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13.4   Up Up And Away (Calculations Practice)
 

13.4 Up Up And Away (Calculations Practice)

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    13.4   Up Up And Away (Calculations Practice) 13.4 Up Up And Away (Calculations Practice) Presentation Transcript

    • Up, Up and Away – Using the Gas Laws
      • We will find out:
      • How the gas laws allow calculations to be made to determine Pressure, Volume and/or Temperature of a gas at different states.
      • How the particles behave in a gas
    • Ideal Gas Laws
      • So far, we have found out:
      • PV = nRT
      • for all gases, where:
      • p = Pressure in Pascal or Nm -2
      • V = Volume
      • n = number of moles
      • R = molar gas constant 8.31 J mol -1 K -1
      • T = Temperature in Kelvin
    •  
    • Manipulating Using Gas Equation
      • The Ideal Gas Law equation demonstrates:
        • As Temperature increases, so does Pressure
        • and/or
        • As Temperature increases, so does Volume
        • As the amount of gas (number of moles) increases, so does Pressure and/or Volume
        • For 2 different states of a sample of gas:
        • P 1 V 1 /T 1 = P 2 V 2 /T 2
        • Where X 1 = Value in state 1 etc.
      • See question 3 of Using the ideal gas relationships 40S
    • Using P 1 V 1 /T 1 = P 2 V 2 /T 2
      • A sample of gas with a pressure of 100 000 Pa has a volume of 5 litres at a temperature of 7 °C. The pressure now drops to 80 000 Pa and the temperature increases by 40 °C.
      • Calculate the new volume.
      http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1314F00/Laboratory/GLP.htm
    • Density
      • What is the density of a gas when PV = nRT?
      • Clues:
        • Density (  ) = Mass/Volume…
        • Number of Moles (n) = Mass / Molar Mass (M)
    • Density
      • PV = nRT and  = Mass/Volume
      • Therefore
      • Volume = Mass/ 
      • Mass = Molar Mass (M) x Number of Moles (n) = Mn
      • Therefore
      • PV = P x Mass/  = PMn/  = nRT
      • Therefore
      • PM/  = RT
      •  = PM/RT
    • Kinetic theory
      • The molecules exert a force when they hit the sides of the container and the sides of the container exert a force on each molecule
      But what does it depend on…?