical ethics. 2011;22(2):179-82. Epub 2011/08/16.  Twitter. Guidelines for law enforcement. Twitter Help Center. 2011. Available at http://support.twitter.com/articles/41949-guidelines- for-law-enforcement. Accessed July 6, 2012.  Wiley Online Library. 2012. Available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j1083-6101.2007.00393.x/full. Accessed June 4, 2012.